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TM 5-811-6




3-1. Introduction planning criteria on which the technical and econom-

a. Definition. The cycle of a steam power plant is ic feasibility is based. The sizes and characteristics
the group of interconnected major equipment com- of the loads to be supplied by the power plant, in-
ponents selected for optimum thermodynamic char- cluding peak loads, load factors, allowances for fu-
acteristics, including pressure, temperatures and ca- ture growth, the requirements for reliability, and
pacities, and integrated into a practical arrange- the criteria for fuel, energy, and general economy,
ment to serve the electrical (and sometimes by-prod- will be determined or verified by the designer and
uct steam) requirements of a particular project. Se- approved by appropriate authority in advance of the
lection of the optimum cycle depends upon plant final design for the project.
size, cost of money, fuel costs, non-fuel operating b. Selection of cycle conditions. Choice of steam
costs, and maintenance costs. conditions, types and sizes of steam generators and
b. Steam conditions. Typical cycles for the prob- turbine prime movers, and extraction pressures de-
able size and type of steam power plants at Army es- pend on the function or purpose for which the plant
tablishments will be supplied by superheated steam is intended. Generally, these basic criteria should
generated at pressures and temperatures between have already been established in the technical and
600 psig (at 750 to 850°F) and 1450 psig (at 850 to economic feasibility studies, but if all such criteria
950º F). Reheat is never offered for turbine genera- have not been so established, the designer will select
tors of less than 50 MW and, hence, is not applicable the parameters to suit the intended use.
in this manual. c. Coeneration plants. Back pressure and con-
c. Steam turbine prime movers. The steam tur- trolled extraction/condensing cycles are attractive
bine prime mover, for rated capacity limits of 5000 and applicable to a cogeneration plant, which is de-
kW to 30,000 kW, will be a multi-stage, multi-valve fined as a power plant simultaneously supplying
unit, either back pressure or condensing. Smaller either electric power or mechanical energy and heat
turbines, especially under 1000 kW rated capacity, energy (para. 3-4).
may be single stage units because of lower first cost d. Simple condensing cycles. Straight condensing
and simplicity. Single stage turbines, either back cycles, or condensing units with uncontrolled ex-
pressure or condensing, are not equipped with ex- tractions are applicable to plants or situations
traction openings. where security or isolation from public utility power
d. Back pressure turbines. Back pressure turbine supply is more important than lowest power cost.
units usually exhaust at pressures between 250 psig Because of their higher heat rates and operating
and 15 psig with one or two controlled or uncon- costs per unit output, it is not likely that simple con-
trolled extractions. However, there is a significant densing cycles will be economically justified for a
price difference between controlled and uncontrolled military power plant application as compared with
extraction turbines, the former being more expen- that associated with public utility ‘purchased power
sive. Controlled extraction is normally applied costs. A schematic diagram of a simple condensing
where the bleed steam is exported to process or dis- cycle is shown on Figure 3-1.
trict heat users.
e. Condensing turbines. Condensing units ex- 3-3. Steam power cycle economy
haust at pressures between 1 inch of mercury abso- a. Introduction. Maximum overall efficiency and
lute (Hga) and 5 inches Hga, with up to two con- economy of a steam power cycle are the principal de-
trolled, or up to five uncontrolled, extractions. sign criteria for plant selection and design. In gener-
al, better efficiency, or lower heat rate, is accom-
3-2. Plant function and purpose panied by higher costs for initial investment, opera-
a. Integration into general planning. General tion and maintenance. However, more efficient
plant design parameters will be in accordance with cycles are more complex and may be less reliable per
overall criteria established in the feasibility study or unit of capacity or investment cost than simpler and

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Figure 3-1. Typical straight condensing cycle.

less efficient cycles. Efficiency characteristics can pressed in terms of heat rate, which is total thermal
be listed as follows: input to the cycle divided by the electrical output of
(1) Higher steam pressures and temperatures the units. Units are Btu/kWh.
contribute to better, or lower, heat rates. (1) Conversion to cycle efficiency, as the ratio of
(2) For condensing cycles, lower back pressures output to input energy, may be made by dividing
increase efficiency except that for each particular the heat content of one kWh, equivalent to 3412.14
turbine unit there is a crossover point where lower- Btu by the heat rate, as defined. Efficiencies are sel-
ing back pressure further will commence to decrease dom used to express overall plant or cycle perform-
efficiency because the incremental exhaust loss ef- ance, although efficiencies of individual compo-
fect is greater than the incremental increase in avail- nents, such as pumps or steam generators, are com-
able energy. monly used.
(3) The use of stage or regenerative feedwater (2) Power cycle economy for particular plants or
cycles improves heat rates, with greater improve- stations is sometimes expressed in terms of pounds
ment corresponding to larger numbers of such heat- of steam per kilowatt hour, but such a parameter is
ers. In a regenerative cycle, there is also a thermody- not readily comparable to other plants or cycles and
namic crossover point where lowering of an extrac- omits steam generator efficiency.
tion pressure causes less steam to flow through the (3) For mechanical drive turbines, heat rates
extraction piping to the feedwater heaters, reducing are sometimes expressed in Btu per hp-hour, exclud-
the feedwater temperature. There is also a limit to ing losses for the driven machine. One horsepower
the number of stages of extraction/feedwater heat- hour is equivalent to 2544.43 Btu.
ing which may be economically added to the cycle. c. Heat rate applications. In relation to steam
This occurs when additional cycle efficiency no long- power plant cycles, several types or definitions of
er justifies the increased capital cost. heat rates are used:
(4) Larger turbine generator units are generally (1) The turbine heat rate for a regenerative tur-
more efficient that smaller units. bine is defined as the heat consumption of the tur-
(5) Multi-stage and multi-valve turbines are bine in terms of “heat energy in steam” supplied by
more economical than single stage or single valve the steam generator, minus the “heat in the feedwa-
machines. ter” as warmed by turbine extraction, divided by
(6) Steam generators of more elaborate design, the electrical output at the generator terminals.
or with heat saving accessory equipment are more This definition includes mechanical and electrical
efficient. losses of the generator and turbine auxiliary sys-
b. Heat rate units and definitions. The economy tems, but excludes boiler inefficiencies and pumping
or efficiency of a steam power plant cycle is ex- losses and loads. The turbine heat rate is useful for

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performing engineering and economic comparisons plant lighting, air conditioning and heating, general
of various turbine designs. Table 3-1 provides theo- water supply, startup and shutdown losses, fuel de-
retical turbine steam rates for typical steam throttle terioration losses, and related items. The gradual
conditions. Actual steam rates are obtained by di- and inevitable deterioration of equipment, and fail-
viding the theoretical steam rate by the turbine effi- ure to operate at optimum conditions, are reflected
ciency. Typical turbine efficiencies are provided on in plant operating heat rate data.
Figure 3-2. d. Plant economy calculations. Calculations, esti-
mates, and predictions of steam plant performance
ASR = will allow for all normal and expected losses and
where: ASR = actual steam rate (lb/kWh) loads and should, therefore, reflect predictions of
TSR = theoretical steam rate (l/kWh) monthly or annual net operating heat rates and
nt = turbine efficiency costs. Electric and district heating distribution
Turbine heat rate can be obtained by multiplying losses are not usually charged to the power plant
the actual steam rate by the enthalpy change across but should be recognized and allowed for in capacity
the turbine (throttle enthalpy - extraction or ex- and cost analyses. The designer is required to devel-
haust enthalpy). op and optimize a cycle heat balance during the con-
Ct = ASR(hl – h2) ceptual or preliminary design phase of the project.
where = turbine heat rate (Btu/kWh) The heat balance depicts, on a simplified flow dia-
ASR = actual steam rate lb/kWh) gram of the cycle, all significant fluid mass flow
h1 = throttle enthalpy rates, fluid pressures and temperatures, fluid en-
h1 = extraction or exhaust enthalpy thalpies, electric power output, and calculated cycle
heat rates based on these factors. A heat balance is
TSR usually developed for various increments of plant
load (i.e., 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and VWO (valves
wide open)). Computer programs have been devel-
oped which can quickly optimize a particular cycle
heat rate using iterative heat balance calculations.
Use of such a program should be considered.
e. Cogeneration performance. There is no gener-
’ ally accepted method of defining the energy effi-
ciency or heat rates of cogeneration cycles. Various
methods are used, and any rational method is valid.
The difference in value (per Btu) between prime en-
ergy (i.e., electric power) and secondary or low level
energy (heating steam) should be recognized. Refer
to discussion of cogeneration cycles below.
3-4. Cogeneration cycles
Figure 3-2. Turbine efficiencies vs. capacity.
a. Definition. In steam power plant practice, co-
generation normally describes an arrangement
(2) Plant heat rates include inefficiencies and whereby high pressure steam is passed through a
losses external to the turbine generator, principally turbine prime mover to produce electrical power,
the inefficiencies of the steam generator and piping and thence from the turbine exhaust (or extraction)
systems; cycle auxiliary losses inherent in power re- opening to a lower pressure steam (or heat) distribu-
quired for pumps and fans; and related energy uses tion system for general heating, refrigeration, or
such as for soot blowing, air compression, and simi- process use.
lar services. b. Common medium. Steam power cycles are par-
(3) Both turbine and plant heat rates, as above, ticularly applicable to cogeneration situations be-
are usually based on calculations of cycle perform- cause the actual cycle medium, steam, is also a con-
ance at specified steady state loads and well defined, venient medium for area distribution of heat.
optimum operating conditions. Such heat rates are (1) The choice of the steam distribution pres-
seldom achieved in practice except under controlled sure will be a balance between the costs of distribu-
or test conditions. tion which are slightly lower at high pressure, and
(4) Plant operating heat rates are long term the gain in electrical power output by selection of a
average actual heat rates and include other such lower turbine exhaust or extraction pressure.
losses and energy uses as non-cycle auxiliaries, (2) Often the early selection of a relatively low

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steam distribution pressure is easily accommodated (1) Back pressure cycle. In this type of plant,
in the design of distribution and utilization systems, the entire flow to the turbine is exhausted (or ex-
whereas the hasty selection of a relatively high tracted) for heating steam use. This cycle is the
steam distribution pressure may not be recognized more effective for heat economy and for relatively
as a distinct economic penalty on the steam power lower cost of turbine equipment, because the prime
plant cycle. mover is smaller and simpler and requires no con-
(3) Hot water heat distribution may also be ap- denser and circulating water system. Back pressure
plicable as a district heating medium with the hot turbine generators are limited in electrical output by
water being cooled in the utilization equipment and the amount of exhaust steam required by the heat
returned to the power plant for reheating in a heat load and are often governed by the exhaust steam
exchange with exhaust (or extraction) steam. load. They, therefore, usually operate in electrical
c. Relative economy. When the exhaust (or ex- parallel with other generators.
traction) steam from a cogeneration plant can be (2) Extraction-condensing cycles. Where the
utilized for heating, refrigeration, or process pur- electrical demand does not correspond to the heat
poses in reasonable phase with the required electric demand, or where the electrical load must be carried
power load, there is a marked economy of fuel ener- at times of very low (or zero) heat demand, then con-
gy because the major condensing loss of the conven- densing-controlled extraction steam turbine prime
tional steam power plant (Rankine) cycle is avoided. movers as shown in Figure 3-3 may be applicable.
If a good balance can be attained, up to 75 percent of Such a turbine is arranged to carry a specified elec-
the total fuel energy can be utilized as compared trical capacity either by a simple condensing cycle
with about 40 percent for the best and largest Ran- or a combination of extraction and condensing.
kine cycle plants and about 25 to 30 percent for While very flexible, the extraction machine is rela-
small Rankine cycle systems. tively complicated, requires complete condensing
d. Cycle types. The two major steam power cogen- and heat rejection equipment, and must always pass
eration cycles, which may be combined in the same a critical minimum flow of steam to its condenser to
plant or establishment, are: cool the low pressure buckets.

NAVFAC DM3 Figure 3-3. Typical condensing-controlled extinction cycle.

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e. Criteria for cogeneration. For minimum eco- protection against internal corrosion.
nomic feasibility, cogeneration cycles will meet the c. Special considerations. Where the special cir-
following criteria: cumstances of the establishment to be served are
(1) Load balance. There should be a reasonably significant factors in power cycle selection, the fol-
balanced relationship between the peak and normal lowing considerations may apply:
requirements for electric power and heat. The (1) Electrical isolation. Where the proposed
peak/normal ratio should not exceed 2:1. plant is not to be interconnected with any local elec-
(2) Load coincidence. There should be a fairly tric utility service, the selection of a simpler, lower
high coincidence, not less than 70%, of time and pressure plant may be indicated for easier operation
quantity demands for electrical power and heat. and better reliability y.
(3) Size. While there is no absolute minimum (2) Geographic isolation. Plants to be installed
size of steam power plant which can be built for co- at great distances from sources of spare parts, main-
generation, a conventional steam (cogeneration) tenance services, and operating supplies may re-
plant will be practical and economical only above quire special consideration of simplified cycles, re-
some minimum size or capacity, below which other dundant capacity and equipment, and highest prac-
types of cogeneration, diesel or gas turbine become tical reliability. Special maintenance tools and facil-
more economical and convenient. ities may be required, the cost of which would be af-
(4) Distribution medium. Any cogeneration fected by the basic cycle design.
plant will be more effective and economical if the (3) Weather conditions. Plants to be installed
heat distribution medium is chosen at the lowest under extreme weather conditions will require spe-
possible steam pressure or lowest possible hot water cial consideration of weather protection, reliability,
temperature. The power energy delivered by the tur- and redundancy. Heat rejection requires special de-
bine is highest when the exhaust steam pressure is sign consideration in either very hot or very cold
lowest. Substantial cycle improvement can be made weather conditions. For arctic weather conditions,
by selecting an exhaust steam pressure of 40 psig circulating hot water for the heat distribution medi-
rather than 125 psig, for example. Hot water heat um has many advantages over steam, and the use of
distribution will also be considered where practical an antifreeze solution in lieu of pure water as a dis-
or convenient, because hot water temperatures of tribution medium should receive consideration.
200 to 240º F can be delivered with exhaust steam
pressure as low as 20 to 50 psig. The balance be- 3-6. Cycle equipment
tween distribution system and heat exchanger a. General requirements. In addition to the prime
costs, and power cycle effectiveness will be opti- movers, alternators, and steam generators, a com-
mized. plete power plant cycle includes a number of second-
ary elements which affect the economy and perform-
3-5. Selection of cycle steam conditions ance of the plant.
a. Balanced costs and economy. For a new or iso- b. Major equipment. Refer to other parts of this
lated plant, the choice of initial steam conditions manual for detailed information on steam turbine
should be a balance between enhanced operating driven electric generators and steam generators.
economy at higher pressures and temperatures, and c. Secondary cycle elements. Other equipment
generally lower first costs and less difficult opera- items affecting cycle performance, but subordinate
tion at lower pressures and temperatures. Realistic to the steam generators and turbine generators, are
projections of future fuel costs may tend to justify also described in other parts of this chapter.
higher pressures and temperatures, but such factors
as lower availability y, higher maintenance costs, 3-7. Steam power plant arrangement
more difficult operation, and more elaborate water a. General. Small units utilize the transverse ar-
treatment will also be considered. rangement in the turbine generator bay while the
b. Extension of existing plant. Where a new larger utility units are very long and require end-to-
steam power plant is to be installed near an existing end arrangement of the turbine generators.
steam power or steam generation plant, careful con- b. Typical small plants. Figures 3-4 and 3-6 show
sideration will be given to extending or paralleling typical transverse small plant arrangements. Small
the existing initial steam generating conditions. If units less than 5000 kW may have the condensers at
existing steam generators are simply not usable in the same level as the turbine generator for economy
the new plant cycle, it may be appropriate to retire as shown in Figure 3-4. Figure 3-6 indicates the
them or to retain them for emergency or standby critical turbine room bay dimensions and the basic
service only. If boilers are retained for standby serv- overall dimensions for the small power plants shown
ice only, steps will be taken in the project design for in Figure 3-5.
TM 5-811-6

U. S. Army Corps of Engineers

Figure 3-4. Typical small 2-unit powerplant “A”.

