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# TRIGONOMETRIA NO CIRCULO

1
sec (θ) =
cos(θ )

1
csc(θ ) =
sin(θ )
c
sin(θ ) =
a sin(θ )
tan(θ ) =
b cos(θ )
cos(θ ) =
a
cos(θ ) 1
c cot (θ ) = =
tan(θ ) = sin(θ ) tan(θ )
b Eixo das Tangentes
Eixo dos Senos

cot(θ)

## Eixo das Cotangentes

csc(θ)
tan(θ)
sin(θ)
θ
Eixo dos Cossenos

cos(θ)

x2+y2=1

sec(θ)

⎧ 2⋅t
⎪ sin(θ ) = 1 + t 2

⎛θ⎞ ⎪ 1− t2
(
t = tan⎜ ⎟ ⇒ ⎨cos θ = )
⎝2⎠ ⎪ 1+ t2
⎪ 2⋅t
⎪ tan(θ ) = 1 − t 2

sin 2 (θ ) + cos 2 (θ ) = 1

sec 2 (θ ) = 1 + tan 2 (θ )
csc 2 (θ ) = 1 + c ot 2 (θ )
1 + cos(2 ⋅ θ ) 1
cos 2 (θ ) = =
2 1 + tan 2 (θ )
1 − cos(2 ⋅ θ ) tan2 (θ )
sin 2 (θ ) = =
2 1 + tan2 (θ )

2 ⋅ tan(θ )
tan(2 ⋅ θ ) =
1 − tan 2 (θ )

## sin(θ − φ ) = sin(θ ) ⋅ cos(φ ) − sin(φ ) ⋅ cos(θ )

tan(θ ) + tan(φ ) π
tan(θ + φ ) = , (θ + φ ) ≠ + k ⋅ π
1 − tan(θ ) ⋅ tan(φ ) 2
tan(θ ) − tan(φ ) π
tan(θ − φ ) = , (θ − φ ) ≠ +k⋅π
1 + tan(θ ) ⋅ tan(φ ) 2

⎛θ+ φ⎞ ⎛θ−φ⎞
cos(θ ) + cos(φ ) = 2 ⋅ cos⎜ ⎟ ⋅ cos⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

⎛θ+ φ⎞ ⎛θ− φ⎞
cos(θ ) − cos(φ ) = −2 ⋅ sin⎜ ⎟ ⋅ sin⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

⎛θ+ φ⎞ ⎛θ− φ⎞
sin(θ ) + sin(φ ) = 2 ⋅ sin⎜ ⎟ ⋅ cos⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
⎛θ− φ⎞ ⎛θ+ φ⎞
sin(θ ) − sin(φ ) = 2 ⋅ sin⎜ ⎟ ⋅ cos⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
1
sin(θ ) ⋅ cos (φ ) = [sin(θ + φ ) + sin(θ − φ )]
2

1
cos(θ ) ⋅ cos(φ ) = [cos(θ + φ ) + cos(θ − φ )]
2
1
sin(θ ) ⋅ sin(φ ) = [cos(θ − φ ) − cos(θ + φ )]
2

## sin(− θ ) = − sin(θ ) cos(− θ) = cos(θ)

⎛ π⎞ ⎛ π⎞
sin⎜ θ ± ⎟ = ± cos(θ ) cos⎜ θ ± ⎟ = m sin(θ )
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞
sin(θ ) = cos⎜ − θ ⎟ cos(θ ) = sin⎜ − θ ⎟ tan(θ ) = cot ⎜ − θ ⎟
⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠
⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞
csc (θ ) = sec⎜ − θ ⎟ sec (θ ) = csc ⎜ − θ ⎟ cot (θ ) = t an⎜ − θ ⎟
⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠

