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PRiN,TECH

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Elena Mirita

Tralan Ckone

George Dobre

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!leea!!ltlll BiO,J.~:iLlIi. de: IPriac:ip~.u)' de ',lecar,., 1n a~ "' .. ~ ,-- ,e ] b,ta de,ceti:nlJl' mterl'o[' :stilbiUtl,. Printr-m .lPirl0QfJ:8 de' _Uz", ~i :lhst:[';-d:.i'uJe' :llo@S'I:~ eedn~••• tt'_pG,ln ~ d:@oM~Un;U. d:8, dlt~, shtem. [ O;IJ ,t:i,tfc: ~,~ItIa~,lt<Q!r fmc1U. C!!IS'te mai, gen.el::'a\3, CQ IIU,t ntl1iJirul 8o'hli~lilor Ii pe g! i !!.!Iteai, mare. ,Is~. iJl'li"OE'"tant-151, se ,gbeasd: ,en lmili. nul te solul;.ii pos1bil flO int '. 1:1:.. :IB, OOIititinuare, _din nul ,t:i:... AC'Mtora se .1ep v,a[,l.im,t. C&lrifl SBlIti:s.fi!I,m Of!! -" bin 1ist.a de, dodqte :formulat:.ll:n f~'Z.. , de ,!Ulai:hl • temejl". cu ,~t,e h._te. DI',;imlddh,i s,bI,t !PO!!l:iibUe,.1

In f.lla plloi..ectldi caU.t'l;t:live p!ilIIfiitmsisterull de ·prQiectet. Nlctul

in f~a'

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2) SQ,h,!,tH J i! el'i!llnl'!'n't<i!i' ~ i ~m:1 nuau :f'~t ,cIit:jiiiiYlt~, Fc:ifllr.~" tr,ll!hl[''e,s;istitlllltlc;l", es te depa,['t,e dfli a f:i! CI.'I'Iip,1 I (Hpsp.-::l" eft ,('\IIril e (;.'Ill! a.CU.OI"!i;l't'"'e p',l"j n si:9 tenr: e'" M.dil:"a~Ui;" !~i ahele',_ ,K.I'if" S~"UI pre,I'l@l1lt8J' eu s~l ,., :1 'II' pun in latA pr,ob.l~
aJegec'Ji.i c.;e<h:t~ 11. J"lllDP- !t"!'ci <'I.lli"'" ~~,1I'lI t"apa,r It~ 'C'IIlIi list,;;:!!1 d'.:ll d l".inlt". ,~lIlrpi' 1i"".;jJ,t:i sf fo1~l~j acest hreru:! Est@ ~;n·O¥u.t.ips'ind tbt:eJlf; !Il~.I:"''''. fii!i!l _!!!! ,pel' [!aloe d~H .aU I:'lmtH caUtati'II~. (1f,'\{)Scind' tel!ni(:,l!~ de ··.uuJIUzl ,I) valorH'" p\!eit~ iE!4lj. dililii h'la:lrelhJrl~

studia::i lal di!2f"pJ'hl' ·"~nf"i.:!l,lilt :-'N,i.~'I"Oliu. ,Evid.t. d~l e cinamt i c-e ("<'1'["(" Stl'PFftPIJ1il tr, bJlite sal H,p d:.
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1

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18
4,

I~ prlncipiu, a~e8t,ed:ouI upec\e slnt de tf'~Ql wat pent:m toat:e 'YaJdatele de .i,I't;'1ifi arefk' ooii,ecil:.ul S::ndr~['ll:dW. c in Pl"o:i,~t rea s:li:s'lanelor ~,tru care eoiuUU,. pi[\obl,'5I'iI~101::' de mai 5'IAS sint evi:dente" @~t '~pi,tol ~tle 1i.ps!, " ca, ,e'xen:phl" " ,a:I;)ordea,~i cr~ileu i t Iii _', (1i9l.U L
I .,

1,. aCiII,rl a dis~tt..i.1jI'e1,oir . de' 'tip!.il'~. ~~1of' run fi'g: .. M~ A9,; M3"b c:II'(lIt'a inhl, mecMiame cu :pi.!rghi.i. 'treDui@~' in ~, cu 8in.Ll!'l.i\Ii iiPI!tosionai,1 d ,.,l ,_I,hili 'cJi.net.;J$,tatidi II mecalM,5m!10'I'r'es.~- ~t:il;lie,.
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Sin.te". di~iona.,1 a:fll!ii caJ obi'~U,vprji,ncipal ,det,emiM:rNhmgimU h'iD, lema, Pl1o:li"et;'tului 8e ,recizeaz.l, I~~au,se .POt, [prec,i'U!,):: .' B.t:n - [nll'ti~ mi:~ sub ~nC',inl -,~i .R .~ ~'I 6~

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PRDX::BCI"ARI'ta ItmrPLB1'

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• Funqlj, de W.)"iQi,t,: Tnn!!l~Qmluq, ,1tir~ ter;N im;if,lclrii ,i ~ far\. It.l'aMnlit'ero9 W'lU, nWI emelige!:ic). ,in t,iigu.{,_ 2. se pr'ed:n:t,. (I '!Ia,rian'tll dlil' a:lqotitm ,9.:in.':h~'-f~[I' l~ptimi''P';~u''e- ,pi!!Rt.:ru :,[IQIlI.ctll'eIi,- cup 1. .1, ,:~.n;ub-',;dl Qlit I,. Dli:plf arm,mtad, Z;l!reiill 'CUp['obl,emeill' dl!!!' tezlo') vat se ~t:e
I.OM:t.