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3-8. Steam generator conventional tors for a steam power plant can be classified by
types and characteristics type of fuel, by unit size, and by final steam condi-
a. Introduction. Number, size, and outlet steam- tion. Units can also be classified by type of draft, by
ing conditions of the steam generators will be as de- method of assembly, by degree of weather protec-
termined in planning studies and confirmed in the fi- tion and by load factor application.
nal project criteria prior to plant design activities. (1) Fuel, general. Type of fuel has a major im-
Note general criteria given in Section I of this chap pact on the general plant design in addition to the
ter under discussion of typical plants and cycles. steam generator. Fuel selection may be dictated by
b. Types and classes. Conventional steam genera- considerations of policy and external circumstances




U S . Army Corps of Engineers

Figure 3-6. Critical turbine room bay and power plant “B” dimensions.

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unrelated to plant costs, convenience, or location. stoker and grate selection, performance, and main-
Units designed for solid fuels (coal, lignite, or solid tenance. For pulverized coal firing, grindability is a
waste) or designed for combinations of solid, liquid, major consideration, and moisture content before
and gaseous fuel are larger and more complex than and after local preparation must be considered. Coal
units designed for fuel oil or fuel gas only. burning equipment and related parts of the steam
(2) Fuel coal. The qualities or characteristics of generator will be specified to match the specific
particular coal fuels having significant impact on characteristics of a preselected coal fuel as well as
steam generator design and arrangement are: heat- they can be determined at the time of design.
ing value, ash content, ash fusion temperature, fri- (3) Unit sizes. Larger numbers of smaller steam
ability, grindability, moisture, and volatile content generators will tend to improve plant reliability and
as shown in Table 3-2. For spreader stoker firing, flexibility for maintenance. Smaller numbers of larg-
the size, gradation, or mixture of particle sizes affect er steam generators will result in lower first costs
Table 3-2. Fuel Characteristcs.
Characteristic Effects


Heat balance.

Handling and efficiency loss.

Ignition and theoretical air.
Freight, storage, handling, air pollution.
Slagging, allowable heat release,
allowable furnace exit gas temperature.
Heat balance, fuel cost.
Handling and storage.
Crushing and pulverizing.
Crushing , segregation, and spreading
over fuel bed.
Allowable temp. of metal contacting
flue gas; removal from flue gas.


Heat balance.
Fuel cost.
Preheating, pumping, firing.
Pumping and metering.
Vapor locking of pump suction.
Heat balance, fuel cost.
Allowable temp. of metal contacting
flue gas; removal from flue gas.


Heat balance.
Pressure, f i r i n g , f u e l c o s t .
Heat balance, fuel cost.


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per unit of capacity and may permit the use of de- building construction costs. Aesthetic, environmen-
sign features and arrangements not available on tal, or weather conditions may require indoor instal-
smaller units. Larger units are inherently more effi- lation, although outdoors units have been used SUC-
cient, and will normally have more efficient draft cessfully in a variety of cold or otherwise hostile cli-
fans, better steam temperature control, and better mates. In climates subject to cold weather, 30 “F. for
control of steam solids. 7 continuous days, outdoor units will require electri-
(4) Final steam conditions. Desired pressure cally or steam traced piping and appurtenances to
and temperature of the superheater outlet steam prevent freezing. The firing aisle will be enclosed
(and to a lesser extent feedwater temperature) will either as part of the main power plant building or as
have a marked effect on the design and cost of a a separate weather protected enclosure; and the
steam generator. The higher the pressure the heav- ends of the steam drum and retractable soot blowers
ier the pressure parts, and the higher the steam tem- will be enclosed and heated for operator convenience
perature the greater the superheater surface area and maintenance.
and the more costly the tube material. In addition to (8) Load factor application. As with all parts of
this, however, boiler natural circulation problems in- the plant cycle, the load factor on which the steam
crease with higher pressures because the densities generator is to be operated affects design and cost
of the saturated water and steam approach each oth- factors. Units with load factors exceeding 50% will
er. In consequence, higher pressure boilers require be selected and designed for relatively higher effi-
more height and generally are of different design ciencies, and more conservative parameters for fur-
than boilers of 200 psig and less as used for general nace volume, heat transfer surface, and numbers
space heating and process application. and types of auxiliaries. Plants with load factors
(5) Type of draft. less than 50% will be served by relatively less ex-
(a) Balanced draft. Steam generators for elec- pensive, smaller and less durable equipment.
tric generating stations are usually of the so called
“balanced draft” type with both forced and induced
draft fans. This type of draft system uses one or 3-9. Other steam generator characteris-
more forced draft fans to supply combustion air un- tics
der pressure to the burners (or under the grate) and a. Water tube and waterwell design. Power plant
one or more induced draft fans to carry the hot com- boilers will be of the water welled or water cooled
bustion gases from the furnace to the atmosphere; a furnace types, in which the entire interior surface of
slightly negative pressure is maintained in the fur- the furnace is lined with steam generating heating
nace by the induced draft fans so that any gas leak- surface in the form of closely spaced tubes usually
age will be into rather than out of the furnace. Nat- all welded together in a gas tight enclosure.
ural draft will be utilized to take care of the chimney b. Superheated steam. Depending on manufac-
or stack resistance while the remainder of the draft turer’s design some power boilers are designed to
friction from the furnace to the chimney entrance is deliver superheated steam because of the require-
handled by the induced draft fans. ments of the steam power cycle. A certain portion of
(b) Choice of draft. Except for special cases the total boiler heating surface is arranged to add
such as for an overseas power plant in low cost fuel superheat energy to the steam flow. In superheater
areas, balanced draft, steam generators will be spec- design, a balance of radiant and convective super-
ified for steam electric generating stations. heat surfaces will provide a reasonable superheat
(6) Method of assembly. A major division of characteristic. With high ‘pressure - high temper-
steam generators is made between packaged or fac- ature turbine generators, it is usually desirable to
tory assembled units and larger field erected units. provide superheat controls to obtain a flat charac-
Factory assembled units are usually designed for teristic down to at least 50 to 60 percent of load.
convenient shipment by railroad or motor truck, This is done by installing excess superheat surface
complete with pressure parts, supporting structure, and then attemperating by means of spray water at
and enclosure in one or a few assemblies. These the higher loads. In some instances, boilers are de-
units are characteristically bottom supported, while signed to obtain superheat control by means of tilt-
the larger and more complex power steam gener- ing burners which change the heat absorption pat-
ators are field erected, usually top supported. tern in the steam generator, although supplemen-
(7) Degree of weather protection. For all types tary attemperation is also provided with such a con-
and sizes of steam generators, a choice must be trol system.
made between indoor, outdoor and semi-outdoor in- c. Balanced heating surface and volumetric de-
stallation. An outdoor installation is usually less ex- sign parameters. Steam generator design requires
pensive in first cost which permits a reduced general adequate and reasonable amounts of heating surface

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and furnace volume for acceptable performance and steam header system may be more reliable and more
longevity. economical than unit operation. Where a group of
(1) Evaporative heating surface. For its rated steam turbine prime movers of different types; i.e.,
capacity output, an adequate total of evaporative or one back pressure unit plus one condensing/extrac-
steam generating heat transfer surface is required, tion unit are installed together, overall economy can
which is usually a combination of furnace wall ra- be enhanced by a header (or parallel) boiler arrange-
diant surface and boiler convection surface. Bal- ment.
anced design will provide adequate but not exces-
sive heat flux through such surfaces to insure effec- 3-10. Steam generator special types
tive circulation, steam generation and efficiency. a. Circulation. Water tube boilers will be specified
(2) Superheater surface. For the required heat to be of natural circulation. The exception to this
transfer, temperature control and protection of met- rule is for wasteheat boilers which frequently are a . .
al parts, the superheater must be designed for a bal- special type of extended surface heat exchanger de-
ance between total surface, total steam flow area, signed for forced circulation.
and relative exposure to radiant convection heat b. Fludized bed combustion. The fluidized bed
sources. Superheaters may be of the drainable or boiler has the ability to produce steam in an environ-
non-drainable types. Non-drainable types offer cer- mentally accepted manner in controlling the stack
tain advantages of cost, simplicity, and arrange- emission of sulfur oxides by absorption of sulfur in
ment, but are vulnerable to damage on startup. the fuel bed as well as nitrogen oxides because of its
Therefore, units requiring frequent cycles of shut- relatively low fire box temperature. The fluidized
down and startup operations should be considered bed boiler is a viable alternative to a spreader stoker
for fully drainable superheaters. With some boiler unit. A fluidized bed steam generator consists of a
designs this may not be possible. fluidized bed combustor with a more or less conven-
(3) Furnace volume. For a given steam gener- tional steam generator which includes radiant and
ator capacity rating, a larger furnace provides lower convection boiler heat transfer surfaces plus heat re-
furnace temperatures, less probability of hot spots, covery equipment, draft fans, and the usual array of
and a lower heat flux through the larger furnace wall steam generator auxiliaries. A typical fluidized bed
surface. Flame impingement and slagging, partic- boiler is shown in Figure 3-7.
ularly with pulverized coal fuel, can be controlled or
prevented with increased furnace size. 3-11. Major auxiliary systems.
(4) General criteria. Steam generator design a. Burners.
will specify conservative lower limits of total heat- (1) Oil burners. Fuel oil is introduced through
ing surface, furnace wall surface and furnace vol- oil burners, which deliver finely divided or atomized
ume, as well as the limits of superheat temperature liquid fuel in a suitable pattern for mixing with com-
control range. Furnace volume and surfaces will be bustion air at the burner opening. Atomizing meth-
sized to insure trouble free operation. ods are classified as pressure or mechanical type, air
(5) Specific criteria. Steam generator specifica- atomizing and steam atomizing type. Pressure
tions set minimum requirements for Btu heat re- atomization is usually more economical but is also
lease per cubic foot of furnace volume, for Btu heat more complex and presents problems of control,
release per square foot of effective radiant heating poor turndown, operation and maintenance. The
surface and, in the case of spreader stokers, for Btu range of fuel flows obtainable is more limited with
per square foot of grate. Such parameters are not set pressure atomization. Steam atomization is simple
forth in this manual, however, because of the wide to operate, reliable, and has a wide range, but con-
range of fuels which can affect these equipment de- sumes a portion of the boiler steam output and adds
sign considerations. The establishment of arbitrary moisture to the furnace gases. Generally, steam
limitations which may handicap the geometry of atomization will be used when makeup water is rela-
furnace designs is inappropriate. Prior to setting tively inexpensive, and for smaller, lower pressure
furnace geometry parameters, and after the type plants. Air atomization will be used for plants burn-
and grade of fuel are established and the particular ing light liquid fuels, or when steam reacts ad-
service conditions are determined, the power plant versely with the fuel, i.e., high sulfur oils.
designer will consult boiler manufacturers to insure (2) Gas and coal burners. Natural gas or pulver-
that steam generator specifications are capable of ized coal will be delivered to the burner for mixing
being met. with combustion air supply at the burner opening.
d. Single unit versus steam header system. For Pulverized coal will be delivered by heated, pressur-
cogeneration plants, especially in isolated locations ized primary air.
or for units of 10,000 kW and less, a parallel boiler or (3) Burner accessories. Oil, gas and pulverized

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coal burners will be equipped with adjustable air heating surfaces, and convenience of operation and
guide registers designed to control and shape the air control.
flow into the furnace, Some burner designs also pro- (5) Burner managerment systems. Plant safety
vide for automatic insertion and withdrawal of vary- practices require power plant fuel burners to be
ing size oil burner nozzles as load and operating con- equipped with comprehensive burner control and
ditions require. safety systems to prevent unsafe or dangerous con-
(4) Number of burners. The number of burners ditions which may lead to furnace explosions. The
required is a function both of load requirements and primary purpose of a burner management system is
boiler manufacturer design. For the former, the indi- safety which is provided by interlocks, furnace
vidual burner turndown ratios per burner are pro- purge cycles and fail safe devices.
vided in Table 3-3. Turndown ratios in excess of b. Pulverizes. The pulverizers (mills) are an essen-
those listed can be achieved through the use of mul- tial part of powdered coal burning equipment, and
tiple burners. Manufacturer design limits capacity are usually located adjacent to the steam generator
of each burner to that compatible with furnace flame and burners, but in a position to receive coal by
and gas flow patterns, exposure and damage to gravity from the coal silo. The coal pulverizers grind


k 1111111 rlu- SPREAOER

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Figure 3-7. Fluidized bed combustion boiler.

TM 5-811-6

and classify the coal fuel to specific particle sizes for clude sudden load changes, pulverized coal feeders
rapid and efficient burning. Reliable and safe pulver- are to be used.
izing equipment is essential for steam generator op- (2) Grate operation requires close and skillful
eration. Pulverized coal burning will not be specified operator attention, and overall plant performance is
for boilers smaller than 150,000 lb/hour. sensitive to fuel sizing and operator experience.
c. Stokers and grates. For small and medium Grates for stoker fired units occupy a large part of
sized coal burning steam generators, less than the furnace floor and must be integrated with ash re-
150,000 lb/hour, coal stokers or fluidized bed units moval and handling systems. A high proportion of
will be used. For power boilers, spreader stokers stoker ash must be removed from the grates in a
with traveling grates are used. Other types of wide range of particle sizes and characteristics al-
stokers (retort, underfeed, or overfeed types) are though some unburned carbon and fly ash is carried
generally obsolete for power plant use except per- out of the furnace by the flue gas. In contrast, a
haps for special fuels such as anthracite. larger proportion of pulverized coal ash leaves the .
(1) Spreader stokers typically deliver sized coal, furnace with the gas flow as finely divided particu-
with some proportion of fines, by throwing it into late,
the furnace where part of the fuel burns in suspen- (3) Discharged ash is allowed to COOl in the ash
sion and the balance falls to the traveling grate for hopper at the end of the grate and is then sometimes
burnout. Stoker fired units will have two or more put through a clinker grinder prior to removal in the
spreader feeder units, each delivering fuel to its own vacuum ash handling system described elsewhere in
separate grate area. Stoker fired units are less re- this manual.
sponsive to load changes because a large proportion d. Draft fans, ducts and flues.
of the fuel burns on the grate for long time periods (1) Draft fans.
(minutes). Where the plant demand is expected to in- (a) Air delivery to the furnace and flue gas re-

Table 3-3. Individual Burner Turndown Ratios.