sin (θ ) = sin (α ) ⇔ θ = n ⋅ π + (− 1) ⋅ α
n

cos (θ ) = cos (α ) ⇔ θ = 2 ⋅ n ⋅ π + α
tan(θ ) = tan(α ) ⇔ θ = n ⋅ π + α

π π π π
θ=0 θ= θ= θ= θ= θ=π
6 3 4 2

sin(θ ) 0 1
2 2
3 1
2 1 0

cos(θ ) 1 2
3 1
2
1
2 0 –1

tan(θ ) 0
1
3 3 1 - 0

csc (θ ) - 2
2
3 2 1 -

sec(θ ) 1
2
3 2 2 - –1

cot (θ ) - 3
1
3 1 0 -
π
2
2π π

3
3 2 3
3π π

2
4 2 4
5π π

1
6 2 6

π
0
3 2 1 1 2 3
− − −
2 2 2 2 2 2

7π 11π

1

6 2 6
5π 7π

2

4 2 4

3 5π
3 2 3

2 1
TRIGONOMETRIA NA HIPÉRBOLE

e θ − e − θ e 2⋅ θ − 1 e θ + e − θ e 2⋅ θ + 1
sinh(θ ) = = cosh(θ ) = =
2 2 ⋅ eθ 2 2 ⋅ eθ
sinh(θ ) 1
tanh(θ ) = coth(θ ) =
cosh(θ ) tgh(θ )
1 1
sech(θ ) = csc h(θ ) =
cosh(θ ) s i nh(θ )

cosh 2 (θ ) − sinh 2 (θ ) = 1
sec h 2 (θ ) + tanh2 (θ ) = 1
coth 2 (θ ) − csc h 2 (θ ) = 1

cosh(2 ⋅ θ ) + 1
cosh 2 (θ ) =
2
cosh(2 ⋅ θ ) − 1
sinh 2 (θ ) =
2
sinh(2 ⋅ θ) = 2 ⋅ sinh(θ ) ⋅ cosh(θ)
cosh(2 ⋅ θ ) = cosh 2 (θ ) + sinh 2 (θ )
cosh(2 ⋅ θ ) = 2 ⋅ cosh 2 (θ ) − 1
cosh(2 ⋅ θ ) = 1 + 2 ⋅ sinh 2 (θ )
2 ⋅ tan(θ )
tanh(2 ⋅ θ ) =
1 − tanh 2 (θ )

## cosh(θ + φ ) = cosh(θ ) ⋅ cosh(φ ) + sinh(θ) ⋅ sinh(φ )

sinh(θ + φ ) = sinh(θ ) ⋅ cosh(φ ) + sinh(φ ) ⋅ cosh(θ )
cosh(θ − φ ) = cosh(θ ) ⋅ cosh(φ ) − sinh(θ ) ⋅ sinh(φ )
sinh(θ − φ ) = sinh(θ ) ⋅ cosh(φ ) − sinh(φ ) ⋅ cosh(θ )
tanh(θ ) + tanh(φ )
tanh(θ + φ ) =
1 + tanh(θ ) ⋅ tanh(φ )
tanh(θ ) + tanh(φ )
tanh(θ − φ ) =
1 − tanh(θ ) ⋅ tanh(φ )

⎛θ+ φ⎞ ⎛θ−φ⎞
cosh(θ ) + cosh(φ ) = 2 ⋅ cosh⎜ ⎟ ⋅ cosh⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
⎛θ+ φ⎞ ⎛θ− φ⎞
cosh(θ ) − cosh(φ ) = 2 ⋅ sinh⎜ ⎟ ⋅ sinh⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
⎛θ+ φ⎞ ⎛θ− φ⎞
sinh(θ ) + sinh(φ ) = 2 ⋅ sinh⎜ ⎟ ⋅ cosh⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
⎛θ+ φ⎞ ⎛θ− φ⎞
sinh(θ ) − sinh(φ ) = 2 ⋅ cosh⎜ ⎟ ⋅ sinh⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
1
sinh(θ ) ⋅ cosh(φ ) = [sinh(θ + φ ) + sinh(θ − φ )]
2
1
cosh(θ ) ⋅ cosh(φ ) = [cosh(θ + φ ) + cosh(θ − φ )]
2
1
sinh(θ ) ⋅ sinh(φ ) = [cosh(θ + φ ) − cosh(θ − φ )]
2

