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,A, 'Dog in the Nighttime Problem:

A ",..... ,.. FI .. ... ~. th .... I 9":" "3~" '0"''-'' ,



.: ...... :' .- '1':'; .', ,: ': .. ': , ".'. I'll "1'" c_: "': ',', ,:"

, ,merle,an, aSClsm, In ~,_,e '_ :.S,

Peter :H~ Amann

Uni versit y of' Mic:hfgan= Dearborn

"Is ·l:1:-"Qr~c.;:;' a'~'t;i' poin ',t' ,:11',0" '~W·"~i.f"~ you wish to draw :m,';',y' attem ;n:~'~'

J. I_ .. n 1..;. c; "'II_'" I .' .. _. . "11-:·.: 11:...' .. ["'I"'b" :. . v. .... ' ~ _ iI-~lh. . '. '. . ... :' u: .' I'·: "_", u. ~. IL: '. I"Vlr 1;.

If To the curious incident ofthe dog in the nignttlme .. ;; en The d··.· :.00" did no:(L;ing·' .. in; the niehttime If

.~'I'~ :_";'01:_ "o_' _l._._.f."'_, _ .. : 1._' './; -,_IOJ' .",_1' '-_"l!'

~ Tho" 'was the curious incidem, fl' remarked Sberiock. H olmes. s

IT" -e- '],8,·.··,· B··:'¥,··:·· '·N'I'O····.'W A·,'··:·· I·C·-,O,·.·'·.MII·"'M··.······O·,.':N,·:· '·P"L·!'.·,.A·,····:·,·I·C- E" amons historians of

I '_', ••• , ". __ .' ._._ , ••••• -.·l~ l""l' .• _"·-., _,'. _ , .... _' ' .. l,l. 1 e ,.l'I~'. 'l.A .. ,_..;]! :'

twentieth-century Europe that fascism constituted the' most. charac ....

'... 1" .. ' 'I h f h '. d 'b h W' ld

tensnc ponttcat phenomenon OL tne period between the tWOOLI_

Wars .. 2, Eve n though it trju mphed uneq uivocally only in. Italy and Germany, conservative regimes from the Iberian, peninsula to the Baftie sea provided more or less convincing imitations of the real thing, Equally significantly, in a number of European. countries where fascism never came close' to gaining power ~nol country with a" deeply rooted liberal or democratic tradition went fascist = movements that. enjoyed the support of anywhere f rom five to- fifteen percent of the 'Voters, :p lay-eel a noisy and disru pti vie political, ro le ~

1f the phenomenon of fascism 'was 80, ubiquitous, in the western world wby did the United States, s urel y a p'a:rt of that same culture: area, seem to be nearly exempt-s-or was it?3 OF' does the dominant

d ., dl ,. b A· ,. 'I'·

para ,:i,g:m, POSt_ I a generatio n ago a _'out-; mertcan e xcepn ona tsm

make such. a q uestion irrelevant and immaterial? Certainly American liberals and. leftists during the 1930s were readyto see the handwriting

560

Peter U A'" m .:. ann

1_ I.' [. ,"~ .a : : I~ p.~lI,o

on American walls, to label assorted' populists, crackpots and anti-

S[e. ' .• ' '~I? tes "Ii 'ascist j.:" ~ tf A- ~O·,;· 'n,~' I~.'e.· ,"m" I p' .• 0'·,: Irl'8,' '. rl~;V E~::'u" r '0'[ [' .'p, . ea '*1ii ,0" .·b'iSP"~~1.'~'~ mi g"., ,.h, .: It:· cer-

ml.""''' "iUiOJ!il .. '""~ ,. '" , "t ''',I, ... 'J ,_ .~,. " .. I.iI, ., .. "'r'!l' .... r ",1 ","""",""

'j :;~~ :'~ , t... .. , "'d' "~' " 'ti "di ,', '~"'~". fas :,~ .. ,* ·t'I~~ "1'" ds :~' , A· '" "I~~'" 'II~: ~,' I'~'~' ,'.,', '~" th

tamly nave aetectec proto-tascist trem .,8 Ul. American ,POldCS In " ae

I '92ns and." a few years later" the same' observer would have expected th " , "G-';' ,[.,. '_-'It' '-De["" "," [":". ",'I", ',', to tri ~,'_[' .'.' t, 'l ",' st "I noise faseist sh :'." .. ,~ ... .' "1"1"

ieo rea" '"""" pressionton tgger at ieasr a noisy ~a8CIS" snowing. ,,0,

add ressing this, su bj ect, I shall (I) provide a wor king defini tion of fascism focusing au the cluster of "external" characteristics that mar ked. Euro pean fascist movemen ts; -(.2) anal yze the' significance of the "proto-fascist" American trends of the 1,92.08; ,(3[)1 classify, in the ligh t of our definition, typical e xarn ples of American po li tical move .. ments of the l'9.30s that centemporaries were inclined to characterize ~ .. "f' ':'iJI[ ~ ",," - t·· It: a· 'A tA!, sffe ~ ~ o· ,~~ g t'~' ' t'· .~. t'· '"1: re' '.'~' ~ ~"I:'~ ~ ~ ion ~ ,iJi if'! t o' ,~~ h ,~,,~, "th~' a

as dS\.jIS~,; ann '~'tO) otter sorne tentanv : cone, US} , :1 S ~ '" W I,Y: I,~

dog did. nothing in the nigh uime, H'

I

Defining fascism is difficult because incompatible theoretical

1 ."'" ~ i.. .. ~, .. d A'·· , .. . .. ,. .. A ",. '" .. ,'.~ d .. .-' .. ~ -, 'o~ th .. ,iIi. I" 't· t

exp anauo ns a ~IOU:n ~:-, recent ,3J1.u. very u p-to .. ' .. .ate syn ' .;, [eS,IS lS::8 at

I' ", .. ·-t' _-. d' "". " ,,'~'. .. , " :h··~· fr'h'· .... , :, ; .. , .. ' , " Iv t"· ".,'. "," 1+'h'I' [e··~ ,,~ ··f' which have clearly .eas,· a· .. ozen, S,uc, I" t, leor.,I,es, on,it,Y ,WO Q,r ,.~ r, '" 0 .. .Il1lc, , . " ,: .... ""', . ~_,w =,

been discarded." Most ofthe theories, of fascism are so loosely formu-

I'··'· .. ·d,' th .. ,", .:' .liditv .. ',"."~:"". ···t· b'" test d··',:5 0"'····'···",·: ,c,··· .. luti '·"~I ,., ·S .. ···'t·,·I,i·l, ', .. : G\'

.8 te . their v a~ 1, .. ].1 Y canllO' . ·e, .' es, ,C ..• ' . '. .n,e SO.I,U, IOn.; as ':, an ey ' .. ' ~

"p', ..... ',":,""', h'l,.' ",.' .. ,'. ",: .', . ...:..~ ... ed ,", to turr f .'[','., '·'1 theo -:c: t~[ beh "1:,·','1,.,: ,,': ,.d'! f ',m

, ayn.e ,:,~as suggested ]s.o urn ~rom, ~" eery 0 ue, aVlor aD., "ro __ ~

essence to existence. For purposes of this article, therefore, I use an approach 'that centers 'the' inquiry about three questions: What were th e common enemies of the fascists" What elements did their pro ... ,

!It,= . ~ . ~.", .. ,' '. , = .,' ',,", ."_ ,". • • =' '_ ~ ='. - ~ ~' .. ' . - . -. - II!I ,.... "., , .. , , 1 . - _. - . _. - - - - l~: -

grams and ideologies have in. common? How can one' summarize 'the' common characteristics of fascist organiz .. ation and. am bian,ce?6 This, method provides it relatively non-controversial defl nitio n of fascism;

(' 'I) F-:,".,:' sts ,.', ,.'. '~'11= c c ,~'.' ' ... , .......... M- , ... ' 'I: " '.".',':' ~~', ". rte ~,~ representa t"~IV~ ,: " ,~' asClS,~·S ,genera.lY opplo:Seu",ar.X,lS,lD~, we~j,[ ,rn .~, '~:~', 7> .... ".""

government and the European type of conservatism that favored ,(1

,,~,'i~" lb·'" . :. id I I ',"~' '·1 he red ita 'I" .' ·d' lsrincti ans so C,le!;.,Y [ase·,· upon. "ere Lllry .. JS "I,DC ~ ,_.0 ' S ~

("l\ 'A' ~ ~"', ~.. f········ ". ·t' ~. ...... .. t· . ~·l..·,t·~ , volutioi .... ... '. thor "~1 , .. ,.s, to al,ms:;;, 'aSC1S:1 movements sougm a revoiu uonary, autno ,''''

itarian, nationalist state, 'They insisted on. a novel economic order that would surmount the class struggle on a dynamic foreign policy a nd o .... 1j'L ~'~ 'ulsce: the: title of a famous Nazi film, "the triumph of the wilt It

__ '.~'. llJ[.I~I~'U .. ·. __ .· __ '_'_'. _.,'" _ l .... ·~, __ - _ .,' - I"~ -,._, "J _--_. l.lll·l."""!- _ •• - - -----

(3)·.·. As to atmosphere and org anization f aseists had 'what Payne

i'- ........ ,I.. , .. , , , . , , ... ' ... " .. , .. ,,' " . .. ,I .. ~ , , . . . .. , .... ,' . ,,,' .

'. ,'II~ ,,' N'.· oliti · .. '1 .. ' h .... " ranh . ,tt It h " "l't .- tr . 'd' I ." • .'Ih· vi ,~~"t···· 'II d'i

cans a PO,loIIClh, cr .oreogr 3cP,,), .nat st resse ' yo ur "~"I,r.ld,y,, an ':,~,

above all, violence. Conspicuous w[e:r[e th.e specia,l :role of the authori= t.a.ti ve and cha:rismati:c· le,a,de:r:, a ee'rtain. tas t.e for :m,ass m,o biUzati,o:n

a·'~ ,d" 'l~ 'l..[[·e Vie· D' ['e"r--a" I t~'e'~d' e'T'II,c'UJ' ·t,·o, [ .. 'm' 'i'l·'II'~I'·t<:i'r'l· "[e' 'p·:',o··'II.'I~t"~I',""a'l 'l'~I"t::e·'· "R'·· :eiC' ~~m' .' .. 1"'Ri ;Qt['en:: er"'3·_-'1

n,· , , ,n '. ,i!:li', I" '., • .... :U,:U ' . .1' . c,' " ,l, ,U,' ,,;L '. ,". ',I" . ,!I;.i'.:.~", ,1', .. ,.J, .. u. '.1"", ,I" , e '. ,~,', .. ~c.

'a"nd" '3,', 'nt~-S-··e'.'m'·I~t""I:·s:m· l"'n p"'ac"rt"I~'C~'U' '~' ,oJjiT 'W" ·'.tIi;'r[e' IC<·'O··~ .'m'·m'·,o· ,'Oi b· .IUll: 'no'· ···t' 'lun'~I'v"."e··[s-'ac. J A······ 'II~

,I. ..1 ,il " . ", .. " . I ., ' !l.go 'Ii.< ." " ,. ...." I . _ .,..." I.. I !I.

••• It .' •• .' ~. _ ••• ", •• _~~-_ ~ I_. ~_-_' ~._~ :__:. ~'. _' ~'_ .. ~. '_", .'~ . '," '~"_ .. _.~ '_~~-_~~ . ' . .,", .~. _'~. ", ~~, 1 ~ •• l j', ," .~_.!I"', l.' .'_'~

this, by way of d,efini.tio,ns.

A "Dog in the N'!"g:' :h- 't~"I·IIri'II~'t! Probl .... '"1'1'"

• _ ~ ~ ,~L' ... J IIr.': II • !Ii _ )1111 _tJ.a'_~, . \r.,L~J,

- ~ ~ ~ ~~

I.I

Let us now turn to the: preliminary problem of "proto-fascism" in. the U Jnited State 'C!: in t he vears im imediatelvfollowins t~'h- ee n d o :·f, W' ""':":'0" '. rl 1

War 1.·()ur;Ythh~~1 c~~;mp~r~rYE;(OP;~ ~b:er~ermilht ha~: singled out a number of developments: (,1) tbe Red Scare of :19'1.9,· I 1~)-,2:0; (2) the activism of righ t -wing pa t riotic societies; ,( 3]1 the spectae-

U" lar rise o',::'rl~'t-:~Ie: second K.·"Ij',· V'~,'UI' x 'K'I.,8,·'n'" (,'.'4'-,·-)'- the ,!(li; nti-Semit .. ·c·'.: c .. rusade ,0···.:·[,

.Ii u, ,10l'\,; .. , .Iil -.')'1;;,0' v., , . . .a.,il.. , .. "." ' .• , e- ,U.n ,. _ II,,;; ,1 I,. .. 0> u\!l lI;;,o, ,

Henry F ord; and (5) the popularization ofa pseudo-scientific racism" This is RO·t 'the place to explore the history of the post-World War]

. . II [., ". . ., . ., , "I . .. _' " . I. . . .. , ,. . ., , .

" ,

Red Scare ~ 7 S uffice it to say (bat intolerance against f oreigners and.

supposed rad icals 'was n ot a fasci st mono p olv ~ fascists were generally

,,1 ,I . . . ... .....,...",..,...., ! . ... . '.' ".il ~,. .. ." ., "", .1

,. 'I b 1'1 h h ~'I f ,. 'IF't..,

l ntolerant, .U t. not au t H .ose W,_ to were m t oie rant were .: ascists ,. ,li. ne

",' ,,"'11 .... f ,.,~ . ,f": f ,.' .... "B:·'·1·. he ,'k' f""'~ .. ,...,iI,. ..,~ fa ··"11,,,·, '.' bls .... , .. ,

pamexy: ear 0 I., oreign ,I.OJ]S" evixs nao a certain . amuy resernmance

to the bys terical attack on alie II "revel utio naries" t hat the: sponsors of th eAlie - .... d Seditior Actshad :," ··'·'·-,·d· "·~·"I rt· oneh .. id ed twe .. ··,t-'·:'·"··-',·~·,·I rne Auen an u sec men :: _,IC··: S _. a carnee OU~ one nun nee ~ wen,",), years

e arlier M, ".--', ~ ,O'T.e- ':O~:"V: e ':'r' t-, h e :0· rffic ials W-·- h . o orde ':T~1 th '[e- P al m '[eo. r R. aids ce T''''

_ QI~ ~' '~"_' ~ ,._ ~. _ .~. _.~, 'I . .~. ~., _" a~~ '_"_" ~. _ .~ '.~. _ ~I _" _ ~ p., 0 _ '_ '~~'" li:;I! ~ __

tainly did not see themselves as authoritarians breaking with demo-

_"C'-,-.C·.- c_, '8<"0' . re of them like A-'~'- tto 'nev Gene ~.-:tIil Pa lme -- we -[s - roa 'es-

c-r.a.cy .. 1_ 'm ' ., ,em~ ,~.I,1i.. ,-., .,11, rn.·y . _.' .,. '. [.",. . Hl.e.r;, ._ ·r", PI' · .. g.r·8 ~

sives or ex-progressives seemingly unhinged by- their earlier commit ... me nt 'to Presiden t 'Wilson's Gre at Crusade that had go ne sour,

·F;·,-·~ 11 :.' :'ij sh [-c, .:11·d~ be noted '~h:~I':I~ the ':R····:__:_·d_. .. S':'-'-""~II-'" ::-C'::- - •. 'C/:'~"-""'''li--'''-'1 ·~'·I-' >:'- b "., 'f-:'

, Ina. y ~ It. S" ,(JU,I.'.. . e note ' t "at t "e. ·ec .Scare was S.ltu.ateu at ,a.'.fIe ..

historical m omen t when. a weak presidency permi tted th .. e con vergence of disillusioned wartime nationalism and an anti-Bolshevik hvsteria fanned by:.' the Russian Revolut "on ~ Unpleasant as the episode

.,'Y .. - r , -" . , , ,. .~ ". .., -- .. "., ,. . . - 1. ".~ .. " '.1 " .. __ - .... = - ., - ~ . . - .. - .-

~. f;' 'I d -' . .~" d"' __ " f' d' h '·T~:h· -

'! 1:1~:::"1.':~ rrrs [~~~ 1,.,",:" ":.:Oli"._J.",::'(··;-.,·;·· :··:·::·I~:."··· 1'~'I"'l' ,'1' 1''-'' ti '-', '1','1: ,1'1 :'>." .. sano, ",_1 -1 ... -<_··~·}~-·~·1.·-,"n~ 1'[',

W3!S,~ It ,aLe . to create a" eonunumg tra JtlOn. 0" a .. OC rep.ressl0 _,~, .. " ,e

judicial m urder of Sacco and Vanzetti provided a sinister epilogue' to

...I h h 'k ~ h d' 'I d f '11

a orama on w, .JC,~ tne curtain nan atread y rar en.

The second tre nd, worth noting, which also benefited from th.e peculiarly super-heated patriotism promoted afte r 1917'~ was, the flowering of patriotic: societies with. nam .. es like 'N ational Securi t,'y'

Le· ~ - A" . . - .' - . . '101'1 - f' ' .. -. - - ". A·~········ - ,;~ ~. t- ; .~. ~ .~ ~ d 'lUI'" ·S-:·' 'F·'II.·, - A'-· - " _. . ,.:.- . ti -

,;I,lue" ; ~.me:n,can. , .• 'e,1 e:nse . 'SSOC"I,a ,10n. an:~ '. ,.[,. ':, ,I.fl,g "SSOC.la., [on

that thrived in the decade berween the' Armistice and the 'wan Street Crash.! Among these', some were: the' work of professional parriots=the: derogatory term was alread y' in. use-e-and others seemed to have

L. - h di ,; f- ~ 1!... b ,. 'ld' I '. h 'l...

ween. t. ,- e', rrect emanation or tne nusmess wor .... I,~ m en. aer case, these

associatio -IC s tended to, 'be' financed by: wealthy "ang '~els;P or b'y::' maior

.~S.l [ fl . ,.. . ... "',, .. , ..... ..., = .C~, __ ~ ~ = ~. ~_~ __ ;j, ~ ~

corporations and. generally combined anti -subversive intelligence wi th p .. ro-essablishme n.t pro p a.g,an.d.a,~ 'The [e nem y w,as id e:n.tifi.ed in tbe L..ro·~· ,gld'-as- ,t 'It""e~"'r"m"""I't:! 'o;Jl'n~rd-" 'l" r--' .... :~e·· ,~U~ ·~I·-O· "n'··I·~,tS.· p' CLeo -:l·',f~l·'-S"t',s, p-:'r-"o""[g-' r'e~'s~lv' e~' ~f-'-' ;:lii'IU'·e· '''lr'Y':

w: ::g,',_:."",".,." I" : ~; g,. 'c' ' , C!:Il\I,:' •. Il:., .".:,:'Q.!., - [..,","i:i .,II- .. ci:i !Ii;)!: ,,",,'v, ',~-

.st I-r -,~e we-:'e as much ,a, ta:roet as ,ftl1larchists and reds 'In. :fact most. of

_rIp. r ... . .,....c ..... ,. . , - .. . = ~ . ~ ~ ~== ~ ~ -- ~ ~-~ - - ~ ~

,t-~~s-:·,e··. ~I~c'g·'-.a-In~··· \z· --a" '~"·'iii)n~··· ~,~·~e·-·-ml'· t'o· .. ·-' 'h':',a··ve .. 'h':',a·.·-Idi s·'o.me·: d·.i iffilCU. I'[ty' in1r3!win.o· ,~.1.in.e.· ..•

,n~. vf.,] [1..1v, iJI ilIV , " .".. - ...... ~ ..... " --- . -~,,- ~. ~~, - l.lL - - "" - .c' ~ ~ .

b ·,t· '" , . . , . t"" ,,' 'I'b··' "'.,.,, . -, - - 'b" ,t, "., d'-' -: C ~ d-:'] ~- 'd~~ 'f; - h~-"·' . , -., - . ..4 :',-. ··d·, 'I" ,--; ~ .. ~c'· "'1

e,ween, ,an.IJ.'''s.u .• ve:rs,lve' c,om, ,a~- a.o··_: goo" " O!L'_:- "as, ,.toneu 1.0. .US[I...n8.