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2' • 1 • 1 _ PRB'CI2: "'REA SO'rt.I.C I, 'TIR :I:lIOR, ,,'[
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IItQn!!n'tuh.ti. de 1ns~r,@1.Af21' ,~l 'v~datia, se ,scbt'fMt,h:ea:z1 :p!["':jlntr-o d.ependmt·1 hRiarl F!'in ~eli'.n· .. de'

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:33
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pre-dnt-I. ,= i:1IImS" O.iiIa'['ea 'f:il~tulWb se faoe di.n QonQji'Ua de' ~I.~t<entl 8! 'co["!PUhu $~l~, :m,a.o!>~ia. ,~ - c~i,de['tnd, ,eli aoest mod de' ,_~ le~t'e' maj ~or de~tei@s Qie c-.lt:["@ Inoepato~i, Oel,ej,!!I!1't,e ce'rin,\"e.se VOl' 'v'eri.fiC31 _'_ __. ClAI~ltet'eiJ di:~im:iiJ,or fHetu~ui. hedilillllmSi,ma.!!'\~ la soHciltat'ea c~l, in '~UH@ de ~i ~U:!. ,ae. f'ace 1•. ~. (~1l ~) (Deoo!a. mel. forte ,de cal!CIlll F(!! - ,'F1,' Fl U1nd: fort,a
~: ~~'i,cnea~ii asYp.ra.G'u;rubuhd pt":incipa:~.,· .i.• t Y l)faetot :llo:r~ei. Fi, pen.trru, a cOI"iSide:!f.a ;!Ii solic::.tarea em r¥ttCi,E'4U

- -;'1i;.acit - I'Pi1rimi

in amg:ori'tJlIJ.lcare.se

neCll.lfUJseute.

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de! .mtlijoia~e

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cug;lg,@I,e'~

la carpresJiunf!
de

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lif'l"llita de

Ct;: - ci)eHcient,

'IDde siqiU.t"aliil'tlfat.i

ClU"9€'t:'I!·

Tabehd. 2"l :pre~i'I::I'tl§ ,,~l old orientati \fe' ~filtr.u f~C'torul., . :I)lo, st.a..nda.rd'E! (v. ~e)ta, 113) SH;! al,ege un. H.le-t eu d'Js'U~riat
_d,ulc1ec;:~,hrul ae .L,e,prezint.i fHetu~:!ii S~ note~~1 dl~,iurdh:~'

cehticah;ull1't. .. , ,standa,rdi'Mte'.

In,

crt.
1

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S,i,s't~l.

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IlUl:'ll.lbulpr:incipal al crieuhti t.elescopi,c;:'. 'var:hmt,a dinEig. "'!Sa" iii ,elM c~l ESte a.s'f!~,Iit1," lagi:c w ,ahlnecar'e, 1,,105

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"ut.'\lb.d.'qi~

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I agIJr'
CUI

lresa

h,glt· deahm&C;;-.1r, l.a capitul

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de p,r"O,i'K'tU'te ,r~

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34

2,"
,.ent,~ US].: s:.i

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c~ .pot

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p~['jlor
penhili:ll Ii

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mJl~~.ue' vaJ.,O',dle' coe:fiC'imt:ulU1 de f,jjt,1 de fl~j Cill ii


(I !IiS·tf·e,1 de

a ,objl~e

iJrl

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1

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se cm/IDe cu
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1

n:

int,ervine iflclimn:ea Uanwhd

f'eristri~. ,car'@' are'pro,IU adiv ,a'. .

. V, ~li ,filete'l,e cu un .. i~· s ,inol!;P\lt ".~,i~i ,.~t!il'tt:illlalrea~ l:mI, :caJ'i ccatr:ar •...' ae m1~OI'ea,dl pasul Ia ,aee,~~l. diame'tru aam.nal d. be [Se ltire;;te dIi,_ttul :Dfmlnal lIBl~in:md ~l~i pas. .
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tl~mt'~d siPi ii:'iI'gJ ~ or fg~.a,~e

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,., ~f:i.'C:1.'e1iIiI:~W
]'01:".

oo'rect·~e k. ::: O •.S5 + 0.75., Ulile fi] etu) ~U$'I!.I.~~luj"

fle'iI.IlB

it~a lell1llHormi1! sein~'~eacD.


Ii lll~lI

:Qi .Dpdn d".

~tnJ,

ve'cihccarea

i~[lfll'l iIIt,H I.e ,2.~.3 ~i2.14

r~ d.e ecMV311em.tih ,~,

. peJlltrum C\i;l,.~.cuJ :8!~,r:i,t'Ot",

se ,cal'ctI.~.M!<1 cut/eada.

a -01

(.,2;):2 ,. '5

'* '5

iii •.'t,er.n,.

:[1.[1,0.1 ~:e it i y.@' ~

dle!pi~

_~' e

t',e·:ti~tef!~.~

8Jdml.s.j.b~

u:
1 <II

....rr,l,d'r ••

lIutm'i!l:ul

ut

dl,!I!j 8'1.'1:r,pin

C'l'lil'lt,;u::t

(p~1"II~

• utili~area unui alt material: • ml~lrea f11etuluJ; • utjliza~eQ filetulUi f~rlstr~u (dacl saraina e&te idlr-w~ ~ln9ur
19,en;!l) •

101)1;

:~reoe
1i::_l!tlalUlu1.•

,..,.,bt9',j, (I!~:i~

"i.