## sinh(− θ) = − sinh(θ ) cosh(− θ ) = cosh(θ )

sinh(θ + 2 ⋅ k ⋅ π ⋅ i) = sinh(θ )
cosh(θ + 2 ⋅ k ⋅ π ⋅ i) = cosh(θ )
tanh(θ + 2 ⋅ k ⋅ π ⋅ i) = tanh(θ )

## e i⋅θ = cos(θ ) + i ⋅ sin(θ ) e − i⋅θ = cos(θ ) − i ⋅ sin(θ )

ei⋅(θ + 2⋅k ⋅ π ) = ei⋅θ ∞
i ⋅ θn
e i⋅θ = ∑
n=0 n!

## e i⋅θ − e − i⋅θ e i⋅θ + e − i⋅θ

sin(θ ) = cos(θ ) =
2⋅i 2
sin(i ⋅ θ ) = i ⋅ sinh(θ ) cos(i ⋅ θ ) = cosh(θ )

e ± i⋅n⋅ π = (− 1) e ± i⋅2⋅n⋅ π = 1
n

i⋅ π i⋅n⋅ π
± ± ⎧ ± i, n = 1,5,9,13, L
e 2
= ±i e 2
=⎨
⎩ m i, n = 3,7,11,15, L

(− 1)n ⋅ θ 2⋅n+1 ∞
(− 1)n ⋅ θ 2⋅n
sin(θ ) = ∑ cos(θ ) = ∑
n = 0 (2 ⋅ n + 1)! n= 0 (2 ⋅ n)!
θ 2⋅n+1 ∞
θ 2⋅n ∞
sinh(θ ) = ∑ cosh(θ ) = ∑
n= 0 (2 ⋅ n + 1)! n= 0 (2 ⋅ n)!
FUNÇÕES CI RCULARES
F U N ÇÃ O SE NO

f (x ) = sin(x )
ID = {x ∈ IR}
Im = {y ∈ IR : −1 ≤ y ≤ 1}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

F U N ÇÃ O COS SE NO

f (x ) = cos(x )
ID = {x ∈ IR}
Im = {y ∈ IR : −1 ≤ y ≤ 1}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
F U N ÇÃ O TA NG E NTE

f (x ) = tan(x )
⎧ π ⎫
ID = ⎨ x ∈ IR : x ≠ + k ⋅ π ⎬
⎩ 2 ⎭
Im = {y ∈ IR}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

F UNÇÃ O SE CA NTE

f (x ) = sec(x )
⎧ π ⎫
ID = ⎨ x ∈ IR : x ≠ + k ⋅ π ⎬
⎩ 2 ⎭
Im = {y ∈ IR : y ≤ −1 ∨ y ≥ 1}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
F U N ÇÃ O COS SE CA NTE

f (x ) = csc(x )
ID = {x ∈ IR : x ≠ k ⋅ π}
Im = {y ∈ IR : y ≤ −1 ∨ y ≥ 1}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

F U N ÇÃ O CO TA NG E NTE

f (x ) = cot(x )
ID = {x ∈ IR : x ≠ k ⋅ π}
Im = {y ∈ IR}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
FUNÇÕES CI RCULARES I NVERS AS
FUNÇÃO ARCO SE NO

## f (x ) = arc sin(x ) ⇔ f (y) = sen(y)

ID = {x ∈ IR : −1 ≤ x ≤ 1}
⎧ π π⎫
Im = ⎨ y ∈ IR : − ≤ y ≤ ⎬
⎩ 2 2⎭
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

## FUNÇÃO ARCO COSSENO

f (x ) = arc cos(x ) ⇔ f (y) = cos(y)
ID = {x ∈ IR : −1 ≤ x ≤ 1}
Im = {y ∈ IR : 0 ≤ y ≤ π}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
FUNÇÃO ARCO TANGE NTE