562

PIQ;Ii!'·'r H Amann

= 1W!t~, . .• ,Idl JIA.I I , , .

e spion age Yet whatever em phasis prevaile 'd'] there ~-~'o:ii'D' :Q-'-~'--' ,~-V'

-ilI'l'" I.A[ ~ , .. e ~~~" .'14, ~ [ '. "I, ",U,o;Ii' ,1.[:1, [-" .. ""r~ Wg.,;]I n.,;v~r ani

thought of attacking the A .. merican constinuionel system, the incumbent politicians, or the two major parties, Nor was; there any attempt a * m ia ss rnobiliz ation. ·Th~-A. several doze m oatrio tlc societi ~,~: ha d: a n

e~timai'edme~bershi'p of:o "m;;; tha'; 2S t~jO:OOO. yetlh~;did ba~~

'.' ,,--~"..4 ~-" -~ --'" --t~ Tlh-- ,,-~~, ivid d h - nd ed - f C ,. '1- 'I:t· T

a wmer impac ,i .. rey provrceo nunr ,r[e~ ,8 0 I: proressionai recturees d)

k b t' h I d eivi t, b 1-~ h d- t.. d d f

s,pea , betore s;c[oo an ' Cl'VlC groups; they pu .. ~, .. Ishe ,: ,Ifun .. ,f[e .. $ 0"

t h ,:0--' l'UI' sa "'1'i[~ s of ':U'II,t~, ra -co ,Oi serva tive and 1j'1I ational 1" ¥ It- , tract '~," a nd th ouzh

, ..k). _ ,I,II,U. 0'} IIlJI' .,~.. u ""'. _ , , ,000'I;.J·J: .,.. . ,Ii. 'I!' "'" 14,1.11. _ ,UiU, ,v. u, ~ I.... Po., _ ;;II t!i ~~'." I"', 'II;,} _.~

th eir ideas m .. 9'\j' W·· "-',.ell] h .ave refl ected an unabashedlv rea etionary id Q>~'il~

11 .. ,1 ", yg '" YJ .... lll~ ., ,ii;ilo 1Iir.i". .. ~. . ",.. . ~Jj.l. _ .~ l.IJ1J, _ ~ _¥ .I,.~ _' __ ~ _.' ,1"'_ ~'v,l,

~OV' .. nO.·:D· e ,0·· •.. f th em evokes our earlier definnion of fasc ism ' __

Vc",' -~. ,- ...... ".,' ... ,-",I!i.,;;J .. ",U" .Ii.""'. UII;;,.' .. .Ii, .. ,' g.,;;;II_.I!.., .,.,.

A hi d .' 'I f'" h h ~~ Kl ~~,- f

',,:, '-,:: >1- .. I, .il· I'~']·' '.-":'. _' .... : >_>,:'1" i_ "~I -, ,> mer : ~.,' :I-i,-:~:/"I .••.•.. I': . '< I'·. '[- :~i-

t.,1f. seemmg yproto , ascrst p enomenon, t e Ku K UX, Klan 0.

the' :1'920s, 'was, of another order of maanitude. At. the he"I~Jit of its

- - ~,- .. " - .... .. . .... ~. . ~ . ~ . , .... ,. , ~, . c' .. 1 " .... . ._ ,_J"g". . 1

influence th - Invi .. ible E-- m [.~.-. must 'tr-i 1-' h .ad b etween tln ee ,.~ .nd six ~ ~ ~ u .. ~~ ~.. ,~~e ,.nv.IS] .. ~e ,~m"plre mllS~ u,B!ve ,a. e ween ree an . SlX

million mem hers; in. short, OD,e of every three or four' 'W hi te, adult, Protestant American male ~. was a Klansman ·'9 American h. iistorian 'S-

. .. . . ~ ~. ~ ~ ~ .... " g .." .. ~ .. , ~ ~ ~~~L ~~,., , u, , ... ., _ 'Iv l",""u,n. ,Ii.. flu" " .

have viewed the 'Second Klan as part and, parce] of an American nativist trad ilion that can 'be traced back '3· It' 1~'QI,~t __ - to " the lS····'.il1:':s'- 1'·f: n '0' ,·-'t'-

.. ' .•. '" ~.l_. l_" __ .': __ • '~ ~. '_' ._~, ,. __ •• _~ ~ .. ~',_~, .. '~. ,1[1 ,...:~~. -.... ",,~,~[~, - .. 1IIii.-,~ I, •• ' ., ~ Jj, lillifr.'laJ ',,,,. " ,I,]" ".}

earlier. Undeniably .. the Klan bad some traits in com .. imon with Eu .• ro-

_, ,_ ,_ .. __ '- ~ _ ,= "" _ , _ _ _ .. 1Jl "". . _ , . , , u..1.-.;OJ ,_, 11;;,0., .. v u . 1.1;., , ~. ,it

pean fascism-i-chauvinism .. racism, a mystique of violence, an affir-

, . . ~ • __ ~ ., , ~. " _ _ ! ,_ • ,[ l ]', ,] .• , ., l._ • ,[ l ]'J ., " J.- .\1. ; , .. . ,I.. ,., ". 'I" []I ... ,.] Il

marion [of a certain kind of archaic traditionalism =yet their difference's were fundamental, If the K~·K~K .. " much [ike European fascists" saw itself as, ,8" movement ofcultural purification, it. never envisaged a change of po litical or economic system. AU that".it took to purify the United 'State's, the Klan assumed; was safeguarding 'the supremacy of white, Protestant, native-born Americans by an infusion of highmind Jed Klansmen int ,0···· 'po ·_·o,-- .. .litica I., office The K··"IIQ'D' '01' I. tim '3.,' telv sh __ ,0, .. ck e d .

_ __ ~ ~ ~ w _~;;!I, , , ,,.., il,Ii,I,. .. , .. ,1 .. .Ii.. .. ..".1 .. '1;;;.. , 'I;;; , ,I,u-'. ...1. '. .. ",.:II .., , , .

Pub lie susce ptibilities 'bA,c· :,;0 :.'~!L;!'~ 31 ~,e.· ... ~ -~'e-, - ·t,. 01• rg ta n /' zati 0·" ,. m 'I'" n I p.:: .. o J'I'" tic .s ra ,'I1l.

_ _ _ _ . _ ~ , , .. ;:;!I .. ~ iQ ~;:;!I"" . 0]1 "",[ .. r "l a l . ".. .,~ , .Ii, iJI _ _ ~

~ ...

C'·-'O· umter t '0" t be A-~ , , -.~' I'~' ':'1'1'-' - JI:··i· ("'I~ ,t, - .-, d' ~'lt"i"I" . /. ,t, b··· " '1' .• he It'''II'11 'iI,..... ' .. .u,,",,f_ ...._ ,_.~ _,m.er.lca.n pOd~,lcal,rallon:~ no, ·ec.a,us;e ~" e fi,.I,a.n 8

political program was a radical deviation f rom American norms, 'This 'was in sharp contrast. to the goals and practical behavior o-f ,E uropean f ascists in and out. of power, who, th ough they preferred 'the trappings of legality in atraining power, never disguised their revolutionary

intent Few c··· ld" d' mbt th .. ··· tt f':' . ," .. '~- -- .- '. -~, -- ~,- --. ,,-,-~,- .. : ,~., 'lid·" c-- - dl d'l"d' : .~." -~ ,

, ,.._1,"'" , ,_:,ou.~J . "OUu - - .il,· l.ascIs,m In plow[e'r WOUl, an ~ . I.l , m.e,an. a

new r[egim,e and n.ot :m,erely 8, change o:f gove':rn.m.eot :pe:rson.nel. The ,ov[e:rla,p' bet w[een. ,Ame:r:i,[c,an. nati v:i,s'm. and. the European type of fas-

cis,m, is~· .. 't'be' fie' f,'o,,- :'rle:· m'- "_[ '-0····· ;r~' a·· I p .• p·.'Qrl~~~:n:-'.t' 't:~al n--.··. ~ -[e,~I~1 ' - "

,.. _ ~ ~ ~ ~ " , " .. it '" ,I ",f "'-'.. .. . .lil. . ,r _ J!;!I.",

I.:n. con.tra~t t'o< the-" m·ia·~~, 'm-' 1,0· .·v"I~'m •• ·.I~-'~ t, 0,(: -:,h-I-~: K.····.'119n:, - ,t:a;, f,:oi"'I;,~~rt(,~,", ;;p·· .. ·l-o~·:o.:-:.-

_ _ _ .. ~ , .. , _ ~ , .. , g;,;) H'. "'" .",U. v t e ,I,u". " 14 , 'VI U. Jj,I. r I;. .

f as'cist it [current oe ntered on. a. sing],e in.d:i:vidual,~ Henry F o:rd~ ~ I} F o:rd used his :r,e,pu. ta,t:io,n as the father of mass production and. the hi,g:h",·

'II 'h "1 "S "," "" h~

wa,le etconom,y to ,I,aunc ..... a VIrUlent an.t.i~_-e:m~:ti,c cam.p,atgn. i,n t ('e

P,ao[e-.s of the Dearborn Indentenden.r ,El, 'p':c'r'i odical d. "'strt'buted b~~' tbo~(.'-·

b - , -, ..... -, ,- ,r ' .... " .1,' .I..... 1 .... I ... y. ..II

][I'a···nd; 'So ,0' "(: F--:-)·o·lr-,~·d'· [1e'a'-'I~r~c~ 1~·e--t-;'-w~,-e"'·e~-"nl ]~ :9~'2:\O-'" a· DI 'd, 19· :"2~(l:., '(-'hl'Jio D·i.dnr···,f,.A .. :H l·M'·..1e'·-· ~

I~ .. :~_._, .. · ' .. :'" ','.': "··llJl\.r·_·\.?-·.a,~ .0 , '., , ' :~'.'[.:~_,,[._ ,Jj:· .. ~.u) .. '=~~ :_ .. ~lw·_·U,Vll· .. ~;,.~u'.:-

P- e,n'de'nt- 'w'it,h a circulation of u .. p··.· to 500000. Dot only-'.: p··.r--esented ~'t~

_ _ _ _ .. , _ _ ~~ .. , . .", -" _ ~ .' ,I , . .. .. ~, ... ~ .. .. .'. . ., . , .. .. 1 _ S

·11, n'D·· •. ,: ." :'~I the ~N'~:"" btti - -,'~ 'po ··.'.'~,1·",,-· ,Fl., "o,g 1D , ue , .. lguII', Lme '. ro~ cem

readers wi t.h the fake Protocols of the Eiders of Zion, newly imp-orted by tsarist emigres, 1.1 but in over ,I hundred articles eo n tinned to fulminate a>,O~i1;1;!I2"i" the '~,J' lewish Peril." In the ~ naranoid .. - atmosphere of

19'20 ~-s,u:cb:~~;;~tabl,e n,e~-s:p,~,pe:~~,' ~s = Th~" 'Chi~'~g~ T"i:bun~ and 'Th;

Christian Science Monitor briefly echoed the Dearborn lndependent, bu to: the 'e '".-'(-ft -, ,",I'~' Kla 'ij1; 11~,?,.d,· .ers a pplaud ed Ford ~~ campaign, In the'

, u _ _" ,_.r_ a_ tC.r om _y ,11\..!l .Ji.I, .Ii,,,", u. II;,;. . . . ' ..... ,ilA,. . . . ~ . =- ;.;!I "- r _ .•.

mos t co nservati ve political and business circles" Ford. 'w',as, perceived as an. embarrassment, Apparently even President Hard ing intervened discreetl Y:~ albeit. in effecti vely .,

The end, of Ford's crusade was curiously muted. Sued. for libel, th.e automob ""l~ le m ·3' :g., n a te W·,-'· ". ho h-[ :3" ·.d·.· - 'be" en n11l! b'j" 'I' ~ ely It· urn I'·l~ lia ted I, .8'" t a .D],O't"'O·:r .. ,

g, ,1.iI,iI,." .. "'.1 " ,', u ='~",' .. ." ~'_ ,it' 1Iio!i" _ 11.,-,1_ ll, _ ,I.. t"" ... , ~

i.OU8 libel trial of his own in 19' I 9, settled the ease out of court by dictating a. letter to the American Jewish. Committee in which he admitted (or permitted his sidekick Bennett to do so) that The Pro-

\ l] L

tocols of the Elders C!I' Zion were ,8., well- known forgery fabricated by

the tsarist po lice and that 'the an ti -Semitic artacks ("'which. 'he had nei ther au th orized no r read") were eomp letel y un justified. 1,2 'This

," ',"~"I'''''-'::-:': notwithstandina -~"·'I-···· ,·':1 -[.,.,~.,-,. much doubt that Ford did

apotogy notwiu ,stan. "I.n.,g" there is not ,muc ,_ ,00., t, ,lh, _ O_,~,.,,[U

," '."'" t-,.. ~," t . A, " "., , Nazi fllw "",.., ~ . '." ti :S"I .. " ,":,t'" , ", t '-' 't:h - a era ~ e ,m'ore,o In _ ,fO'lll uee 3! ,I aZl""·.I.IA,e r1lC13!l ani 1.-,,[e·m.I,JSm, '.0 '-,' ,'e: _,v _'~' '~ _I,g'- '

Am 11~'f~1IC,·):liJl •• than anyone ~:I'~,~- I. n that respect, 'H" .itler's life-lone admira-

l 1 [,~, ll .. W.I _ . . g. '._ on.~ ~, .J!~r., , .. At ,1.\.r!il:. \.r~." "lIL.lt l, ~ •• lll.. _". ~ ~~u.

tion .. ~,~ de» ,~::":' ":D Ford was 'UI' nderstand ab ~e,n Ye t what is even.

I!l-~ ,11.1, a~,I' u~,n gro'SSf;;.-n r or '" U,;;)"II;.;i, ;OJ. ., ... ~L ~ ~ .. _ _ _ =~ _ _

mor e a :p- ,'p- aren t·,. 'I~~ th ,3·,: ,t- Pord 's '",0.··· pularity did not s 'Y.· ffice to make this,

- ~~ •. . ~. . "l 1 l 1 . l,. 1 ., l~ t. "... 11'''!I., 1 . .. y.. . l"lll~ [I,. J. liL. ~~ v ~ .... - - ~. ~ . ~

mythology of a Jewish world conspiracy respectable, a marked con-

.. , .. , ,= ~ 'oJ' .. ..1, .....".. .. , , . . ,,' ,J ,. . . .. , , . ~. -- ,

trast with what prevailed in Europe. Trad i tiona] anti-Semitism in. 'the' United States reverted to the pervasive, but. not very intense prejudice on which Fe rd h ad tri ed to C'!.JiI'P-'I·~ t alize .. Despite the best efforts of the'

~ • • _ ~ ~.. _ . _ l ~l M. ~ ~ _ .. ~ _. ~ ~ ~I _. l 1 ~ ~ • t!! _. .. ~ _ . ~ I _. _ ~ ~ ... . ~ "

model industrialist, obsession with the "Jewish Menace" remained the preoceup atio n of cr ack P'OlS and marginals,

The relative isolation of Henry Ford is even more surprising 'when. one considers, finallv, a far more nowerful 'vet related trend that a

. ". ., ... " , , [, ., oJ., . ,. , ,r'y .,,,..,. ,J' = -- ,', . ,

European observer mig ht 'have' charaeterized as, 'p .. rotc-fascist: 'North

----~.,I, " , .. ,,,1:: ,-- ,.'-_ ~.~ .. '~ ~ --,

American "scie ntific" racism. 1.4- However hazardous it, may be' to

e» :-"'1 '-1' '.", '.' I. '[t'lIr, I' .':1", irt-" ,~ [·t· ~ isit ".:' ef I _: ",:C ist :., /-,' [ '-:-.- . .., :c·ft,,," c:", " .-', [i:', -, ';-1.,'[,-,: ntri

compare tne reiauve intensity oi racis _ convrcuons . .ro.m, Q,ne cou~,~, _ y

to another I. have the impression. that in no European country Germanv and, Austria included had racism triumphed 80 completely

., . J" , . . - . .. , , , .... . ., .. . ,. . . , .. , .- ". ' ,. ., .. - ., '~ . ,-

as in the United States around :~925" The development ofanti ... Black and a n ,'t'\-,I,1;1;,d[ ia 8,'-[ racism that re a ched its zenith between World War I

:n. . . ".I. ,1.1. .1, _ . .r u ~j;;) ..,. . ... .Ii... .. " "" .. ~ .. o;I! ~, ~ ~ !L~ .. _ I!l- _ _

and the 'New Deal bas, origins 'that reach back to the seventeenth

.', '." ., !1,5 ·T·'L,·· '" d '. '.," ... ,I B~"- t- - ~ - - ,-.~',,'. - "W" :'h' ite ',.'. ,." ". '.' trans

century.' : ,I!te~ tradmonat .'.'!lac, v'e.rSUS, .. 1 l.,e rac:lsm w.aS·,~ .. IS,'"

fc "',; e··11", iii.c,~ , : "~' ",e": e .. laborate and svstem atic scale ofethnic d .• iscrimi-

, orm_ u RI!.O a ,mOf_ _!It) r .[L ..... H" . ii!J,,l"'" '\or, "'tiL ...... a ..ch ... ,= ,~, _ _ _;.;!I_

.-cl~,ii,:;:." .. ·-'· ,t: 'h'~'a,-- 't_-·, ,c·:P'.·'p,.,e·;·;t!J;'r·:A.d, 1 "in' ,~,'Ifo-,~, 118,8 .....•• 0 .. 1:8 .... ,,16 F, :<r~·m, it.J" flowe:rin,D' in, the second

n.~u.lon. . . .. a,I, .. eL, ,,",, .]_ [L,U"", ....., ,. - v - .. ~ - - ... - e, . _ ,

decad,e of the twe'ntieth ,century~, 'this, :ne'w' r.acis,m :m"obHiz,ed, asocial 'al,n' I,d' e\d: ',U'P,9tl' 'I' 'o-:':n-" a· "·1 [·e· '~:l'·'·lie·. 'a' 'RI ,COlli" it,le-.- "t' D£!o'''''e-·.,a; s~:'~'lT"g~ ~Y" '~u~ nle.,o ~.'U' I~ D' :8' '1I;eo'S' ',S~" ,a'n-·' id·· 'Iie_-s·· '.~

... l.l ". ~ .. ". .~ ~ gl .! •.• , , 1·.. .. .. ~ ..•.. ~, •• '_'~ " .• 1. ~"' ~.I, I • 1I,liol., )1_. ..,,!W a.a J' '" _. .Il~ . . ... 0 • • 1. . . ~

564

Peter :H" A:fna'tln

homogeneous America, Indeed" classifying races glorified old ... line

A- '--I.e.' -'oi"''-I~ bv '1-'-1''" C"i,--, ,,' the -.'1 to the ~- 'f":1'-I"'::" ank of "N':"'''" ""d']:· .. ," ,ltA-' I .<~'-

m,,,,".rh .• an~ . '.' Y ,rlaIS,I,ng _, [!w m, ' ' _, [""" .!to·, .y r.an __ ' o,_ , , . 0 f_.lC$ o:r ,~,_.I1.g!tO-

S6',..'0·· --i1i' "while condemn .. inethe "ii'"~"'\~' it im --,~ -- -t-" f -, -- - ,-, t - - , --d'-i _ ,lilA n~,n,l_"o.i ... '. emnmg . .11_, JJ,'4J~~.n 1. nnugrams rrom eastern an_,

h E . d 'bl' b" - ~ - '! .. C' • ,. - ,-

" .. ,'1',' .' ":,- 1- , r - -I-' ' .. : -:: ", , -'I' -,:,- .' .: -, I" 11 .. [~- : [1-- ,- [ [.- <'1- - ,,~ .- -I i --:' -1-' I 1-'1' , -11- I I, _ -I 'j I-

SO ut , ern ' . urop e to irre '- .ee rna. ". e ._ 1.01 ogica m erion ty, Th.at. the

r acial cri teria seized 0 n were inconsisten 1. did n.ot mat ter, as long as the '" seff -evident" inferiority of the immigrants could be' documented a nd expound Ad:,'

... .iJl •. ·. . -_ - tal '.' V. UtiLI]·. --.i ~

This, "modern" racism was utilized. by many, 'So me, such as the eusenic movem ent sousht ~n perpetuate 'N::' o r d' I '1' C' dom inance in the

Y',e' 0 '- I__J,v_ '-", ',,' < : ,I,,. ,;;,;' C ,', !j.,V" ," uu.1 '" . I, ' I,.' -_ ',I I lu ,-II,;; 1 _I ,1,'4J

United St tes evider ,t:II,:: 'I I,; "-It:" ---,-I" task . others .'(-' ied that there ,_,_,_,eU, .e a _es~ eVI,e.llL,I,_Y 3! cong er.mas",~ 0,,-. ers .ar,gue. .. a. . "ere

was a pressing need to. stem the tide of "inferior" imm ierants who, 'b'y:· a

. - - . . .' ~ . _.. ." ',Co' , .. . . . ., . .. _.. ... , ., . . ,. ." .,. Ie' . .,. . . , .. ,' . .. .

sort ofinverte d DI,a·.· rwinism th reaten e d'j, te d. rown their 'N···i ord ic, n ative-

Q ~ . ~ ... _ _ _ ~ ~ ~ . . _ ~ . . _ l l ~I;I 1.]1 , ~,. I •••••••• l. •• . • tv. ~ [I, V .. , " . l."""! _ •• 1_ "... . I~J! l l g ), ~ ~.

born ,Q'·U' pe 'r1".0·'*',I!'!' , 'TI his kind ,0· .• f rQ~'I' sm 'W."QI'It". ·(-IU·l.'iO' 'd' .am en ,t!!ll]ly::, ''''.::0.10:'''.0· ... nsistent

.... ~ •• l ~ '~ll" l ... '.l~. l'J ['I~ •• [lIt._ .• l."l ",u,.~.~ [, .. u,..:)., 1 .itL~ .. ,,",1.1._ .. " ,.... .. !i:J,."IJ.. ,~,.

wi th ~ be American d em. ocr ati ("';, f ai rh Viet '~I: 01' terms ·0, f !":'O:~ ~I· ·3'" 1 m I 'I'll' eu .

