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NOTES ON 9TH PHYSICS SHORT AND LONG

Ch #01

Physics- An introduction
(1) Define Physics?

Ans:

The branch of science which deals with the study of matter and energy and their
mutual relationship is called Physics.

(2) Write names of the branches of Physics?

Ans:

(1) Mechanics (2) Heat & Thermodynamics (3) Sound (4) Light

(5) Electromagnetism (6) Atomic and Molecular Physics (7) Nuclear Physics (8) Plasma
Physics (9) Solid Physics

(3) Define Plasma?

Ans:

The state of matter at a very high temperature comprising the ions and electrons is
called plasma.

(4) Name the branches of physics overlapping the other branches of science?

Ans:

(1) Astrophysics (2) Geophysics (3) Biophysics

(5) Define Scientific Method?

Ans: Scientific method is a specific method used to search for truth.

(6) How many steps are involved in scientific method?

Ans:

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There are six steps in scientific method which are:

Observation Hypothesis Experiment Theory


Prediction Law

(7) Differentiate between observation and experiment?

Ans:

To collect facts about the natural phenomena is called observation.

While Experiment is the organized process which is performed to test the truth of
hypothesis.

(8) Differentiate between theory and law?

Ans:

After the verification of the hypothesis through experiment, this hypothesis


becomes a theory.

The law is such a statement which explains all the observations & the experiments of the
past, further it can predict about the other aspects of nature.

(9) Which scientist invented a toy working on steam?

Ans:

The famous scientist of Alexandria “Hero” invented the toy working on steam.

(10) What is the best replacement of coal for the production of energy?

Ans:

Solar energy and the atomic energy are two best replacements of coal for the
production of energy.

(11) How much energy could be produced from Uranium?

Ans:

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Energy obtained by the breaking up of one kilogram of Uranium is equal to the


energy obtained from the burning of 3 million kg of coal.

(12) In which state most of our universe exists?

Ans:

Most of our universe is in the state of plasma.

(13) What is the work of Nichole Oresme in Physics?

Ans:

He studied in the change in velocity with the help of geometry.

(14) Who studied the freely falling bodies?

Ans: Galileo studied the freely falling bodies.

(15) Who wrote the famous book “Principia Mathematica”?

Ans:

Issac Newton wrote the book “Principia Mathematica”.

(16) Who invented the electric cell?

Ans:

Alesandro Volta

(17) Where did Alberuni measure the circumference of the earth?

Ans:

Alberuni measured the circumference of earth in the town of Nandna in Pind Dadan
Khan, a tehsil in Pakistan.

(18) Which thing was emphasized by the Muslim in the knowledge of science?

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Ans: Muslims emphasized the observations and experimentation in the knowledge of


science.

(19) Who explained the scientific method?

Ans:

Greeks were unaware of the experimentation, observation and measurement. So,


Muslim scientist explained the scientific method.

(20) Who invented the first camera of the world?

Ans:

Ibn-ul-Haithum invented the first camera of the world which is called pin hole
camera.

(21) In which book the function and structure of eye is explained first time?

Ans:

The structure of the eye is explained first time in “Kitab-ul-Manazir”.

(22) What was discussed in Qanun-al-Masoodi?

Ans:

The measurement of the Earth & its different shapes, movement of Sun and Moon,
the shining of moon & its phases, movement of five large planets are discussed in this
book.

(23) Explain the theory of mass and energy?

Ans:

In 20th century Einstein told that the mass and energy are, in fact, forms of each
other.

(24) What is Principia Mathematica?

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Ans:

It is the famous book of the Newton in which he has explained the laws of motion
and gravitation.

(25) What was the major work of Dr. Abdus Salam?

Ans:

in 1979 Dr. Abdus Salam gave the theory of unification in which he explained that
weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force are of same form.

(26) The future of the man would be brighter. Explain.