~.i~ fUetuhlii detennid in;IU·c;i di~,:hmi t 1<1, altor ehmeOlb,· .1.· est,t!, u.t,ill ca .incl di!ll. ,8iC~tI f.~I, .001,QI und!' ,.t'e, pooi:bil., 51 !U~!' ,efectune La &~
~ .. lPQirti~i

I!'JII -

.,

wametrul Qid 'rm! n:de.• De· r,.. ll. soHeit.ni8. 'e5b~! -I ,~ II~) CUI :fo·rta.Fj,r ~d ~ S\I. ·",,~bll de· :blfu;ruba!re .Hll.:l" :.pti.,de la ,aeea:s.ti ,si'l;,ugUe f~,c Pf'esele act,i'ifIlate prbli $~. lItIde' [,,~tul de .urubar. i;J :Nil se ada:llOa .;d ~It~l de fI'1er:3t'1j!J in ¢e.] dllr-a.l do.i1'e'ai [~!em (vez'
ped.wloa!JiIIi.
I!i\!'lnd
1

0'

v.:1U,QlliI!l'

f;il~tate. a .p!iJl1l.!hulUi. ca:re

Mite

'lIft'armle de efoirtu.d). 5e c.a].C\dea'zl:

o•

.FJ1
'It
,~

at

,•.

Mu
zdj
16;

"

c.r:' =Dttci nu r@:zi.~'U


I~tie;
!H!i mI:rl~te

s ... - ·3_,

f.i Ietul ,
•• '.

_.bdM11 '11lli.

iac

I'e:nrtN pf',!Ii!'J,Seac'ti~:te pdll. ~uirub l,1i acest N,["lig'l"a.f se CiiIJaflh 'vl!!,,rj,tj,car,ea se face dtlPi pro·l.ectarea, cdw .... 1 dD,Ue;a' ['_1_

.1:

2~,2: ~

PRO:r:ECTAREA C'B'I~'D']'DR""',A.I. :OOILEA e:ORUBULltJ 'r PH 'I'NC"I PAL

REAZ'8H, AL

dO'llil. ,p~~l it3 Uti c'r1cnl ,dublu, a!nwUt:~ cd'curi .auto ,et.c. ); . ., un ]agl]I' utilil Oa C'r:iicul airrplu. 'I;'r:l.cul p 0' [U ptath)t1ne auto" ericul ~it:rtll !:li~rcini lo1t.e't"al'e. erj cul t-'lesc::op·ic, dCUIl autol ctl p,'i~lgiMi., extt'act~['e. Pt'~ti!i 8JcUillmiilte p .i n ~1Hrub. . J;jhinE!- e ~. } ; ]"'!om. rf!<.a.~'m:I:fix (cl"iC'llll Si presaJ C'lil pi tIIli,~ roli, oare , UranU. criC!IJl telAScopic CUI dlbU, act,hm- etc.)"
"0a

\iari .. t,!Ii de' r~~1

C1i.I: '0

iden:U.cI

.a d'OWli".phdit;

O!J

·au .prt

deosebi't,iiil' .• ,cea, de a idQulapiiul.UI " Se pot .i:rli5l1lillllll9in .,1 801u,t;i.1 cu ~ P1ildit@

cidi,elpf'oM;emp

·\f.rite.Pr,oiect.:t;'u, t>elu ... p:re.. t.t :in pat'agr-,.ful :Pl",~t

(5 :2 .1..,) •

a.-,

cupl. ,~,iuU~

~f8'

c1u91 1:llQl'itBll

.. ~,aglr al:~a~,1C!!il al m~t',.;

.~ pin, ,. supr. ~,iI:tI - ~,d ':'

_, 8f,et."i~1

CbJerwat,u' ~fe! 1. UtU lur'N mtui rulmet!lit ,~ d.~ir ,pntlmU avantajul unornx:mente' mi,d decit In 1agln;!1
~te
'CiU

,al'uoec.. r,fI'. 1'-Qt~.t,ll.rabl Jit.'t .. I!,DW ....... l,qlr _t .•Iftllt m::i milin~,. B!IiJ.lmenll:'ul va f'o,l~i Ot"I, de dt,~ Qri mcm!n,t,e,l. ,defrec1re' ,se ,mad, ~ J. ,si.l9i't,amed'e ,1lc:'UOI:'l:are a:n~rantesa.ult.li,D1c'1. c.~nd' ,1!I.:ctima.rM est.e f~~tl'l A' iIkIri_c'
.~c~:ionare mill,at .~tI"Ui IM'Cforar,ea. ~'.fo,.d!idw. 1lJI'8l!)" ,2. SQUc:itatiea ,care S'~'8Irein, vedere la p,rai"ectUiNtiIlu;i l.r'lI!x:ial cu .h .e.re~ • In eondri UiJ e c.,oncret,e de' funC'Ucna(ie dinl ,si..st!l!lfJ!J,eana) i,la'e. (.ac1.1,CDllt'WII! CUI d't.le

il cJlel.tuieH, StIP,I,imen;t'lre 1{_ted.l.e, ~J de f'c,I!CIIt:"e'.(rel:j,:i\1:ten,t,eJ',. _1 PUJ;tlD de 1,0 od

.,

miCi)I, e~:te ~ ,4, e,Cln;tn.ct,. Valcd.lepre'sill:l1ilo!r' ,amu,Ud, Ie I.' ,ale; ,dtle.1 tne,it sl' se. cli'H:e 'grrj,patft ,1. :;;.1 iSle uj'gLlr>e CiI dU.["a li.il.te, rid:icati: 211)1,",40 ,1II1>'lJ. PPj;Jltrtli Cit,el/fonU sau ote'I/otelw unge're' is,i, '1itele mi,c;:lde.l~r.'. 'V.Jor'iie :m:i.d a5.'l.9Ur'lo du,;:,iWii itate' rmi ,mare',. ~ 3. S;lstemu,J d'e act,io.nar,e ,r;r.mta,'t pe C1II,iPU,E~l.Ift.Ibuhn poIlt,e ~ 0 .se,r:i,e .,n,i!stri,c~ii in pr,oi,ecta,rea ,rea:z~.hd axial. .~ 'etI~hi. p.iroma ~ ,C'U~t trebui,e d

_.'11

i.