.. ~'. . ~'-"-'-~ ~.~ _ ~ "--'~ ..... ~ ---'~ ~ ~.~ .. ~ _y _,W-_, ~ _ .. t. J" .. '.' ll, 1 " • .1 •• ~ l 'l.l~ ",., I~ •• V 1 •• ,' ,'1.1 ,'_' , ," •• ~',.,

seien tific pretensions and promises of ,;I. bet ter fu ture the' n.ew racism had had earfier links 'with mainstream progressivism, No doubt. American xenophobia, exacerbated bry::' the war and the Red Scare,

" ,

enhanced the acceptance of "scientitie" racism, Thus, in the early

twenties racist spokesmen like M,adis,on. Grant and Lothrop Stoddard were 'U' n eriticallv ,a"0P:II'?'I"'m,',c'--"d',, iC,'QI'V:~ bv im m ltg' ',TQ'-,-"t, " pro '.' teet ive 'QI:"S,:'[O .•. · 'eta,' .,-

. ","" ~ ,,, ",h ii, , ,.}v,.,...,I,Q.. " ",. OJ! g. 1Ij;.' J I. , l r g,.lL . ,r iI.~C .I 'iW" Qi;Oo . L

tions and a few isolated scholars like Franz Boas at Columbia. dean

, . . . .,',. , ......,. .... .. , .. ,.... . ,I., . r .. ", ., . ... .... '0, .- 1 .. :t . .- ,

of th ':n ' . )' I 'II thro -,' "'Il' ",-".,.' " nd b", .•..... '11,(: ..... J' ~'" l'i, 'I).., '. . -,' '[. [-C'·II· t TI he

o _-_,~e ~,_.ew SOClaJ anL~,fo,po~ogy a,n ,.J-_lms,e,I .. ,a, . [ew],s,U lmnugrao, ... ,', ,e

diserlmlnatory imm isratlon laws nassed in 19·· .• ·2-,11 and 19'''l;.A1 m-·.18" rked the

.. .IjQ. III I. lit 1 •• ~. l. ~. ~l I. 1 • ~ 1 [t~l 1 U l [, _.u .. ~ r .. ~~ . li l, JJ. 1 Uilil. J .. ~~ ~... l,

'.·]I'",.·';-,.'·I'l ~: 'i' Iii h of n~;:,':[ ·"t'·;f"'f~"I-:'i'i :1'7

apparen mump ~ or SCI,en .mc racism,

'W'by' 'd' "'1....\1 n 't tn is 'p seud 0 sciemific ra C ~ sm la y th e '&'0' u nd ".l,+ '1· on '&0'· 11'" an

.. : n _.' '. _,: un t tms ,li;;JI_'_l.i ,-:g:.'_'~._:J~.L,~1,;. '~J':I,.;;i: ,:: . ~.,_ 'I ne I' ... J ,i ., 'UJ,Ii",',.I, I'Ji >~I,~,

A'· f + ,. l.. h + ': 1 1.. '~d d h d

' unerican fascism 1:11. tJJ,I,[e same way t iat similaa u~Hi erdast supporte ':.

the ide 0" 1"0 - Y'- of th e' N'" -, ~,",-i"'Iii Th' e' a' -- -w'-"-e' - -. f'e' -- -. - to, - lie "-- the rs -'+(1"- -, -d',

. '~(, [' [ :: " : ~',g' ".': I'"~ 11'[.:' 'a I '7 I i[!' r 1[' •. ' 'n"":,' ":[ ·',r ~"", -::, ·'m' "", 10', 'I[ ,: ~'n , ,: ',rap 1[' I 'al'n'" ,

.' . ,,~ _ '_". , . __ .:._.:" '" _ .. ", .. __ _llj\ li;II.J " ., _ .. i;f.,' _' ~ .. , _,', r .i;f. ,_'.':_. ,,_. ~.IL., ,_' 1.,. __ ' __ , .,", ,',_ , __ .' .~'

unexpected disinte oration. of the -new' racis:m aft[er :its, p-,o:li tic'a1. su:e.'-

I C r -

cesses of ,~924"" :For mHita.nt r'.a'cis.ts,~ not to 'm,en:tion. the eng:enics

d v t,···· .. 'f'''' 't '. ... - ". . .. '" - r' t"'" - , " , ,~ , ." '" ,- ,t - '" ~,- t ' "t " " 'B' '" -, , e.-ol ees, res~,r.I:C'_,ln,g Im:m:I"g~ (If Ion was an unp'o:r an.t, jJ,Irs' sep'~ .ut

·'1 . leh-' I .'.:':. 'j I ,-:t t'h-lie i ,-; I" 1- \' 1ti·-: .;fi . ;·.."bl.·.···· t.'h- 'I",' "'." -:':'l'~'lt"I', :~,': ',-'i ~' , ,',: 'It"hl:' ::. ·',ye',··l

s u. _ '_' was n 0_, .. ~, _ ,pe rs pee ~,l've 0 , e it" ,er ",~e ,PO,,I, J,C,UU1S 0 r-" ,e ,gene.r a

, "', 'bJi' wb. h "'d . "'d' t'lh··· '-' ..... 't,· t ' "", " 1-' '.' "t····· . '. w "'I ,~ ". '11" ·"d'

pu, _,~c:<, ,10 _,=a,_ use I ~,e ,rOlC,JS' Blr,gum,en.- as, 3 __ eap1on In a dmh .. e,

P·'o.[it'i1cal war th,al n'a-l;d:l- ,c,o'R'01udle- 'di 'w'1"1t,h t,.'h-~'e- 'joew ''"I'mi·mi1io-r·'0i,'(-'I'''O· ""0: 'r·e·(!'t1!/I,("';; ....

" ,_,~,_,_~ __ , ~ '~_'l""'!~~'~ , __ ' .... __ .~ __ ~~~_._, ..•. _ ~~l.'l"""l'_ ,'1_',. l.·~·~~ ,11,.II,.I.ler1U.I .. ~.' '.'~'.'''' l'f

,t·"~······"-' "'1""'11i..'·t- '; "-II ·h'~"'.'·' ,-, 'b"'-'--" ,··'t·"":·, "-'d' t-'h-;··- , .. :'·'l ,. ,-",.""", 'h'·-'·Id.'] : '-.'

1_ ,I,ons., ,J[ ,I !la" ,g,03!!l "aVlmgee.n ,3.I,.I_3UlI.e'_ ~ :·,,;,_,e r,aCIS,_ weapon ,~e_, no

:furth.er interest.

This t u.rni:llg aw'ay from ",scien.tific" r,acis:m 'by plo U tic:allead.e:rs, and. t.h.eir public coi'Rcid.ed wi,tn. one o.fthose unfor[esee,a.,ble tu,rning :points,

.. "b "", 'Ill t . 'I ld-]- t, - -- ~ -- :' -",. ". t, t'h·· 4+ .. _ .. t· 0" "Ib'f .... ~h

:In. '~~,e l'1l!i.~e",_ec.'-u.a,l, wor>~ 8!'u:rnlug P-O].'O I I ,1,all, cas:1 'IOIll·.·~ ,on. Ii,,:, e

'V'Q :Hd- i'lt"y· ..... .of··· the ~;c,ie- n~ 1t i ~c S-:~t'TIUlc~'ure- ;ry'f' , rae uC~ (;!]'m" t,b,e 'r-"'e-lwitl' Vl"'~S"t, ';o:)I'iIi'~' Ihro' ,', 'po ··0-: ':1-

M-~,~. ~'_' . _.: .~ l."l ~ ~.~.~. g _ '_ .. '_~~l_L~l'~ ~ ... '_' .. ~'.~. ~l .. ~'~ .. V. ~ .... _ll,.;II' __ ~!I' . ~.~.~. II .. ,_,M~ .. _. [I ... M~ll~'l 1 '~ . .I .. ' .. ~.

ogy of tIl,e' :fo:rm.i.d"a,ble F':ranz B,ons incr[e,as:in,g;ly ,gain.[ed dominanoe in :1' '1'iII te'l] ~e'("';'lu.'1 "3"] C·' '~I'r"c' l~c A''':'' t t h· 'c ;e '!l'''m' '['e' t' 1 .... m" 'e' ,t:1.. c· ct" '0' c: 'k "0·& h· 'e, r····l!i!d.l· t'-v' ·w· :'.-~'nt d"o' ":W" "Cn: '

,,1,iI, , .,1,11""._-,.··1., ... "." ~ilI. ,I-I" '. ," ii.'J,A', .. I, . ,,,1,1 .. ;-,. I.U,_- ill .... ,:,.,.JJ. .. 1,- .["'"" ' .,J ... ~i1.!t.,[. ,_ ..... I"

con.sid.erably 8:8 the [claims of ,a· :mo:r[e scientific ;ge:metics beC8'me: mo're' :mod.[e:st and ,P:S;'ilc:holo,gy u.nderwen.t the 'twin ,anti·be:,reditary sh.oc,ks of

J rhn B:" Watso n 's b eh 3,' ··V·.'iO' -'~S' m a' n d Sigm - -- d 'F'" reud's psych 0'3," - 'I'ys"-

, 0': .. 1m I . '- ,-'" I_~'·.I. ,-, .. '. "' - .z " '1' :'.' r'I:,- '. I: . . ': .. 11 "I .U'D- '.:' ,- ,r 0:-: I; :_' :1(1 1.'-" , : :- ", 'l!"o;Jl,'.'II:"":

Th.ough, t.he·:fuil story of the' d,ec:I.i~~ ~o;f' A,nl[e:rican ~;ci[e:ntifi,cp.l-~~[cis~;

remains to be told) it is nonetheless, clear that by the end of the :I [9,208 'the doctrine had lost its 'hold both on the American intellectual elite and 011 the general :public,.18,

To sommarize: The Red Scare :0··.·:1[-' 19;"~·9'1-,'~ n.,o·· .. · •• _ however unattractlve,

.. ;:II.. _".. . ,Ii . ~ .". . .. . _ u.. II;oi . , ,.it , .it .7 £. .. ., . , '"'. . . ...., , _ 11;,;."

had scant similarities to the historical phenom enon of fascism '1_" 3.; nd

.gJ ",g.. a 1. .~. . . ,Ii. 1 i;!I . ~ I, _,~ , J. A.I. , , .. , , , .. ,. ',i\" ,1.iI, ,.0'"',""" . . .

was, '1·:0-1' an •. ··'U' even t~. 8'0··,,:0·.····;0-! O······'1:"e,.,·'(·, The patrio .• t",1~C'~ societies. bo l,.~""~'ve···-rl reae-

. ,,' ,<II... _ ',J '-". ,."... . 'r-' ." ~ =~ . ,I,. - ~ ~.. .. .. . .. ,' , , ,~, =~ 'IA" II;oi " . ,. ,'. . ,.."

ti on ary the i r ideo log";" v, h ad. no cleat a aff I i ati on to f ascism as 'we 'have

l,. " , ,,..1. . .. . . J" " ... , . r. ,. , ." ....,. ., , . .. .. ,....

.. . -

d·' fln d' it T'L.· '.'. bla ',.' -. , " "r'_', the KI . 't,· " E:~'" . ," ", fa ,.,:' . 't· . . .

[ e. Ine •. I·, .... lite' resem .. ·.•. ,a,n,[ces 01 .. -~~,[e, ,,··.~an ,-0 .-u(o,pean .•. aSC1S,. m,ove ....

fi .' [ h h b a. I 'Ii' h 1

ments were super :I,'CU~\I_ rather tnan substannat, ,.,'11 any case, u e cO,I ....

lap se '0-:"(" the Klan after 1·'9····24 makes the issu e moot =H~ enry Ford 's

.' .. ,.,~.t " .. ' ··.·ll ,'[1;',.' ,Dr.'~[~ll g~._ .. ·'[l ~''''''_-_ ~ .. [IU\:.I· .. 1.111.,.... :.-0"'<.: , __ _:,: ~!Io =.] 0l,ILI1·,.,., '_l [,' .. , .

anti -Semirlc crusade: remained isolated and ended evasi vely, Finally, the triump .. :b and downfalt of American "scientific" racism had, by the

I I I' ."

[end of the ,~920s~ clearly lost its dominance. In short" trends that

might be classified as, proto-fascist tum out to be much less significant than. they might have appeared to our European contemporary observer,

:1[1

'Let us' now 'turn. to an assessment of Depressio n-era America by ex am' . '''' •• ni n iJ' '1' 10' t ,"'e"- 'I ~l· 'g., ht '0''-· ,'f: o,"C,"'U- I r -E· UT ro 'p- ~ an -d eri ved d efi n I' t '1" ,0': 'DI ' 0" ·f: 4f;Q sci '8" m '.',

:. '·;Y'I~~'_"l~l __ '.e.J, .. ~~ .. !l,~,I,· .. ·,b: __ .. ,,·.·~.:,_: ~- .. -' ·.:.·:· .. ~,mo .~~, ,'.: .. _. ~" o. , _.' ,-. JJ,aii:J'~' .. · 01.,

representative political movements of the ,19'308, that were widely characterized as ,;i.'fascisti""19 In order to deal with 'the' dozens, if not hundreds, of such groups, ] propose a rough, home-made classifieation:

(7 ' •. ).,' "fas ':'""C_ . ·'~·d·: If' ,-:" ,' .. : . .'.' " .. :. ". 4t.: d··' "- ~' .. :. I' d fror . A···· '.' rics n nativism:

. .lj_ ,aSCISOll. ,mo'vemen,,s · .. efl,ve ~ om. ',-I ,m,el_ ~ca .. ~ '.' a~__ .,~.I_~

(2) right-wing: extremist movements that grew out of the patriotic

societies of the 'l.9'20s;,

(.3) "faseisoid" movements with strong fund. amentalis t inspir arion; (-4) fascist European im ports or imitations;

(5) populist mass movements.

Though a few organizations may straddle: categories, most of 'the' groupi ngs that were accused of being "fascistic" during the 19305 fit one or another classification f airly neatly, In discussing the first four elate gories, I shan concentrate 0 n. assessing a single e xem plar that :1 judge to 'be typical, In each case, my [choice has, also been influenced by the availability of adequate scholarly studies 'though other, equally valid, choices would have been possible, Though generaliza'lions on 'the: basis of case histories are treacherous the alternative-> an imp ressionistic patchwor k based on scattered example's ~is even

,~:£,£ .JIW

~p ... , .... U',,, A·· ....

" '[ .. ~: .~ _' 1- :'. ' . II n I . II .'

,eter ".'. ,mtann.

worse" Si nee . the po pulist movements that :1 have lumped. into catezor 'y'.' :("'5. 7")< stand out b e.C::'~I'·U·~;-Ei!' of their n10' ,.,],~t:'~I·,c;"Jil im iporta nee, I' dea I' w,··i;;t· 'hi"

Q~' _ ,_ .. ::'" II;I!IiQ ~ 1 •• _.. ~ ~ •• Iil~. ..,' '--,I., Y. . ,I.. \ .. ~ ". " ~ _ ..1,1, _ ,_., _ ~ _ ~JI _ ... .I,_.~_,

both of the major movements involved .. "

.A n -excellenr exam pile- of a nativist. movemen t heading in ,(1 f ascis t direction w: ',9'" she B~'II,<;iCll~: 'L~Ul~[.O··.:~. centered in four midwestern states,

',_' ,~._ ~ '_il . _" ,lilt _. _ a·a t \.r _ J.u A.., ~o." ,I~'I "-?IIW'~JJ ~\.;., ~.~ =IJJ, "_.. .1 ,I.UI W "_ 1 _ .. __ "loll iiJ.I _ '._ .. "_ \~"

Ohic M,I'~ eh .. ~ .. ,: ... '1' Ind '~'I'I' and ]'If. is.with :-,· .. ··1·· . stima ·t,· '·"d'; membe shin

...... ', ,I ~,o" ,I,,' Ie I, .lgan.;, .11. .. I,:ana, ,an . , , ..I~,I,nOlSj Wi..... .an es l.m,8,.e . m.e m .. ers" .,I,p

.. ' 'f" b et ,'" 6····~0·1· '0"01\ .. d 1101(\ 0· .. ···00- <ii. '~'9' 1'35' 201f't.. ' "~ .. ., ' [,:,t:!Lo. . .. .;O~.

o . el w[een ' .. ' ~'" ..., an .!l u)! ~ ., .. 10, I: c', '.~ . ,ii, .u,'e 0 rl,81tlS 0 I, lu.e: organlz,a,-

*~ .. ' ,'('., b .. ack to )[9"2'5'" '. vh '1' ." 'I·,:,,"'I~ IO·lh· ';"." I .. 'h· ~.': t 'I~" ····, .. r'· the 'K' 'r' 'K" '~.'.:':~

~,lOn. go ac.. .'. . 0 .. , ,', w " en. a ,t oca!l , 1.0 C ,a,p e,f o. , jJ,l.t '" ., .1\..,,. '. was:

~,,,,,,~ ell e.·d'], b .. e.·""~I'u···~·e.' ·it,~, m"le>m" ibers sub •. stitu ue ... d i b' ~'II<;i~k.I' robes ,r·~\ .. , the trs d .'\ ..

...... .l'!i"p!l"r,i1.. . .. 1I!oi'U!- .. rJ . ~ iOiII ,.,. ", . " . ~u " .. .!ill,.. .... .. ,I,"" .. ,II, . ""'.., ,vr ,,,", ,a . .l

*_t,Q.··.··'Ji1Iia11 wh \t"e: ea rb oft .'Ir,~~ K" lan I 3ID" d re ola .. aced 1, the stand lard 'K"" ~:I\:i('1 sarh

~ 1 .I,il J .. uJ. . ,e.,r. '!i;;!', . .1.1,,,," ~ ~ "it,",,, ,,,..], 't"" .... , . .II,,,,,, " . n .. r ," !lA-D. Oe&

with aterrifying new initiation ceremony Durina the 'I 9'20s, 'the' Black

" I.. " ...." " ... ' H , 'C' .... , ,,,'.. . . .. .. .. , ""'.: ~ , .. " .. c .. .... , . .... ". ..,.,

L ""~,n ,',". ,A,"~, in the countii s of eastern Ohia.cs ".'" .d o tradiegl,o,~,." s,preau,l,ng. U., ' .. ·b .. CO:~,~!l-~e,.s (L .. as;,e,~ ~J,LO~, carr.I,le ' on .. n.l :1

.. 1 'K'''' [ '" "'1· .. ' .' " If" I" d'l d" .it' 1

nonat .,~ tan 'Vlg' 'I, ante acnviues as a se .. e -nrocl anne ':, g: zuaroian or sexua

. r_

and racial m lore· .~" In l "[~3·; 'I the Le:aiO-:':DI 'W"Q~ taken over b 'y.:' 3·,·· Lima Ohio

~ ",. l ~ •• ·_· •• "~~ll""J·~ _ •• t~,~. ,!!!~ ,_":?' .. '_' .~ ... =.~~_ .. ' ~ .~.~ ... - ~·~_,V ~.~ ., ". :: .. ,~ ~.l,']~~I~'''., III ",.

electrician, V:ir:,U Effin.ger, himself a former Klan, o ffic i. aI, !, who set. out to trans! orm Ioosely organized bands of hooded vigilantes into a

ti . h ·,t1, .'., ," " ~ .' d·' \ ··t·· ',',.' ,',,' H''','' ,'.... . d' it .'" ." .' b '. .' h :', . ,....I

.. ;lg':Jc,!!,y orgamzeo secret army, ~~_e increased L,S mernoersr ip ano

enlarged its geographic range to give the Black Legion political and, after :l9'34~ revolu tionary goals, "General H' Effinger 's organization was so seeret that the :F., :8,," I,. onl y became aware of its ex istence in l '9 35,~ and the ge neral pub~ ic a year later, when Detroit police solved

'II 1'.... ,. ., "1 "k"I~"'

several, ~g10n. VI,g,l .. ante ,I,"]" ungs,

The' B lack Legion may be considered a sort of missing :Iin..k between classic American nativism and fullv developed European fascism,

. .1. ",'.., ... . .,' ,,, ''','' . ..... .. I .. ~L ~ .