Burner Type
Turndown Ratio

Spud or Ring Type

5:1 to 10:1


Steam Atomizing
5:1 to 10:1
Mechanical Atomizing
3:1 to 10:1


2:1 to 3:1
Fluidized Bed (single bed)
2:1 to 3:1

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

TM 5-811-6

moval will be provided by power driven draft fans sion resistance and overall gas tightness. Adequate
designed for adequate volumes and pressures of air space and weight capacity will be allowed in overall
and gas flow. Typical theoretical air requirements plant arrangement to avoid awkward, noisy or mar-
are shown in Figure 3-8 to which must be added ex- ginal fan, duct and flue systems. Final steam gener-
cess air which varies with type of firing, plus fan ator design will insure that fan capacities (especially
margins on both volumetric and pressure capacity pressure) are matched properly to realistic air and
for reliable full load operation. Oxygen and carbon gas path losses considering operation with dirty
dioxide in products of combustion for various boilers and under abnormal operating conditions.
amounts of excess air are also shown in Figure 3-8. Damper durability and control characteristics will
(b) Calculations of air and gas quantities and be carefully designed; dampers used for control pur-
pressure drops are necessary. Since fans are heavy poses will be of opposed blade construction.
power consumers, for larger fans consideration e. Heat recovery. Overall design criteria require
should be given to the use of back pressure steam highest fuel efficiency for a power boiler; therefore,
turbine drives for economy, reliability and their abil- steam generators will be provided with heat recov-
it y to provide speed variation. Multiple fans on each ery equipment of two principal types: air pre-
boiler unit will add to first costs but will provide heater and economizers.
more flexibility and reliability . Type of fan drives (1) Efficiency effects. Both principal types of
and number of fans will be considered for cost effec- heat recovery equipment remove relatively low level
tiveness. Fan speed will be conservatively selected, heat from the flue gases prior to flue gas discharge
and silencers will be provided in those cases where to the atmosphere, using boiler fluid media (air or
noise by fans exceeds 80 decibels. water) which can effectively absorb such low level
(c) Power plant steam generator units de- energy. Such equipment adds to the cost, complex-
signed for coal or oil will use balanced draft design ity and operational skills required, which will be bal-
with both forced and induced draft fans arranged for anced by the plant designer against the life cycle
closely controlled negative furnace pressure. fuel savings.
(2) Ducts and flues. Air ducts and gas flues will (2) Air preheater. Simple tubular surface
be adequate in size and structural strength and de- heaters will be specified for smaller units and the re-
signed with provision for expansion, support, corro- generative type heater for larger boilers. To mini-

TM 5-811-6

mize corrosion and acid/moisture damage, especially height sometimes limited by aesthetic or other non-
with dirty and high sulphur fuels, special alloy steel economic considerations. Draft is a function of den-
will be used in the low temperature heat transfer sit y difference between the hot stack gases and am-
surface (replaceable tubes or “baskets”) of air pre- bient air, and a number of formulas are available for
heater. Steam coil air heaters will be installed to calculating draft and friction. Utilize draft of the
maintain certain minimum inlet air (and metal) tem- stack or chimney only to overcome friction within
peratures and thus protect the main preheater from the chimney with the induced draft fan(s) supplying
corrosion at low loads or low ambient air tempera- stack or chimney entrance. Maintain relatively high
tures. Figure 3-9 illustrates the usual range of mini- gas exit velocities (50 to 60 feet per second) to eject
mum metal temperatures for heat recovery equip- gases as high above ground level as possible. Reheat
ment. (usually by steam) will be provided if the gases are
(3) Economizers. Either an economizer or an air treated (and cooled) in a flue gas desulfurization
heater or a balanced selection of both as is usual in a scrubber prior to entering the stack to add buoy-
power boiler will be provided, allowing also for tur- ancy and prevent their settling to the ground after
bine cycle feedwater stage heating. ejection to the atmosphere. Insure that downwash
f. Stacks. due to wind and building effects does not drive the
(1) Delivery of flue gases to the atmosphere flue gas to the ground.
through a flue gas stack or chimney will be pro- g. Flue gas cleanup. The requirements for flue gas
vided. cleanup will be determined during design.
(2) Stacks and chimneys will be designed to dis- (1) Design considerations. The extent and na-
charge their gases without adverse local effects. Dis- ture of the air pollution problem will be analyzed
persion patterns and considerations will be treated prior to specifying the environmental control sys-
during design. tem for the steam generator. The system will meet
(3) Stacks and chimneys will be sized with due all applicable requirements, and the application will
regard to natural draft and stack friction with be the most economically feasible method of accom-
plishment. All alternative solutions to the problem
290 will be considered which will satisfy the given load
and which will produce the least objectionable
wastes. Plant design will be such as to accommodate
future additions or modifications at minimum cost.
Questions concerning unusual problems, unique ap-
placations or marginal and future requirements will
be directed to the design agency having jurisdiction
over the project. Table 3-4 shows the emission lev-
els allowable under the National Ambient Air
Quality Standards.
(2) Particulate control. Removal of flue gas par-
ticulate material is broadly divided into mechanical
dust collectors, electrostatic precipitators, bag fil-
ters, and gas scrubbing systems. For power plants
of the size range here considered estimated uncon-
trolled emission levels of various pollutants are
shown in Table 3-5. Environmental regulations re-
quire control of particulate, sulfur oxides and nitro-
gen oxides. For reference purposes in this manual,
typical control equipment performance is shown in
Table 3-6, 3-7, 3-8, 3-9, 3-10 and 3-11. These only
provide general guidance. The designer will refer to
TM 5-815-l/AFR 19-6/NAVFAC DM-3.15 for de-
tails of this equipment and related computational
requirements and design criteria.
(a) Mechanical collectors. For oil fired steam
generators with output steaming capacities less
NAVFAC DM3 than 200,000 pounds per hour, mechanical (centrifu-
gal) type dust collectors may be effective and eco-
Figure 3-9. Minimum metal temperatures for boiler heat
recovery equipment.
nomical depending on the applicable emission stand-

TM 5-811-6

ards. For a coal fired boiler with a spreader stoker, a efficiency slightly but also will increase collector
mechanical collector in series with an electrostatic dust loading and carryover. Ultimate collected
precipitator or baghouse also might be considered. dust material must be handled and disposed of sys-
Performance requirements and technical environ- tematically to avoid objectionable environmental ef-
mental standards must be carefully matched, and fects.
ultimate performance warranties and tests require (b) Electrostatic precipitators. For pulverized
careful and explicit definitions. Collected dust from coal firing, adequate particulate control will require
a mechanical collector containing a large proportion electrostatic precipitators (ESP). ESP systems are
of combustibles may be reinfected into the furnace well developed and effective, but add substantial
for final burnout; this will increase steam generator capital and maintenance costs. Very high percent-

Table3-5. Uncontrolled Emissions.


(Lb of Pollutant/Ton of Coal) (Lb of Pollutant/1000 Gal) (Lb o f P o l l u t a n t / 1 06 F t 3 )

Pulverized Stokers or


Sulfur Oxides

Nitrogen Oxides

1. The letter A indicates that the weight percentage of ash in the coal should be multiplied by
the value given. Example: If the factor is 16 and the ash content is 10 percent, the particulate
emissions before the control equipment would be 10 times 16, or 160 pounds of particulate per ton
of coal.

2. Without fly ash reinfection. With fly ash reinfection use 20A.

3. S equals the sulfur content, use like the factor A (see Note 1 above) for estimate emissions.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

50-70 90-95 Industrial a n d
utility boiler
Particulate control.

2-6 50

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Table 3-2! Characteristics of Scrubbers for Particulate Control.

Internal Particle
Pressure Drop Gas Flow Velocity Collection Water Usage
Scrubber Type Energy Type In. H O Ft /Min Ft/Sec Efficiency Per 1000 Gal/Min

Centrifugal Low Energy 3-8 1,000- 50-150 80 3-5

Scrubber 20,000

Impingement & Low Energy 4-20 500- 50-150 60-90 10-40

Entrainment 50,000

Venturi High Energy 4-200 200- 200-600 95-99 5-7


Ejector Venturi High Energy 10-50 500- 200-500 90-98 70-145


U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Table 3-8. Characteristics of Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP) for Particulate Control.

Operating , Resistivity Gas Drop
Temperature at 300º F Flow In. of
Type °F ohm-cm Ft/Min Water

Hot ESP 600+ Greater Than 100,000+ Less Than

1 01 2 1"

Cold ESP 300 Less Than

1 01 0

Wet ESP 300- G r e1 a ter Than

1 02below
1 04

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Table 3-9. Characteristics of Baghouses for Particulate Control.

Pressure Loss Filter Ratio

(Inches of (cfm/ft
System Type Water) Efficiency Cloth Type Cloth Area) Recommended Application

Shaker 3-6 99+% Woven 1-5 Dust with good filter

cleaning properties,
intermittent collection.

Reverse Flow 3-6 99+% Woven 1-5 Dust with good filter cleaning
properties, high temperature
collection (incinerator fly-
ash) with glass bags.

Pulse Jet 3-6 99+% Felted 4-20 Efficient for coal and oil fly
ash collection.

Reverse Jet 3-8 99+% Felted 10-30 Collection of fine dusts and

Envelope 3-6 99+% Woven 1-5 Collection of highly abrasive

dust .

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Table 3-10. Characteristics of Flue-Gas Desulfurization Systems for Particulate Control.

Retrofit to
SO Removal Pressure Drop Recovery and Operational Existing
System Type Efficiency (%) (Inches of Water) Regeneration Reliability Installations

1) Limestone Boiler 30-40% Less Than 6“ No Recovery High Yea

Injection Type of Limestone

2) Limestone, Srubber 30-40% Greater Than 6“ No Recovery High Yea

Injection Type of Lime

3) Lime, Scrubber, 90%+ Greater Than 6“ No Recovery Low Yea

Injection Type of Lime

4) Magnesium Oxide Greater Than 6“ Recovery of MgO Low Yea

and Sulfuric Acid

5) Wellman-Lord 90%+ Greater Than 6“ Recovery of NaS03 Unknown

and Elemental Sulfur

6) Catalytic 85% May be as high as 24” Recovery of 80% Unknown No

oxidation H2S04

7) Single Alkali 90%+ Tray Tower Pressure Little Recovery Unknown Yea
Systems Drop 1.6-2.0 in. of Sodium Carbonate
H2O/tray, w/Venturi
add 10-14 in. H2O

8) Dual Alkali 90-95%+ Regeneration of Unknown Yea

Sodium Hydroxide
and Sodium Sulfites

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Tabble 3-11. Techniques for Nitrogen Oxide Control.

Technique NO Reduction (%) Advantages Disadvantages

Load Reduction Easily implemented; no additional Reduction in generating capacity;

equipment required; reduced particu- possible reduction in boiler thermal
late and SOX emissions. thermal efficiency.

Low Excess Air Firing 15 to 40 Increased boiler thermal efficiency; A combustion control system which
possible reduction in particulate closely monitors and controls fuel/
emissions may be combined with a load air ratios is required.
reduction to obtain additional NOx
emission decrease; reduction in high
temperature corrosion and ash deposition.

Two Stage Conbustion

Coal 30 --- Boiler windboxes must be designed for

this application.
Oil 40
Furnace corrosion and particulate
Gas 50 - -- emissions may increase.

Off-Stoichiometric Combustion Control of alternate fuel rich/and

fuel lean burners may be a problem
Coal 45 --- during transient load conditions.

Reduced Combustion Air 10-50 --- Not applicable to coal or oil fired
Preheat units; reduction in boiler thermal
efficiency; increase in exit gas
volume and temperature; reduction in
boiler load.

Flue Gas Recirculation 20-50 Possible improvement in combustion Boiler windbox must be modified to
efficiency end reduction in particu- handle the additional gas volume;
late emissions. ductwork, fans and Controls required.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

TM 5-811-6

ages of particulate removal can be attained (99 per- compressed air and injected into the boiler flue gas
cent, plus) but precipitators are sensitive to ash stream. SO2 and SO3 in the flue gas is absorbed by
composition, fuel additives, flue gas temperatures the slurry droplets and reacts with the calcium hy-
and moisture content, and even weather conditions. droxide of the slurry to form calcium sulfite. Evapo-
ESP’s are frequently used with and ahead of flue ration of the water in the slurry droplets occurs si-
gas washing and desulfurization systems. They may multaneously with the reaction. The dry flue gas
be either hot precipitators ahead of the air preheater then travels to a bag filter system and then to the
in the gas path or cold precipitators after the air pre- boiler stack. The bag filter system collects the boiler
heater. Hot precipitators are more expensive be- exit solid particles and the dried reaction products.
cause of the larger volume of gas to be handled and Additional remaining SO2 and SO3 are removed by
temperature influence on materials. But they are the flue gas filtering through the accumulation on
sometimes necessary for low sulfur fuels where cold the surface of the bag filters, Dry scrubbers permit
precipitators are relatively inefficient. the use of coal with a sulfur content as high as 3 per-
(c) Bag filters. Effective particulate removal cent.
may be obtained with bag filter systems or bag (3) Induced draft fan requirements. Induced
houses, which mechanically filter the gas by passage draft fans will be designed with sufficient capacity
through specially designed filter fabric surfaces. to produce the required flow while overcoming the
Bag filters are especially effective on very fine parti- static pressure losses associated with the ductwork,
cles, and at relatively low flue gas temperatures. economizer, air preheater, and air pollution control
They may be used to improve or upgrade other par- equipment under all operating (clean and dirt y) con-
ticulate collection systems such as centrifugal col- ditions.
lectors. Also they are probably the most economic (4) Waste removal. Flue gas cleanup systems
choice for most medium and small size coal fired usually produce substantial quantities of waste
steam generators. products, often much greater in mass than the sub-
(d) Flue gas desulfurization. While various stances actually removed from the exit gases. De-
gaseous pollutants are subject to environmental sign and arrangement must allow for dewatering
control and limitation, the pollutants which must be and stabilization of FGD sludge, removal, storage
removed from the power plant flue gases are the ox- and disposal of waste products with due regard for
ides of sulfur (SO2 and SO3). Many flue gas desulfuri- environmental impacts.
ztion (FGD) scrubbing systems to control SO2 and
SO3stack emission have been installed and oper- 3-12. Minor auxiliary systems
ated, with wide variations in effectiveness, reliabil- Various minor auxiliary systems and components
ity, longevity and cost. For small or medium sized are vital parts of the steam generator.
power plants, FGD systems should be avoided if a. Piping and valves. Various piping systems are
possible by the use of low sulfur fuel. If the parame- defined as parts of the complete boiler (refer to the
ters of the project indicate that a FGD system is re- ASME Boiler Code), and must be designed for safe
quired, adequate allowances for redundancy, capital and effective service; this includes steam and feed-
cost, operating costs, space, and environmental im- water piping, fuel piping, blowdown piping, safety
pact will be made. Alternatively, a fluidized bed and control valve piping, isolation valves, drips,
boiler (para. 3-10 c) may be a better economic choice drains and instrument connections.
for such a project. b. Controls and instruments. Superheater and
(1) Wet scrubbers utilize either limestone, ‘burner management controls are best purchased
lime, or a combination of lime and soda ash as sor- along with the steam generator so that there will be
bents for the SO2 and SO3 in the boiler flue gas integrated steam temperature and burner systems.
stream. A mixed slurry of the sorbent material is c. Soot blowers. Continuous or frequent on line
sprayed into the flue gas duct where it mixes with cleaning of furnace, boiler economizer, and air pre-
and wets the particulate in the gas stream. The S02 heater heating surfaces is required to maintain per-
and S09 reacts with the calcium hydroxide of the formance and efficiency. Soot blower systems,
slurry to form calcium sulfate. The gas then contin- steam or air operated, will be provided for this pur-
ues to a separator tower where the solids and excess pose. The selection of steam or air for soot blowing
solution settle and separate from the water vapor is an economic choice and will be evaluated in terms
saturated gas stream which vents to the atmosphere of steam and makeup water vs. compressed air costs
through the boiler stack. Wet scrubbers permit the with due allowance for capital and operating cost
use of coal with a sulfur content as high as 5 percent. components.
(2) Dry scrubbers generally utilize a diluted
solution of slaked lime slurry which is atomized by

TM 5-811-6


3-13. Introduction of the power plant facilities. Time for unloading will
a. Purpose. Figure 3-10 is a block diagram illus- be analyzed and unloading pump(s) optimized for
trating the various steps and equipment required the circumstances and oil quantities involved.
for a solid fuel storage and handling system. Heavier fuel oils are loaded into transport tanks hot
b. Fuels for consideration. Equipment required and cool during delivery. Steam supply for tank car
for a system depends on the type of fuel or fuels heaters will be provided at the plant if it is expected
burned. The three major types of fuels utilized for that the temperature of the oil delivered will be be-
steam raising are gaseous, liquid and solid. low the 120 to 150ºF. range.
(2) Storage of the fuel oil will be in two tanks so
3-14. Typical fuel oil storage and han- as to provide more versatility for tank cleanout in-
dling system spection and repair. A minimum of 30 days storage
The usual power plant fuel oil storage and handling capacity at maximum expected power plant load
system includes: (maximum steaming capacity of all boilers with
a. Unloading and storage. maximum expected turbine generator output and
(1) Unloading pumps will be supplied, as re- maximum export steam, if any) will be provided.
quired for the type of delivery system used, as part Factors such as reliability of supply and whether

Figure 3-10. Coal handling system diagram.