Ans:

If the process of research in the field of physics continues, the future will be much
more beautiful than the present. Physics has not made progress in its own field but has
also introduced new avenues of research in the other fields of knowledge. Of the
microscope & a step further the electron microscope had not been invented then there
would not have been any progress in the field of Biology. Both of these inventions have
unveiled many hidden realities. Similarly X-rays. Ultrasonic, LASER, E.C.G, E.E.G,
Fiber optics & numerous such diagnostic techniques have brought the revolutionary
changes in medical science. Thus on looking all these inventions of the Physics, it is not
difficult to say that the future of human being would be much brighter & beautiful.

(27) The standard of human being is improving day by day. Explain.

Ans:

Today living on the Earth, we can communicate with the astronauts in the space.
The games of cricket, hockey, or Olympics being played in England, Australia or in
Japan can be seen directly by us on our T.V. sets & all this is a wonder of innovative
research in Physics.

Not only has this but Physics also played its role in Commerce & Industry, Trade,
Agriculture and Education. Because of researches in Physics, standard of human living is
improving day by day.

Chapter #2:
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MEASUREMENTS
Q. 2.1
Why a standard unit is need to measure a quantity correctly.

Ans:
Various units have been in use in different times in different parts of the world. The
fast means of communication systems have changed the world into a global village. Due
to this reason an international system of units for mutual business became essential.
The eleventh general conference of weights and measures recommended that all the
countries of world should adopted a system of same kind of standard units, consisting of
seven base units known as international system of units (SI) and derived units.
Q.2.2
What is meant by base and derived units? Give three example of derived
units and explain how they are derived from base units.
Ans:
Base Units:
The units of base quantities are called base units.
Examples:
Kilogram (kg), meter (m), second (s), Ampere (A)

Derived Units:
The units of derived quantities which are derived from base units are
called derived units.
Examples:
Unit of Area: m2.
Unit of Volume: m 3
Unit of Density: Kg m -3
Unit of speed: meter per second (ms-1),
Unit of weight: Newton
Unit of force: Newton,
Unit of Pressure: Pascal

How they are derived from base units:


These units are obtained by multiplication, division or both of base units.
Unit of Area : length x breadth
Unit of length x unit of breadth
Meter x meter
mxm
: m2

Unit of Volume: length x breadth x height


Unit of length x unit of breadth x unit of height
Meter x meter x meter
mxmxm
: m3

Unit of Density: Mass


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Volume
Unit of mass
Unit of volume
Q. 2.3
What is the number of base units in System International (SI)?
Ans.
There are seven base units which are given below
Number Physical Quantity Unit Symbol
1. Length Meter m
2. Mass Kilogram kg
3. Time Seconds s
4. Electric current Ampere A
5. Temperature Kelvin K
6. Intensity of light Candela cd
7. Amount of substance Mole mol

Q.2.4
Where multiples and sub-multiples of units are used? Describe some
standard prefaces which are internationally used.

Ans. Multiples and sub-multiples of units are used to make very large and very small
mathematical calculations easier. The multiples and sub-multiples are obtained by
multiplying or dividing with ten or power of tens.

The terms used internationally for the multiples and sub-multiples for different units are
called prefixes.

---------------------

Q No.2.5
What is the use of vernier calipers? What is meant by its vernier
constant?
Ans.
A vernier caliper can be used to measure lengths accurately up to one tenth of a
millimeter.
Least Count/Vernier Constant
The minimum length which can be measured accurately with the help of vernier scale or
vernier calipers is called least count.
Least count of vernier caliper is 1/10 mm or 0.1 cm which is also called vernier constant.
Q.No.2.6
Explain the statement “A micrometer screw gauge measures more
accurately than a vernier caliper”?
Ans.
Least Count: The minimum length which can be measured accurately is called
least count of any measuring device.

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The least count of micrometer screw gauge is 0.01 mm and that of Vernier caliper is 0.1.
mm. So a micrometer screw gauge measures more accurately than a vernier caliper.

Chapter # 5

Vectors
(1) How many types of physical quantities are there?

Ans #01:

There are two types of physical quantities:

(i) Vector (ii) Scalar.

(2) What are scalar quantities?

Ans:

The quantities which require magnitude and a proper unit for their description are
called scalar quantities.

(3) What are vector quantities?