T"'" ,.' _",.'~" '~'.'" ti '.~' ' .... a ~"'I .~ ". ed .. ~.. ~.' ~··'[t of tho K'· 1···· 'L, at .. ~-· .. "d' I "i 'd'i K· : ... "1'" ·t·· ····,·d·· ..

,I. "u,e organtZal.lo.n " .. 8,8(1111 .. :' .. mos -0, .~, e ... , ,an u,a .f[e,s, an·, ,. ,an, r,8' , ,1''''

tio ·· .. ns, but Effinger talke d Q,'b.· .. out seiz in I Q Wash 'I' ·11l1'Q,t:'O:D~ .. VI'[ ·C:. [~~I,~ 't··· e the

. .. ~ ill, .... II. ]Ib;.= = ~.~, >.,",e, ~!QI ,AL . iQ. ..... ~ , . ~ ~~C .. iQ-i).,U ., ~ , 0" ,_ 4 ., \. ,11.,,, ,I it

30" O· 0'" 0'" B~' 1 h ik h k '. h R .' R 1" t"\ ....I

I,:): eo .. s.L.eV1.,$, W,:~O took over 1'R tne LJJSSUl'R Revolunon") ano

a. lb'· out the m as s e xt ermi n '!TIll "'I" o '. n of" A'" meri ca ·· .. n Jewry ·(':"b""y' 'm"e a" "ns' o···f···:

.. I· I l . ,I,[I} . I· ( ~.] I·.· [ . -, .I . a ( . ·1 . ' .. I· I' _ .. -' . ' L • [., 1- ". I·· ,. .. . L .. ... I

_~ 1: ... :.. ... _[~ .. ' ._,,_,~._ ~~.......:i":~_·.I:: : . ..:....:..._ ... ~ _\:~ ,~=i..:'~'.~'_·~· .. = l.~,= . ..:._l',.; ... ~,_.' .... ··::._J .: ..... :,-. _.: ... ,.': ... _;.' _,~r,:. ·:.h'JI :.1 l .. ,_,

, .' ~ ",.. " .. , d·":"·· .. , ., . \ 1 ffl ,. . .. 1'1 A," .. ~.., --", ., Y"" .~.,~

p-ols,on gas '_:ls,pe.nsc:r.s .. Ct!,l· ,I,n. .a .. ~, ..cm,erl,c:an .syn,a.go,g,uc'.s on :: om

K< " :.:" ,.. 1'1 )1' - .. :'r' :', /:.,., ... ,'ts·· '~'h'i' ,~ I' , ... f"t c ~d··l,· .. fl" :.: : ih' (' :' . ·,·:·d' I . " ~ :....., , . f 1'1 'b···· 'Ih' ", I d·' ~

lp,pu.r ,p .. oJlec I". ill,l, e." OL ,.as.,~lone., na.dV.ls,m !.tar . e.~lm.;o

I~ 'f' ... hi.. .... .' . ·t· '" . '" .' 'h' .. d'· fl'c, ' •. ' '" . . f- . f'" .' .. '

" '" , • J . •. • .'..' ~., . • ., ,. 'l . l 1 .. I ' .. , . '. ' ., ... '. l J • . l I' .,' . . . ... . ., ..... 1 .. ,. .

.. w[e com.,pa:re t 1 .. 1 [e organIZB, ,10m W,lt.i.. ou.r ,:.e 1.1D..ltlon 0 ... a J,aSICl,st,

:m,ovement,~, the: :Legio:n ce:rtainly.shared ty.pieal·fascist, r,an.co:rs:~ tbough ';;'1' :e;'x· ~._' p'. 'r"e~ '~'~Ie~"d" 'tte':'m, .... ·:W'· :. "'(' ·t·:,f- ,g, Oi""~r·:t,~ ~'Inl .£j'I".'m'" .~ .. p ... ·l:e·~ .m·l·l·'n'l .d·:· 'Ic·d·,· :,ne~,s'· ·Tlh.~1"1e: W'::·QI''"'. n~' ··.·0 .. ~. 'It':Q;l'k·

.I" .. '. '. , .. I, ..• [~i!."J. . _' , .. 1,1, .. ,___ _, _1,1 Q 1IIi.r~ U-J.J, a., , .' '" = • ••• ,~!i:J r. ,,~J. I . ~." .. .R.

0 .. ·;·£" "'M, 'i!lilr'X'I'~,m~:"." ·o:"nf~'y'" b·i!i;4-ml~',u~lh··l·~n,Ct: ;('!i,'f' [C·.··:,o .. ·:m··im:.lul,:nl'i;p,~,,~~ ?·n··d··, :r'i!;lll:d. ~~.al~·

. _ .. ' • Q. ",_;;II , .. ,,!l. . ""u, .. ,'VI IJ,. ,.. 'C' v .. , " .. " ,1I"g;IJ,,;;, u." . Y .. ,I:"'~~t!i,

, [h' : . .: ' , , " , ,., Ib····',.:_ ". ··t·~ , : :_..... 't,···· "'W" .~' .. !.' ,.:fI'·,·· ':0 ~"b·· .. : "1' :' ,... If b" "I t, , '·1" .. , :h'·· I' ·v· ::'oiD; . ""''''(' v·:: :e' .,

t .. ere were ,110 o.~ecllon8, 1 .. 0 .. , e.s"er~~ !ll.er.a ISIn,[ .\1 - muc~J .n· .. ·""",c'"~ .... ,

a,M:,aims:t "no-,Ioad 'politicians ":; the failings of con.servatis,m, went

un'm" ;[e·~*~o··:[·n·,e·'d~: b"'I'~"" "th·· I'e~·· '-R.:·· 'e· .. 'p:··u· 'bl ;~I·:c:·.a···'n':{! p·:g'r~'y:~: ,0: [f" It"h'[e' 'Ir':i.p'r·'" w·'·'e·:r'e·· ';;ndl·e···~..-ji 'a"

_ ] "., = _ ,1.1.'-,1. _,. "._.' .. ~._ ~J _ g~, ._,~, _ .... , _. r" _ ] ••••• ,1. , ... Q,.. ,1·_ 'Q.JI,lL '. _,._, ~~,_, __ ,~,~JLI, ,._ ... ~ .. ~ .~ .. ,1, .... _.'. ~}'Jl . __ 1

*a~'rg .. ··e··t·i '~' '~g~1ilo"·'n:I··'a·l·r·[e·;('! ;f!,e·:e··'m·:· It'·O: 'Ih'" "'lII'U'[~ h'·· a"d,cl ~o"'m' ~.' e'" n····o'~··t· ~o· 'n·I.'· [o··f( ''';'1 r',w;,,~v' ·o.'···I·u··t·";io·~···~ 'a' T'iJ

t.,.'1 ': .... ,.,~ .. ,:.I, .... ,.,'_ .. ··.!i:lidf.·.·.,· .,.' ..... :",[~".!I..? .'.: do '.,10 ••• ,,' ••• 11., ..... : , ..... ,a. 1,... . .' _ _] . .1, 'l.lll .IlJ~"

.... ' .. ' "I· . t '. h' .. '~·t· .. '. _.... . ·t· .. '.. ~ ' . hi. .. .. .. .. . ' . d' 'I

"1' I', ' .... ·:I~I: 1 ',.'(. :'1 .11 '~I;""I .:; '1' "'1 ' .. :, I' '~.'. "'.: -..' ' I~·[-."~· '.' .,' :".. I~ [.,.. ':"'1 : .. :.:' -..,:";,, . .-- .. : '~I; '.:.-- i

.natlo.ma .lS" aul"or,( ,arlan s ale" yet t "ere was, no ,sugge.ste.. nove;"

e\c"o·· •. "10·~' ,ml,'I'" t:"" d' :,e~·:,'p".qirlt· 'l'l¥ie··~· 'Th·.I~ lei' •.. ~ g·'.I"O'.' [nl ~h. l.!Qir·~dl '~.h." .. ~ 'f'iiI~~~e.t'.DI'~ ·1'o~··1i:r~ o~' :rl" 'V":l·,g. ":'U'I,<;i'li

. .1..1 •.. ,., '" . Un,. U.L'. ~ .""" .. . .. ,." u, ,'\10; .. ~ .. ,'\or, ""0""1,.-,;,,, ". "'II;.. .. ' ... u,t,

" ' .....

'b r h '.' 'h r '·d·] '. h' ~ A~d h d'l

s,ym .. OllStn,-,U,_elf torc,I;-',_.lt llU.,n.I.g~ .. t mass, meetln,gs ruli _,=ave a c:ru'_,[e

":p-oJitical cbor[engraphyt! ~'y'et. their to;tal :sec:r[ecy [c'ontrasts[ with :fas-, cist p,ublic relations~ There W'3S no :p[articular emphasis on. youtb~, but

C~:"'1 .)u l

ra ther constant violence, However m uch the organizatio n was authoritarian in its structure, to speak of Effinger, something of a brute of a man as a "charismatic leader" is 1.0 test the fI,e:xibiHty of 'the:

Englis h language ~ If mass mobilizati on. was mad e ineffecti ve byexagaer 'a te d·' I se .. c r e .... U m rilitarization 'IIi'IiJaS" eu ished to its 0": uter limit I' n ,..;Jj[

s~ :,u",:,,-> ~", [,"".1;'.'"u, ,,!l·A,I.[li.l, V!I!,u," f.', "j;ll,,~ .,:' .. :, .,;]0 '"l,~' ,~,~~,~,!l" ,~iL!l d,

slavish. imi ration of the U;; S ,. Army, In. short, in the most developed industrial nation of the world, the Black Legion 'evinced a primitive, underdeveloped, inarticulate fascism, which, in addition, was ludi-

I '. ff '. crous ly me trecti vie ~

The relationship between American nativism and. fascism seems to have been ambiguous. Indeed fascism in nati vist garb ,cou.ld, tap a. recepti ve audience, but in. so doin"g inheri ted the his torical burden. of the nativist tradition" 'which included more than proto-fascist procliv .. , ities, 'The nativist inheritance included, for example, a divisive traditional and-Catholicism that led the 'Black. Legion to plant explosives in Father Charles Cougblin's shrine rather than tc seek him out as a, potential ally, While nativism also insisted on secrecy and mumbojumbo this preoccupation condemned the Black Legion to isolation and futility" The orgauization was also stuck with the 'Klan tradition of policing community mores, somethi ng which ultimatel Y proved its undoing, In summary the: Black Legion wasted enormous energy on activities prescribed by nativist tradition that diverted it from politi .. cal and revolu tin nary aims,

II one can establish a certain continuity between the: K", :K, .. K," and. the Black legion" such con tinui ties are even mo re obvious between the patriotic societies of the I '9.208 and, their somewhat more extremist successors of the- depressio n decade, Consider a typical, example, the American Vigilant Intelligence Federation of Harry ,Ai 'y oueg, 21, Founded. in Chicago in ,~9.27,. 'the' Pede ration was the' off spring of an earlier Young creation" the' N ational Clay Products Industries Assoelation .. ~ a····'n·~··.·. ~r'g; anizatio .·n. that ,,1<'3,d', c'o .. imb .. · i'n,·e·',,·d'i, in dustrial espiona g'~ 'Qrn' d···'i,

I ... ,Ii 'U"",. v, ',u" IZu. 1. ,., Il, 1;1,. J!.l.u. ... , , 1 Ie" . ,Ii, .. g; r,1I 1;1,,1 ...... a.. .Ii. " . .,,",, " 1 •

union-busting 'with a. sort of intelligence ole aring house on "subversi ves." The new Federa t ion. concentra ted on the second of these roles: its ,600 mem bers paid $5 per year f or the privilege of ,playin.g' a,t, secret age," t, gathering data that the Federatio n would sell in the form. of confidential reports 'to fearful industrialists who, shelled out 1,1.00 for their annual subscriptions In addjtio .. '~ some 5, .•. 0., r.. 0 ...• 0:1 to [6 .• ·· .. 0··.·0:0 •• ·· sym pa ...

. , ,. " .... ,. ;;IIU, ,.,;;11.,. ,1,[, " .. .1.11,,", .,1, U!, ", ,,,I, "1.11,,, ~ ... """ '," , " " u " " .,.. '., ,. ,", ,"

thizers subscribed to a weekly, Items of' Interest on the Patriotic Front, ora monthly tract, The' 'Vig'i/(;tn.t,e~ Finally, the Federation was

a m I,;O;J" or p. irod ucer and d .ist .rib •. ,111i:t· '0.'· 'r' '0", .'. f a n ·t.~ 1"' -co ....• m mu n rist 't:i nti-N e ,'W' '.,'_' 'D eal

,,,,I .,' , . , , IV .. , """"", ... ,uu, . . ;,J." . u.. . , . . " """"'" . ,Ii iI"U,U ... , ,,0) ~ u.., . . . , . .. . ,

A '. S' ~ ic b h bli h d i h d d. ..

aOIl!J_ anu-Semanc nrocnures, punnsneo In, tnousands anc somenmes

tens, of thousands of copies, At the same time' it served as a. speak ers' burea u. for midwes tern. business 0 rganiza tions, Aside f rom these:

~.~o ,JU~

Peter H" Amann

miscellaneous receipts, the American ·Viailant Intelligence Feder ;a-. tion relied heavily on the patronage of a few l,arg[e' employers,

Even 'tho ugh there 'were dozens of similar organizations ~ they were - - ~ .. ~~ ;;£ .. ~ ·· .. ··"H th .. th . _ tri _ ti . ." .. '." .... 'f'· ···h· ·~nI2·-·0··· ~ had been no more tascisr: rnan .. , ie parno .. tc socienes or t ae .I~ .. IS [:.8. .• , ,.:eeIt.

The onlydffferen ces were aviru ulent anti ... Semitism of the Mil ~ 1~'n·.·'IfV Ford

, .. "" v, l 1.lI1 1'",", f",", " .. 1Iio-'. . . .1' . iii, ", _ '~'-', , ,.. 1iI,,1.iI, l _ II;;.i 1,I,ill .1;;, . - , . , , '\.i, "",,. .1, J .,

ty.:>p- e an d the rad '~l~""'·QII re .ie eti [·0·· n of Frank .. I·:l· ~ D·.··. R.· oosevelt ·3· md his ·N< ··e···w·[ ....

'.-.:,1] .... ,,",. ~ ... ··a .. ~~1"1'";J""'~'" _[" .. [' ..... , .. "J,IUll' _·iI' "'_l"V ,.IIIir.i. l~' " .ILl. 1" JI~ . _', ,",

D····· 1 Tit...·1 _. ott,· . .. . ~ '·,t': ~ . ti . - ·h . d ':·t .. - ·t· .•. in th c'· ,., .. d d

. ~ea~ , ,ne la.~: er p[OdlJ.C:IZ,a.~"_on .)3, ll-S, :roo.$ h_ 'I "e, prevIous eC8:.e"

h h ·11 f~' - L.. If d-I 1 ' h d b d fi dl b

wnen tne rote Oi the teaerai government rac oeen · .. e me by a.

conservative, pro ... business orthodoxy with which the patriotic soeieties could scareel y find fault, As to the new conspiratorial antiSe rni tism, its po pul ari ty in. ex trerne right-wing circles ap n pears to' have

l 1 ~ ~,l _

-, r ided '~f'r =H~'~'it·I~·· . ; ... "C. -- .• ~ -I .~. to [.- .~C"~- .. 'I - ··i·i· ·O·~·'·'····~··I . ,~.. 119'~[L3·'3·:

C·OlDCl,.'eu W,h,n ~'-. l,~e-r S com,lng_ 0 power ,In ·'leTmany lD II .• · ... ' .. "

Fundamentalist faseisoid organizations reached a similar de stin a .. · tion by a somewhat morecireuitous route, Althoughduring the .[9.2:0s American fundamentalism seemed apolitical, the reaction of "old-

t ~ me re ·11· g- (10·0-;' a . ea ~1~ ns 't' ·~I· b ~ er ,gl·11 P r o : t estant 'I" ~ m ~. a .g~ a ]"1·0:· st Da ·If!in· ... m .. · ism ....

.. II..I.!U.'_ 1_ ~ ._', -. ,I ... ~, '...... .11.. _.11,,;;. u.1 ' r.. . .. t. ,;],u,I. Ii.. a· .... , .. :. ,I ·a· .[, . .Ii. n, ,. 1,Jo" ~

against the rising tide of secularism. and, against. the new mores clearly placed it 0····:·(· th .. re side of co .. mservatism.v Itis within this context that

u..-VII,,;; In.. . I "",. 'V. . . '" . u.da , ,~ . la ... . ,,' H . .nla ...u. ..~,.

Ger ... ~.11d·1 B'~ W':··11D· rod and his DI'J!Ii'(:,e· n ·d[· :C··· rs ·0:··(': the ~C·· ·.·\o-r11''-'t~Q~ 'F'Q·~I'lt~ m 'OIY·: 'b.e· st

... ~. iii .,. .' . ,',1 .. U U" ~ ,', "JI1" I _ .,.. ... !l._ . _' ~ '. 11 '_1 ~ ', .. L~'J~ lid. II,U"IJI ~ ~ 1. tIll _.l""!'!"!l""I~ ""'"

b ... ~ ·,UI·I1I· d .ersto ··0.· d 21 ·W:: in ro ··.d· . a n .. eva ·111·g· :~'II·l· stie - p'[. reacher fro im I ··K' ansa .e!.

, II;,;; ,,' . II;,;; a. , . ~ ~.Ii" ". _ .. ,. . '" '-'.." <' _: ...... ,1.., ,I, . . _ ,~,h""" " , ,," )~.,"_._!3Q,.

created his, organization in l'925 as a bulwark against modernism; if Darwin remained enemy number one, alcohol" movies, sexual

[ ."1': ,;I' ,;I'

irnm ; orality birth · ... control and divorce al so we ... re on his 'h,·~'~· '1- ~I~ st I .... "~ fa ct

.I", ... ~~. ~~-li, ,_ .. :, ._.11..11 ,.,_,_ .V , . .II.~, ,. ~'., ' ... ,. . OJ' . ." ... , ",!I,~. _ ~.~,l", I;I! .' ,,1.1, .. ~,.

calling the Defenders an 0 r ganizati 0,0 is, stretching the meaning of the term" for what W],n:rod relied on was simply a mailing. list 0(60,000 to

1:0;0. r :0'00,; svm tpat h '1·.Z~·~ reo -W'~: tr· ·0-:· - a to. ir 'reg :~U," I~ a r I· nterv g l", ·W" :·:.e-·:'r'e- ~ sked fo .:r'

.~ ... ':Ii.~ .. ~ a,J. .1, U .• "-<. o'Ji, ... U , ... .. "'->... _. ,1.11.11,,;; u.,~, _ '_ u.~ II;..IU F.

contributions to continue spreading the' good word.