·t~.ec.Eipes'te' .ca,f'iu.l ;;\lr.MU~ . ui ~ 1"l!!'a,ztrm.:lhdi,t,['ebti],i!' awt gt'.ijlc. ,p't"I''I'IHa i~liIl'ubar@a In p,. uh til .pe hi. lDllIJ]: dlineapete.

~It'

·4,. I,Dd.Her~~'t de' hpu,J

m~il:In.Ue

,ur:l.:lbuhrl d

f.olos:it@., A,ceste' so,]utii

in contin'ua;r ' s·e' di.au. :inalcO!It1i pentru Il'roi,ectarr,ea 'urlanl dlin s,ol'llf:Hle 1m.'~ fr,@cv@f!!Jt flU, si.nobl igat&:di .. Eh~ h;@bW.e pdvi't8 ,ea ni~'te eXf!II1l,1e'!

.. Pentru

vuianta

din

hy.

2,,':l!!'30a se

,~leg:e' a'r:"
S' i!llleg!

apolj. ,~e' ,e-s'tj,mea'z,iI t~ii't:uli:'ihl


I~r,ect

rf!l'lultind d~;, In ea.... so,lu;ti@i. din fig. 2..23b ul ,

d~.

'!""""!'~

FJI.
,a..

J!o!e, defini,tiv,adifo,rml, ,i diilDi!f:liS.illnH@ C'Qpeil$i .• le, sis,t_lw. r'ebuic sl irl!l:l!i"eQic. [,Io,ti t'i~ 1iberl .. ~i). .

de

priooer

l"

(~n!!

II' s.e r1.(tez,inU:


.'16,.'-. I'!I.

la, 5<carl

O1_p!1.

sbtmul Ide '!::hol!!t'e4,1 .part,i.aJ din. laglnll


IIU,III

C8,p!il[

,,~hu.

.U 'I.' m.',l , •

.. So estim9z,1

:manentul. de f:recare

(tn. diagr.lm!:l.e ,de 'ef.Qifturi

5_'.,
B,e;

30
e!,ect.lv,~,Ide ,stllt'afetei deCXRt.ct. care tin"

D~ ,1, d~ ,_r'l!'!.'P:r'@z,1_nUidi.~,iWlile t.."U:\ld ,.i n~lede ,E'aeoNaiE'e.,

;1.

b Fig,. 2'.,23

,. ~'aleq D'c ,~idc' Qclen,t;ati.''J _jlu;to'rui m:u::i 1'i:r91\11 caretreoe p.dn

,D:c ,., [(1,5,*,1" 8) d, ~~ndacth'!!l'la:rease f,..~


Q(p1!11~,~lui.

(2,.18)

:m!Jit:[~e

b:n1iM$<i iili'l~iW'ili Ie ~i d ,i, a,h" ,s,isttm.lilui de plri~re ,(car', 51 ~,i,edic~ '[!oot :il!"earn 100'rl ,~ C'1l1,Pe,i,,, .~Ie :reprez::iint,iI Ia searl ~" sbtmllll de f,bare :!i,i pia,t"'t ial caip.!il $Ufnd:luhli, • • Se estif1!f"~.dl ~,t.ul d~ f:r«ate din U,agiru,] a)li!IJ]-' ~hlUa. ,(2.17').
~, Be

de-tini:t1.veaz:i

sl'edcll

a ~1C)'t" Ul\titiI" ,el."icuri ~iI,'iUdispozitive de hlCru • • ' Be dete~:mi Ott minim neeesar din ~oli!C'~bi!r-ea de cm,tact: .P8ltru, 1m! cmtact form :pe j1iBi1't!lte d.e 5 foerl 5!@ deduce dependen:'a fOlr~l-so,l j,ei tar-Ie de C(nta~t t

~LW.J:~

LJ'c."

:L;II!"ez::in;Ureoz'l'lml,rea.f'ei

lim

]agl!ir

de

aim.ecare

cu .:SQP.[a,f,a~,a,


.r

Flc=:fa'2:.:B,~Dc:' dall
c' ~

'. - ~

si.nel

== f,:i

.il'·

211:: Dc
..

2: .• - - .. 2: _.- ,..

,CO9,. ,Da,da,o

a,ins
,

,ill

G'.

11 D: - .~.,.' . c

0(2' .• 19',

., ;Se dief1:rd Uv:_zl 8e,1 I.lt.ia;. a:mst:t'llIiI:ti via eupei. CUPa se 'pcioIte execut,_ din doul bdt,i ...u.I!at~' prtn, ;,~i Sill1il, ,dintr'''ICi' siDlJUl'1 buctltl.~ ufomJtl, '~lM:ti'e 'pe. ca,pul ~hi. s.ituaJ, i.e 1ili ca;[le ea, estle nedem:nt.abUIJ., ., :5e ['8I,Ir-e:Zill'tl. la SQ;[!I. eapJ.'1 ,U!nIbWui. ,1, ,~. :.
fe-ill :<IifillU~,

Se,

e5,tiJneat~ .sf@ri.c ': 'i'


liiI

I!DBli!utttl,

die' f t'ee8!t1!!l

enn

;;;. / 2:n::s' .,

• ,S

axial t'lU. bile (,IiBe'.xa Ai cArui capaei tat,e stali,do de :!i:ncar'care. c'o • ~I f ie' eel Pl,t-in ,~.ll cu sat'cina de pre 1uat de ,citre :$'urub:
sau
a, ,Se ai.ege

1[16,] ,). :a

\1'.1,

rnl~,t

Co ,;t:F1.