TM 5-811-6

backup power is available from other sources may controls include combustion controls, burner man-
result in additional storage requirements. Space for agement system, control valves and shut off valves.
future tanks will be allocated where additional boil-
ers are planned, but storage capacity will not be pro- 3-15. Coal handling and storage systems
vided initially. a. Available systems. The following principal sys-
(3) Storage tank(s) for heavy oils will be heated tems will be used as appropriate for handling, stor-
with a suction type heater, a continuous coil extend- ing and reclaiming coal:
ing over the bottom of the tank, or a combination of (1) Relatively small to intermediate system;
both types of surfaces. Steam is usually the most coal purchases sized and washed. A system with a
economical heating medium although hot water can track or truck (or combined track/truck) hopper,
be considered depending on the temperatures at bucket elevator with feeder, coal silo, spouts and
which low level heat is available in the power plant. chutes, and a dust collecting system will be used.
Tank exterior insulation will be provided. Elevator will be arranged to discharge via closed
b. Fuelpumps and heaters. chute into one or two silos, or spouted to a ground
(1) Fuel oil forwarding pumps to transfer oil pile for moving into dead storage by bulldozer. Re-
from bulk storage to the burner pumps will be pro- claim from dead storage will be by means of bulldoz-
vided. Both forwarding and burner pumps should be er to track/truck hopper.
selected with at least 10 percent excess capacity (2) Intermediate system; coal purchased sized
over maximum burning rate in the boilers. Sizing and washed. This will be similar to the system de-
will consider additional pumps for future boilers and scribed in (1) above but will use an enclosed skip
pressure requirements will be selected for pipe fric- hoist instead of a bucket elevator for conveying coal
tion, control valves, heater pressure drops, and to top of silo.
burners. A reasonable selection would be one pump (3) Intermediate system alternatives. For more
per boiler with a common spare if the system is de- than two boilers, an overbunker flight or belt con-
signed for a common supply to all boilers. For high veyor will be used. If mine run, uncrushed coal
pressure mechanical atomizing burners, each boiler proves economical, a crusher with feeder will be in-
may also have its own metering pump with spare. stalled in association with the track/truck hopper.
(2) Pumps may be either centrifugal or positive (4) Larger systems, usually with mine run coal.
displacement. Positive displacement pumps will be A larger system will include track or truck (or com-
specified for the heavier fuel oils. Centrifugal pumps bined track/truck) unloading hopper, separate dead
will be specified for crude oils. Where absolute relia- storage reclaim hoppers, inclined belt conveyors
ability is required, a spare pump driven by a steam with appropriate feeders, transfer towers, vibrating
turbine with gear reducer will be used. For “black screens, magnetic separators, crusher(s), overbunk-
starts, ” or where a steam turbine may be inconven- er conveyor(s) with automatic tripper, weighing
ient, a dc motor driver may be selected for use for equipment, sampling equipment, silos, dust collect-
relatively short periods. ing system(s), fire protection, and like items. Where
(3) At least two fuel oil heaters will be used for two or more types of coal are burned (e.g., high and
reliability and to facilitate maintenance. Typical low sulphur), blending facilities will be required.
heater design for Bunker C! fuel oil will provide for (5) For cold climates. All systems, regardless of
temperature increases from 100 to 230° F using size, which receive coal by railroad will require car
steam or hot water for heating medium. thawing facilities and car shakeouts for loosening
c. Piping system. frozen coal. These facilities will not be provided for
(1) The piping system will be designed to main- truck unloading because truck runs are usually
tain pressure by recirculating excess oil to the bulk short.
storage tank. The burner pumps also will circulate b. Selection of handling capacity. Coal handling
back to the storage tank. A recirculation connection system capacity will be selected so that ultimate
will be provided at each burner for startup. It will be planned 24-hour coal consumption of the plant at
manually valved and shut off after burner is suc- maximum expected power plant load can be unload-
cessfully lit off and operating smoothly. ed or reclaimed in not more than 7-1/2 hours, or within
(2) Piping systems will be adapted to the type the time span of one shift after allowance of a 1/2-hour
of burner utilized. Steam atomizing burners will margin for preparation and cleanup time. The hand-
have “blowback” connections to cleanse burners of ling capacity should be calculated using the worst
fuel with steam on shutdown. Mechanical atomizing (lowest heating value) coal which may be burned in
burner piping will be designed to suit the require- the future and a maximum steam capacity boiler ef-
ments of the burner. ficiency at least 3 percent less than guaranteed by
d. Instruments and control. Instruments and boiler manufacturer.

TM 5-811-6

c. Outdoor storage pile. The size of the outdoor typical bucket elevator grade mounted silo arrange-
storage pile will be based on not less than 90 days of ment for a small or medium sized steam generating
the ultimate planned 24-hour coal consumption of facility.
the plant at maximum expected power plant load. (2) For large sized spreader stoker fired plants,
Some power plants, particularly existing plants silo type overhead construction will be specified. It
which are being rehabilitated or expanded, will have will be fabricated of structural steel or reinforced
outdoor space limitations or are situated so that it is concrete with stainless steel lined conical bottoms.
environmentally inadvisable to have a substantial (3) For small or medium sized plants combined
outdoor coal pile. live and reserve storage in the silo will be not less
d. Plant Storage. than 3 days at 60 percent of maximum expected
(1) For small or medium sized spreader stoker load of the boiler(s) being supplied from the silo so
fired plants, grade mounted silo storage will be spe- that reserves from the outside storage pile need not
cified with a live storage shelf above and a reserve be drawn upon during weekends when operating
storage space below. Usually arranged with one silo staff is reduced. For large sized plants this storage
per boiler and the silo located on the outside of the requirement will be 1 day.
firing aisle opposite the boiler, the live storage shelf
will be placed high enough so that the spout to the e. Equipment and systems.
stoker hopper or coal scale above the hopper (1) Bucket elevators. Bucket elevators will be
emerges at a point high enough for the spout angle chain and bucket type. For relatively small installa-
to be not less than 60 degrees from the horizontal. tions the belt and bucket type is feasible although
The reserve storage below the live storage shelf will not as rugged as the chain and bucket type. Typical
be arranged to recirculate back to the loading point bucket elevator system is shown in Figure 3-11.
of the elevator so that coal can be raised to the top of (2) Skip hoists. Because of the requirement for
the live storage shelf as needed. Figure 3-11 shows a dust suppression and equipment closure dictated by
TM 5-811-6

environmental considerations, skip hoists will not ceived” and’ ‘as fired” samples for large systems.
be specified. (f) Chutes, hoppers and skirts, as required,
(3) Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors will be se- fabricated of continuously welded steel for dust
lected for speeds not in excess of 500 to 550 feet per tightness and with wearing surfaces lined with
minute. They will be specified with roller bearings stainless steel. Vibrators and poke holes will be pro-
for pulleys and idlers, with heavy duty belts, and vided at all points subject to coal stoppage or hang-
with rugged helical or herringbone gear drive units. up.
(4) Feeders. Feeders are required to transfer (g) Car shakeout and a thaw shed for loosen-
coal at a uniform rate from each unloading and inter- ing frozen coal from railroad cars.
mediate hopper to the conveyor. Such feeders will be (h) Dust control systems as required through-
of the reciprocating plate or vibrating pan type with out the coal handling areas. All handling equip-
single or variable speed drive. Reciprocating type ment—hoppers, conveyors and galleries-will be en-
feeders will be used for smaller installations; the vi- closed in dust tight casings or building shells and
brating type will be used for larger systems. provided with negative pressure ventilation com-
(5) Miscellaneous. The following items are re- plete with heated air supply, exhaust blowers, sepa-
quired as noted rators, and bag filters for removing dust from ex-
(a) Magnetic separators for removal of tramp hausted air. In addition, high dust concentration
iron from mine run coal. areas located outside which cannot be enclosed, such
(b) Weigh scale at each boiler and, for larger as unloading and reclaim hoppers, will be provided
installations, for weighing in coal as received. Scales with spray type dust suppression equipment.
will be of the belt type with temperature compensat- (i) Fire protection system of the sprinkler
ed load cell. For very small installations, a low cost type.
displacement type scale for each boiler will be used. (j) Freeze protection for any water piping lo-
(c) Coal crusher for mine run coal; for large in- cated outdoors or in unheated closures as provided
stallations the crusher will be preceded by vibrating for dust suppression or fire protection systems.
(scalping) screens for separating out and by-passing (k) A vacuum cleaning system for mainte-
fines around the crusher. nance of coal handling systems having galleries and
(d) Traveling tripper for overbunker conveyor equipment enclosures.
serving a number of bunkers in series. (l) System of controls for sequencing and
(e) One or more coal samplers to check “as re- monitoring entire coal handling system.


3-16. Introduction crease efficiency, although this procedure does in-
a. Background. crease the dust loading on the collection equipment
(1) Most gaseous fuels burn cleanly, and the downstream of the last hopper from which such ma-
amount of incombustible material is so small that it terial is reinfected.
can be safely ignored. When liquid or solid fuel is (3) It is mandatory to install precipitators or
fired in a boiler, however, the incombustible materi- baghouses on all new coal fired boilers for final
al, or ash, together with a small amount of unburned cleanup of the flue gases prior to their ejection to at-
carbon chiefly in the form of soot or cinders, collects mosphere. But in most regions of the United States,
in the bottom of the furnace or is carried out in a mechanical collectors alone are adequate for heavy
lightweight, finely divided form usually known oil fired boilers because of the conventionally low
loosely as “fly ash.” Collection of the bottom ash ash content of this type of fuel. An investigation is
from combustion of coal has never been a problem as required, however, for each particular oil fired unit
the ash is heavy and easily directed into hoppers being considered.
which may be dry or filled with water,
(2) Current ash collection technology is capable b. Purpose. It is the purpose of the ash handling
of removing up to 99 percent or more of all fly ash system to:
from the furnace gases by utilizing a precipitator or (1) Collect the bottom ash from coal-fired
baghouse, often in combination with a mechanical spreader stoker or AFBC boilers and to convey it
collector. Heavier fly ash particles collected from dry by vacuum or hydraulically by liquid pressure
the boiler gas passages and mechanical collectors of- to a temporary or permanent storage terminal. The
ten have a high percentage of unburned carbon con- latter may be a storage bin or silo for ultimate trans-
tent, particularly in the case of spreader stoker fired fer to rail or truck for transport to a remote disposal
boilers; this heavier material may be reinfected into area, or it maybe an on-site fill area or storage pond
the furnace to reduce unburned carbon losses and in- for the larger systems where the power plant site is

TM 5-811-6

adequate and environmentally acceptable for this or mechanical exhauster for creating the vacuum
purpose. (Figure 3-12). This typical plant would probably
(2) Collect fly ash and to convey it dry to tem- have a traveling grate spreader stoker, a mechanical
porary or permanent storage as described above for collector, and a baghouse; in all likelihood, no on-site
bottom ash. Fly ash, being very light, will be wetted ash disposal area would be available.
and is mixed with bottom ash prior to disposal to (3) The ash system for the typical plant will in-
prevent a severe dust problem. clude the following for each boiler:
(a) A refractory lined bottom ash hopper to
3-17. Description of major components receive the discharge from the traveling grate. A
a. Typical oil fired system. Oil fired boilers do not clinker grinder is not required for a spreader stoker
require any bottom ash removal facilities, since ash although adequate poke holes should be incorpor-
and unburned carbon are light and carried out with ated into the outlet sections of the hopper.
the furnace exit gas. A mechanical collector may be (b) Gas passage fly ash hoppers as required
required for small or intermediate sized boilers hav- by the boiler design for boiler proper, economizer,
ing steaming rates of 200,000 pounds per hour or and air heater.
less. The fly ash from the gas passage and mechani- (c) Collector fly ash hoppers for the mechani-
cal collector hoppers can usually be handled manu- cal collector and baghouse.
ally because of the small amount of fly ash (soot) col- (d) Air lock valves, one at each hopper outlet,
lected. The soot from the fuel oil is greasy and can manually or automatically operated as selected by
coagulate at atmospheric temperatures making it the design engineer.
difficult to handle. To overcome this, hoppers (4) And the following items are common to all
should be heated with steam, hot water, or electric boilers in the plant:
power. Hoppers will be equipped with an outlet (a) Ash collecting piping fabricated of special
valve having an air lock and a means of attaching hardened ferro-alloy to transfer bottom and fly ash
disposable paper bags sized to permit manual hand- to Storage.
ling. Each hopper will be selected so that it need not (b) Vacuum producing equipment, steam or
be evacuated more than once every few days. If boil- mechanical exhauster as may prove economical. For
er size and estimated soot/ash loading is such that plants with substantial export steam and with low
manual handling becomes burdensome, a vacuum or quality, relatively inexpensive makeup require-
hydraulic system as described below should be con- ments, steam will be the choice. For plants with
sidered. high quality, expensive makeup requirements,
b. Typical ash handling system for small or inter consideration should be given to the higher cost me-
mediate sized coal fired boilers; chanical exhauster.
(1) Plant fuel burning rates and ash content of (c) Primary and secondary mechanical (centri-
coal are critical in sizing the ash handling system. fugal) separators and baghouse filter are used to
Sizing criteria will provide for selecting hoppers and clean the dust out of the ash handling system ex-
handling equipment so that ash does not have to be haust prior to discharge to the atmosphere. This
removed more frequently than once each 8-hour equipment is mounted on top of the silo.
shift using the highest ash content coal anticipated (d) Reinforced concrete or vitrified tile over-
and with boiler at maximum continuous steaming head silo with separator and air lock for loading silo
capacity. For the smaller, non-automatic system it with a “dustless” unloader designed to dampen
may be cost effective to select hoppers and equip ashes as they are unloaded into a truck or railroad
ment which will permit operating at 60 percent of car for transport to remote disposal.
maximum steam capacity for 3 days without remov- (e) Automatic control system for sequencing
ing ash to facilitate operating with a minimum operation of the system. Usually the manual initia-
weekend crew. tion of such a system starts the exhauster and then
(2) For a typical military power plant, the most removes bottom and fly ash from each separator col-
economical selection for both bottom and fly ash dis- lection point in a predetermined sequence. Ash un-
posal is a vacuum type dry system with a steam jet loading to vehicles is separately controlled.