## f (x ) = arc tan(x ) ⇔ f (y) = tan(y)

ID = {x ∈ IR}
⎧ π π⎫
Im = ⎨ y ∈ IR : − < y < ⎬
⎩ 2 2⎭
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

## f (x ) = arc sec(x ) ⇔ f (y) = sec(y)

ID = {x ∈ IR : x ≤ −1 ∨ x ≥ 1}
Im = {y ∈ IR : 0 ≤ y ≤ π}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
FUNÇÃO ARCO COSSECA NTE

## f (x ) = arc csc(x ) ⇔ f (y) = csc(y)

ID = {x ∈ IR : x ≤ −1 ∨ x ≥ 1}
⎧ π π⎫
Im = ⎨ y ∈ IR : − ≤ y ≤ ⎬
⎩ 2 2⎭
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

## f (x ) = arc sec(x ) ⇔ f (y) = sec(y)

ID = {x ∈ IR}
Im = {y ∈ IR : 0 < y < π}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
FUNÇÕES HI PERBÕLI CAS
FUNÇÃO SE NO HI PERBÓLI CO

f (x ) = sinh(x )
ID = {x ∈ IR}
Im = {y ∈ IR}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

## F U N ÇÃ O COS SE NO HIP E RBÓ LI CO

f (x ) = cosh(x )
ID = {x ∈ IR}
Im = {y ∈ IR : y ≥ 1}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
F U N ÇÃ O TA NG E NTE H IPE RBÓ LI CA

f (x ) = tanh(x )
ID = {x ∈ IR}
Im = {y ∈ IR : −1 < y < 1}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

## F UNÇÃ O SE CA NTE HIPE RBÓ LICA

f (x ) = sec h(x )
ID = {x ∈ IR}
Im = {y ∈ IR : 0 < y ≤ 1}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
F U N ÇÃ O COS SE CA NTE HI PE RB Ó LI CA

f (x ) = sec h(x )
ID = {x ∈ IR : x ≠ 0}
Im = {y ∈ IR : y ≠ 0}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

## F UNÇÃ O CO TA NG E NTE HIPE RBÓ LI CA

f (x ) = coth(x )
ID = {x ∈ IR}
Im = {y ∈ IR : y < −1 ∨ y > 1}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
FUNÇÕES HI PERB ÓLI CAS I NVERSAS
F UNÇÃ O ARG UME NTO S E NO HIPE RBÓ LI CO

## f (x ) = arg sinh(x ) ⇔ f (y) = sinh(y)

ID = {x ∈ IR}
Im = {y ∈ IR}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

## f (x ) = arg cosh(x ) ⇔ f (y) = cosh(y)

ID = {x ∈ IR : x ≥ 1}
Im = {y ∈ IR : y ≥ 0}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
F UNÇÃ O ARG UME NTO TA NGE NTE HIP E RBÓ LI CA

## f (x ) = arg tanh(x ) ⇔ f (y) = tanh(y)

ID = {x ∈ IR : −1 < x < 1}
Im = {y ∈ IR}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

## f (x ) = arg sec h(x ) ⇔ f (y ) = sec h(y )

ID = {x ∈ IR : 0 < x ≤ 1}
Im = {y ∈ IR : y ≥ 0}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
FUNÇÃO ARG UME NTO COSECA NTE HIPERBÓLI CA

## f (x ) = arg csc h(x ) ⇔ f (y) = csc h(y)

ID = {x ∈ IR : x ≠ 0}
Im = {y ∈ IR : y ≠ 0}
y

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2

## f (x ) = arg coth(x ) ⇔ f (y ) = coth(y )

ID = {x ∈ IR : x < 1 ∨ x > 1}
Im = {y ∈ IR : y ≠ 0}

−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 5

−1

−2
DE RI VA DAS DE F UNÇÕE S T RI GONOMÉ TRI CAS E FUNÇÕES HIPE RBÓLICA S
Nas expressões seguintes, u, v, w são funções de x; todos os ângulos estão em radianos.