(2.2'2)

,dil~,iuni,le' a ,i3iIo@<St'9H1l

,. ::w

de:Hrn~,i,v~z;,1 cot'iSttucti 'ol,!fonr& ,:pi t CtIPf"'ID~,i a,]e' sis:t,egaj.itti dlerixa;lIe 1. scarr~ rullJlefltul"
'ctlpa,

g,:i,~t«m.l ,d.@' prioo l:~'e' a, 'CU~l ,,\ polft;ial eap1Jl ~,~lllJl,. Dc ~'e definit.iv·ea:I", la ,It'"oiecta.r,e;a ri.g. :2'• 2S
,s:is,t,6J'Ijhdde'iI,(:t
l'CO?

.. .5", '["~P:['''':i!:illil' ~

t'e h~~p. 4H

l'lUlment:

,.Se'

~-st.i~;l

~tul

deft'ecare·

din,

(2•. 3) 2

Wilde,; ,d. .. (d+Di)/2,. Ui,;. A,G.].. Anexa ,N;): IJ ~r.v;IIti.'e: ,r',n figura 2.,25 sint ,[',.mentlfte ruI_tuZui •.

'=

0,008 - 0,101 ..

dot!:LI' ~oliU:t.ii ,de et ...... re'

~.

4n.~_._:!!''!1!!:!!!!!!;....:2'!;.: ~f'8'" :pl"e~int:l, t'eZl~rea .•

pem

ru),m!!'I'lt ,Blttal. ,R ,!Ilrrubuhn

~'[:li.c

31Ut<il) CU.

p.b'\ghi L

unm

.
I,
rio
I

I_

'''0

Be. allege
6
A,

1m

rul~t:

~:xia 1

,C;U

b,j 1e

(An:
5

1(.1

6SilU

I[ 1!:6])1 eare

:imeIP l·:i..~te'

,~U,ile';

Co ,2: Fi., . ..1' ...., ~ !d;r ,"" d''.

unde Ci:) ~'i;"",·._de


...". ... _

cap~,C'itat'<iI ""lpr;a,-i.'o'l ..!"


<i!

:l!!idc!~ dE> in, ':'r'c'aE"E'!' a :rullilEQttlluJ.,;' ex!tt'iof


81

_j

..;l'..... ~',.

't:'ul""":Iiltu1 ui .. i"r- d' ~ aJjJ~t:l'ul .......

fi~ li!tulllIi. ,.

• lie' a'leq,@ d.egaj~ni!a

.standardi'zata

.(.Anexa A3)"

~ Se v.edfioo l,a ~~ ,~~' ~~ .+£" ~, ·foerlud.} sec'~,iWlea din, dr.ep'tul dleq~ja,rii (ve:zi: $1 §~.1.9 ..}, .

.. vezi diagAlllllJl. de·

n
~l

mot' pl:ese.

,~,~

2,. '1,,7 pre'~i.n,ta, :pi:lSib:iJ.:iti!t.i


Pentn,Ji li1'ari<l.llta al '=:'iu~hd

de,pr',e~Uilec

."CC' :fie 1~ aCilst

Cii/p5t

(,ili}.,. • deci

,S@

p,[[',e$upune

dj,atoo'trul

Dc

ca~~t\ea

ill

.~r'Cinii, •

trebuie

In pi'uUtl. are slim@lpHneasdi

d.tr:.

m:-ditb,,:

tmai
mt~!.t
in caZl.d v,a:~i,an.tei (b) .,if:lSl!.n·nt~,I:E'<dI trebuie siS fie :pQ5,ib.i n ,pe. 1.a ,eapitul QP!ItS d1a:nv:tru,] Df: ~t@ iH9i Imr,e d~ci't i!'literlond fHet.uhri. 'P'efi:troatflbgl~ v·ar.h,nt,tl' ;uorespII.mOle di:me,rmimii Il)I a gI:udi d:e 'Of!I!'Itirar"e' (,Ane'

E!,

S. s:t.amJes~1 D·" .$i ,Dc (Dc" dJ). ; se ve~ifi.C'I. ~(~i1. ,1lI"1It ~ intr,e capul s1iilnlhuJi'w. i,i pastil. •. din, e]Elnl!ftt1illl " lu.t:'ru. neg'li jlmdu,~se ~rbUra s,~pra:f.e't,ei: '
II I!'

til

II

5e('e:P[c'~ :inti]

L~

clltl'g!~ j~rii

51;!

asca[a~~t f.i'tJ~e at:!ilt de:

_re ,cit ,es·te FI,~a:r.


dln lag.i'Nl 1
1

,capa~,

~~l~

,;dl alSaniJ,h'II'~

'Cil,

pti,eea dlehx:n:Ii.

~ se ,esti~zi

~tu:l 1ft

def:t:'ecate
lilt

a;x:1~l!
-·31 .2

!(u •

3: IJo ,Pt

D~-,Dg
,DC''''Dj
-

:r '

Sewri.

U c~
is

5~t :hDfl""'''' s UbitU

rH

cl i <tlfi'O'tnd

,~,.:~~

"~'~'i - : "''''''R''' .... ..... ""'"~""~~


~,

,",_",.}i!

""-.~~.,,'"

~U,C'iU:ri
10'

Ie-

ii!1!t o(viE>z.i di~,g'[',,,,mi'!~'P.' d@ 'e'f'nrh~ri); 'Dacli n,lll sa

F~: '",~N;·..i ... cuMt: '''',Mil =: Rt., $P -alCiU le.:li~;'li,tffiS!,~ tlli,Pa Pr'I:'tll y,.d mtJl. ~oit
C'(_jJ7IfVtlt.....v;U100!:C"!'!

ve:df.ic:tli.