3-18. Turbine prime movers generator and its associated electrical accessories,
The following paragraphs on turbine generators dis- refer to Chapter 4.
cuss size and other overall characteristics of the tur- a. Size and type ranges. Steam turbine gener-
bine generator set. For detailed discussion of the ators for military installations will fall into the fol-

Figure 3-12. Pneumatic ash handling systems—variations.
TM 5-811-6

lowing size ranges: 3-19. Generators

(1) Small turbine generators. From 500 to about For purposes of this section, it is noted that the gen-
2500 kW rated capacity, turbine generators will erator must be mechanically compatible with the
usually be single stage, geared units without extrac- driving turbine, coupling, lubrication system, and
tion openings for either back pressure or condensing vibration characteristics (see Chapter 4 for gener-
service. Rated condensing pressures for single stage ator details).
turbines range from 3 to 6 inches Hga. Exhaust
pressures for back pressure units in cogeneration 3-20. Turbine features
service typically range from 15 psig to 250 psig. a. General. Turbine construction may be general-
(2) Intermediate turbine generators. F r o m ly classified as high or low pressure, single or multi-
about 2500 to 10,000 kW rated capacity, turbine stage, back pressure on condensing, direct drive or
generators will be either multi-stage, multi-valve gear reducer drive, and for electric generator or for
machines with two pole direct drive generators turn- mechanical drive service.
ing at 3600 rpm, or high speed turbines with gear re- (1) Shell pressures. High or low pressure con-
ducers may also be used in this size range. Units are struction refers generally to the internal pressures
equipped with either uncontrolled or controlled (au- to be contained by the main shell or casing parts.
tomatic) extraction openings. Below 4000 kW, there (2) Single us. multi-stage. Single or multi-stage
will be one or two openings with steam pressures up designs are selected to suit the general size,
to 600 psig and 750°F. From 4000 kW to 10,000 enthalpy drops and performance requirements of
kW, turbines will be provided with two to four un- the turbine. Multi-stage machines are much more
controlled extraction openings, or one or two auto- expensive but are also considerably more efficient.
matic extraction openings. These turbines would Single stage machines are always less expensive,
have initial steam conditions from 600 psig to 1250 simpler and less efficient. They may have up to
psig, and 750°F to 900°F. Typical initial steam con- three velocity wheels of blading with reentry sta-
ditions would be 600 psig, 825º For 850 psig, 900°F. tionary vanes between wheels to improve efficiency.
(3) Large turbine generators. In the capacity As casing pressure of single stage turbines are equal
range 10,000 to 30,000 kW, turbine generators will to exhaust pressures, the design of seals and bear-
be direct drive, multi-stage, multi-valve units. For ings is relatively simple.
electric power generator applications, from two to (3) Back pressure vs. condensing. Selection of a
five uncontrolled extraction openings will be re- back pressure or a condensing turbine is dependent
quired for feedwater heating. In cogeneration appli- on the plant function and cycle parameters. (See
cations which include the provision of process or Chapter 3, Section I for discussion of cycles.) Con-
heating steam along with power generation, one au- densing machines are larger and more complex with
tomatic extraction opening will be required for each high pressure and vacuum sealing provisions, steam
level of processor heating steam pressure specified, condensers, stage feedwater heating, extensive lube
along with uncontrolled extraction openings for oil systems and valve gear, and related auxiliary fea-
feedwater heating. Initial steam conditions range up tures.
to 1450 psig and 950 “F with condensing pressures (4) Direct drive vs. geared sets. Direct drive tur-
from 1 1/2 to 4 inches Hga. bines generators turn the turbine shaft at generator
b. Turbine features and accessories. In all size speed. Units 2500 kW and larger are normally direct
ranges, turbine generator sets are supplied by the connected. Small, and especially single stage, tur-
manufacturer with basic accessories as follows: bines may be gear driven for compactness and for
(1) Generator with cooling system, excitation single stage economy. Gear reducers add complex-
and voltage regulator, coupling, and speed reduc- ity and energy losses to the turbine and should be
tion gear, if used. used only after careful consideration of overall econ-
(2) Turbine and generator (and gear) lubrication omy and reliability.
system including tank, pumps, piping, and controls. (5) Mechanical drive. Main turbine units in
(3) Load speed governor, emergency overspeed power plants drive electrical generators, although
governor, and emergency inlet steam trip valve with large pumps or air compressors may also be driven
related hydraulic piping. by large turbines. In this event, the turbines are
(4) Full rigid base plate in small sizes or sepa- called “mechanical drive” turbines. Mechanical
rate mounting sole plates for installation in concrete drive turbines are usually variable speed units with
pedestal for larger units. special governing equipment to adapt to best econ-
(5) Insulation and jacketing, instruments, turn- omy balance between driver (turbine) and driven ma-
ing gear and special tools. chine. Small auxiliary turbines for cycle pumps,

TM 5-811-6

fans, or air compressor drives are usually single duction through the turbine bleed (extraction)
stage, back pressure, direct drive type designed for points.
mechanical simplicity and reliability. Both constant c. Single and multi-valve arrangements. What-
speed and variable speed governors are used de- ever type of governor is used, it will modulate the
pending on the application. turbine inlet valves to regulate steam flow and tur-
b. Arrangement. Turbine generators are horizon- bine output. For machines expected to operate ex-
tal shaft type with horizontally split casings. Rela- tensively at low or partial loads, multi-valve ar-
tively small mechanical drive turbines may be built rangements improve economy. Single valve tur-
with vertical shafts. Turbine rotor shaft is usually bines, in general, have equal economy and efficiency
supported in two sleeve type, self aligning bearings, at rated load, but lower part load efficiencies.
sealed and protected from internal casing steam
conditions. Output shaft is coupled to the shaft of 3-22. Turning gear
the generator which is provided with its own enclo- a. General. For turbines sized 10,000 kW and
sure but is always mounted on the same foundation larger, a motor operated turning gear is required to
as the turbine. prevent the bowing of the turbine rotor created by
(1) Balance. Balanced and integrated design of the temperature differential existing between the
the turbine, coupling and generator moving parts is upper and lower turbine casings during the long pe-
important to successful operation, and freedom riod after shutdown in which the turbine cools down.
from torsional or lateral vibrations as well as pre- The turbine cannot be restarted until it has com-
vention of expansion damage are essential. pletely cooled down without risk of damage to inter-
(2) Foundations. Foundations and pedestals for state packing and decrease of turbine efficiency,
turbine generators will be carefully designed to ac- causing delays in restarting. The turning gear is
commodate and protect the turbine generator, con- mounted at the exhaust end of the turbine and is
denser, and associated equipment. Strength, mass, used to turn the rotor at a speed of 1 to 4 rpm when
stiffness, and vibration characteristics must be con- the turbine is shut down in order to permit uniform
sidered. Most turbine generator pedestals in the cooling of the rotor. Turning gear is also used during
United States are constructed of massive concrete. startup to evenly warm up the rotor before rolling
the turbine with steam and as a jacking device for
3-21. Governing and control turning the rotor as required for inspection and
a. Turbine generators speed/load control. Electri- maintenance when the turbine is shut down.
cal generator output is in the form of synchronized b. Arrangement and controls. The turning gear
ac electrical power, causing the generator and driv- will consist of a horizontal electric motor with a set
ing turbine to rotate at exactly the same speed (or of gear chains and a clutching arrangement which
frequency) as other synchronized generators con- engages a gear ring on the shaft of the turbine. Its
nected into the common network. Basic speed/load controls are arranged for local and/or remote start-
governing equipment is designed to allow each unit ing and to automatically disengage when the tur-
to hold its own load steady at constant frequency, or bine reaches a predetermined speed during startup
to accept its share of load variations, as the common with steam. It is also arranged to automatically en-
frequency rises and falls. Very small machines may gage when the turbine has been shut down and de-
use direct mechanical governors, but the bulk of the celerated to a sufficiently slow speed. Indicating
units will use either mechanical-hydraulic governing lights will be provided to indicate the disengaged or
systems or electrohydraulic systems. Non-reheat engaged status of the turning gear and an interlock
condensing units 5000 kW and larger and back pres- provided to prevent the operation of the turning
sure units without automatic extraction will be gear if the pressure in the turbine lubrication oil sys-
equipped with mechanical-hydraulic governing. For tem is below a predetermined safe setting.
automatic extraction units larger than 20,000 kW,
governing will be specified either with a mechanical- 3-23. Lubrication systems
hydraulic or an electro-hydraulic system. a. General. Every turbine and its driven machine
b. Overspeed governors. All turbines require sep- or generator requires adequate lubricating oil sup
arate safety or overspeed governing systems to in- ply including pressurization, filtration, oil cooling,
sure inlet steam interruption if the machine exceeds and emergency provisions to insure lubrication in
a safe speed for any reason. The emergency gover- the event of a failure of main oil supply. For a typ-
nor closes a specially designed stop valve which not ical turbine generator, an integrated lube oil storage
only shuts off steam flow but also trips various safe- tank with built in normal and emergency pumps is
ty devices to prevent overspeed by flash steam in- usually provided. Oil cooling may be by means of an

TM 5-811-6

external or internal water cooled heat exchanger. Oil extracted steam will not be used or routed to any
temperatures should be monitored and controlled, substantial uses except for feedwater heating.
and heating may be required for startup. b. Automatic extraction. Controlled or automatic
b. Oil Pumps. Two full capacity main lube oil extraction turbines are more elaborate and equipped
pumps will be provided. One will be directly driven with variable internal orifices or valves to modulate
from the turbine shaft for multi-stage machines. internal steam flows so as to maintain extraction
The second full size pump will be ac electric motor pressures within specified ranges. Automatic ex-
driven. An emergency dc motor driven or turbine- traction machine governors provide automatic self-
driven backup pump will be specified to allow or- contained modulation of the internal flow orifices or
derly shutdown during normal startup and shut- valves, using hydraulic operators. Automatic ex-
down when the shaft driven pump cannot maintain traction governing systems can also be adapted to
pressure, or after main pump failure, or in the event respond to external controls or cycle parameters to
of failure of the power supply to the ac electric mo- permit extraction pressures to adjust to changing
tor driven pumps. cycle conditions.
c. Filtration. Strainers and filters are necessary c. Extraction turbine selection. Any automatic
for the protection and longevity of lubricated parts. extraction turbine is more expensive than its
Filters and strainers should be arranged in pairs for straight uncontrolled extraction counterpart of sim-
on line cleaning, inspection, and maintenance. Larg- ilar size, capacity and type; its selection and use re-
er turbine generator units are sometimes equipped quire comprehensive planning studies and economic
with special off base lubrication systems to provide analysis for justification. Sometimes the same ob-
separate, high quality filtering. jective can be achieved by selecting two units, one of
which is an uncontrolled extraction-condensing ma-
3-24. Extraction features chine and the other a back pressure machine.
a. Uncontrolled extraction systems. Uncontrolled 3-25. Instruments and special tools
bleed or extraction openings are merely nozzles in a. Operating instruments. Each turbine will be
the turbine shell between stages through which rela- equipped with appropriate instruments and alarms
tively limited amounts of steam may be extracted to monitor normal and abnormal operating condi-
for stage feedwater heating. Such openings add tions including speed, vibration, shell and rotor ex-
little to the turbine cost as compared with the cost pansions, steam and metal temperatures, rotor
of feedwater heaters, piping, and controls. Turbines straightness, turning gear operation, and various
so equipped are usually rated and will have efficien- steam, oil and hydraulic system pressures.
cies and performance based on normal extraction b. Special took. Particularly for larger machines,
pressures and regenerative feedwater heating calcu- complete sets of special tools, lifting bars, and re-
lations. Uncontrolled extraction opening pressures lated special items are required for organized and ef-
will vary in proportion to turbine steam flow, and fective erection and maintenance.


3-26. Introduction ing water can be a natural body of water such as an
a. Purpose. ocean, a river, or a lake, or it can be from a recircu-
(1) The primary purpose of a condenser and cir- lated source such as a cooling tower or cooling pond.
culating water system is to remove the latent heat In the second step, the heated circulating water is
from the steam exhausted from the exhaust end of rejected to the natural body of water or recirculated
the steam turbine prime mover, and to transfer the source which, in turn, transfers the heat to the at-
latent heat so removed to the circulating water mosphere, principally by evaporative cooling effect.
which is the medium for dissipating this heat to the b. Equipment required—general. Equipment re-
atmosphere. A secondary purpose is to recover the quired for a system depends on the type of system
condensate resulting from the phase change in the utilized. There are two basic types of con-
exhaust steam and to recirculate it as the working densers: surface and direct contact.
fluid in the cycle. There are also two basic types of cooling sys-
(2) Practically, these purposes are accom- tems:
plished in two steps. In the first step, the condenser Once through; and
is supplied with circulating water which serves as a Recirculating type, including cooling ponds, me-
medium for absorbing the latent heat in the con- chanical draft cooling towers, natural draft cooling
densing exhaust steam. The source of this circulat- towers, or a combination of a pond and tower.

TM 5-811-6

3-27. Description of major components to permit variations in level for the condensate con-
a. Surface condensers. trol system.
(1) General description. These units are de- (4) Air removal offtakes. One or more air off-
signed as shell and tube heat exchangers. A surface takes in the steam space lead accumulating air to
condenser consists of a casing or shell with a cham- the air removal pump.
ber at each end called a “water box. ” Tube sheets (5) Tubes.
separate the two water boxes from the center steam (a) The tubes provide the heat transfer sur-
space. Banks of tubes connect the water boxes by face in the condenser are fastened into tube sheets,
piercing the tube sheets; the tubes essentially fill usually made of Muntz metal. Modern designs have
the shell or steam space. Circulating water pumps tubes rolled into both tube sheets; for ultra-tight-
force the cooling (circulating] water through the wa- ness, alloy steel tubes may be welded into tube
ter boxes and the connecting tubes. Uncontami- sheets of appropriate material. Admiralty is the
. most common tube material and frequently is satis-
nated condensate is recovered in surface condensers
since the cooling water does not mix with the con- factory for once through systems using fresh water
densing steam. Steam pressure in a condenser (or and for recirculating systems. Tube material in the
* vacuum) depends mainly on the flow rate and tem- “off gas” section of the condenser should be stain-
perature of the cooling water and on the effective- less steel because of the highly corrosive effects of
ness of air removal equipment. carbon dioxide and ammonia in the presence of
(2) Passes and water boxes. moisture and oxygen. These gases are most concen-
(a) Tubing and water boxes may be arranged trated in this section. Other typical condenser tube
for single pass or two pass flow of water through the materials include:
shell. In single pass units, water enters the water (1) Cupronickel
box at one end of the tubes, flows once through all (2) Aluminum bronze
the tubes in parallel, and leaves through the outlet (3) Aluminim brass
water box at the opposite end of the tubes. In two (4) Various grades of stainless steel
pass units, water flows through the bottom half of (b) Condenser tube water velocities range
the tubes (sometimes the top half) in one direction, from 6 to 9 feet per second (Table 3- 12). Higher flow
reverses in the far end water box, and returns rates raise pumping power requirements and erode
L through the upper or lower half of the tubes to the tubes at their entrances, thus shortening their life
near water box. Water enters and leaves through the expectancy. Lower velocities are inefficient from a
near water box which is divided into two chambers heat transfer point of view. Tubes are generally in-
by a horizontal plate. The far end water box is undi- stalled with an upwardly bowed arc. This provides
vided to permit reversal of flow. for thermal expansion, aids drainage in a shutdown
(b) For a relatively large cooling water source condenser, and helps prevent tube vibration.
and low circulating water pump heads (hence low b. Direct contact condensers. Direct contact con-
unit pumping energy costs), single pass units will be densers will not be specified.
. c. Condenser auxiliaries.
used. For limited cooling water supplies and high
circulating water pump heads (hence high unit (1) General. A condenser needs equipment and
pumping energy costs), two pass condensers will be conduits to move cooling water through the tubes,
< specified. In all cases, the overall condenser-circulat- remove air from the steam space, and extract con-
ing water system must be optimized by the designer densate from the hotwell. Such equipment and con-
to arrive at the best combination of condenser sur- duits will include:
face, temperature, vacuum, circulating water (a) Circulating water pumps.
pumps, piping, and ultimate heat rejection equip- (b) Condensate or hotwell pumps.
ment. (c) Air removal equipment and piping.
(c) Most large condensers, in addition to the (d) Priming ejectors.
inlet waterbox horizontal division, have vertical par- (e) Atmospheric relief valve.
titions to give two separate parallel flow paths (f) Inlet water tunnel, piping, canal, or com-
through the shell. This permits taking half the con- bination of these conduits.
densing surface our of service for cleaning while wa- (g) Discharge water tunnel, piping or canal,
ter flows through the other half to keep the unit run- or combination of these conduits.
ning at reduced load. (2) Circulating water pumps. A condenser uses
(3) Hot well. The hot well stores the condensate 75 to 100 pounds of circulating water per pound of
‘L and keeps a net positive suction head on the conden- steam condensed. Hence, large units need substan-
sate pumps. Hot well will have a capacity of at least tial water flows; to keep pump work to a minimum,
3 minutes maximum condensing load for surges and top of condenser water boxes in a closed system will

TM 5-811-6

Table 3-12. Condenser Tube Design Velocities.

