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Topic 7 & 8

05 March 2011

13:40

Allows the cartilage to absorb shock and not break but also to allow movement of the bone by being flexible

BONE

also to allow movement of the bone by being flexible BONE TENDON The tendon does not

TENDON

to allow movement of the bone by being flexible BONE TENDON The tendon does not stretch

The tendon does not stretch meaning that the muscle works on the bone and not on stretching the tendon.

-

- Inelastic

- Muscle to the bone

Strong

the tendon. - - Inelastic - Muscle to the bone Strong CARTILAGE - Hard - Flexible

CARTILAGE

- Hard

- Flexible

- Muscle to the bone Strong CARTILAGE - Hard - Flexible LIGAMENTS - - SYNOVIAL FLUID
- Muscle to the bone Strong CARTILAGE - Hard - Flexible LIGAMENTS - - SYNOVIAL FLUID
- Muscle to the bone Strong CARTILAGE - Hard - Flexible LIGAMENTS - - SYNOVIAL FLUID
- Muscle to the bone Strong CARTILAGE - Hard - Flexible LIGAMENTS - - SYNOVIAL FLUID

LIGAMENTS

-

-

SYNOVIAL FLUID

-

-

The ligaments stretch to allow the bone to move and keep the bones in place

to allow the bone to move and keep the bones in place Elastic Bone to bone

Elastic

Bone to bone

Lubricant

Absorbs shock

bones in place Elastic Bone to bone Lubricant Absorbs shock SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE Muscle movement Muscle move

SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

Muscle movement

Muscle move in

and pull on a bone.

The muscle that

muscle The corresponding muscle is called the

muscle that muscle The corresponding muscle is called the CONTRACTS pairs around joints because muscles are
CONTRACTS
CONTRACTS

pairs around joints because muscles are only able to contract

around joints because muscles are only able to contract of the muscle is called the EXSTENSOR
around joints because muscles are only able to contract of the muscle is called the EXSTENSOR

of the muscle is called the EXSTENSOR

to cause the EXTENSION

FLEXOR
FLEXOR

muscle

Respiration

THERE ARE 4 STAGES:

- Glycolysis

- The Link Reaction

- The Krebs Cycle

- The Electron Transport Chain

GYLCOLYSIS

GLYCOLYSIS

The splitting of glucose

Glucose (6-Carbon)

2 x ATP

2x ADP

2 x 3 Carbon Intermediate Compound

(6-Carbon) 2 x ATP 2x ADP 2 x 3 Carbon Intermediate Compound 2 x NAD 2

2 x NAD

2 x Reduced NAD

4 x ADP + P i

4 x ATP

The glucose is phosphorylated to make it

more reactive as glucose is highly unreactive

This ATP is formed by substrate level phosphorylation this is

because glucose is at a higher energy level than it's substrate. The energy given off allows ATP to form

Unit 5 Page 1

The LINK REACTION 2 x Reduced NAD 4 x ATP 2 x Pyruvate (3-Carbon) NAD

The LINK REACTION

2 x Reduced NAD

The LINK REACTION 2 x Reduced NAD 4 x ATP 2 x Pyruvate (3-Carbon) NAD CO

4 x ATP

2 x Pyruvate (3-Carbon) NAD CO 2 Reduced NAD
2 x Pyruvate (3-Carbon)
NAD
CO 2
Reduced NAD

to form

When hydrogen is releases it is taken up by the co-enzyme NAD which is then carried by the electron transport chain

The KREBS CYCLE

2 x Acetyl Co-enzyme A (2-Carbon) The removal of CO 2 is decarboxylation 6 carbon
2 x Acetyl Co-enzyme A (2-Carbon)
The removal of CO 2 is decarboxylation
6 carbon compound
4C compound
CO 2
FAD
NAD
2 x NAD
2
x Reduced NAD
Reduced FAD
5C
2 x Reduced NAD
The NAD is formed when the
compound is dehydrogenated and the
NAD accepts the H atom or ion
compound
CO 2
ATP

ATP is formed by oxidative phosphorylation

The Electron Transport Chain

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Reduced NAD/FAD carry H atoms to transport chain on the inner

mitochondrial membrane

The H + and electron is released, the e - is accepted by the electron carrier molecule and passed in a series of redox reactions

The H + ions move across the membrane creating a high concentration of H + ions. The energy is provided from the redox reactions

The H

This stimulates the activation of the ATPase enzyme to catalyse the production of ATP

+ ions diffuse down the electrochemical gradient

Unit 5 Page 2