:5)e!

m!lir;@~it,f"

d~ U!'~("i!!

~,p!~~

@',

~~!:! L-

rau't l!li

fli311',~

~,o ut i ,et. ~

(r.nexa A3)I:

'" ,Sie' aieg:e deqaj~:rea ,st.~,[\diz,iltl!Pe1tru

d~:iw_de

'fiJet ca;i[le se felh:IIS~t.e de b,

J! Se replt'ez:int,1 la,s(lat:1 (l~l~~.h:d=d, ~hurea 'C\l, pt:li,eaa, )ucru.h~1 de' ftloarM d'linid ~a["i, dl,~tt1il'~ D,'.;; 5epoatemd, l,a Il!ev,o,i~. (At_tie totqi

45

• Be veri!::ii ci~1 la" -IMlUei.:.kJll~:~~~. lC!irept Uil ,degi<!JjbH "

,! e~l>i.

mf~)

s'll!Cti~9

~,~ Ini

t~

di.n

·W
(:9 ]11all.

/11,

d.i.JIl

't~1

pl'€'1.I'ilmU UiH]i:r.ali~J
in

~lit"ubJhIJi Uflil!!]plr!f'!~p..F'1IlI'111r'llh;:!lrp,:}l

ph~H

.1'

Se iJl:ege dega ];:!,crea st :'lIndardiza Ui ,

,..1. ::'lji[Uh!llll ~I;il,

t~ t.lr!'l:h!:Ii,p
...

,!';~

tmLlJ1i. 'rullmentPMltm ~!"'poaJta 't"",,"!ll:i.r.a

j,

pi:"

la 'M~t~'lll

1it@J1:~r~
(IirI.eK:a,
.o'!'

(lOrpSPLI!'!z;i!I:l~
~ ~

re' di!lll!!!f!J.C!i unHU


!{;II, _-=,I~ '~.~
1 ••

1etl!d,!ili.
I[III!A,"r.:!!IiI.

sat!.

Ci,~, ".,·.1,..... ..... "'''111_:~ ._ ..;,,..~ l' .. -- ....... \,""',ILIIC',~ ,iI"1V I[ ::I!.'6 l), CI~ c-apa,c:lt tab~\!iI,5taJt.i col de ~ncJ!fit'~t'~. 'ColF~,;
~,IlII!l~II.~

biro SefQl~qte
~tru
.!:lint:

.. Se di.meru!·li"a;)reaili sau, ae vedflcl (daci, !I-'3, l~t oanst~iv>. :i:Mlt:l:mea

m:del'lfli fhil,c u,t;.iiJllllt i veliE:i ca:l:ie3 sp,be~. 901i ci.t.~['i]e

• ~. ve'rifilC",~ 1a .;1,,011 dll1J!t,,,,. ...ompjM~,~ct ilLm~::t ~]lb1t ..l111 ,dl'in U l!l!!t:ul1il.i; soruic1i-'ri I p .s1in,t(\ilf'>";it1i.:1igr~'ll ~ it~efo:rhii!'i) ~ e~.9i~Jt:lil' - ell ~1;
I~

d["""Pt1Jl~

d'@9!31j1,rii

:.-~.e..btB!

,-

rn

M~ ::: Nt ~l(til

!~ d1n,. ~2'~.~t9 se 1Jl,tll:1z:easl.pentru 'Ccm:si.,djfu"trx:l d u'it;ful rune se \lail"~~en"ai.11'!qa,wci!'!!... Ie ·ca ~w.:~~ OOI".ig~ ui :5lf;;.e (Ie 60'.
___ Se· allege 0 .gaut1ll d.e,~tnlie. ~ ~H 11_ 'ld'l!!gete!i.~h dliI'.! mlt'i~h!'

it....

capol

omt:.t'are

de.tIC· al. \.Inri e:x:tractor.

dtn.ca:Pltw

lIlu.ii..iIII:rbote~

_i '!Mid.

st~at1tiza,tl,

(~e~P;8):

pent.N aiaurantl
.

esle

(2.. ) 8

'verihc1li 1;1, .:.o.uu.:tn.!te,c~ (do:s:d~) . ~1 :i! cU:lri.le· sillt (~zil diilgr ~


Sa
"~lct~
!I" .~.!i:.

~'l!Ctli!m:!~ degajl:di1, 1. 'e de ,@'fiiDr.t:uri):

.. (NFI~'
~.

cul(t

",.Mt '"'M~l,"

F.' -,

extr,actoa:ri- r1'

S~.1.:a.

d.ii~
nRit'i

dirrms,iuni .

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!9,~:hv;i:II?Ii:.·,l. de pa~'i!ii!!~loot:li et ..pe '(MI "i penttu ,t'O'i!ectill:rN. f'!J!nd:ulm ~S :.i" I '2~·:0· il U!l!!U.! du f o.t"'~ 1~ In ..'U~] rS;~~.~ sedesf_.Oiilr'l 'Lntl'~~I ~ ,1.lnW,p;rincis-l ~~,iiit "~I ~~ -,m !!'~~~t -phnJ.;i,\i1 ("e~i ,d:iagr_~'1!; ode @f<.lrtllJd,). Pt'oi, ~t.~rM i~J \' i, '"urw:lp![1:r!ic1.pa~ - $;UfUb''~r~~!Ii 'f::!fect~t in ~dirnl In

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"'t1f~~, 1ip.lll - ~'!ilin.lb r!l~01ir.