Material Design Velocities fps

Fresh Water Brackish Water Salt Water

Admiralty Metal 7.0 (1) (1)

Aluminum Brass(2) 8.0 7.0 7.0

Copper-Nickel Alloys:

90-10 8.0 8.0 7.0 to 7.5

80-20 8.0 8.0 7.0 to 7.5
70-30 9.0 9.0 8.0 to 8.5

Stainless Steel 9.0 to 9.5 8 . 0( 3 ) 8 . 0( 3 )

Aluminum (4) 8.0 7.0 6.8


(1) Not normally used, but if used, velocity shall not exceed 6.0 fps.

(2) For salt and brackish water , velocities in excess of 6.8 fps are
not recommended.

(3) Minimum velocity of 5.5 fps to prevent chloride attack.

(4) Not recommended for circulating water containing high concentration

of heavy metal salts.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

not be higher than approximately 27 feet above min- pumps handle much smaller flows than the circulat-
imum water source level which permits siphon oper- ing water pumps. They must develop heads to push
ation without imposing static head. With a siphon water through atmospheric pressure, pipe and con-
system, air bubbles tend to migrate to the top of the trol valve friction, closed heater water circuit fric-
system and must be removed with vacuum-produc- tion, and the elevation of the deaerator storage tank.
ing equipment. The circulating pumps then need to These pumps take suction at low pressure of two
develop only enough head to overcome the flow re- inches Hg absolute or less and handle water at sat-
sistance of the circulating water circuit. Circulating uration temperature; to prevent flashing of the con-
pumps for condensers are generally of the centrif- densate, they are mounted below the hotwell to re-
ugal type for horizontal pumps, and either mixed ceive a net positive suction head. Modern vertical
flow or propeller type for vertical pumps. Vertical “can” type pumps will be used. Specially designed
pumps will be specified because of their adaptability pump glands prevent air leakage into the conden-
for intake structures and their ability to handle high sate, and vents from the pump connecting to the va-
capacities at relatively low heads. Pump material por space in the condenser prevent vapor binding.
will be selected for long life. (4) Spare pumps. Two 100 percent pumps for
(3) Condensate pumps. Condensate (or hotwell) both circulating water and condensate service will
TM 5-811-6

be specified. If the circulating water system serves (a) Intake structure.

more than one condenser, there will be one circulat- (b) Discharge, or outfall.
ing pump per condenser with an extra pump as a (c) Trash racks.
common spare. Condensate pump capacity will be (d) Traveling screens.
sized to handle the maximum condenser load under (e) Circulating water pumps.
any condition of operation (e.g., with automatic ex- (f) Circulating water pump structure (indoor
traction to heating or process shutoff and including or outdoor).
all feedwater heater drains and miscellaneous drips (g) Circulating water canals, tunnels, and
received by the condenser.) pipework.
(5) Air removal. (2) System operation.
(a) Non-condensable gases such as air, carbon (a) The circulating water system functions as
dioxide, and hydrogen migrate continuously into follows. Water from an ocean, river, lake, or pond
the steam space of a condenser inasmuch as it is the flows either directly from the source to the circulat-
lowest pressure region in the cycle. These gases may ing water structure or through conduits which bring
enter through leakage at glands, valve bonnets, por- water from offshore; the inlet conduits discharge
ous walls, or may be in the throttle steam. Those into a common plenum which is part of the circulat-
gases not dissolved by the condensate diffuse ing water pump structure. Water flows through bar
throughout the steam space of the condenser. As trash racks which protect the traveling screens from
these gases accumulate, their partial pressure raises damage by heavy debris and then through traveling
the condenser total pressure and hence decreases ef- screens where smaller debris is removed. For large
ficiency of the turbine because of loss of available systems, a motor operated trash rake can be in-
energy. The total condenser pressure is: stalled to clear the bar trash racks of heavy debris.
Pc = PS + Pa In case the traveling screens become clogged, or to
where Ps = steam saturation pressure cor- prevent clogging, they are periodically backwashes
responding to steam tempera- by a high pressure water jet system. The backwash
ture is returned to the ocean or other body of water. Each
Pa = air pressure (moisture free) separate screen well is provided with stop logs and
This equation shows that air leakage must be re- sluice gates to allow dewatering for maintenance
L moved constantly to maintain lowest possible vac- purposes.
uum for the equipment selected and the particular (b) The water for each screen flows to the suc-
exhaust steam loading. In removing this air, it will tion of the circulating water pumps. For small sys-
always have some entrained vapor. Because of its tems, two 100-percent capacity pumps will be se-
subatmospheric pressure, the mixture must be com- lected while for larger systems, three 50-percent
pressed for discharge to atmosphere. pumps will be used. At least one pump is required
(b) Although the mass of air leakage to the for standby. Each pump will be equipped with a mo-
. condenser may be relatively small because of its torized butterfly valve for isolation purposes. The
very low pressure, its removal requires handling of a pumps discharge into a common circulating water
large volume by the air removal equipment. The air tunnel or supply pipe which may feed one or more
offtakes withdraw the air-vapor moisture from the condensers. Also, a branch line delivers water to the
steam space over a cold section of the condenser booster pumps serving the closed cooling water ex-
tubes or through an external cooler, which con- changers.
denses part of the moisture and increases the air-to- (c) Both inlet and outlet water boxes of the
steam ratio. Steam jets or mechanical vacuum main condensers will be equipped with butterfly
pumps receive the mixture and compress it to at- valves for isolation purposes and expansion joints.
mosphere pressure. As mentioned above, the system may have the capa-
(6) Condenser cleanliness. Surface condenser bility to reverse flow in each of the condenser halves
performance depends greatly on the cleanliness of for cleaning the tubes. The frequency and duration
the tube water side heat transfer surface. When of the condenser reverse flow or back wash opera-
dirty fresh water or sea water is used in the circulat- tion is dictated by operating experience.
ing water system, automatic backflush or mechan- (d) The warmed circulating water from the
ical cleaning systems will be specified for on line condensers and closed cooling water exchangers is
cleaning of the interior condenser tube surfaces. discharged to the ocean, river, lake, or pond via a
d. Circulating water system–once through common discharge tunnel.
(1) System components. A typical once through (3) Circulating water pump setting. The circu-
circulating water system, shown in figure 3-13, con- lating water pumps are designed to remain operable
sists of the following components: with the water level at the lowest anticipated eleva-

TM 5-811-6


Figure 3-13. Types of circulating water systems.

tion of the selected source. This level is a function of e. Circulating water system—recirculating type
the neap tide for an ocean source and seasonal level (1) General discussion.
variations for a natural lake or river. Cooling ponds (a) With a once-through system, the evapora-
are usually man-made with the level controlled with- tive losses responsible for rejecting heat to the at-
in modest limits. The pump motors and valve motor mosphere occur in the natural body of water as the
operators will be located so that no electrical parts warmed circulating water is mixed with the residual
will be immersed in water at the highest anticipated water and is cooled over a period of time by evapora-
elevation of the water source. tion and conduction heat transfer. With a recircula-
(4) System pressure control. On shutdown of a tion system, the same water constantly circulates;
circulating water pump, water hammer is avoided evaporative losses responsible for rejecting heat to
by ensuring that the pumps coast down as the pump the atmosphere occur in the cooling equipment and
isolation valves close. System hydraulics, circulat- must be replenished at the power plant site. Recircu-
ing pump coastdown times, and system isolation lating systems can utilize one of the following for
valve closing times must be analyzed to preclude heat rejection:
damage to the system due to water hammer. The (1) A natural draft, hyperbolic cooling tow-
condenser tubes and water boxes are to be designed er.
for a pressure of approximately 25 psig which is well (2) A mechanical draft cooling tower, us-
above the ordinary maximum discharge pressure of ually induced draft.
the circulating water pumps, but all equipment (3) A spray pond with a network of piping
must be protected against surge pressures caused serving banks of spray nozzles.
by sudden collapse of system pressure. (b) Very large, man-made ponds which take
(5) Inspection and testing. All active compo- advantage of natural evaporative cooling may be
nents of the circulating water system will be accessi- considered as “recirculating” systems, although for
ble for inspection during station operation. design purposes of the circulating water system

TM 5-811-6

they are once through and hence considered as such ratings for the pumps and condensers will be speci-
in paragraph d above. fied.
(c) To avoid fogging and plumes which are (4) Cooling tower design.
characteristic of cooling towers under certain at- (a) In an induced draft mechanical cooling
mospheric conditions in humid climates, so called tower, atmospheric air enters the louvers at the bot-
wet-dry cooling towers may be used. These towers tom perimeter of the tower, flows up through the
use a combination of finned heat transfer surface fill, usually counterflow to the falling water drop
and evaporative cooling to eliminate the fog and vis- lets, and is ejected to the atmosphere in saturated
ible plume. The wet-dry types of towers are expen- condition thus carrying off the operating load of
sive and not considered in this manual. Hyperbolic heat picked up in the condenser. Placement and ar-
towers also are expensive and are not applicable to rangement of the tower or towers on the power sta-
units less than 300-500 M W; while spray ponds tion site will be carefully planned to avoid recircula-
have limited application (for smaller units) because tion of saturated air back into the tower intake and
of the large ground area required and the problem of to prevent drift from the tower depositing on elec-
excessive drift. Therefore, the following descriptive trical buses and equipment in the switchyard, road-
material applies only to conventional induced draft ways and other areas where the drift could be detri-
cooling towers which, except for very special cir- mental.
cumstances, will be the choice for a military power (b) Hot circulating water from the condenser
plant requiring a recirculating type system. enters the distribution header at the top of the tow-
(2) System components. A typical recirculating er. In conventional towers about 75 percent of the
system with a mechanical draft cooling tower con- cooling takes place be evaporation and the re-
sists of the following components: mainder by heat conduction; the ratio depends on
(a) Intake structure which is usually an ex- the humidity of the entering air and various factors.
tension of the cooling tower basin. (5) Cooling tower performance. The principal
(b) Circulating water pumps. performance factor of a cooling tower is its approach
(c) Circulating water piping or tunnels to con- to the wet bulb temperature; this is the difference
densers and from condensers to top of cooling tower. between the cold water temperature leaving the tow-
(d) Cooling tower with makeup and blowdown er and the wet bulb temperature of the entering air.
systems. The smaller the approach, the more efficient and ex-
(3) System operation. pensive the tower. Another critical factor is the cool-
(a) The recirculating system functions as fol- ing range. This is the difference between the hot wa-
lows. Cooled water from the tower basin is directed ter temperature entering the tower and the cold wa-
to the circulating water pump pit. The pit is similar ter temperature leaving it is essentially the same as
to the intake structure for a once through system ex- the circulating water temperature rise in the conden-
cept it is much simpler because trash racks or trav- ser. Practically, tower approaches are 8 to 15°F with
eling screens are not required, and the pit setting ranges of 18 to 22°F. Selection of approach and
can be designed without reference to levels of a nat- range for a tower is the subject for an economic opti-
ural body of water. The circulating water pumps mization which should include simultaneous selec-
pressure the water and direct it to the condensers tion of the condensers as these two major items of
through the circulating water discharge piping. A equipment are interdependent.
stream of circulating water is taken off from the (6) Cooling tower makeup.
main condenser supply and by means of booster (a) Makeup must be continuously added to
pumps further pressurized as required for bearing the tower collecting basin to replace water lost by
cooling, generator cooling, and turbine generator oil evaporation and drift. In many cases, the makeup
cooling. From the outlet of the condensers and mis- water must be softened to prevent scaling of heat
cellaneous cooling services, the warmed circulating transfer surfaces; this will be accomplished by
water is directed to the top of the cooling tower for means of cold lime softening. Also the circulating
rejection of heat to the atmosphere. water must be treated with bioxides and inhibitors
(b) Circulating water pump and condenser while in use to kill algae, preserve the fill, and pre-
valving is similar to that described for a typical vent metal corrosion and fouling. Algae control is
once-through system, but no automatic back flush- accomplished by means of chlorine injection; acid
ing or mechanical cleaning system is required for and phosphate feeds are used for pH control and to
the condenser. Also, due to the higher pumping keep heat surfaces clean.
heads commonly required for elevating water to the (b) The circulating water system must be
top of the tower and the break in water pressure at blown down periodically to remove the accumulated
that point which precludes a siphon, higher pressure solid concentrated by evaporation.

TM 5-811-6

3-28. Environmental concerns (a) Entrapment or fish kill.

a. Possible problems. Some of the environmental (b) Migration of aquatic life.
concerns which have an impact on various types of (c) Thermal discharge.
power plant waste heat rejection systems are as fol- (d) Chemical discharge.
lows: (e) Effect of plankton.
(1) Compatibility of circulating water system (8) Effect on animal and bird life.
with type of land use allocated to the surrounding (9) Possible obstruction to aircraft (usually only
area of the power plant. a problem for tall hyperbolic towers).
(2) Atmospheric ground level fogging from (10) Obstruction to ship and boat navigation
cooling tower. (for once through system intakes or navigable
(3) Cooling tower plumes. streams or bodies of water).
(4) Ice formation on adjacent roads, buildings b. Solutions to problems. Judicious selection of
and structures in the winter. the type of circulating water system and optimum
(5) Noise from cooling tower fans and circulat- orientation of the power plant at the site can mini-
ing water pumps. mize these problems. However, many military proj-
(6) Salts deposition on the contiguous country- ects will involve cogeneration facilities which may
side as the evaporated water from the tower is ab- require use of existing areas where construction of
sorbed in the atmosphere and the entrained chemi- cooling towers may present serious on base prob-
cals injected in the circulating water system fallout. lems and, hence, will require innovative design solu-
(7) Effect on aquatic life for once though sys- tions.