d
[sin(u)] = cos(u) ⋅ du
dx dx
d
[cos(u)] = − sin(u) ⋅ du
dx dx
d
[tan(u)] = sec 2 (u) ⋅ du
dx dx
d
[cot (u)] = − csc 2 (u) ⋅ du
dx dx
d
[sec (u)] = sec (u) ⋅ tan(u) ⋅ du
dx dx
d
[csc (u)] = − csc (u) ⋅ cot (u) ⋅ du
dx dx

d ⎡ π π⎤
[arc sin(u)] = 1 2 ⋅ du ⎢⎣ − 2 < arc sin(u) < 2 ⎥⎦
dx 1 − u dx
d
[arc cos(u)] = − 1 2 ⋅ du [0 < arc cos(u) < π]
dx 1 − u dx
d ⎡ π π⎤
[arc tan(u)] = 1 2 ⋅ du ⎢⎣ − 2 < arc tan(u) < 2 ⎥⎦
dx 1 + u dx
d
[arc cot (u)] = − 1 2 ⋅ du [0 < a rccotg(u) < π ]
dx 1 + u dx
⎡ π⎤
d 1 du ±1 du ⎢ + → 0 < arc sec(u) < 2 ⎥
[arc sec(u)] = ⋅ = ⋅ ⎢ ⎥
dx u ⋅ u − 1 dx u ⋅ u − 1 dx
2 2
⎢ − → π < arc sec(u) < π ⎥
⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦
⎡ π ⎤
d −1 du m1 du ⎢ − → 0 < arc csc(u) < 2 ⎥
[arc csc(u)] = ⋅ = ⋅ ⎢ ⎥
dx u ⋅ u −1
2 dx u ⋅ u − 1 dx
2
⎢ + → − π < arc csc (u) < 0⎥
⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦
d
[sinh(u)] = cosh(u) ⋅ du
dx dx
d
[cosh(u)] = sinh(u) ⋅ du
dx dx
d
[tanh(u)] = sec h 2 (u) ⋅ du
dx dx
d
[coth(u)] = − csc h2 (u) ⋅ du
dx dx
d
[sec h(u)] = − sec h(u) ⋅ tanh(u) ⋅ du
dx dx
d
[csc h(u)] = − csc h(u) ⋅ coth(u) ⋅ du
dx dx

d
[arg sinh(u)] = 21 ⋅ du
dx u + 1 dx
⎡ + → arccos h(u) > 0, u > 1⎤
d
[arg cosh(u)] = ±2 1 ⋅ du ⎢ − → arccos h(u) < 0, u > 1⎥
dx u − 1 dx ⎣ ⎦
d
[arg tanh(u)] = 1 2 ⋅ du [− 1 < u < 1]
dx 1 − u dx
d
[arg coth(u)] = 1 2 ⋅ du [u > 1 ∨ u < −1]
dx 1 − u dx
d ⎡ − → arc sec h(u) > 0, 0 < u < 1⎤
[arg sec h(u)] = m 1 2 ⋅ du ⎢ + → arc sec h(u) < 0, 0 < u < 1⎥
dx u ⋅ 1 − u dx ⎣ ⎦
d −1 du m1 ⎡− → u > 0⎤
[arg csc h(u)] = ⋅ = ⎢ + → u < 0⎥
dx u ⋅ 1 + u dx u ⋅ 1 + u 2
2
⎣ ⎦
I NTE GRAIS DE FUNÇÕES TRIG ONOMÉ TRI CAS E FUNÇÕES HI PE RBÓLICAS