C'U.Pru~l de IrMt,!!':ri.a t If! :~~. s~a[ "P!1. 1 iLUI.neMf!'SI ,!l:ibJ, b!.me ,mUf[['igti~. ~ r lid~:H 1e 1", II §~. L:1 . p.r'@;;!:imt.iJ! v;arri m:be ,d~'~>Q'hlhi poa i l:lii1." d Am'fIB !~l,eg~·[~~ m'l!tetia,l ~'l @![ tr~h,! '[9H:2lat:1Im,aor~~~li!!" ~:ri: C"!J,ht!fllob:gi.;J! .i'J!:i. semiJ. fabri ca:tll~ 'lJil, 1 i ~a, • j

~,n.ut_i

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Dad! :SI!!I'R.ifabricatl!.li~ ,d!in ~r... .g:e ,confecU anM:r.1 .,~~l !I'~i!lir ,.:t>e di_lrnlD'CI 'tr-elJuie ,c;oif.lat. cu dj~trul l:rlitedorl~ Sem1:fabd,c.ttdUi • • Cq~t.. M .poiI.te h~ II! ~iOlfia['"_prlQPri\l.~t,id

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di~n;IIt tiill ~ ,d1,lIJii!f:iiI:hmilor fUet;lelor

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3,.1. ••

VI!IUP'ICI\RD LA SO'I(.':'I1',I:R. 'COMpnsi A zoor ,URUBUEiU 1 S'BC!UIIDU

PILBT:'ATBI,

.. ,Be ve:riU,ci ~,ut'Ubul '~iIJ .oMl1..LU.ti\I..IU. ~., Solicit"ri,h~' sint de ,~+I(",ed. diag'nlifiB~e d~ eforturi. 'S 2.1). 'Dacl 'zona Hh,t,iliIII 'Ii'IU te~:jg'tl. -, lilt. fIlet. CUi dli,~t:['Ul inti!"r],o:r mai mllr'E", !ii 9~ f~'f,Etfl;le'V@rHh::area.

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,( Kdl)

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DBPllllT'IYMBA, OOIlB'f'R'D'CT"IVi ,,1' V',KIt'IPICH:'1 PI"~L,R ALB,ORUBULUJ B,BCOWDAR

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ca ~'z~ ~,t;ru, eIi.cut-ie' ~e' i,liusolu~iHfI

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• Se alege ~Jillf'1M :. ~, deh.nnrdlill ~t.andard~zaltl
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- 'IinITIIrnl dillJ!i' ,!pir'e

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privim p!"'eChat'e.J1 CU'.fse,i, ~~hgp'd'!ild,pa1! ~tru s::h,t_I.' 'Clil dotd ",",. ~ ,:i A6c" ,In ,Ca!f'e' se' ,pr,~, d'epJ',ga,IlN S',:t.. :dtanl ;(I ,,1Inlfluhn pdlilC,:ii~,1~1 a 'Ql!)ui ,:!~r" LtI1g1m!i1 nOnlirri n cursei .urubuJm, l'r.incipaJ :;i: :ti C"Phd :s~'mdar, t~~IIJ' ~'ldlD I!1tld'tond ams,lti!!!!i1ilr .
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.. 'In

desmoiL de _..p1.~.1~

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d

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fin

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Go

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~J:'Djiiln~nalj(.M~~;a AI2', fiO. ~ll2'.4-) 'pirg1tii ,sir1'phl' (U.g. ,4.1.",;'

Ac"tion<ilr~a Be poate 'face direct.

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LA SCftR:Ji. ABJ.S"I"RHDLUI ACT'J O:•. AR'R

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,'o['ta del'v,olt.tl de 1m 'miln,ei'tor ''I\!I['"lt,lil:i In fmet·i,el de ,oaw;)i\b~fh:id,.pO'dt'ia ~'!J\I .d@ d1sPCIIt.i.tiv ~i alteWe. in .gene/t"lll. in, ca~aulft., 58 r~ pentru F., v-lori de '00+ 15~n H. 9bs:eM,ti,·@: ,Pen :ru di,spor:ithr@:te de' luen:1 ,cant sefol',osf!sc :foolirt!;"frf"-e\il'ent. cti,ooal'eB trebui,e s:ipoa!tSfi f'lcutAi CiiLI tor-teo Iru.a ni wei (~Use poa:t:e, (f,e m_f ~~ ~); dlJpil CUTI' in .iUliumi:t si tL~,~i:ii .lil,peci ..OIi ~,e (de ,e.~J'Ui i i:ndo:~,[',ea,unoI:' ,p'l"ofi ~~ peA' .p,nt_.hat'1' toria de a;c$l~le ~bl!' t:i ,.j m.d t nd iMr.lPt'~na,ct:i:unpa ,fIim.Jlt::IJI'llJlia dai 98U nRri

F.,

It1 IlMICitOt;l.
Dacl, thdcal'.

rr'e~!Jj~ti pt;~, ru~,¢ in ~ :P'O!r dil ,oeleh1t@ dimenshmi, ,mliU til ~~pm'"t rul se(lli)at@ fo~ os:i, s@'Ja, in~ oe:u;i.. rea2!~l axial cua ~UIlec'aJt:'e ron ~iU'lrull'l'B'llt ru h-e;r;a[[\~fI1IJ:lt lIi'ld, Iirlic~,). S VOl: 'lolos:i d)Qii ~i'tol"i saru sI!!!V,Il, c1lt1ita fI' aU:1J :ROlu\ie

R:.

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dp'

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Di,8II1i!ett'ul 91.II:H
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2:2,9

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'0

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Mini

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(d' - diame;trul @idedcrr~,~
ESt'e oporb.m e<\ in :z:mruili '~~iuim
,. ~n.