To UDders tand W inrod 's entry into the: political arena - we m us t

, ., ..." ~ I., ,.., . . .. ',': ,.. . . H .• ,. ". . ". , •.•. " w. ,., ...

kee ... tl· mind I,t· h ... ~. ,.:;.: t , •. ,'., .1:··: n .. thou ~·'If ·i, ;It' 11(: ·'I'V;: I~.~ ·1 notif · ····· .. f An ':~. t-,

, eep In mmo tree common, nougn no uni ~ ersai mon s 0 ,', men

, [ bib :'l"1 11 P'····I-, nestantisr .. : [~1.) <,1 .'1'I:l.~n., '·1 visio . 1 of flf, .. ·. "~, •.. rld involv-

can. I , lea rotestan J,SD:l, !l" =. a Dlb.e_=R13. ~ ision (L me worr . ~ in ~ O,tV

ins tb .e; nrofo-··'u'·n;,d·· po··.·.nuietion fha····t mr a~kin[~ ·h-· a···,d·· ~'n:·"lt:~'t"1e·"·d·· ·t··1;..IJl' 1.~I[!,t··

~~'l~~ ,_l~.· r'~"~' ... l." •• '.l._ ~"' •• ~l."""!,_ •• ~'.~ '.'. • •••. ~ ,o~ •• ~~L'L' .. '~ .1.''J'-'' "', ",. ~.~, .1I!r.i1,1. ..lll~'~. R.;I!·, ,

k h d ,. h L J' d· (-2) ·h ·b 1'· r~ h l\.;_"'b" ~ 'l

nlur_~y p~dasle prec-e',1:111 1. ',.e ,:. ast .u,·lme'nt; I'.~· tLc.e' le: E_d,£t.tull ct:~,ca,

" , ' .. : ··.·h- ,. i -:: .. '.:<1 IId[ ex-J tn ,·········I:·ti-,I·lnd';" rl~ d·:, 'v' ·l[ .. , .: "~'. 'I· 'It·bp fOp _,~ec]es, co u... __ ·,P=a.tL po . .1_"_ca"" ,a_._, ~ soc 1,31,1, ... e_ e op m,er.hS, ] n-._ ~e

conte'm,:po'F,aF.:Y world; and (3)[ a faith, in A:meri.ca·;s s:pecial :pl,ace in O·od ~s pla]1:8, that is.;, tbe [c.-o:nviction tbat [God would spare the U' nit'ed .S[,t· ':a·· ·t,,~~, ·t'lh·· ·e~:, ·W.·:O~ ,r~,t-· :C~ ;o·~. ··D.: 'V·:·II~~'j~·I· ·o~: 'D: (! - 'E<a~. 'ij"·I'v o-,··'n: . W· ... ··.I .':."1" 'Ilir'·o·~ /~ '8. 'p-e-·r ;i[o.d"I·:C·~ ~~.11 ;r;;:.h:i o·~·.w··a1

L ~~ .. , ," ,"..:;I ," " _.lJ~ ," ,~~ .. .JJ" [J ' ':, .. .. . .·lJIl _ ,I _ '._ .I .. ~ ~ '. Q i;II... . !\.lUI

fascina,tion with Benito Musso.lini~ not because t.he editor was at that ~';~ml'· e; if.'.y. ·'m··. I[ p,,~.~',b·· l~t}'C .. c t·o'-: 'f'a'~~~l'·S·· mi· . b:.: u· ·ti b:~·"·;HriIU·'·.~',~ h .. I~ ·h····.··Old:,. b·~ ... ·,o····· -,i ~ .. ~ "'"0··.··. -~ V~;" -1~:i'"e·'11 .:, ii,,,,, ~.. . '[ ",.:, ,,"" '[. . . .. iil ...... , , ,,' . . . ",",""Ul- s'" ."-,,, Ul- ",",'II;.. In"" v n Ul""u

tbat the Italian dictator was slated for 'the role.of .Anticbrist. Ru.ssia,t

,~.c~··.~.A,~-, it- ·~w_-:-~·· ··~·d-" .'.~.,. t-·~ .-'II~-- 'M··:~'~·'c'~.·· ··h"·'~l~'·· h~·"·- .~,~ .... 'i·ct:···~'-

a.CCOF\lIJ.ng. ~,O ··l.l1.ro: ,;. was .0' .Pla.y" a.gog;, Wile: ,~s conv.l.c _lons

conce·rni n q the ·p···rop·'becv' of ' the t, apos'tate Je·ws:'" orad ua·~ IV' s hal~~'nened

~.-, .. "- .= . .[_",.~ ·'·"·,1,"··,'."'····.,·, .,." _ c· .. '." ,.r,F" ..

a :no dou.bt preexisting ,a;nti~Se:m:i:t:i:s:m .. This in tur.n led to Win:rod~s .~d,' I m,l" ·r,ol'tl"' O·1I'fii 'If. 0·'" 'f"."· H"'l' ·t ..• l~:·r-'~:·" ;0 ~ t'~,-S[,e·.·lm·· : ·".·~·l~ ~ 'ip·· .·0· •. · ,'II·jl~ile,~ ~ ~',h· I[O·'i,'lII.p:h> 'w': ··~n-I"· r"-·o .• ·~. w'[··;o~,

u. = __ , , , w_, ,,1.11, . ,,'. 1I;;.i, ., ",,111,,1, ,. .1,11. ""' _I. ,~,I,"-<,I:' .;), .:,,, .. U.I!:!< ' ~ 11. .. , . 1.lI . ",;]

./\ "Dog in the Nigbttime" Problem

56'·19· ..

• • I •

. ..

unable to place the: new Ge rman chancell or in his prophetic blueprint

f· h ·Id~

. "" ~ ". ~ " "~ ~ "_. -_. ~ . ~

:' ,-.; . - ': . : '. _"< ':' - ' . ; .. -_ : I I"': ]1. I :"-_ .:.. '! ::' "I' (_ I

o t .. e contemporary worl "~

Th - e ':j(!'(11!1e- o f pro ·tr·'.I'b~····~l_'·:t-·~oc::·n-1 se rv e d '101(1 t1781' c a ta 'I~y- rst for -W·~ 'inro ·d··· i;(1 invol

'_l' ".: ,I'~~~J[ .. :.'~':" _:.' ·' .. ·.:_·,IJI..IL·_.'·, _,1."_', .-Ji ._.:, "':',::,' .. 1 ~ ._ .. IJt~ , .. _,._'_'_"' __ ._\.'~"" _"_".l_ ",-.: _:,_,~~,_ ':_',._, ~ ,~~_,··_·[·:·I-

- ~ - ~ .. - t~ ~ -""' to. h d - ... ." t ~ .. _ .. 1" t 0: ~ ·T·hl - "~- zh rh -" - -.~ de - d b - "t-"h N- .~. -

vemen wr ··om.eS1C :po l"I'C:S" .. IOU,!, I ne consmerea ~o._. _ roover

and R oosevel t un sa tisfactorv o..n the liquor i 5S ue ~'O '1932.. 'the' latter's

",,_ " , "'J - -, ., '." .,. "-" 1 ,. ~ " rs

disda .. m (::0:')1(-' the .~ rv laws wa "C!' ·iI?":.OI(-j!!I~ open I and ·W··.··'··1I'n: ro d 0.-; ever forsave

lll~ ...... ,'J[ "V I ., .... y. 'J" .1· ... _ ~ -- .. ~ I~HI· .. l~ . ·['I·IIi.!'·l WJll!J,.' l!J'n.,"'." \.?. 'I!I.;" Y"c'" ""''I!I.;

him I. Fro .. m I the first [~.~V·I'!' .0:·'·(1: the New Deal Winro •. d fiercely op iposed

,~l " , ],~, ' ,1] .. ,]] .. .1.1 .' '.,]'. 0 UU'J.' l~ .' [. '. ~'_'. ~ '.. ~ l' ~ ,~. • "~ ." [ ]',] '. .'," \r.i . ~'~l.. .', ",: .' ~~ .'

government policies, 'which he alternatively denounced as fascist or (1<0' ,~1i a '11'~1: st an t ~l: -,A·~··· m er ~l: ca n ism and -I which be <;i ls ,0··' :C<' :0.'01 ··:d', emned '!!ll'~ <)'1f1ii

~ ... ~.I .. '\I,.~ .. K] ;oJ •• ' 1[[·.,I •.... · .. !l_, l~-='_'_ ' .. .I __ ._' __ '_'_' .'_'= _'_ .. Y"""l,' .... [,]' .. ·.[II]~,,;~ .' ~ Y~.,I]

assa ul 1, on. ind i vidual liberty. When al] is said and done, Winrod's critiq ue asi de fir-om his increasinu 1 v stridenr ant ti .. Semitism W'.'!lI~

.. ~ ~ ~ ~ " 1 ~ ~ ~ .. ~ ,. ~.. ~. ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~. ~ .. If!j ". Q ~ ~ ~ .. - ~ ~ ~ .. M~ ~ ." ~. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .. ~" ~ ~ ~,. ~ ~ gQ

hardly d istinguishab le fro m the an ti ~ N ew Deal tirades or pe rfectl y re ··iIi:'1·P- e ICC ta ~ "b~ - ·ile··· co n s ·e- rv - a t ~l_'·C-V·· e 'R; ep C ubl ic an -~ ··s·

_' ~~: .. - ' ~.'.,':._. >'.~.', 1,., .. 1 .·I~-.~ •• " .••. _. .• " •. ..w.= ~).: .l~: 'iCI. I, i·~·.

D·· - it - - ~ '~ ... ~ - ~ . ~ ~ t ~- h .. -~ 1 .. · .. ·f'· the "0· .. fe -~ d ~ - ~ .. ~ .~ f·- ~ ~ .' -" . ~ - ?

.... oes u m axe sense 'I '0 t .' Ull!i. 0 I. I ae .' .·Er enr :,e'rs as a. ': ascist grou p ,~

C ~ 1- heirmoti ,. .~ diff If' W"'" d dOl , ertain ~y their motives were enurely i J terent, tWinro '. oppose '.

. ,. b ~ ...... ~ . "'f· . h d I" I~ communism, :l.t was neeause It was atneisnc; :1.':- ne opposed polmea

. -: -(';,' 0" ,e. -. -.' ~,: • ~, II c "1" ~.-:;o ~ ,(: -'·0··· 'ml fe ·a- fl- t hi ar it 'W: -' ·0· ,.~,.~ 'J~ ~ le ad ~ '4t ·0', "0·' ::,~ I' C-;-"C.~ ~. , I," ~ 1m::; ,

pFOc.r\;;SSlVIo:J,:n:l~ 1. w·u.;;:,'.r... 1.1" • ., ·R· .. 1.. ..0 .\,iI, ,~ .. ' ~ ... ' .. > arWlnI., , ...

T~,~·-~·~· .~~. no .. i eviden "':~ that Win .. rod had a.~·n··I·y.:. n ·o: .. tabl .. ~ o ... ibjection to what,

lit'" re IS .. . e 1. ,...o.V\.i. .. .... . _ . ,.. .. . u. ~ =IU. . _ . . . . .. II;;.;i' .. . ,'V .. .l.v ...n', 1iI..:,,,

th ~.~ >.- ,~,,~~,: ", alled ~' .. : ... " ... ' .. i· vatism" th ... , U·'i-·· ····t"· ~.ri1 'S<t> + , .. th rat ..

Il. len. ·as, .mow:, IS ca .~e. conserv.a.lS_.~J In. ,f, nl eu ' .. · .a.l!.es, 1 .. 131 IS,;;

n ~ '0·'·' etee n th -c ·"e· n ·t ... u r·--y··'· ] 'OI,t·S i[I'CZ· · ... fa i re fibera '1'1' ·S·· m ·C· '-0'- ·· .. 0· se .'.q". ue n t'll·y··· on e d- oes

.. 11 .. ~-.'I;;.oi"" .. I. J:l .. i:, ..•..... _,u.iI;,g; ~.: ' .: u.~.I.II;"o ,IL .. ·.·· .. _._. -,I..,!~.~ ' .. -.· ~."U."I",~ .. ~ '1;,)0,'." 11;,,0

'~: .. ' ... ·t· ·fi:·- .. A the D····· €~ .. ···d, , I~ ~c xtollir .,' the . .... rf I~ 'I I,th, ·)"t· ... \., . .,~ .. te .no.. I J,nlll. .. ne '_ ·C.Llen ers, e-xl .. ocLlng~"..;._e powe,r. ,u.~,." au.xborl-ar.Uln S~,~l-e ..

T'llat is why the,y la,c;ked ..any t.ralce of fascist m.i1it.a~rism and could attract a fair. :num.be:r of :pacifist Me:nno:n.ites to t.heir :ra:nk.s.,:24 Ye:'t

·w·":·,,,.· .,. ··d· ... 'l'lld- .. ·'1' .' ,'. ·t··f: h"-·'''·- ,- .. ~ .-' ...•.. ~. ·.c"·· ~.~ '-~.' -,'··t --, -., ··t ·t·~ 'E--: .... " -. - . .,~ ..

_ ··~·I,nr..o,. COU.I.'· •.. aUiiO .JU.S _l1'Y .1.1;8 p,ass[on..a.!I"e COIER1n~,m.e.n.I__o .u.ropean

dictato:rs, on. bibli,c;al ground.s; fo:r bibl.ic,at p,rop'hecy had des.tined. EUFO'p .. C: fo.r a harsher fale: than A.Ine:ric:a., l:n short; Willtod a:nd his· ilk are b'et:te:r u.nders t.ood as a .r ather s:pec ial 'b.n,:~ed of re li,g:io us· z,e;.alots

~" r .

t.ba:n as 'h om.,e·-grow·n :1 ··ascIsts ..

A.m.e:rican organizati.ons, aping :E,u:rope:an f aseist 'mode:ls d.id., of

.... ·l-I·~C,~.·· ... ··.·'·c·"· 'T't,.,·· -. ·-:Ih···, '·'·1··-····-····:·, ··f~' th··· G .... ~"···~j-·· .... - ... NI··· ' ..•. ',. ·'Ih· . '~'d': h······,·· cour~e';, e.xls1, .. n.at t ,e, success o...,I.el,erm·an~aZlS s,' ou.~,'· ,,~ave

"' . d A~ '" '" ~t t" ~ t ' .. t· th It

. -~ .," _ .. 1-:···' ::. -.~':·C·. -·-1"·:·' · .. ··1 :, .. ".-. ·-·1···· ·"j·C ... ,' . ' .. -: .~ .... , .~, I· .. ··~·- I--l·· ·I~·"·· ~ . , ... ' . . .... -c· ... -. I I ., .. ".- .C',

.1.nS.pI f'e I. . . Iner[ca.n lRll a 10 ns U~ no.. S IJrp (lSI ng, ye--, ' .. e rl~$U. - was

... . .~ .. ·d··1 .. -j' JL-. ~.,'t,.". .,~ dl I (i ·t1.l..··· . . I' I'" .. ,.".. .. r .,,' ..... ·(i f> . i· . ..... 'I'j .. . ···~r ( d .pr"f:· J.c1taul,Y SC.n.lZOI' ., •. ' .. c~,~,e m'UllSi.prUl.g 0 ..... asc,_.sm w·as, aD ex.a.gge~, ale .

. - t · ···I."'~··· ~t·· lb· ..~ .. ·Ib· " _. , , th ·· .. t' ".~.. ·th·· 'IU' .. +'t· d' ·S· '. t··· ~,.. . 'h··· .

na.I.OD..'hlS,m'j 1 ceca,me o V 1-0\18 .:a - lll-,.;J;,~' 0.1 e_ ~~ a.!i.es sue .. 1 a.

·In.·.;q;,t_.~o· .·n·· 'al'~1' ,'?ml·.·.. ·C···· ·O'_,·.IU· 'I,d·' n·I··.:O,t, 'bl"::;" .'.: m···· 'p'~ .rt·".e-:.d' ·f~:ro.··.·. ~ .9:-r-r·,o··· .. 8·,' ·d·· w.··.· ... 1i'lt:'~.O .. oIUI't- ~"o.'o.···· .Ik:·~ 1j"I; o·

U.I "', I. ~,. . . . _". ., .. ~ ,,[, ~ ]" U . .. ,.]. 1.1,1] i.& U ... . ,I,. ,~I. . ... I . . L II III''''e,

b ,;, .. '"'\0. 'f:··:·,·,,}··~'h· .-, '~Id,'! ·.II',il·lt·· ····f· 'T-h,"····, :." ~:'_"'.: ..... ~.:.: ':',"":.,..; r_·, ·t'h:· .. · .. t',,'I(·'·t.'1:t ·G··-I' -'j - II·n· .. o tu 00 illS.. a.1l unp a, . rl 0 ~ IC. . .. e C !laSSIe case IS ... a 0 . n.e .. e.rnla~=

A -~ ~.~.~ "8· ··I·j d" . -':h' .. c·'h- -. ···"":·1 :',.: ... ·:t·~ I"· 'd': ·t.'h···,~tl III ,.:r N'V r 'ea'

J:ne:f.[c·an .;". un",. W _,~lC, ·c.a,n,ca _ ure _. ., ,e u,l, emm.as,..o= 0.· ,e. s.~· c ~8

~.~ 1',,1' .>~: #.2:5 'l"'~, B~···· :'1,4" " "j. ~ ":. -~ld'l ~·dl .: ; .. , . .<·thl"·1 ·~·":·,,~:ri A' le·ie· ns', f Imports,. .JUlte ~unu was ~.nten ,e; . as a g.a. H erl.ng 0" .~m.~ .r ~~a .. ~ CL

'Ge.r:man origin i:n a gre,at. A:merican p'iltriotic' move·m,e:mt.;, which at the ~ ,,-" -. ·t .. "' -" .. ~ " k.~ - ~ d~ .', '." ". -~ -1' ". ·t···· ·N· .. " . G~-··· .' -" ,,- ... ,' A ·t' .'"-., -~ "k' *h" ·G·~:' "".~" .... ~ sam:e;- I .I.m.e !lOO e 0 verty 10 . ~ a..zJ.erm.any, ,MJ .llS pea." ~ .. :, Ie 'crm·an:-

AI~ I ':_:·Ic·• .. :·. '·-1 ·B:··," -_'rd' 'Y~:I~ I'" ......• ~' ·tl·" ·h· .. ·1'·· ..... -' 'Ilt"I·d'· '1·· 1·'··:·,· .. ·' ... ·· ·t·h·· ..... 11~. '0'00:: ·1, '1· l'lb,·· '1- .' .

. m.tflCan .un. seems no.:,. 0, "ave nBJ m.ore .. an. ,iI ... ;J.~·· m,em.ers"

t.wo-thirds of t he~:m of G,erm.an. nad.on,aH.ty.~ 'the rest n.atu raHzcd Am.er-

'~'C:'3In ,cltiz,e- n fI::I PUI'b lie·' ~ p,in.ion. 'Ineve- r a.c·c:e- ·p-led·: the: 'Ie- Di~]mac· y of·' ·m·a'· ·S·I'!'

I] .. ·· .. )_~ .. '_ ,_~ .. _~g,., ~ .. ~'~ .. _". V .. "_"_'_~'~ '_' __ ' '~" ... '_ '~.'~"~ "'~."~ .... _' ~" . ·~, .. e_,l,-_,~ ,._.t .• _ .. ~ [] _'~~ ..• \~

.. - it;' - ,-. d~ . ." .. t - d ' , .:' to, 11-' ." ,~. - ·t- "'11. .. - -- ~ d' . - ... , - t-·, ~ .. t- . - .. f· 'G: ._'.- -. ... - -w-· .C· ~ . h-;I .

m.ee~J:ngs ':ecora,_·e:l_ WII _' .. swaS_lh.as an" p-o.rI.raL$ ·o~'"e'Orge (1'8 .. 11nl· .. ·

iii: "1i'O·'''·

J. 1[·.-"

Pen 'I IH-~ Ama I'

" e'ler ru •• , mann

to I' 'U:~I-""~': iatelv this 4t·-:-"I',:'-A,t"]I'I:i1r Nazism :".,.', .. ,-".,. '" nterfe ed with 0:';"".''''';00- ,on", '.' I,lJ,ma.,eJJY".IS ~.ran,s ... ,an~lC" a.z]s.m even Ul,er.lere, WI" '. er

man foreign policy, for the Band's clamor against President Roose .. velt's intern I,Q.4tto·.,:·.n.13.: 1.: sta 'n° . c e helped to d ise .. cr--,e·,·.d:I.'~,t·, all A- m nerican nei ~ tral ism V "".I! i;;J I"",,, H u1l1. . ... ". .. lit 1r.. .. .,1i0., ,Ii ... u.,~" " .. "II;,;;,fl .'" ",Ull.f . illS "

"'!Ii,~ a" N'" _" ~ a" "'I'" m .. ·· a' n' e u' 1"O"e{f' .,~

~ ::: ... " ::: :,i:..,. "I':.: .': '1_'1 . ,*'.1: .. "'!JI

'I'f:" ,.,' I ted '. II th . m mbers e ···f·'-"f .. ' .• ' .' .' "A .. ati ":~' ·,t· _ .... ·",c··.,_· .. -- , .... - · .. ·1'11 . '. one coun:e . a. .ll:e ,.; .. , .. e:~,~.~ I' :' . .rs, 0- ,13SCl:SOlu n,a,,[VlS,: :R1ovemen.ls", ,al

the sympathizers of extreme right-wing circles all the' subscribers 'to

. " " . .''' . " . .... ,... ".. ,,' , \ -" - , - ,,, ". ". ..,,, .. _. , . , .. " . ... [ ... " .. . .