Ans:

The quantities which need magnitude as well as direction for their complete
description are called vector quantities. For example velocity, force, acceleration etc.

(4) How a vector is represented graphically?

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Ans:

A straight line with an arrow head is drawn to represent a vector. The length of line
is according to magnitude and arrow head shows the direction of vector.

(5) What is frame of reference?

Ans:

A system of two perpendicular lines which is used to represent the direction of


vector is called frame of reference. The horizontal line is called x-axis and the vertical
line is called y-axis.

(6) Define representative line of a vector?

Ans:

The line used to represent a vector is called representative line of that vector. The
end of line with arrow is called head whereas other end is called tail.

(7) What is a negative vector?

Ans:

A vector which is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to some vector is


called negative vector of that vector.

(8) What happens to vector if it is multiplied by a positive number?

Ans:

If a vector is multiplied by a positive number then magnitude is changed but


direction remains the same.

(9) What happens if a vector is multiplied by a negative number?

Ans:

If a vector is multiplied by a negative number then both its magnitude as well as


direction changes.

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(10) Define head to tail rule? Or what is the method to add vectors?

Ans:

To add two vectors, draw the representative lines of these vectors such that the head
of the first vector meets with the tail of the second, then by joining the tail of the first
with the head of second vector gives the resultant vector.

(11) What is resultant vector?

Ans:

The vector obtained by the addition or subtraction of two or more vectors is called
the resultant vector.

(12) Define trigonometry?

Ans:

The branch of mathematics which deals with the problems of right angled triangle is
called trigonometry.

(13) Write the names of trigonometric ratios of a right angled triangle?

Ans:

Tan θ, Cos θ, Sin θ

(14) Define resolution of a vector?

Ans:

Division or splitting up of a vector into its components is called resolution of a


vector.

(15) Define component of a vector?

Ans:

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A part of a vector which is effective in a particular direction is called component of


vector.

(16) What are rectangular components of a vector?

Ans: The components of a vector which are perpendicular to each other are called
rectangular components.

(17) Is it necessary for rectangular components to be along x-axis and y-axis?

Ans:

No, it is not necessary to take rectangular components always along x-axis and y-
axis. They can be taken every where for convenience.

(18) Explain that pressure is scalar quantity and force is a vector quantity?

Ans:

The reason is that force acts in a particular direction while pressure acts equally in
every direction therefore pressure has no particular direction and it is a scalar quantity.

(19) How rectangular components of a vector are added?

Ans: The rectangular components of any vector are added by head to tail rule.

(20) How vector is represented except bold letters?

Ans:

Instead of bold letters vector can be represented by drawing an arrow head above or
below the letter.

(21) If vectors A and B are added, under what condition their resultant magnitude is
A+B and under what condition their resultant is zero?

Ans:

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If vectors A and B are in same direction then their resultant magnitude will be A+B.
But if they have same magnitude and are in opposite directions then their resultant
magnitude will be zero.

(22) Which are those two vectors whose resultant vector is zero?

Ans:

Two vectors having same magnitude but opposite direction will have zero resultant
vector.

(23)Under what condition the sum of three vectors will be zero?

Ans:

When resultant of any two vectors of them is equal in magnitude but opposite to the
direction of the third vector then sum of these three vectors will be zero.

(24) Will a vector be zero if one of its components is zero?

Ans:

No. A vector having a zero component will not be zero.

(25) Under what condition the distance and displacement between two points will be
same?

Ans:

If a body covers the path in the same direction with uniform velocity then distance
and displacement of the body will be equal.

Chapter # 6

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Equilibrium
(1) Define parallel forces?

Ans:

When different forces act on a body such that there point of action are different but
there lines of actions are same then they are called parallel forces.

(2) How many types of parallel forces are there?

Ans:

There are two types of parallel forces:

(i) like parallel forces (ii) Unlike parallel forces.

(3) Differentiate between like parallel forces and unlike parallel forces?

Ans:

If direction of the parallel forces is same then these are called like parallel forces.
And if parallel forces act in opposite direction then these are called unlike parallel forces.

(4)Define rigid body?