D :po.ate U egan ,~Dc pi!:eci:!l!at la.prci~ectilteB '~:l'!d pentru reata 'de al:icnet 'll'I:Rhrt::i, :p.e ~u:rut:lII:d :S~!L"
fil,etu~,ui ell!tenor

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se 'i!i!1'@9 din standard ~1 ale' c«aale,IDot.

dJ:~blni:~,e.

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i ria 1UI'r'P;) per:iF'o1;

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[J~~tI:'UJ

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pir!l.oo:li.pa)" Up~-rgh~ei ru el :i.'~t~te ,eapJIl D~., 'Pst,ru. e:rmrn;ldh~ t,eleg"".:i.ce cu.


ill:

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,S;e pot 'fo!'o:11 lP;rofi,),e dt'eptunghiul~r8 p:t'ofilll.IiID dt"P-ptunghiulat' cu din:t.ji &v:l,md fu'!!!.",""-U,~

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• Dintu CI!I "of 1), tri,1iIJiIbiulH' ('f:iQl. 4",,4) perni!t ,_"tlW\ll'[,_ ltl,tt'~~ ,Dtnpr ,aeM+ __,tru :5chiirbl'l:n ,se'mI,l!llm de :t:O''!:'='t:i'iI!J" .in.tf'egul di,sPMit:iv t'ntbu1'I!SCQI '. pe '~pu.1. :p.n41ldWl.. r'ot.i'lt '00 180" "i &:po:ireintt'OOus pe ,urub. • h'llfH'ul dt!eptmghiula;r' pemte 0, i!'fiI'venarfll mai, [",!J.p'idl IJi s~'1!J,lw. de t"Otatl,_ '-:'"in. MJb.~-ea cUehE"bil'!1li :in, pod'ti.a 5i_i:'!l!tr"icl.blt;lli.~I~o~~d au are, ,ai eUchet,uJ!u1 .ri,~afIt,ed :$:i 'f'IJrITIa ,:si tdci ,8 d .i'ch~tuhliVI!J·['ti<cal.fa~' ,~,fbUili.~,t lueru.

In c>8le ,ce unTl'!ea~3 se :p'r,e'Zlntl in ~taHu ~~tungM'!ida:rj_ cul'l'<m.cu i par;eil,e~e Uig!.f.l).., ~rirIe d.@dDt ur' i .
)I;

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.u.

Be!

aleg:e di-amtlt-rnI interiqr


,a c~rind@

icient

de, marepentr-u

81 ,d_an,tud:i D~. Acestava t;t'ebW. II. fie asaifbla.'re:a 't"oa,U.-,!:.K:"W:I ,d! pentru II U:&9B".

" .. ten;t{!! corpul ui [i),til,. Se Ir~: s D:-..IWI; ,. 1,.5 . D" pi]m!·tru u:ald)~ lr U e eu Dj! ~:d' •.. (1,'O'+15}mm, pen,t,ru, as.,tldle

:~,i
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.. ,::ie' alege ;Z' - .numrul die, ,dil'lt,i aifi~:ii. ,Be, E'~ :z • I: d1m;tl 1!II1t,n, '-,. ,( '0 .1'In iat"pentru ,,V.)o 70 mil", se' ,JI'QI!t.e t\g, z-I'O,. Di.. tt'l.:!!l, mediu. .1 dlulit,vU: ~:l:i. D.,. flU .se ~_,.te mcl~ow e:51'~e~odl'e, 8·. 'levine ,1iS,Wit. pdmei., ,.leger:! =:ieute'.

iii!

~. Se .cal,cu.l.ea~1 dia1iOOt:rul ",xteirio;r, .0". :[:n i.pe,t.. 0" 25 P'. '-wdiE'J P,. ,~te :p3Sul 'pe ce!fcu.m, l@'xt,edIOi[':i D'-··"- D'''' '.-;1,"
•'
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12

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• sa, calcul,eul inllt~


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J#

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rgt;1il de el ioChet I.. ,C!IIOfttactWi w


t.&Oi..t~NM4

ft.~".

.. Mn sotic.itaf.iA, &' ,In i[pOten .~dt~ s~.r QH~ I. ca:puldlb'tll!lhlii" result. ~


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Jjl_ r~f,edntl .lriIl'~lmea ,errecti'll de' cmtact {s•.• ead rue de nCOl'dare. t_Uur!"~' di,nt,'e,hl' i de, 'cli,chet t:rebW.e, d £1,8 t-«tit h! 'eap. ,pentl'U., mI IiOlU ,c:lid'1etul in, ~sa, ~,:i.,'!,I'I,~ .' G.... _ :8(It120 H!i',a: pentru ~,e:Vo,'~el sag font.';

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f

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t:

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POl -f'Q["t·,a ,de 'plra'tt"~l~1"e; ,"
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In

sl'!lMt. 1- montajl, f'orna ,:1 dim:m:simHe :~1i!91 tofiill 'l1tJ ,iun, 31st. de, 1"!!!9:iarfl' a
-

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.,

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mid inc,tt afU.A!m'N~1 ,jnotLi~ dillltr~ Spill",e .~j "'''!l'i~ilcll Imi~M~al relati.vll .'Ut"lJb-pii.IiIUt~l. 11_1 aT U C'.a fileUI:r:t'111 si ~@rfli;;1tlji i:f!!Z;,P diu,pipr'e5air-p:al piluliJ.:I'i tn...,orp. ~~;'

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s,tflnger-e' 5UP'~

tLl,e:t'OlW int!l!!iti2l1'. 1[12]. 'T'oler'am't,e.i,e fi,lertelot' se vot ,ooil'el. IPOi ,cu aeeste, def"ornti.1. 5e .tnrgetot..oatl ~cpFi. <it soUe:i,.,tlri.n. ,aMemdMlte de, .'.t..jo] ,cu at.rl.....

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