. ...

'11- ~~_S·,c .. c:'~ 11·····"t .. :<: oeriodieels of '1(':: ndamentalist ,'" seiratio I' and :'.: 'II~ the ann .emllC peno .ieats or rut .... arne .. nans mspira ion an. au tne

ad '11.1 erents of '(1I'fl"O' "'U:I POi'!' ap "'I' 'rro ,g.: E~: u iropea n fa ,s";C"'~1 st ,0·' irgan iza '1",'1' ,0·' ms, ·t'· he "'yr ..

.... ,.'liiijJ, ,] ~-., '.', ~ .' _.:!:t! 1,11:-:::, _. _[II]U,I .. ~ .I'[ . U ,ll~·. "'], .. :lU",,· [,10, ~_":'"

would total perhaps one-quarter million, compared to the fortv-five

lr- ~ ~ -J'

millie n voters o ·f' 193···6·c· Such g'n acco .... unting wo uld be ineomple te

, ....... i· __ ,I, :.: ,' __ ',IQi [', ~I J '-",. ".'~ ,.>'~' .. ,. A,~,iI, .~·, __ 7, · __ :.""I .. ,,-),,,c,.,, .:.~,[ I .. ""'" ii, "I;~: ,·_, .. t .' .. ~,[:.~' "

however, for it ignores the two mass movements that were also widely . ...1.' .• ' .. ····iI I' .:'. ed .... ,' .. fascist :", tb J9[3":O'·- H'I" '~'~' 'L-,' ,~,', :8··:····h: "-0- "1' -w· alth ue no u nee.. as .. ' asc,l,s " 1 n ""e I .:S,~, I _c u.e·y ,10 n.g s .. ,.d,are u.r . ea. .. ",", =

and Fa the .. r [C·····' .. h 'a- rles '·C·· "',0- ughlin's National Un ion for So cial Justice

._·_ll~_ ... , , ~_~ ,I,~ .. " . '~'" " l. _ ,I, .. ~ .. _ , .... _'I' ',' ,~, 0' ~ ". G· ,." ,IJI,U", . '.', ,I ' .... ,1=1. v. _ .. ' ~.lt. "I, l .. '._ ~ . .1, .. ~

(resuscitated in 1.938 as the Christian Fro nt),

~, rn: PL' ll known that i ,. .. ..

The career 0'::" ',: uey I ". .ong 18 8,0 well known that ~,t certainly needs

.. et ~1" , zh c 2'1 'S"h- , 0" . ,'W·,: ,: .. alth -_.. . 1- --,. - he d bv S····· , .. t - "'L" ,

no _r'e' e:!l lng ,ere,; _',.' I, '::ar'c-u:r-' ea. I .. · ,'w,as, aunc ",e" uy .. ena,.or ,ong

. J '~ 93·Ai d I.\.. ~ .. d f" Louisi . ..

In, 'anuary l',:'~,"f' anc , 'was an O'![)'V,I,OUS byp-ro' :,urct -0' the I. ouisianian's

inc reasingly hi tter ri valry with Franklin Ro oseveh, By February li' the:

m .. iove .. un aent claimed ·2··:··::7'AI~3,· ~ clubs "w,,~,t,~ ·8" m .. em bership of .4, ,.6 .. \.8 4 ......• 01 0 n 0:1 ,28

. , " ~ ,'. ,.' .. ' 1", 1 = ~ l\it.. . . . ,I!IiIf .. · ,I ~l~'" U;., . ,II" L~'_] '.. . 0 • 1 . J ., ,.- •• \it. .. a 1 . .1',1.' .', '., .. _. '., - ..

Roosevelt 'W"?~, ~,U' fficie .. ,nl't· :11,y .. ' C"~'n""~:j!Ii;'r'n' ed to o·· .. irde ,':rc '~1"~, c::a,m;p .: aign special-

, , ... . O~ v ".. ~!3. I] ,.I. [I .. , " .. 1 ... ~V, ~-'\..-, .1 .. ... .,. ,~l" . __ " U '.'.' " ,I 1Iii.?-~ ..

ists 'It· ,0.'" take ·3'" 'p' oll on th e dimensions of the threat 'IP' ::0' se ,.d'! by ,~ L ong

,!i]i.i!.J ... ' .. ",\it.. ,1] ... lt,ll v. ... ~ ._l_· ""_'.l""!~ ... ,.~i!.lI .. ,l~ ' ... I'J' ~.Il \it.!Wai.. ,I.' ~ ." ':.' iii, .v., ....

pre 'il"':: d en ti ,o[ ~ c '. an did 3" c 'Y' .:; n 1'9':c, ·3'6···· The p:"" '0,.1 ~ co ··n··,....'11 u ·d' : ed th a' ·,t ''''f'' HI "U' CV' LI '0' I"'n 'g.'

. ,"o:!i,~.[ I.~, " iI,u!.~,'u HI" '" .•. ' ..•..••.... iI,d, .. , Ji. 'Ii = lit •.. :' ,1.11 .. "", .• , I, .,,",1 ':.. I . .1.1.' I, l ,[. '-",J , ,1.1, .'

ran as 98,1 ind epende nt, he W'O'~1i'I,d', obtain 3····-4, million vo ... tes tha ,~', is,

u." ~, U-i!.lI u~ .. ~ Il~ .. !l.. [] ~~ ~.\.!J.. u .. u , _l ~ __ ....... It. _ .... ~L~'_] L~~'& ,l.lt,ll .. ~.l_ . \i?. ~ ~~.~ .. ~ lll. ,

seven to nine percent of the ex pected electorate .. 2~ F. D .. R~,. '8 concern, ho ·w·' "A\lre' r tu rned out to' b e m £'Ii 01 'b' - ec ':JI U-S' e rO'1TO ·S·~·· eotem be r '8'" 1·9-3····· 5: Lon (I'

:_,~ ,~'._. :'_" .~,.-.~,_ <.~: . ._ _ . _ ' _ = uv.·~~ · .. _'·_I"".~ ::.~'. ·:dIHII_.] :I~y· .. ,~,~,_=_u:.,_ I .. :lt.~,:· _. .,., l""""""" ·':'lIHIIJ.O

'w',as, ass,assi:nat'ed in tbe' capitol at B,at-on. R,oui'e'~

.H o'W' does, :S h.a:re:~Ou['~'We:al th So tack up a,gain.s,t 0 u.r o.rigina~i, defini-

t' '~I o-n'l oc-: "c,:, f'· a: . ·S":C<l· ~:IfrI'? ~I d' .e,o~lo- P.'l· ·c··· ,gll'II'-Y' '.:, t' h:;,ii:i!'r":e: '~~e','m'"'1 ·t:o~· 1t:~ .nlo- 1-11n'l k-" s>, rln' r""'"'ni 'g' ·:'''s>,

.I, ., ,. - _.. !il!JJJIJ..1 _ .. 1 lC' u. ,1" .. , ."'~ a.~; .,' ... llJ~ .I, , .1. J( .. , ~": _ ..

case" his :m-ove:me'n t ~s' ,a. ttracti on w,as almost entirely e,co:no rn.ic:~ Po Us

rh':"~",":' '·"h-,·o'-:-:-.""C t':'h' :,t'j "'·'~-·Lo····(ii' ·'e".'n4t·'m":·~'''·lt', c-.~':, ... ,E! .:,- ....... ,' .... , .. :· .. ·,":··~":'_-·:·· .. · .. ·d"1 t"1J..,-,

, , ave s. ,v w n .... La. ,p,r v .. ' ' ... Jl,e" 8, ",1 . ~.l . 1'-'0.. W(l,:, 1110 re pro no unce, . l!lfl

fartber down one we:n:t on 'tbe' ecollom.ic ladd.er.,3o Lon.,g:'[s traditional, ene'm.ies were th,e '''''fat cats" and tho:se wh.o'; according to :Lon,g;, 'had sold out to t:hem,-8 c.ategory he 'm.ade fai.rly inclusive'. Anti-,

',:'.':',' .... 'II' "1"""""--'''''' I ,'," "'[dl "'It"i,-M, '11-"'1'" I W,", : .- ·.····fi '1"[ ,·,£,t "1' .', rl' '1·· .. ,:1. H:'_'.I'I ,."

com,nluru,s,m an... an.l = ar.x]s m , ere 0 ~ ,no g.~,ea _ conce .. n .. 0 = .. u.ey

L W'h '11 f '. .' ., d h ,. h '. J" '.

on~8:.. '.. ~~e:n ,a 'l,e~,'t-'w'.[n8: 'Cfltic ,argue .• ~' It ~,;.,a;t" wit ,~ou t n.a.tlonaJ,zatlonS,t

'h' ,~~ S"'h' "'a: 'r;iiili'-iO-'I'~'r'·-,·W·'··:'JiI,a·· 'it' ~ 'p'ro'''''g- :r!]i;'m "W' :a'lt" ['0:0.' 'I-y" 'a- d'I,Q1'luc'~o"""n'l t" h', ·"e'· 'S"e' 'In" !]i;t"'O'- r'

" ~,~ ~._. _' ,. __ 01_ ~'_'._ 'U,_, -'. ~ ,,:-~,,~, _~,I.I. ,I-·",· _, .. / " Q '0 ••• :l..:-_--Ii;I!' .~.'" : .. ' .. ' .. _. \.i ~. ,0I,1l _'., , _'" _'., :- _"'_, " Q .... :

'm,e,r'ely responded: ",In the: 'United States you. do:n l win election.s und,e'r the: :80'cialist P art ~lla.bel ~ !1J[:1 Though. it 'W ould, be hard to cl.aim. 'Long;: as a P·.[3ss'ion,ate de'[Docrat .. be had 110 'theoretical ob'1.ection:s t.o a.

, ", ,. .. .. " ...,' . , ...... . , .. .. ... " " -- ...,,,... , .. , .. ,,' , ... , '.J .,.." .. .

d-e'mocr,a-c,y tb.at bad so faiUl.fuUy returned bim. t.o political o:rfice:~

If ,LOong: bad ,an u,nd-oubted authoritarian st:re:al(~ this reflected his

-,·-" ... "·t,,· :', .. ··-·· .. ·'1 .. ··'·' ,'."', ··"':···'b·t··,'· '. ,,'. d'l ,,~ ....• , ... ,- 't'" . :t.'h"· ...... ,' ··1····11'" '-······'-~I'i."'·

vant y, nnpa len.ce", ,am 11[On.~ aD· . f"f3CdO.n,O 11;,. 'f eq.ua,.y un.scrnpu-,

lOllS :methods of his o,p:pos,itio:n in 'Louis]_a:na~ but not a co:nside:red

571

ideolo .: ·'1 '~'~' ., .. ·'W' th .. , ,., "f""E"'" .. ~'."" '[" ",.": "t" H':'~' tati ~"'1 1 ,eo, .Ogl,C.rL :s~,a.:nce as,~as 'I ,~~,e case o~, ",U'fO,pean ,laSCU~Si' , .. IS :n.a lon,a-

ism a.t most mirrored the p rejudiees of his southern cons ti tuents and was limited to hel ping; defeat the proposal :f 0,[' America's en try into the:

Wor.ld Court, The neweconomic order that Long; held out=-sincerelv

. ".. .. ~ ,.. ".. . 1... .. , .,. ", . .. .. . 1... . . Y

O 'I~ 1j';~'I~' ~'[I'a:'" .vored '? ,·I,;O;,t· her vaau e po r ·.·p·' 'U' '11'~~,m, ", d' esisned to hur .. t only the r .Ii,I,U ,... f 11;,,;. . u. . " ,"" Y. ,c,...... I. ., ... .11", ., ... ~1l0,iI.J}I ... !,. .. . . . 'V 1.11.. .., ""'

e ~.~"t· est 0··' ·,·'[1 ~ 'rca" '~, c ca us b ... ,'U~' t, n "0'· methe ,"I .. ess sk e ,t."c •. h ed :li:il com If 'o r t in .. · g. enviro n m aent

.Ii, u t,.. "'!;J. " II;. . . ... .. .. . . ,.."..... '""0 , ..., v. . '" "" V", , 1. .... , V .1, . .. ,,",, .

f'" '" 'L " '!!I 'f' l~· , ' •.... ' 32 'D' ., "of.. 'L·· . ,'!Ii. ., 'I,t·.··· 'r"d' .., ': ..

, ,or ,O~lg: s .'O,t.~,OWln.M:~' ,_esp'h,e ,-,ong s enormous seu-conne ence In.

his ab iliti es 'al~ a 'PI."..'~'I·t'+.1P:'I·a1flii deb ater rabb te~-1io:., usina orator and law ','Y',:'e··.'r··',

.,~· .. ~.-·lIL.,_ l·~~~" ~;.Vlll""'~l .. [1.1", ._.~. R~~l""l ~l. ,1 ~~.lhJl·e, .. ' ,1. ""J _ ~.~ ,'.:11

he made no effort to abstract some "ideolo iY of the will" from 'his own. cockiness, The 'Usual f ascis t attraction to :r acism is equ a] hI' a bsenr, Lon, appears 1.0 have been free of anti-Semitism and his own, sentimen ts toward Blacks were at least. :m ore be nign tban those of his white consti tuents,

The' Long movement also lacked the hallmarks of fascism. in. 'the' 'w'ay it. was organized and run, Al though ,H uey Long certainly qualified as a charismatic leader, all the other fascist hallmarks were conspicuously absent, There was no emphasis on youth and virility n or on regimented and. militarized masses. For ins tanee, the local Share-Our-Wealth clubs, seem to, have been completely spontaneous and anarchical, closer to movie star fan. clubs than to fascist militias.-" It ,~~, true tha u even for a co un rt "r·:": that has :~ I~~'~:.;O,~~S··: ha ·'d·.~ 11'('·'S'·.·', sh a re 0"., f

, 1." ._"" ,n _.. . ""'. . _. _ u , .. , Y lil. _ . . a lbW"Y ,~i1. _ " .Ii, .... _, _:r. .,

'V] 0 lenee ' Long ,. 's use of violence '~I) running Louis ia na W'8!S exce '~-

.. _ . _ _ _" _ _ " . . . _.. _ I _ .. . . :I... ., .. H _ _. j In _ _ ,... . p

tional .. though 'we must remember that he was a contemporary of

, , .... ,. "' .. ' •. ' ,. . , " "'" ,,",.,.,. , , ." . ", ,. , ,. , ' .. ' .. J ..

,o···~ he r vi 0' : lent iP, oli tiei ans 1'~ '11:"",e· Fran k "I :8". m I the La 'w""" 'H ;0; g.," 'I,'I~ 0·: f Jersey

. ~ .... ,._..,. .~ ,11',-.', ~·.l" r.' .. III 'l~ IU-l 11Q!, [ 11&' - ..... ,iii , " " " ': .. >," . -ll~.. " . , I,. J,u, .. :,.u..,.... '''-." .... IIir.? !.:J~."

C,",t'" Y···' ,t ,'" , .. " . 'ct· '" "t, ,t " the fa .. ·,· ,'" its L , W" .. disi 'I.~ ··d ,t, . ·'1 .. ,~.t,

, 1,1 y., . ~ e I,n. co n·ras I·O·U.{~ . .£tSC.I;S·S ~ on.g, ~< as J.S,I.n.C.t [ne I 0 g,tOrllJ.Y

violen ce, "Th ev sav th ev d on't lik •. e 1m. I. "y:, m nethod s, N' he confid ed 'to .. :3'

. ,il... .. .. ",~ =. J . g...r . . ,J v H . • ,I. . .. ',' . , =, . ..." ~~ . . .,... ,I, .. "". . ...

'~, ... I" .'. ali ···t·, I'tW'11 ] do ~t ~. ·k"· th '." .. , :' ithe ' 'I"d,-", , .•. " ... ' h' T' th ",. it' "I·', :

Jou.:rna.,~,8,.., e,~ ,._ on I~ d,e 1.1 .. em el,l·ul~r .' . '. ,. L_ ,mue·, ~ al ... 1 er gel. u,P

b f'~ ~', 'I d 'N bi '" . ..1 ] a 'sf h 'L fi

berore a tegrslature ane say, ',""."OW tms is a good iaw; It:s tortne benetrt

f h ~ , ~ d ~. f ''''. ( ·

' .. "',1.", .. '·"1 ,," ·,"'I"·I'I':i1L.-' ",''', '" 11',','" for i: in .". interes •.. , •..... ,. ,."' ..

. , " 1···.·· I I I I .,' . I . I II ,I.. I . , .... : . I . I ' .. I' I :' . .' I . r "( • I I I'" .. ' I . I . ~ -

o tne peo p" re, and ,_'_, ~L, __ e you to vote ~ 0 _' it in the mtei est 0.1, the public

• I. I

welfare, ~ Only .1 know laws ain 't mad e this way, You 've lot to fight fire:

with. fire, jj_:J4' W'hetbe'f Long would. have turned in a fascist direction had he [i ved (as did his s urviving Iieutenan t, Gerald :L~ K ~ 'Smith) is an unanswerable qu.es'tion."j$ 'What is clear, however, is that ill its. brief one and. one .. half year career to September 1.93:S; Share- Our-Weal th cannot :legit:i,m.ateJ,y 'be: ch,arac:te:r.~.z,ed. as, a fascist 'm,ovement,

Th',:'e,',. cC,o:li're,:e··~'r' o,~:',f··· "th"e' r,o:lid"':l'·O"·,~: 'p"r~JiD:s' +f ·C-'h,' ,a~· 'r~,e' (1. E~( c···.·.' ~'lu·lg··t-l,:ln' '~C' ,a··~llm'I·~~.t:a,,~, ·w.':'::.e~11

,_._, ,Q,_" ~~' , ~'_'_' _ R ~ _~ _ '_"II."", ~ !l"," ~~ ~",!l;;ll ~~_ V~~,U,.I!._,~ ,I,.;!!L _,VQQ .~.

known as that of H,lley :Long.,36 Like: Lo:ng"s. S'hare~O'li:r-'W'ealth

mo.·,:·'v~'~'m: le:lllt·· t~,'~.p. N·'I 8,' ,,("110·" ,·:'n~··· ,<!jii'11 'U,'.· 1j';'~O" .1)" f;:,o' . "'f' S~,o·· .. ·('i,jla,~ J.·""I:ti't'i'~C·i~', f' ,'o,:u'.·n",d.··· ~d:~ ,9.t' t·'·.h~'I~ .. ~. ·d····.~~ , ........ , ., , ~,U.v, . . ,I ..... u..1, . .Ii,I.1 " .. '-',I. . !l , Yo') l .... ~, ... ,'"', u., . , ,.e en.,

",·"C··· 'I n3'4 't'e~t··'··f· f~ t ...• '~h· ': ,. ,d· t ." .... f., <" "~ i·ti'~~'I,c: .. ~'<I': 'f~ 'IC'" '~,,' F,-"'", 'I~' ,'k'~lr I n-: I •

0" ,~'7 , ~SLleu, ~ 0 t .. e '. I,verg,ence 0,1. IS c,rea,~.or ,.rom . faD .,I.ln ,. '.

'R,', . :v' ~~"s 'II"i,t· : ~ .. nd·: .. '. 11 :,. .' I It''lt'·:··d· ,'- , .. , .,]1-- .,." ,' .. , .. : , .. " , .. " . I:··' "I .".' '.,\.', fj:" . ,.. . "I'l" ., ,. ',~ ..