Ans:

A body is made up of many small particles. If under the action of force the distance
between two points remains the same then this body is called rigid body.

(5) What is axis of rotation?

Ans:

During rotation all points of a rigid body move in particular circles. The line joining
the centers of all these circles is called axis of rotation.

(6) What is meant by point of action?

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Ans:

The point on a body where a force acts is called point of action.

(7) Define torque? Write its unit?

Ans:

The rotational effect of the force is called torque. Or

The agency which produces rotation in the bodies is called torque.

In SI system unit of torque is Nm. Mathematically: (8) Define moment arm?

Ans:

The perpendicular distance between line of action of force and axis of rotation is
called moment arm.

(9) On what factors does the torque depend?

Ans:

Torque depends on two factors:

(i) The magnitude of the force.

(ii) The moment arm.

(10) How direction of torque is determined?

Ans:

Direction of torque is determined by right hand rule:

“if rotation is along the curl of fingers of right hand then the thumb points in the direction
of torque”.

(11) Under what condition torque is positive?

Ans:
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If rotation in body produces in clockwise direction, the torque is positive. But if


rotation produces in anti-clockwise direction then torque is negative.

(12) What is meant by centre of gravity?

Ans:

Centre of gravity is that point in a body where the weight of body appears to be
acting and if the body is supported at that point then it stands still without rotating.

(13) What is the advantage of finding the centre of gravity?

Ans:

By the determination of CG it is easy to solve the problems of equilibrium.

(14) What is plumb line?

Ans:

When a heavy body of small volume is hung by a string, its weight acts vertically
downward, due to which the string hangs vertically. This system of string and weight is
called the plumb line.

(15) What is called couple?

Ans:

When two equal, opposite and parallel forces act at two different points of a body,
they form a couple.

(16) What is meant by couple arm?

Ans: The perpendicular distance between the two coupled forces is called couple arm.

(17) What is the value of torque produced by the couple?

Ans:

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The torque produced in the body due to couple is always equal to the product of
one force of the couple and moment arm.

(18) How many forces are required to produce couple?

Ans:

Minimum two forces are required to produce couple.

(19) Define equilibrium?

Ans:

If no net force is acting on the body, the body is said to be in equilibrium.

(20) Explain the conditions of equilibrium?

Ans:

(i) If sum of all the forces acting on the body is zero, the body will be in equilibrium.

(ii)If a number of forces act in a body so that the total sum of the torques if these forces is
zero, the body will be in equilibrium.

(21) How many states of equilibrium are there?

Ans:

There are three states of equilibrium:

(i) Stable equilibrium (ii) Unstable equilibrium (iii) Neutral equilibrium.

(22) What is meant by stable equilibrium?

Ans:

If the body comes back to its original position when set free after slightly lifting
from one side, the body is said to be in stable equilibrium. On lifting the body, the centre
of gravity of the body is raised up a compared to the initial position.

(23) What is unstable equilibrium?


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Ans:

The unstable equilibrium is that condition which, if the position of the body is
disturbed, it does not comes back to its original position. In such case, the centre of
gravity lowered than its initial position.

(24) Define neutral equilibrium?

Ans:

The type of equilibrium in which after disturbance, the body again comes to rest and
the position of its centre of gravity does not change, is called neutral equilibrium.

(25) Will a body be in equilibrium under the action of a single force?

Ans:

A single acting force will produced the acceleration in the body, so the body will not
be in equilibrium.

(26) Can a body be in equilibrium if it is revolving clockwise under the action of a


single torque?

Ans:

If a body is under the action of a single torque, it will produced angular acceleration
in the body, so it will not be equilibrium.

(27) The height of racing car is kept small. Why?

Ans:

The height of racing car is kept small to reduce the value of friction due to large
speed. Secondly, its height is kept small to keep its centre of gravity between the four
wheels. This maintains its stable equilibrium.

(28) How do we know whether a body is in stable or unstable equilibrium due to the
position of centre of gravity?

Ans:

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If a body is in stable equilibrium, its CG is raised up on disturbance. But if the


body is in unstable equilibrium, its CG is lowered than its initial position.

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