3-29. Feedwater heaters off in deaerator pressure under an upset condition.

a. Open type—deaerators. Access will be provided for heater maintenance and
(1) Purpose. Open type feedwater heaters are for reading and maintaining heater instrumenta-
used primarily to reduce feedwater oxygen and oth- tion.
er noncondensable gases to essentially zero and thus (4) Design criteria.
decrease corrosion in the boiler and boiler feed sys- (a) Deaerating heaters and storage tanks will
tem. Secondarily, they are used to increase thermal comply with the latest revisions of the following
efficiency as part of the regenerative feedwater heat- standards:
ing cycle. (1) ASME Unified Pressure Vessel Code.
(2) Types. (2) ASME Power Test Code for Deaerators.
(a) There are two basic types of open deaerat- (3) Heat Exchanger Institute (HE I).
ing heaters used in steam power plants—tray type (4) American National Standards Institute
and spray type. The tray or combination spray/tray (ANSI).
type unit will be used. In plants where heater tray (b) Steam pressure to the deaerating heater
maintenance could be a problem, or where the feed- will not be less than three psig.
water has a high solids content or is corrosive, a (c) Feedwater leaving the deaerator will con-
spray type deaerator will be considered. tain no more than 0.005 cc/liter of oxygen and zero
(b) All types of deaerators will have internal residual carbon dioxide. Residual content of the dis-
or external vent condensers, the internal parts of solved gases will be consistent with their relative
which will be protected from corrosive gases and volubility and ionization.
oxidation by chloride stress resistant stainless steel. (d) Deaerator storage capacity will be not less
(c) In cogeneration plants where large than ten minutes in terms of maximum design flow
amounts of raw water makeup are required, a deaer- through the unit.
ating hot process softener will be selected depending (e) Deaerator will have an internal or external
on the steam conditions and the type of raw water oil separator if the steam supply may contain oil,
being treated (Section IX, paragraph 3-38 and such as from a reciprocating steam engine.
3-39). (f) Deaerating heater will be provided with
(3) Location. The deaerating heater should be the following minimum instrumentation: relief
located to maintain a pressure higher than the valve, thermometer, thermocouple and test well at
NPSH required by the boiler feed pumps under all feedwater inlet and outlet, and steam inlet; pressure
conditions of operation. This means providing a gauge at feedwater and steam inlets; and a level con-
margin of static head to compensate for sudden fall trol system (paragraph c).

TM 5-811-6

b. Closed type. actual plant cycle.

(1) Purpose. along with the deaerating heater, (2) Closed feedwater heaters.
closed feedwater heaters are used in a regenerative (a) Closed feedwater heater drains are usually
feedwater cycle to increase thermal efficiency and cascaded to the next lowest stage feedwater heater
thus provide fuel savings. An economic evaluation or to the condenser, A normal and emergency drain
will be made to determine the number of stages of line from each heater will be provided. At high loads
feedwater heating to be incorporated into the cycle. with high extraction steam pressure, the normal
Condensing type steam turbine units often have heater drain valve cascades drain to the next lowest
both low pressure heaters (suction side of the boiler stage heater to control its own heater level. At low
feed pumps) and high pressure heaters (on the dis- loads with lower extraction steam pressure and low-
charge side of the feed pumps). The economic anal- er pressure differential between successive heaters,
ysis of the heaters should consider a desuperheater sufficient pressure may not be available to allow the
section when there is a high degree of superheat in drains to flow to the next lowest stage heater. In
the steam to the heater and an internal or external this case, an emergency drain valve will be provided
drain cooler (using entering condensate or boiler to cascade to a lower stage heater or to the conden-
feedwater) to reduce drains below steam saturation ser to hold the predetermined level.
temperature. (b) The following minimum instrumentation
(2) Type. The feedwater heaters will be of the U- will be supplied to provide adequate level control at
tube type. each heater: gauge glass; level controller to modu-
(3) Location. Heaters will be located to allow late normal drain line control valve (if emergency
easy access for reading and maintaining heater in- drain line control valve is used, controller must
strumentation and for pulling the tube bundle or have a split range); and high water level alarm
heater shell. High pressure heaters will be located to switch.
provide the best economic balance of high pressure (3) Open feedwater heaters-deaerators. The fol-
feedwater piping, steam piping and heater drain pip lowing minimum instrumentation will be supplied
ing. to provide adequate level control at the
(4) Design criteria heater: gauge glass, level controller to control feed-
(a) Heaters will comply with the latest revi- water inlet control waive (if more than one feedwater
sions of the following standards: inlet source, controller must have a split range); low
(1) ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code. water level alarm switch; “low-low” water level
(2) ASME Power Test Code for Feedwater alarm switch to sound alarm and trip boiler feed
Heaters. pumps, or other pumps taking suction from heater;
(3) Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers As- high water level alarm switch; and “high-high” wa-
sociation (TEMA). ter level controller to remove water from the deaer-
(4) Heat Exchanger Institute (HE I). ator to the condenser or flash tank, or to divert feed-
(5) American National Standards Institute water away from the deaerator by opening a divert-
(ANSI). ing valve to dump water from the feedwater line to
(b) Each feedwater heater will be provided the condenser or condensate storage tank.
with the following minimum instrumentation: shell (4) Reference. The following papers should be
and tube relief valves; thermometer, thermocouple consulted in designing feedwater level control sys-
and test well at feedwater inlet and outlet; steam in- tems, particularly in regard to the prevention of wa-
let and drain outlet; pressure gauge at feedwater in- ter induction through extraction piping
let and outlet, and steam inlet; and level control sys- (a) ASMD Standard TWDPS-1, July 1972,
tem. “Recommended Practices for the Prevention of Wa-
c. Level control systems. ter Damage to Steam Turbines Used for Electric
(1) Purpose. Level control systems are required Power Generation (Part 1- Fossil Fueled Plants).”
for all open and closed feedwater heaters to assure (b) General Electric Company Standard
efficient operation of each heater and provide for GEK-25504, Revision D, “Design and Operating
protection of other related power plant equipment. Recommendations to Minimize Water Induction in
The level control system for the feedwater heaters is Large Steam Turbines.”
an integrated part of a plant cycle level control sys- (c) Westinghouse Standard, “Recommenda-
tem which includes the condenser hotwell and the tion to Minimize Water Damage to Steam Tur-
boiler level controls, and must be designed with this bines.”
in mind. This paragraph sets forth design criteria
which are essential to a feedwater heater level con- 3-30. Boiler feed pumps.
trol system. Modifications may be required to fit the a. General. Boiler feed pumps are used to pressur-

TM 5-811-6

ize water from the deaerating feedwater heater or whenever the pump is in operation. The control sys-
deaerating hot process softener and feed it through tem will consist off
any high pressure closed feedwater heaters to the (a) Flow element to be installed in the pump
boiler inlet. Discharge from the boiler superheated suction line.
steam in order to maintain proper main steam tern- (b) Flow controller.
perature to the steam turbine generator. (c) Flow control valve.
b. Types. There are two types of centrifugal (d) Breakdown orifice.
multi-stage boiler feed pumps commonly used in (2) Whenever the pump flow decreases to mini-
steam power plants—horizontally split case and bar- mum required flow, as measured by the flow ele-
rel type with horizontal or vertical (segmented) split ment in the suction line, the flow controller will be
inner case. The horizontal split case type will be designed to open the flow control valve to maintain
used on boilers with rated outlet pressures up to 900 minimum pump flow. The recirculation line will be
psig. Barrel type pumps will be used on boilers with discharge to the deaerator. A breakdown orifice will
rated outlet pressure in excess of 900 psig. be installed in the recirculation line just before it en-
c. Number of pumps. In all cases, at least one ters the deaerator to reduce the pressure from boiler
spare feed pump will be provided. feed pump discharge level to deaerator operating
(1) For power plants where one battery of boiler pressure.
feed pumps feeds one boiler. f. Design criteria.
(a) If the boiler is base loaded most of the (1) Boiler feed pumps will comply with the lat-
time at a high load factor, then use two pumps each est revisions of the following standards:
at 110-125 percent of boiler maximum steaming ca- (a) Hydraulics Institute (HI).
pacity. (b) American National Standards Institute
(b) If the boiler is subject to daily wide range (ANSI).
load swings, use three pumps at 55-62.5 percent of (2) Pump head characteristics will be maximum
boiler maximum steaming capacity. With this ar- at zero flow with continuously decreasing head as
rangement, two pumps are operated in parallel be- flow increases to insure stable operation of one
tween 50 and 100 percent boiler output, but only one pump, or multiple pumps in parallel, at all loads.
pump is operated below 50 percent capacity. This ar- (3) Pumps will operate quietly at all loads with-
rangement allows for pump operation in its most ef- out internal flashing and operate continuously with-
ficient range and also permits a greater degree of out overheating or objectionable noises at minimum
flexibility. recirculation flow.
(2) For power plants where one battery of pump (4) Provision will be made in pump design for
feeds more than one boiler through a header system, expansion of
the number of pumps and rating will be chosen to (a) Casing and rotor relative to one another.
provide optimum operating efficiency and capital (b) Casing relative to the base.
costs. At least three 55-62.5 percent pumps should (c) Pump rotor relative to the shaft of the
be selected based on maximum steaming capacity of driver.
all boilers served by the battery to provide the flexi- (d) Inner and outer casing for double casing
bility required for a wide range of total feedwater pumps.
flows. (5) All rotating parts will be balanced statically
d. Location. The boiler feed pumps will be located and dynamically for all speeds.
at the lowest plant level with the deaerating heater (6) Pump design will provide axial as well as ra-
or softener elevated sufficiently to maintain pump dial balance of the rotor at all outputs.
suction pressure higher than the required NPSH of (7) One end of the pump shaft will be accessible
the pump under all operating conditions. This for portable tachometer measurements.
means a substantial margin over the theoretically (8) Each pump will be provided with a pump
calculated requirements to provide for pressures col- warmup system so that when it is used as a standby
lapses in the dearator under abnormal operating it can be hot, ready for quick startup. This is done
conditions. Deaerator level will never be decreased by connecting a small bleed line and orifice from the
for structural or aesthetic reasons, and suction pipe common discharge header to the pump discharge in-
connecting deaerator to boiler feed pumps should be side of the stop and check valve. Hot water can then
sized so that friction loss is negligible. flow back through the pump and open suction valve
e. Recirculation control system. to the common suction header, thus keeping the
(1) To prevent overheating and pump damage, pump at operating temperature.
each boiler feed pump will have its own recirculation (9) Pump will be designed so that it will start
control system to maintain minimum pump flow safely from a cold start to full load in 60 seconds in
TM 5-811-6

an emergency, although it will normally be warmed steam, the extraction steam, and the high pressure
before starting as described above. feedwater system. If there are low pressure closed
(10) Other design criteria should be as forth in heaters incorporated into the prime movers, the con-
Military Specification MIL-P-17552D. densate system usually remains independent for
g. Pump drives. For military plants, one steam each such prime mover; however, the deaerator and
turbine driven pump may be justified under certain boiler feed pumps are frequently common for all
conditions; e.g., if the plant is isolated, or if it is a co- boilers although paralleling of independent high
generation plant or there is otherwise a need for sub- pressure heater trains (if part of the cycle) on the
stantial quantities of exhaust steam. Usually, how- feedwater side maybe incorporated if high pressure
ever, adequate reliability can be incorporated into bleeds on the primer movers are uncontrolled. Each
the feed pumps by other means, and from a plant ef- cogeneration feedwater system must carefully be de-
ficiency point of view it is always better to bleed signed to suit the basic parameters of the cycle. Lev-
steam ‘from the prime mover(s) rather than to use el control problems can become complex, particu-
steam from an inefficient mechanical drive turbine. larly if the cycle includes multiple deaerators operat-
ing in parallel.
3-31. Feedwater supply c. Feedwater controls. Condensate pumps, boiler
a. General description. feed pumps, deaerator, and closed feedwater heaters
(1) In general terms, the feedwater supply in- are described as equipment items under other head-
cludes the condensate system as well as the boiler ings in this manual. Feedwater system controls will
feed system. consist of the following
(2) The condensate system includes the conden- (1) Condenser hotwell level controls which con-
sate pumps, condensate piping, low pressure closed trol hotwell level by recirculating condensate from
heaters, deaerator, and condensate system level and the condensate pump discharge to the hotwell, by
makeup controls. Cycle makeup may be introduced extracting excess fluid from the cycle and pumping
either into the condenser hotwell or the deaerator. it to atmospheric condensate storage (surge) tanks,
For large quantities of makeup as in cogeneration and by introducing makeup (usually from the same
plants, the deaerator maybe preferred as it contains condensate storage tanks) into the hotwell to replen-
a larger surge volume. The condenser, however, is ish cycle fluid.
better for this purpose when makeup is of high pur- (2) Condensate pump minimum flow controls to
ity and corrosive (demineralized and undeaerated). recirculate sufficient condensate back to the con-
With this arrangement, corrosive demineralized wa- denser hotwell to prevent condensate pumps from
ter can be deaerated in the condenser hotwell; the overheating.
excess not immediately required for cycle makeup is (3) Deaerator level controls to regulate amount
extracted and pumped to an atmospheric storage of condensate transferred from condenser hotwell to
tank where it will be passive in its deaerated state. deaerator and, in an emergency, to overflow excess
As hotwell condensate is at a much lower tempera- water in the deaerator storage tank to the conden-
ture than deaerator condensate, the heat loss in the sate storage tank(s).
atmospheric storage tank is much less with this ar- (4) Numerous different control systems are pos-
rangement. sible for all three of the above categories. Regardless
(3) The feedwater system includes the boiler of the method selected, the hotwell and the deaer-
feed pumps, high pressure closed heaters, boiler feed ator level controls must be closely coordinated and
suction and discharge piping, feedwater level con- integrated because the hotwell and deaerator tank
trols for the boiler, and boiler desuperheater water are both surge vessels in the same fluid system.
supply with its piping and controls. (5) Other details on instruments and controls
b. Unit vs. common system. Multiple unit cogen- for the feedwater supply are described under Section
eration plants producing export steam as well as 1 of Chapter 5, Instruments and Controls.
electric will always have ties for the high pressure

3-32. Introduction heavily contaminated or sedimented fresh circulat-

ing water.
a. Definitions and purposes. Service water supply (a) Most power stations, other than those
systems and subsystems can be categorized as fol- with cooling towers, fall into this category. Circulat-
lows: ing water booster pumps increase the pressure of a
(1) For stations with salt circulating water or (small) part of the circulating water to a level ade-