=,~,oose. en, ~'po ,_,CI,es a_~_. a..so ends"e. ,per.uaps as mallY aSJve IDL, lon

m,e:mbe'rs~ 'Un.like LO:tll, w'hose career was cut. s;hort by mu:rder', :F,a.tb"er Coughli.n we:n:t on, t.o playa, third p,arty' rol,e in. t.he ,elections of I 936:!!, w'he:re hils 'U'nion.is't P,a:rty gar:nered 900,000 vote's, one 'tenth. t.he total

5c7···'"

.~

Peter H" Amann

C·~·~"·~~'·'~·:h···I].'~-~ h _- . ..l nredi cted A· fter ~ .. -~, .. ~.-:-,_.~ ... c,·': r frr ,:: this .~ ... nb .-~., . ,.~ c·: '-~.-- ... ( .. ,

· •.... oug,. dB ... au pre Jc,.e __ ... .Il.,J~:r re·c-ov·e.nng ro.m I.., I 1S em'_H:rrassme·.n_,~,

F at he r C oughlin turned in new directi ODS. As. earl y as .1936 ~ Jews bad

b ". ~'" d· ·d· frc _. the N··· ·_·'t"'· ~. -··-1 ··U·I·'-~· .. ,-. for '·s··· .,.'. ·I[ JI~'~~t~·· ~ b--·~ - the

ee:n e,X:C.dl ,e·. . .. fom. .. I .• f; .. al-.I.O n.a .... IU:O.n . 0<1' ,. OC.I.8, ... us lee·; [~y .' Ie

summer of 19'38 his weekly periodical became op enlv anti-Semi tic,

...... , ,., . . .. ' •.. 1 ,.... . J 1 l1!1'

hil ·h" kl b d d i b di ,. C·' hli

. ,. ~ - .. ,. .,'. .. - - . . ,. _. - . - . 'V .. ' . ~. ,. . .. _ .. - ~.... . ~~ .. - ,~ . ~ . . ~ . .. I ~ -~

W ue I, .1:8 wee, iy nroa 1 casts move 1:11, tt Ie same o trectr on.« 0 ugn rn

b ,.. .... . ..•. .. Fe' .~ ... ~ .. th .. :... . ··1 .-. --," '. -to .. f:' M···· j. .,., 'II:·· H· ~ '·+1 .. . .... -d': ··F~· .- ... - ..... -

' .. ecam,e IncJ~asulcglly . ;,Ie .3,.pocogu',I- o .. ~ ._USSOdnl, . -.,1~. er an' .. ~ :r.anco~

k h d- b d'· d ~ h d ···1·' 'Ii f h Chri .,

wnose methods were em. sodiedin tne armec miuna or t~.~.e: : .. ;, nsnan

Front, fou nded in :193:8.,

Two problems arise in. assessing Father Coughlin and his move .. · merits: {I) If there is no question that Coughlin's movemen 1. was ··C··' ~··i·-,it bv ·~.n·'3·-·:··8··~it the latest th , . ' .. ' d·'· Fathe himself r oted '\ ·h·'i· c__ ,ase.IS!,l, ~ Y .II.:t. a.!,l, 1:.1 e !la, CJh;--· ~.~ n e ,1'00- . . 31"u.e r I 1 mse. _ no~ ,e., _ ],n ~_.~,g

weekly that there was no need to be afr.ajd of the word-s-what about his earlier intervention in American politics from. 1.'930 to l'~.l36,? and (2) Can Father Coughlin's following be described as an authentic social Of' political movement of any so rt?

:O'~ :·In:···c·--:'QJ, a .. g: ain l~ Rtf-·· us use o ur ea rlier d efinition of -. fasci sm ( t 0--:'-· ass ess

.... ~. , ," '_ 'w _.,' .:!LL, " '!II \.I'.,"_ I • .,. .. :-~. ' "." ," I.,. ", . .. -,I.' _", ". _. '_ ,,' ', ... , .' .. " U}':>'., Iili' , 0 , .' ~ l ' ~ .. ~-~

Coughlin '8 National Union for Social .Justiee. It may be observed that the organization 's official program was vague but that it was cominuousl y supplemented by Father Coughlin's weekly broadcasts .. There is no 1 ,0·':· 'I·~ bt th .... at th ere ·W' "7i;p. a c certai n - C: :,0' -' nv -erg '·.e·.· - ne :;e··.. be -4t·w' veen Fathe ·~r~-·

1 . _ u. . u u. . .. . .. .,. I!;,,;.. u"' u .. . r I:. _ I . ... I!;,,; .. .... _. Il,. _ VI!;,,;. . U t,. .

C'·- -·'lL..·l" .11 ... ···1'*" ~ .. - ... ~. - , ~ . nd 'i'h· ., t. . aditi ·_···1 f·"- . -. ifthe ·f·- . ists

ougn m S po . meat enemies ano ~ .. ie .. ra, uuonar : .oes 0. .-. ne . ::aSClSS"

Anti-com m unism ·3-- n d anti-soc -:~l~,~]·~·s'·m·· I ·~O( ·0· nn ed larue in his broad C"·~I''-'t''-'

, ... 11., _._ ,." ,., _~.II,,~,.o'·._·_ .. ,A.II,., av._ A"_.1I1.· .. n JI .. -_·· ..... ,.·._lJI c_·_~' t;._' ._ .,,~ ._. __ u. _ .... ~ .. "",.

though they were absent from the, National U nion "8 official program. Father Coughlin claimed "that western liberalism was inhumane and.

".j .' .,,- slb ·I-'+r h-I -.' h- .:-, 'I,d: _. l'lt· 'It·h- ., .. , l.I.._.,., _ th ~ i,t· ,- .:. _'.,., I-d· -. 'b··· t med ,_ ··d'·

1 rres,p ons.],1 ce, ye!o\, ,I. ,e ,I. ,e .. c_ ou- -, I. ,e ,uope" .8.", ~. CO Uc~ .. e~,a~.~ ~ ec_ an. .

hi um .a nize d - 'T, here was 1j',O···. a n ack ·0'··. 'In: trad itio nal conserva ti sm .' .. for the

... _~ '" ._.,.1". . _,. , .. , ._ .. ""'" ... _;;!I .11 .•.. _ .. , !!l.,w_ ,1\ .. _ .. _, R.~I, ,1I· __ ··~~iU!-~· ._.'1,.11',_.","" .. _ Y. __ ."._;;!I~.~, .. _~ .. _.11 .......

'g_. ·0" ·,0-· d': reaso rn +r h-I Q +r the ·V'"· erv IC~ a th olic 'S· o ci ;01'1 d,' 10-'· ctrine ·W' rhich und e rla \J

,[ ... ~: ... : .... ~' ,.·::M~~···:l.[.' 'l .. ['A'~l ·~~ll·." ~'../' ..... '.:~'i'l""':"~:'" I.""' :.lllK_, ," ... 1.·· .... _'.1.':.· .. -: ·,_,[lll]I] .. -:] ... _ ' .... : .. ], .. ::;,

Fathe ·r·· Cou I,,:ir lll'li·n, 's id 'e ,~C'. was itse If per t and par ..... e ·1- ·0'- .f·c ,'!:fl'. '-t_"i;i!li,d:- ·~t:'~i£lii·n. ~.l

._1 W. ,I,ll .. ~ ... .. _ [~II,~JJ _'_ _ _ '_'. __ Q..-,. ._ _ . .-,. '~""" _ '~l. ;" ... ,_._ U·_ 'U ... _ ,1_ ~ .. ,_. ._ _' ~ .. 1. Q. .. _,,~, _ ,1,IIl).I!,_, _ Q_

- -- ~

conserv·a.tis,rn do:min.ated by the: idea, of an -o:rga.n:j.,c. $ociety., His politi-

_ _ _ t=

cal ,goals see:med to be fa,r :re:m:o~v-ed {ro·m. the r-e·vQlu:tio:na:ry, nati.onal·-

ist and authoritarian. -fascis·t state·~ He: w,as :indeed a n.ationalisrt; yet. his was a p'3triotis.m. and iso lationism -that ·was :part ·of tli:e .Ame:rican

rn:Q;l·11I.!"',.t· or' 'Pa':·· m· .1.. ? ·0; --,··.d.·,-· b.·· ~·~s··· h.·· ~·r- ·r·o···. (, .. 0· .... ,'f-· ·r~;i;!;·'v:o_:l'u'· t· t ~·n·: ... ~ 8··-· n-IY'··· ~~V· '0·' <'to u··· t·· ·1'·0· :-··n~.·. 'w':·hl·QI·t· ~IV; ·'~I~: ~.

'" .. ~. . "'. ,~~ u, .. .il .v. _ .., "'" .. . 1v, , . . ... .m. "" .. ,. _ .. ,. '" lI;r.i _ "'" r ~

d o:m].n ated his :radio ta] ks I· None of this" i,nc:id,e-n t.[tny~ appeared in -th:e official :progtam of the ·N,atlo:nal U·nion for' Social Justice ~

As 'to the: autho,ritarian cu.rrent~ it ;su.rvived ,as long ,as· the :radio pr_i,e·st~s. .aUiance 'with the :President did 0, It ·wa.s· 'Cou.ghlin ·w·ho :had

'_·-···,-···,·l·····-iz··d- t'·lh·- ·i·c·-·,l,·',t·~--/·'I : .. 1··'·- "R:·:·~····-,:~·ICo~·~t· .-.-- .. -~~,.-.;, A:··" -~," ... - .. :.'-~ ",._"

pop'lLar c__~<e. . .~e .po .. 1.ldeft. s·ogan; . oo'sev'ell .. 0,[ rUlD_:. S 8;00.0 ,as

F.ather ,eoug. ·:hl in broke ·wit.h ·R.oosevelt. in 193 5.~ how·ever. his ·w'eek~ v'

• .. - = ~ ~ ~ .~' -~., ~ - - ~- . - c. - _ ., = . - _.. _. _. ..... ,. - . - . . ',. ,. _ . - _ ... J

'broadcasts atta·eked the· .President'$. ·"dictatorship.," ·Whe:n it came 1,0 his economic ·p·roQ:ram .. Couo:hHn J·lo··-ned the fasc'jsts. ·in (~.aning···· .• for- a

._,. - - ,-."~ -- .. ~-"" ~ (!~:Ir"·-·-_~~;" ···_·0 - ., .. __ I. ._. . ... _ ... 1. . " ... _. - '.':'. .

s,ocial ord,e:r t.ha.t w·ould ne·u tralize the c:lass :So truglle·~ but h.is ideas we·re '~() ~ ·ntly· derived f ro:m trad itional'CathoF,e :SOC·> II d oct~' ···ne . ~-c d from the

,11 1, . .... - . , - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . .... ,~'" ...., . . l. . Ul. . .. . rl. . an .. . ., .

57),

'1· n fl at ~ o .. ··n· . 'I" ~ t, id ea 1[1: 'b' iorrow "'I;Jio'd,' I f :r'" :0' m t~ he A, 1r'rII erica n 'P""'o' rpu 'l~ v:~ S·' '0' f t he

. I, " , .. ,u" .iI,.: I" ;;;:I" ,11,.1. '-, ~I ...... ,1.1, ....... '" , .. , ; .. ~" , e .. ,' ,; ,"~ it~'"' .. iI,,",""" , ,1I10Jj II, ,,' "'"

,1.890s ~ 3'1 It 'was, true that Father Coughlin h ad considerable perso nal charisma of w hieh he made the most, yet. other aspects of fascist ambiance and organization were-totally lacking. An, told; until 1936, Father Coughlin as much as Huey Long seemed more at home in left-wing populism, than in fascism.

"8:' e that as' it m ay ,th i c sort' of el Q;S~ ~1~ fi eati on ~IS' o " f little help' ,~]'; n

,I-.~·. '~'_l' ~)_ '~_<.' _._' , __ ,' ]Ij'_.··.·:,. 1 ,,_',I_, .~J > .. ' .. ' .. ~l." U._ ~_ IU:'.O. l~Jll~~U, IJvJl:l_ ".:1 '.~:_ "ll.- ,,~ .::1".'-.1.:;: 'J .'.

understanding the real importance both of the: :p're-,l9,3,6 populist movement and of the frankly fascist phenomenon of the second phase ~ ,A more 'basic problem is, to distinguish between the popu larit y

f d ~ r A h ," '. h r~' dl d Th h 1J...

0" a radio personanty ana tne organization ne roun ec ~ L nougr tnere

ore" no reli able polls and,' t be refo . '1I""e" 'n 0" reli abo le '11" sten er fi '0U res the re i ~

,A, .. , .. ,1 '. ~:,~, <.,,1: ... ,.,.;, . V" ,~ ... '~".,L' I. ~,b;'":~,II,, , •. :., , ,11, .. ,:, ........ , .. ,,:,1.,',,1>., ,1"b'.',~Q;,,, 1,1)~'I,":..iJi

'DO doubt that the radio priest bad at weekly audience of many millions between .193.2 and 19.3..5~ 'Yet the' sig nific a nc e of radio popularity 'may 'be overestimated, Father Coughlin, a fascinating and, honey-toned speak .. er, provided free and interesting weekly entertainment, but. listening, even listening regularly, did not necessarily translate into a political commitment, It must also be' kept in. mind that well into I 934,; Father Coughlin was perceived as a 'major ally of the most popular President in history. Thus, the 1.0 to 50 million regular Coughlin listeners produced a pitiful '900,;000 'votes for W:iU:i.a,'m, Lemke and his U ni on, Party despite Father Coughlin's campaigning in his behalf, Nor was membership in the 'N atlonal Union for Social. Justice a 'much more significant commitment because, much as was the case for Huey Long's Share-Our-Wealth clubs", the National Union for Social Justice: had more in common with a national chain of loosely affiliated 'fan clubs adoring a shining radio personality than. 'with squads of fascisti.

Thanks to 'the' increasing reliab iii ty of opinion. polling afte r .19'36" the significance of pro-Coughlin sentiment during his anti .. Semitic and f ascis t phase is easier to pin. d own)8 The ,I, S percent who, in 1 "938; claim red ·t,',·:o·, :S"Y'·'· 01,' pa ith '~'7:jJi; with '.F-·'IOII'lt.'lh· er Co , .. uehli .. n ,1 id F.,Q·,·:t, sh .are ;8" '·I·~ his

~_Unl.~IJ"~ ::~J.'I' _ ,1.1iLr.~ .. 1 , . IA-. ,IIW' .. -.cf' ,I", L!1., lJ,I a .. \ .. ,tJI. "~,

views". What we witness is, 'what Seymour 'M,., Lipset and Earl Raab call "selective commitment," which. permitted those "favorably disposed" to Fether Coughlin also to proclaim their favorable disposition toward President Roosevelt, by then Coughlin's Public Enemy Number One, This is h~w. one can grasp the' vast numerical discrepancy between the l g,,~OOOjOOOI wh.om the pons found "favorably disposed" toward Fat her Coughlin in 1938" the l ~3.50lillOO "sympathetic listeners" and the estimated 2.s~OOO active members of the Christian

'F 0 I h I b. II h d i ined a zenui f '. ~'I ~ ~

' .. -ront. Only the .. atter, W,).O re~a, y .. )a'j'o1.ne': a "enulne tascist nnnna,

constituted the hard core of the Coughlin movement in. its fascist

5:,"4-

..

" --

nh >". 'Th··!. n r ore bi sdir ~. th c'.' . ·.·c -1.-- nit I.. I·.t·, -. ',-- h I:' . '-. 1'-' -1--. ~I---I " -.: .. : rta 1···lt· I'II~,-

pnase.u ne more _ 111.1111 ne commnmem, t e more rm .. por an. ren

gious and ethnic factors seem to have become, Religion seems to have been quite irrelevant among those listening 'to "the great friend of President Roosevelt" in 1933 or I-9J-4~, but a, relatively disproportion .. ·

, ll_"

ate' 60 percent of those voting for the Union Partyin 19-36 were

C· 'athr l.~--,-- A-" 'd:- when it cam ~ to ioi -(.:~ -( .. --; the Ch '1"-- ~"·i--·-; F["I""-- nt . xmte : i

__ a. __ ·QJJ.l.CS. ; .0.:. W .. e .. 1. C .' [, ~_ J .. ' 'lDHIg., .. "4J '! _- .• 1= Sd.an -Ton ~ co. .'. ,em ... ·

poraries were convinced that the: organization was a:~.m.os't exclusively

--.. - -- '., -- d --:i' I -"'iL. A' ... -- --., _. .. --- ·C-:·· t- h I·' .. -- E' -- ~ dl -- of ~ - t·· . . .. . - 11", _. -- ... - -- .

co:mpr:lse'_ -o~ .. T1S.I,!l· .. ·.m.eflcan [·3.J:.Od.CS..-Vl' __ ,e-nuy 1'0 m:aA.e a. com· .. ,

.. - -- -- b ,. A'" d·....· d··:C ithi 'F' h

rmtment tobecommg Amencan squaansu requirea raun in I at rer

Co u ghlin as a legi timate s pokesman for- the Catholic Ch u reb, and such faith •. could o"'_,-·n'}ly.· b .. ;e~: found 'Qlm'·I··,o·:."n":·.g· !"·o.·mll.~: Irish .• ·I-A-·-·· meric .. ;Q1jl; Cath ~.O·.· .. :-

~ _ ., .I il&. . . .. ..\ . . l,. ,. g. . '." .. , , (Ii. , . ! IIiir.i , • ,~,'I!I..r,I, ,I. .. WJJ.I. . . _ '-

~ .. '

I· "';01;

'C'C-': j,,,, .

. lS., .

IV

What conclusions can we draw from this brief survey? First, it seems c lear that .. here were f ar fewer authe n tically f aseis t movements in Depression America than. was .. hought at the time-s-a eonclusion that sugges ts we: sho u ld be as s p aring in pinning the label "f aseist" on American "extremist" organizations as in indiscriminately labeling movements of the American Left "anar-chist; tt "Bolshevik," or "[Com ... · mu •. nist -- n Neither PI- opulist mass move · .. men t: can con vine :l'".n, (J:lly~' b .·· .• e classi-

U .1.011 ~ . .... '.' . W .1101' Il, .1.iI,J,Ao1Ia . " . . .. , 'I;.i . . . .. ....¥.Ii.. . . ,0,11" .. '1;;,0. c. ~., I

fied a s "fa scisr" 0.·'.' ,----. even "prot .o-fa scist .. n TI.' he sam 'I··,e·,·. cone elusion a a p .: plies

.. 1."", .,.-,.-\;r.I.oJ. . r """ "".. .'.",. ~ iI,~. • , ,."'"" ~g", ...., lI. 51 1.1. ". [," .lll;o;~

t . '. th . " .. -.-- . '. .. .. -- f: t'h' .... 4+ .': t .. ··,·, ." ..... t··~·· - . . . 'r' the J '92-iI'\ ... .. d t· - - ., .. - h ·0 .. 1, e s.uc:ces,so.rs 0-. I: e pa.~,r.lO- __ lC SO'CU:I l,tS 0.1: [,I,;e .. '. ,'., u~, an!'. 1·0 :soc ..

f d li .. S· .,.. h 'D f d f 1.\...

. undamenta :1.8;'& ann-Semmc movements as t ,I e _:e::1 enaers 01• tue

Faith ... What remains is the nativist model-e-functionally maladapted to fascist aims as we: have seen-« and the "foreign im port" w hether in. Ge rman h and s as in tile BURd 0'( in solidly Irish-American hands as in Coughlin's Christian F ro nt.