## ∫ sin(u) ⋅du = − cos(u) + C

∫ cos(u) ⋅ du = sin(u) + C
∫ tan (u ) ⋅ du = − ln cos (u ) + C
∫ cot(u) ⋅ du = ln sin(u) + C
∫ sec(u) ⋅ du = ln sec(u) + tan(u) + C
∫ csc(u) ⋅ du = ln csc(u) − cot(u) + C
u sin(2 ⋅ u)
∫ sin (u) ⋅du = 2 − 4 + C
2

u sin(2 ⋅ u)
∫ cos (u) ⋅du = 2 + 4 + C
2

2

2

2

2

## ∫ sec(u) ⋅ tan(u) ⋅ du = sec(u) + C

∫ c s c(u) ⋅ cot(u) ⋅ du = − c s c(u) + C
∫ sinh(u) ⋅du = cosh(u) + C
∫ cosh(u) ⋅ du = sinh(u) + C
∫ tanh(u) ⋅ du = ln cosh(u) + C
∫ coth(u) ⋅ du = ln senh(u) + C
∫ sec h(u) ⋅ du = arcsin(tanh(u)) + C
⎛u⎞
∫ csc h(u) ⋅ du = ln tanh⎜⎝ 2 ⎟⎠ + C

2

2

## ∫ tanh (u) ⋅ du = u − tanh(u) + C

2

sinh(2 ⋅ u) u
∫ sinh (u) ⋅ du = − +C
2

4 2
sinh(2 ⋅ u) u
∫ cosh (u) ⋅ du = + +C
2

4 2

## ∫ sec h(u) ⋅ tanh(u) ⋅ du = − sec h(u) + C

∫ csc h(u) ⋅ coth(u) ⋅ du = − csc h(u) + C
du 1 u−a
∫u 2
−a 2
=
2⋅a
⋅ ln
u+ a
+C

du 1 ⎛u⎞
∫u 2
+a 2
= ⋅ arc tan⎜ ⎟ + C
a ⎝a⎠
du 1 a+u
∫a 2
−u 2
=
2⋅a
⋅ ln
a−u
+C

du ⎛u⎞
∫ = arc sin⎜ ⎟ + C (u < a)
a −u2
⎝a⎠
2

∫ u +a
du
2 2
( )
= ln u + u 2 + a 2 + C

∫ u −a
du
2 2
( )
= ln u + u2 − a 2 + C (0 < a < u )
du 1 ⎛u⎞
∫ u⋅ = ⋅ arc sic⎜ ⎟ + C (0 < a < u )
u2 − a 2 a ⎝a⎠

du 1 a + a 2 − u2
∫ u⋅ =− ⋅ +C (0 < u < a )
a 2 − u2 a u

du 1 a + a 2 + u2
∫ u⋅ a 2 + u2
=−
a

u
+C

u a2 ⎛u⎞
∫ a 2 − u 2 ⋅ du =
2
⋅ a 2 − u2 +
2
⋅ arc sin⎜ ⎟ + C
⎝a⎠

∫ u 2 + a 2 ⋅ du =
u
2
⋅ u2 + a 2 +
a2
2
( )
⋅ ln u + u 2 + a 2 + C

∫ u 2 − a 2 ⋅ du =
u
2
⋅ u2 − a 2 −
a2
2
( )
⋅ ln u + u 2 − a 2 + C

RE LA ÇÕ ES DE I G UALDA DE

(
arg sinh(x ) = ln x + x 2 + 1 x ∈ IR)
arg cosh(x ) = ln(x + x2 − 1) x ∈ IR : x ≥ 1
1 ⎛ 1+ x ⎞
arg tanh(x ) = ⋅ ln⎜ ⎟ x ∈ IR : −1 < x < 1
2 ⎝ 1− x ⎠
1 ⎛ x + 1⎞
arg coth(x ) = ⋅ ln⎜ ⎟ x ∈ IR : x < −1 ∨ x > 1
2 ⎝ x − 1⎠
⎛ 1+ 1− x 2 ⎞
arg sec h(x ) = ln⎜ ⎟ x ∈ IR : 0 < x ≤ 1
⎜ x ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛1 1− x 2 ⎞
arg csc h(x ) = ln⎜ + ⎟ x ∈ IR : x ≠ 0
⎜x x ⎟
⎝ ⎠