TM 5-811-6

quate to circulate through closed cooling water ex- (thermometers, pressure gages, and flow indicators)
changers. If the source is fresh water, these pumps should be incorporated into the system to allow
may also supply water to the water treating system. monitoring of equipment cooling.
Supplementary sources of water such as the area
public water supply or well water may be used for 3-33. Description of major components
potable use and/or as a supply to the water treating a. Service water systerm.
system. In some cases, particularly for larger sta- (1) Circulating water booster (or service water)
tions, the service water system may have its pumps pumps. These pumps are motor driven, horizontal
divorced from the circulating water pumps to pro- (or vertical) centrifugal type. Either two 100-per-
vide more flexibility y and reliability. cent or three 50-percent pumps will be selected for
(b) The closed cooling water exchangers this duty. Three pumps provide more flexibility; de-
transfer rejected heat from the turbine generator pending upon heat rejection load and desired water .
lube oil and generator air (or hydrogen) coolers, bear- temperature, one pump or two pumps can be oper-
ings and incidental use to the circulating water side- ated with the third pump standing by as a spare. A
stream pressurized by the booster pumps. The medi- pressure switch on the common discharge line
um used for this transfer is cycle condensate which alarms high pressure, and in the case of the booster
recirculates between the closed cooling exchangers pumps a pressure switch on the suction header or in-
and the ultimate equipment where heat is removed. terlocks with the circulating water pumps provides
This closed cooling cycle has its own circulating permissive to prevent starting the pumps unless
(closed cooling water) pumps, expansion tank and the circulating water system is in operation.
temperature controls. (2) Temperature control. In the event the sys-
(2) For stations with cooling towers. Circulat- tem serves heat rejection loads directly, temper-
ing water booster pumps (or separate service water ature control for each equipment where heat is re-
pumps). may also be used for this type of power moved will be by means of either automatic or man-
plant. In the case of cooling tower systems, how- ually controlled valves installed on the cooling wa-
ever, the treated cooling tower circulating water can ter discharge line from each piece of equiment, or by
be used directly in the turbine generator lube oil and using a by-pass arrangement to pass variable
generator air (or hydrogen) coolers and various other amounts of water through the equipment without
services where a condensate quality cooling medium upsetting system hydraulic balance.
is unnecessary. This substantially reduces the size b. Closed cooling water system.
of a closed cooling system because the turbine gen- (1) Closed cooling water pumps. The closed
erator auxiliary cooling requirements are the largest cooling water pumps will be motor driven, horizon-
heat rejection load other than that required for the tal, end suction, centrifugal type with two 100-per-
main condenser. If a closed cooling system is used cent or three 50-percent pumps as recommended for
for a station with a cooling tower, it should be de- the pumps described in a above.
signed to serve equipment such as air compressor (2) Closed cooling water heat exchangers. The
cylinder jackets and after coolers, excitation system closed cooling water exchangers will be horizontal
coolers, hydraulic system fluid coolers, boiler TV shell and tube test exchangers with the treated
cameras, and other similar more or less delicate plant cycle condensate on the shell side and circulat-
service. If available, city water, high quality well ing (service) water on the tube side. Two 100-per-
water, or other clean water source might be used for cent capacity exchangers will be selected for this
this delicate equipment cooling service and thus service, although three 50-percent units may be se-
eliminate the closed cooling water system. lected for large systems.
b. Equipment required—general. Equipment re- (3) Temperature control. Temperature control
quired for each system is as follows: for each equipment item rejecting heat will be simi-
(1) Service water system lar to that described above for the service water sys-
(a) Circulating water booster pumps (or sepa- tem.
rate service water pumps).
(b) Piping components, valves, specialities 3-34. Description of systems
and instrumentation. a. Service water system.
(2) Closed cooling water system. (1) The service water system heat load is the
(a) Cosed cooling water circulating pumps. sum of the heat loads for the closed cooling water
(b) Closed cooling water heat exchangers. system and any other station auxiliary systems
(c) Expansion tank. which may be included. The system is designed to
(d) Piping components, valves, specialities maintain the closed cooling water system supply
and instrumentation. Adequate instrumentation temperature at 950 For less during normal operation
TM 5-811-6

with maximum heat rejection load. The system will vide means to start a standby pump automatically.
also be capable of being controlled or manually ad- (2) The system will be designed to ensure ade-
justed so that a minimum closed cooling water sup quate heat removal based on the assumption that all
ply temperature of approximately 55 ‘F can be service equipment will be operating at maximum de-
maintained with the ultimate heat sink at its lowest sign conditions.
temperature and minimum head load on the closed
cooling water system. The service water system will 3-35. Arrangement
be designed with adequate backup and other reli- a. Service water system. The circulating water
ability features to provide the required cooling to booster pumps will be located as close as possible to
components as necessary for emergency shutdown the cooling load center which generally will be near
of the plant. In the case of a system with circulating the turbine generator units. All service water piping
water booster pumps, this may mean a crossover located in the yard will be buried below the frost
from a city or well water system or a special small line.
circulating water pump. b. Closed cooling water system. The closed cool-
(2) Where cooling towers are utilized, means ing water system exchangers will be located near
will be provided at the cooling tower basin to permit the turbine generators.
the service water system to remain in operation
while the cooling tower is down for maintenance or 3-36. Reliability of systems
(3) The system will be designed such that opera- It is of utmost importance that the service and
tional transients (e.g., pump startup or water ham- closed cooling water systems be maintained in serv-
mer due to power failure) do not cause adverse ef- ice during emergency conditions. In the event power
fects in the system. Where necessary, suitable valv- from the normal auxiliary source is lost, the motor
ing or surge control devices will be provided. driven pumps and electrically actuated devices will
b. Closed cooling water system. be automatically supplied by the emergency power
(1) The closed cooling water coolant tempera- source (Chapter 4, Section VII). Each standby pump
ture is maintained at a constant value by automatic will be designed for manual or automatic startup
control of the service water flow through the heat upon loss of an operating pump with suitable alarms
exchanger. This is achieved by control valve modu- incorporated to warn operators of loss of pressure in
lation of the heat exchanger by-pass flow. All equip- either system.
ment cooled by the cooling system is individually
temperature controlled by either manual or auto- 3-37. Testing
matic valves on the coolant discharge from, or by The systems will be designed to allow appropriate
by-pass control around each piece of equipment. The initial and periodic testing to:
quantity of coolant in the system is automatically u. Permit initial hydrostatic testing as required in
maintained at a predetermined level in the expan- the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
sion tank by means of a level controller which oper- b. Assure the operability and the performance of
ates a control valve supplying makeup from the the active components of the system.
cycle condensate system. The head tank is provided c. Permit testing of individual components or
with an emergency overflow. On a failure of a run- subsystems such that plant safety is not impaired
ning closed cooling water pump, it is usual to pro- and that undesirable transients are not present.


3-38. Water Conditioning Selection sure boiler used in power generation.

a. Purpose. (2) The purpose of the water conditioning sys-
(1) All naturally occuring waters, whether sur- tems is to purify or condition raw water to the re-
face water or well water, contain dissolved and pos- quired quality for all phases of power plant opera-
sibly suspended impurities (solids) which may be in- tion. Today, most high pressure boilers (600 psig or
jurious to steam boiler operation and cooling water above) require high quality makeup water which is
service. Fresh water makeup to a cooling tower, de- usually produced by ion exchange techniques. Tore-
pending on its quality, usually requires little or no duce the undesirable concentrations of turbidity and
pretreatment. Fresh water makeup to a boiler sys- organic matter found in most surface waters, the
tem ranges from possibly no pretreatment (in the raw water will normally be clarifed by coagulation
case of soft well water used in low pressure boiler) to and filtration for pretreatment prior to passing to
ultra-purification required for a typical high pres- the ion exchangers (demineralizers). Such pretreat-

TM 5-811-6

ment, which may also include some degree of soften- (a) Removal of suspended matter by sedimen-
ing, will normally be adequate without further treat- tation, coagulation, and filtration (clarification).
ment for cooling tower makeup and other general (b) Deaeration and degasification for removal
plant use. of gases.
b. Methods of conditioning. (c) Cold or hot lime softening.
(1) Water conditioning can be generally cate- (d) Sodium zeolite ion exchange.
gorized as’ ‘external” treatment or’ ‘internal” treat- (f) Choride cycle dealkalization.
ment. External treatment clarifies, softens, or puri- (g) Demineralization (ultimate ion exchange).
fies raw water prior to introducing it into the power (h) Internal chemical treatment.
plant fluid streams (the boiler feed water, cooling (i) Blowdown to remove sludge and concen-
tower system, and process water) or prior to utiliz- tration buildups.
ing it for potable or general washup purposes. Inter- c. Treatment Selection. Tables 3-13, 3-14, and
nal treatment methods introduce chemicals directly 3-15 provide general guidelines for selection of
into the power plant fluid stream where they coun- treatment methodologies. The choice among these is
teract or moderate the undesirable effects of water an economic one depending vitally on the actual con-
impurities. Blowdown is used in the evaporative stituents of the incoming water. The designer will
processes to control the increased concentration of make a thorough life cycle of these techniques in
dissolved and suspended solids at manageable lev- conjunction with the plant data. Water treatment
els. experts and manufacturer experience data will
(2) Some of the methods of water conditioning called upon.
are as follows:

3-39. Introduction Non-lubricated design for service air as well as in-

a. Purpose. The purpose of the compressed air strument air will be specified so that when the for-
systems is to provide all the compressed air require- mer is used for backup of the latter, oil carryover
ments throughout the power plant. The compressed will not be a problem. Slow speed horizontal units
air systems will include service air and instrument for service and instrument air will be used. Soot
air systems. blower service requirements call for pressures which
b. Equipment required-general. Equipment re- require multi-stage design. The inlet air filter-silenc-
quired for a compressed air system is shown in Fig- er will be a replaceable dry felt cartridge type. Each
ures 3-14 and 3-15. Each system will include compressor will have completely separate and inde-
(1) Air compressors. pendent controls. The compressor controls will per-
(2) Air aftercoolers. mit either constant speed-unloaded cylinder control
(3) Air receiver. or automatic start-stop control. Means will be pro-
(4) Air dryer (usually for instrument air system vided in a multi-compressor system for selection of
only). the’ ‘lead” compressor.
(5) Piping, valves and instrumentation. b. Air aftercooler. The air aftercooler for each
c. Equipment served by the compressed air sys- compressor will be of the shell and tube type, de-
tems. signed to handle the maximum rated output of the
(1) Service (or plant) air system for operation of compressor. Water cooling is provided except for
tools, blowing and cleaning. relatively small units which may be air cooled.
(2) Instrument air system for instrument and Water for cooling is condensate from the closed cool-
control purposes. ing system which is routed counter-flow to the air
(3) Soot blower air system for boiler soot blow- through the aftercooler, and then through the cylin-
ing operations. der jackets. Standard aftercoolers are rated for
95 “F. maximum inlet cooling water. Permissive
3-40. Description of major components can be installed to prevent compressor startup un-
a. Air compressors. Typical service and instru- less cooling water is available and to shut compress-
ment air compressor? for power plant service are or down or sound an alarm (or both) on failure of
single or two stage, reciprocating piston type with water when unit is in operation.
electric motor drive, usually rated for 90 to 125 psig c. Air receiver. Each compressor will have its own
discharge pressure. They may be vertical or horizon- receiver equipped with an automatic drainer for re-
tal and, for instrument air service, always have oil- moval of water.
less pistons and cylinders to eliminate oil carryover. d. Instrument air dryer. The instrument air dryer


Table 3-13. General Guide for Raw Water Treatment of BoilerMakeup

St earn
Pressure Silica Alkalinity
(psig) reg./l. reg./l. (as CaCO 3 ) Water Treatment

up to 450 Under 15 Under 50 Sodium ion exchange.

Over 50 Hot lime-hot zeolite,
or cold lime zeolite,
or hot lime soda, or
sodium ion exchange plus
chloride anion exchange.

Over 15 Over 50 Hot lime-hot zeolite,

or cold lime-zeolite,
or hot lime soda.

450 to 600 Under 5 Under 50 Sodium ion exchange plus

chloride anion exchange,
or hot lime-hot zeolite.

Over 50 Sodium plus hydrogen ion

exchange, or cold lime-
zeolite or hot lime-hot

Above 5 Demineralizer, or hot

lime-hot zeolite.

600 to 1000 ------- ‘Any Water ------- Demineralizer.

1000 & Higher ------- Any Water ------- Demineralizer.

(1) Guide is based on boiler water concentrations recommended in the
American Boiler and Affiliated Industries “Manual of Industry
Standards and Engineering Information.”
(2) Add filters when turbidity exceeds 10mg./l.
(3) See Table 3-15 for effectiveness of treatments.
(4) reg./l. = p.p.m.

Source: Adapted from NAVFAC DM3

TM 5-811-6

Table 3-14. Internal Chemical Treatment.

Corrosive Treatment Required Chemical

Maintenance of feedwater pH and boiler water Caustic Soda

alkalinity for scale and corrosion control. Soda Ash
Sulfuric Acid

Prevention of boiler scale by internal softening Phosphates

of the boiler water. Soda Ash
Sodium Aluminate
Sodium Silicate

Conditioning of boiler sludge to prevent adherence Tannins

to internal boiler surfaces. Lignin Derivatives
Glucose Derivatives

Prevention of scale from hot water in pipelines, Polyphosphates

stage heaters, and economizers. Tannins
Lignin Derivatives
Glucose Derivatives

Prevention of oxygen corrosion by chemical Sulfites

deaeration of boiler feedwater. Tannins
Ferrus hydroxide
Glucose Derivatives

Prevention of corrosion by protective film Tannins

formation. Lignin Derivatives
Glucose Derivatives

Prevention of corrosion by condensate. Amine Compounds


Prevention of foam in boiler water. Polyamides

Polyalkylene Glycols

Inhibition of caustic embrittlement. Sodium Sulfate

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

TM 5-811-6

Table 3-15. Effectiveness of Water Treatment

Average Analysis of Effluent
Hardness Alkalinity co Dissolved
(as CaCO ) (as CaCO ) Solids Silica
Treatment mg./1.

Cold Lime- o to 2 75 Reduced 8


Hot Lime Soda 17 to 25 35 to 50 Medium High Reduced 3

Hot Lime- o to 2 20 to 25 Low Reduced 3

Hot Zeolite

Sodium Zeolite o to 2 Unchanged Low to High Unchanged Unchanged

Sodium Plus o to 2 10 to 30 Low Reduced Unchanged

Hydrogen Zeolite

Sodium Zeolite
Plus Chloride o to 2 15 to 35 Low Unchanged Unchanged
Anion Exchanger

Demineralizer o to 2 o to 2 o to 5 o t o 5 Below 0.15

Evaporator o to 2 o to 2 o to 5 o t o 5 Below 0.15

NOTE : (1) reg./l. = p.p.m.

Source: NAWFAC DM3



Courtesy of Pope, Evans and Robbins (Non-Copyrighted)

Figure 3-14. Typical compressed airsystem.

will be of the automatic heat reactivating, dual elude work shops, laboratory, air hose stations for
chamber, chemical desiccant, downflow type. It will maintenance use, and like items. Air hose stations
contain a prefilter and afterfilter to limit particulate should be spaced so that air is available at each
size in the outlet dried air. Reactivating heat will be piece of equipment by using an air hose no longer
provided by steam heaters. than 75 feet. Exceptions to this will be as follows:
(1) The turbine operating floor will have service
3-41. Description of systems air stations every 50 feet to handle air wrenches
a. General. The service (or plant) air and the in- used to tension the turbine hood bolts.
strument air systems may have separate or common (2) No service air stations are required in the
compressors. Regardless of compressor arrange- control room and in areas devoted solely to switch-
ment, service and instrument air systems will each gear and motor control centers.
have their own air receivers. There will be isolation (3) Service air stations will be provided inside
in the piping system to prevent upsets in the service buildings at doors where equipment or supplies may
air system from carrying over into the vital instru- be brought in or out.
ment air system. c. Instrument air sys tern. A detailed analysis will
b. Service air system. The service air system be performed to determine system requirements.
capacity will meet normal system usage with one The analysis will be based on:
compressor out of service. System capacity will in- (1) The number of air operated valves and
clude emergency instrument air requirements as dampers included in the mechanical systems.
well as service air requirements for maintenance (2) The number of air transmitters, controllers
during plant operation. Service air supply will in- and converters.

TM 5-811-6

Courtesy of Pope, Evans and Robbins (Non-Copyrighted)

Figure 3-15. Typical arrangement of air compressor and accessories.

(3) A list of another estimated air usage not in- (2) Instrument air reserve. In instances where
eluded in the above items. short term, large volume air flow is required, local
d. Piping system. air receivers can be considered to meet such needs
(1) Headers. Each separate system will have a and thereby eliminate installation of excessive com-
looped header to distribute the compressed air, and pressor capacity. However, compressor must be
for large stations a looped header will be provided at sized to recharge the receivers while continuing to
each of the floor levels. supply normal air demands.

. ”