Second .. , it. is beyond much doubt that even in. America there was a sizea b [IIA!- min iority a .. ilien a. ited fro r ·.m··· I trad ·~'t·l'[o··:n··a··.· ,11 p·, .. artv p··,.o '! · •. ·-:'l·I·~'t"',·c::·s_.'. much I like ~.I.L.~ l~ .1... r,. I., ... ~ . ~., . " .. , UJ. ,I. , ...1 ,1. . .1 [ ".1 ,. .. L IIj;i

t' ....... ''- ..... - --'··II·r-· f-'_' - '" -_.,-- .... " "-' - t "'-" 'E--- 1--· .. ··-· --. ·Y·:·t it.'b·· '.-" d .iffu _. -- . -- .. , ,"

.u:e ra.w m.ate rutl. 0.1 I asc.l.s t s-U.PP,o r - 111,·U rope.. .1 e - I .. 1 .IS,'· . h.l use ~ p,o p u-'

list erowd.whon H·:II •. ·'·L "I~ · .. ind F=:[:·.lt···I;1, 1-·'C·'.,·,-:·[:-··_'ilh··II~ r. ~"t,~,~'II--"I;b'11-, ,1.St crow, W .o.m. uey .. ong an . .. a .uer ou.g, "tlD JU,ee .lngly m.o [ J ..

ized .. ~ seems 1.0 have been 'to the left ofthe major parties. The "Roosevelt magic" is evidently an inadequate explanation for the insignificance of the American fascist response,

Third, there were some subsidiary reaso ns why fascism found

A~ merle an soil r elativel "1,: _.' in ho ,~·p.:l'··t· ab '1Ie·.····. The fo :[·t· .uitous d e iclin e of

• '1 ~ ,I, lAo, .1,1, "l~.I..." ,_, . 0 I. .." .. l . • ,~. [I,ll . .. , 1 . 'liA-l ~. U~ .. 1. . . . •

. . . , .

pseudo-solen tifi.'c racism, in the late: l [9:208 and the' failure of conspira-

lr _'

torial an t.i· .. Semi tism to take hold in this. co un try depri ved. 'potential

f- . '. ..... . ts - . 'r" k ' . '~.- t-·.'~ -- .'. id .' 'l - . ,~' ..... ,.

aSC151 s 0'.1. . . ey acceiera I lUg, ic eo ogies,

F ou:rtb" our discussion of ty:pic:a]. m:oy[e'ments tbat had been char,g:ed 'wifh bei:m,g: fascistic: ;su.ggests o'tb:e':r facto:rs that ,c·a:nn.ot be neglected

575

altogether ~ Among faseisoid American Prosestants, for example, anti .. Catholicism was a ,P avlovian reflex, Opinion polls have shown that 45 percent .of militant anti-Semites who happened to be' Protest ... ants were mjlitant anti-Catholics as w'elt40 It. is also often asserted. that the absence of an effective revolutionary Marxist movement in 'the United States undercut the appeal of'fascism in this country, but I emai ~I~~' 'Ui "n~,IC," ·~o.·,~.·, ~I~~', in eed ... c, 'T., hie' . e.xp~.;,e, .... rie .. n~· ji"i'~ ef the R,·'.··· ed Sea r ~ and o·,· .. fi~ the era rllw' '0 u.UI. ~~ ~ n.V,I, , 111;;","". H . ~= .. ,,I, ~ , """"'"' IV" Il, , "", , ~ II;;#~ ~ ~ 1iIJ. ""' ~~ ,1.1. ~ , 11;;.;0' IIwrlil

,.

of Senator Joseph McCaIt:h,:y" as w'e:U as the widespread and appar-

'II '" b I' f b ives dur l.I.. 19'30" h h 'N~

ently sincere bener by 'co nservat ives ,u:r108: the ~I~,,'IS, tnat tne =ICW

D ~ I R~~" d 'l ~, ~ " . 'h ~. 'h ~ ~ ~ ~ ,'~ ~ ~ f'c 'h ~ tof d'l" 'I

.' •• ' I, " ",' ~.' , .• '.' ' 1 , •• ~ 'it!'., ," ~ est t I· ... , t ' 1 e· '; , I' ire· ",e.,' '1,. :'0 ,0· • I ." I 'r'oililO' ' . [0·' ~ r·' .~, ~,~ 1:'11

eat was a ~.e ,P, oa, suggest tnat L,~~ peree ption c t a threat .~. ~ racieai

subversion is at least as important as its F'eaHt~r.'4'1, Purely fortuitous

~.. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ... ~ ~ ~.'~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 . . hi ~ ~ ~ .. . t . ~ ~ ~ .' - d t hi ~ ~ d . - ·']1 ~ ~ ~ ~. rt .. 'f'" ~ f ~ '~l~ b ~ I~ .. .. ~

cireumstances may aiso nave stymieo t ,e:[~ eveiopment 0 I, ill tun-mown

American fascis m: e ~,g .. ~~ F ather Coughlin ':8 po l:i tical ineptitude and '9 uey Long's assassination.

O 'I).,. b dl fi ~ ~ f'~ f " 'II 1 h +

ur bare-bones ue .mrnon OJ ~,3!.8ClSlD may overt 00 _'~, the u mque

.. h f~ h d i " E~' lnth " .

circumstances that turtnere Its acceptance 1:0 .<uro,pe in tne interwar

period .. On this point, virtually all specialists. agree that. two major crises helped to promote r ascist movements ..

One b .. eginning 'gl"" e arly ,gl'~ the 118·,8·.·~··:O·:ii:1 '~S:: often c :a'~'IIQ·d·" a "cri sis o .... ·f'

. ~ ~ ,~,~' ~';,.~, "'"', .IU,I .. U,· ... ~, iU:~ .~. ,a, , . ..... JU}i;) ~ . ,I. ~~ "'i;J:; ,ii, . . .... ,''' ...... , ,I. . ,~,""'c, .. .~.~ ~.'

European ccnsciousness," a catch-phrase that involves various chal ...

. ~' , .

lenges to nineteenth-century expectations of continued liberalism

-iOI:n~ Id' p:. '~~',o~··. g' ··.'f-,e}? iC, , 'Th.· IQ n~·. e 'W' .. ~. :~'~',~~'~S~:V' w:' "QI~ on th ·'e·~··~ 1" 'n, ~',U' . ]'~ t(i VP th Ie'" irra ti O··1f1i '0 'I, 'to he

g. .1 .,r ' ~~11 , ,~J • ~t.r~_o. ~.IAQV',~ ~ .. ~ ... ~t..~,ll._.·~),~ ",. " .. L"JM-.,,.. l~

.t . I'" t, .,,,., ts 'r'_"h" " " ... " ,t" ~ , . nd bv ~ t, nsion.ofh .' .. i tit

vioiem aspec s 0" numan nature, an ~'Y extension, 0] numan ~n.811U-

tion 1''-' ~ Some o f th e m ~'I·'O~~·J,,'t, influential thinke rs involved =-one 1" m .m ,~-

.1. .... J'->.I ." .. ,IUI~.l~ .", '.!l'" ,",. ~.~'~'. ~ .. . •.• .lLII ~:IIP.," _ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ . ,~,', ",.-'\'.' ~ ~ ~,',lJ. v .... 1 "~. _" .. '_'_.. ~.. '.. ,~

diately thinks of Nietzsche" Bergson, and .F reud ~d:i.d not address

P 0· .... ,.·'I~~ tic . ::s: 0, ' .. ··rc zove rn me '0 tal ins tit 11:-t:] O'OS'~'" 0'-: thers like Pareto, Mosca .or

. "Jll . ~l. . . "t:'-!V - ~ ... ',~""Ilil .. -" " - . - _ - . ~ . ~ . y. ." . _!F ..• - - "1! - ~. ~ ~ - -, ~. - ~

Mic hels, challenged democr atic ass urnptions head. on, Even though. the new id eas had, been formulated by uni versi ty-t rained intellectuals for a select audie nee, once put in a popularized and often dis torted form, this new co man ticism did. a great deal to. legi timize ,auth oritar-

,. ,. ~ d vi 'I D" ~ I . d ,. 'I" ,...4

ianism, r acism ann V:I,O, enee, ~ ~lrect y or rm .irectly, ~'t s pawned a

generation of propagand ists selling "blood and, soil" with Barres and

;it'i· _. t ~"'~'i al nation '1'1'· ~.'~~ .rt with M~··I,~·~e,:, ~.~. 'F-'~'~""'" ,.: ~ .. '." , ....... ~. ~ ~'II"~ .,", ,,~, s», ~·i·· "1'1":'

mtegra natrona rsm WI" viaurras In .. ranee; a ,sOCU1, y co,nSCl'OI1S

a utho ·~.'r~l· t~· '8' "r~eil ii'.ri 'In: ism " with the ,B,.·· ritish I' m rp· u eri <!l 'I 'I" :8'" ',It: seokesm en of th e l8('Ulcs· ,:"

. . to,., , ~ .Ii,CjI", .Ii,,,,, ~ .iii, .. "'. ~.~ ,I~"',~~" ",I. ~ = ,iI,a.. ~ ~;;;::I rV" ~~;)! ~~ ...... ,'~ U'" ., ~ JJ. ~:7U ,

a racist ,0\ m ~I pe ~'. r ,~ol" a .• 111" S'" nn .. 'W',I~ th a U< O·UQ,'~ on Chamb .e:r:11 ain in G'. :11P' rmany, I, n

" JUi. ~ ~ ~ ~!Ii, l ~ " ,'~~ ,I" ~ ~, " ~ ~ . == . ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ !.;!II!. • = . ~ ~ . ~ _ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ I, ~ ~ = _ _ _ ~ ~,'1Ip ~ . ~ = . ~

, ,.

Europe this "r,e o,rien tatio:n of social thou.ght;.:jj t.o bor.row H ~ Stuart.

H,u,ghe:s"s te:rm,~ greatly facilitated the ,growth of fascism;. because it made a utbo:ri t,a:r.ian :so:l u:ti.on;s .f'es peetable.

The sec:ond hist o.rical cir,cu:ms.tance :nurl,uring f Mcis:m was th.e socia:1 and mo,ral [c.risi:s engende-red by the First W'orld War., Four and

,,c'7's;. .;J ~. u

a half years of bloody struggle did even more than lcenoclastic ideas to undermin ',e'·', th e ontimism self'c .. .onfide 'nee" an d sense ,0:···.·(,··' secu rity that

t. . . 1Iii.' ,iI, " .,.. 1"'"1" _~ ~ ,~,!t~!II i;!I .. , . ., ,JUt ... ,. ~ .. Ul .. , ~"""', ,iJI . ,~"',"""~, t.,_'U"

hadbee 'fb'" Iife-b 'I od of" mid "dl ela: r exi ,t, nee T~ "b ,', fa , ... :,:" "~,' " , .... "W' I, ,8 ... een '"', Hie "ll,e-., 00 .·..c, m,~ ":. ll.e '_, ~ .ss e~~~S,le,_"!ce., ~,~us,~ ,ascu~m gre"

up in the shadow both of the earlier "reorientation of Europ sean social

, , '

thought" and the war's, dislocation that confirmed it~42

Does the American experience contain valid anelogues to the European "crisis of consciousness" and. the moral and, societal crisis brought on by 'W or ld War ] and its aftermath? 'Was there a comp ara ... '

. ' I, '.

b· le A····· ." . ~.~ .. --'·1"'" ~~"1 .... ~ ~ ,~ .. 'Ii-... ·t-' ' . ~. '~8"9""'0'" . ~. dl '1~"9 14' 'W' ~ thei tc

.'f: "rner.I,C,8.n Cu.I.'lUra. C:funs ue"wee:n ,I," ,. an . , ,. l, ~'.: ,as .Iile:r"f;;. '0

bor ro ··'w·~" E. ern est 'M···:·:,,· av's phrase, "an end of A·",' .m aerica •. n 1"'Il~' n "0": ieen ice"?

~ . .rr. ,r , "'., Ii. . 'J~, . ;,']i,. Ul-, ..... ,., . .. , " .... ;""" IIio.'.,. " " "''''' , ;\., ~

If" h 'l 'II ~ ~ Il ," 'h U '. dl S' '. h

. ,':: t ,: ere was a ell tural Cr.HU,S at a" In t ne II, r n nee States prior to t ne

,"G r- ireat DI·:,"··· .. ···· ... ,:",: .... , it ",'\',','·,"1'·:: '.': .... ~ "~,': ,!"I' the sa ..... , ·····'·I~, ..... what'took

..... re,i} , _If,preSSIOllj ]". Slm,p .. Y w,as n.o" on '"'," ,_ sa.m,e scall.e as, W, ,3 ~·O<l~,

place: in Europe, In America there W'8J;S no "reorientation of social th O'~ I" g, . bt" ill the sense th at H ' Stuart H uahes app 'I ~ es 'to Europe; there

. "u, . . ." ..."..".... . . . . ..c"····. ,I ,], .... . .. . ,I" . . .

'~W'-",~ <'1, 1j1; ·0.:', A:~'" m erica 1j1i eqi ~ iva len t to 'N' I ietzsche, 'IP.'? reto Bereso n '. :0' ':,r, 'M< ..... au 'ij",-

.. w.~ ,ILl.. "I]. -, . 11. u\~,., \i.i . Ull ~ W .... ,Ill ~ . . l""! II. ..iLr..0!. _l""!~'" U .. 1 ~ .••• , •• __ ~. 1 ~~ . ,.,. .. .!l ~~U.l..

ras If these E-·.' "UI 'If''O:' pean critics were 'rl;"'DIO' '··W:· "0 em I ionz the Am er ic )~'1f1ii

.. u. .. I. . .1.1. ... .:J . .., "." , .", U .. I.ll I~ •• ~ •. IJ 'n'", I 1 L~ •••••.•. ',1 W '[ , lV. 1.C . ,IJI. . , " ..... ' .... ·U~lll

acad em 1IC'" elite the 1f~ ~c DIQ. :C·.· vi d ence whate ver th at the new Eurooean

Uo' .. U·. \r.I',.l 11-. ~'_. It,v,~ .'~l.". ll.v Il~ 11.· .. · .. _ '_' .. V· __ ,_¥ _'_'_'~~~~.' _Vl"""!' ~] ~~~ _,_~~ l.l.'.' _ ~ _l,V.,r'IFY,., ..

ideas did. anything to undermine the pragmatic p osi ti vism that bad guided Ame ricans' view of the wo r Id for several generations.

~ By comparison with, Europe, American social critics 'were either

1I",-;·hl'· .~~,. i zht ... , I' ',' '~'I'lth"'~ '~I'If]: I" .. I"~""'" be .th 43 H' ... I~:""::· , .. nd B' "'1' .... , · .. ·'k··· ",~ JIg t-wetgnt 0,[ Wl·" ,OUII,. mr uence. or .0, ".. rienry am .[00,,5

Adams fi ~ 'I mina ti :n~)' aeai nst "the de arad arion of the de moeratic

'..' U.,., .. 1 '0, .. ,I!:Y . .. . ,. . . c"· .. . , .. ,.' .' .' . ... ".. ..

dogma" are; easily shruazed off as patrician eccentrics, rather than

, .. ,: ,- . , ,]l.' .," .. ce. _ ~, .. -, .I] .,]l .. l ] L] ]l " .. l"""!~.] .ll .. ,

aenuine social critics whose ideas made a signiticant 'j:mp.,a"ct.44 The

o . , ... , ..... }."., 1... .... [ ..... ,~ ..... . ..l :: .. ' , ,'" .... ' ,_ ,',., ....... ~ =, ....

ItS;'C .. ientific" ra . cists eo nmlained I 1"'0"'1" silv -a b I'O""U'~ th "e' ne .aativ .... e effects 0', f

". ,~,I,~ .. \~_ . ~]~ ..... Iv. ". " II¥--I:·L], ',rl"\] Il ~ . ~& ... ,] ~ L~,J'" M,L ' .. : .... ',l'" ·.:l,;.. ,l· .. e.t.".:. '.:1:. ~'" JJI.· :'~" _~ .... I,.

universal suffrage ,0:0, the: future of the Nordic race, but their strictures

f . A ... ~. h 4!i W:""'h':'l . H"~ '~L' ~M··· ~ .~ .. ·'.1~,·,~·.1I.· .'. ·,t·· d .... alts . ,'.~ ff'b .... 'b,"" .

OUJlu no e1c,: 0 .. ' ': '.~ d ure .. ~~ ,.", . i.., encxen S repeateu ass au S 011.000-

.. : .. ,~ ,.~, :.L~'c~·e'··e amusinz enoueh. 'his satiric ve:rve offered no alternative to

cracy W.f .. ~.,.-,.He; .. ~. e':~ , . , '" ... ~ --, . ~~. .

the mass democracy of which be made fun~'46 And in ultra-conservative business circles it 'had. already become fashionable to claim that the United Slates was a, republic rather than a democraey-i-a claim

which then as 'IjI;O"""W·" ·w'· :"!'!Ii>E1 doom ed '1"'0-." b e a p·~'IO-"~'I··t·· ica 1 n 'O'·~ n-s t': a rter 47

.. ,n, >'" ~' I ~ .• ~ ,I,~, <:;; . 1.I.q,.~ .. v..· u' ..... . ... ,!l.,I1."'" . '..' ',:' , 11,.. I ..

T.h,e: inesca,p ab Ie eo n.elusion. is th.a.t in tbe 'U nit,ed. States;, a uth.o:ri t.ar,'~;a·'.I'n,···' p"o<'rt;~,c .. :a·.,'I· n:s.::o·.· .. ·'II~~~'~01j1;,~,H' 'h·.··a,···"d··· £p;;'w':': ,a··',·d,'lv~c··a:,t:ec!li!' a< jl"id,'1 ,fe····.w'·,:::'c' ·~rl_' ta····· '~',e:rs~ .. :~ 'w"::'b' a·, "t··

.Ii ", .Ill 1 .', Ju.d ,1,.}Oi ".. . ,I;""". ... . 'VI' .. .:!IU . .il.' ..JI!i.,.~, " ..

Slee:ms, to have been ,a 'm,aj or .precondition. of fasci:s-m, in Euro:pe: was conspicliOU:S~:Y absent in ,A:m.erica .. This ,i,s not t.o s,a,y that. 'th.e 19,20s were: :me:rely ,a :r,epla.y of th.e :pre-'war decad,e,. Even if one discou.nts a,

fa·· ';1 r ~.'h' ,g"r~ o·'i('··' ,t'lh" 'e' ,,(!1f--. ot'>k"~'e····d·' ,c~",o· "m' ,; 'm' ,;~'n·lt's.,a~ C;I, ~'X- ,c:·~¢:' "':~ 't~~ . t' Ih~ ~ ·to·: :n' I~ o":',f" A'lm' ('~r·~ce:a· ~ 'n°

~ ~_;w.I, " ~ ~ _., ,,' '._ lQ,f~l,v'IJ ._ .. _ ..... , 0 ,= ,~, " _ .. .:;I! ~, ' ... lIWli;11.:;1!~YIliJ, _. ··iIW' .... \J _. " "~ .,1. ." _ '"

~.o·:;c"~,e-'It·,y-··· 'h""u'" :d: :.: 'C',r03"i\':g"'~d~", A.·····oir·t·',~'r~ ,:a'·l~~ t",h"I~ 'ItwL,".:~',nl~l·~~, ·w.:.···:·e;1j""~ "t'hl·>e····· J·IQ'7.~, .3' o'e:·,,~, t'lh •. ~

..,. . ,II. . . ' . . !lh" ... iI,,'\.< " " ""'.. ,~,il, . '-' ... ""' , 11,., ...... ., . ,I '-' .. ,,"'''ll:. ,c' , '-'

'':",'':;:. '1": ,Ii: t"h'" . : fl': '. (:' '. :.I~C. :··'f,~,,~~t· ' .•. d"·lv, I·:t;' ..•. 111 ',', 'k-'·"ie~ "[,h, I~'h years o. , , e ", ,31,ppe f" 0,. r.uu,ng . J ~ 0 rce ra ~ e s; a __ ,\.lJ, S pea~ _ ~as,_,_ s ~ ,~,_,_.ou.,gl __ '

·b·r~ .. '" .... ': •.. " l:~··~lb·:·.I~·: ..,.-,,' ,-' .•.. ,~ .. ,'~' "~I'l~"'~:' 'l'ir" 'K-11,?' ,e'I'(~'I' .'ilii"d'-~ t':"h~ .:,~, f·:'o:',I~1[.o····.'~:·'··"~ .flt'lh~.,·:: ~, =ey we,re .uIL_. e 1,[.0 e,xagg,era e:tl! . 'u,e ,Junsm, ..... ,n ul1 ,. . e, .. ,I,·. wer:s 0 , .,e

R, "".:.:':" ':' I "dc~, "W"'~i'~I' .~~ '~-~_:;"". ",_.;< ··t·(,~{ :.'11- ' .. '~" ::'1" I' \' 'bll~'1 1'1" i," M··· j,:, -eover

~ ~everen .... ~.nrou, were ,re,ac 109 to C,u(Lnglng, ur .aul, m,ores .. ,~,~O.r~· ~ .~~,,'

:man.y fu,ndam,e'n t.al.is,ts, did t u.rn f ro:m societ.al concerns to miUennial

577'

e xpeeta tions ~ 48

Whether 'this major turning point can. 'be labeled a "cultural crisis"

.: debatable "Y'".' ',,'" '" I':"~,""'~" ',',':' not what .'~" clea ,~:, ,th:I'~·",· '1"'1'< 1",,: to th .... , , IS enara .. e. r et crisis or not, w. ra 1S c. ear is tnar, contrary to ne

·'E' '~,'II -C'O' : "p' ea '[1," exp eri enc "e' • here' fo 'lowe A no wi d es pread , dema ned' for

.. -.",""f! .. ~:.,:.:-"", 1 .:.:-_" ':1' ~:."I. 1· .. I~~._-.':-.:, ~~cJ·.-··~.·:-. l~I·.I""·~l~.I· .. ··_··_·-:}U ,_~ .... I .: .• :,_,1:: '.' ~1~.I.~ ... IWt.'_' [U<-:~J",,~.~:.~!l""!· 1 __ ' _,,~,

r-, " da mtal n ft,·'·· I' " dl .,'., ,-' s, ,. h .. ' Wh -t b _. bee .- n·d uncamen ... a, pon ... ica ano economic cnange, '.' ..... na . "las oeen car tee

the cultural crisis may in fact have been. only a literary crisis a devel op men t~ of mino r significance in, a, society in. 'w hich li terature and men of letters p lay a. marginal social :rol,e,~'4,9 Thus, to eq nate the alienation of Greenwich Village and of American expatriates in. Paris

wit h ,gl gen uine eri <'1,'1· <'1, ,~,~ American culture ,', is to ~"IU:C," icum 'b.· .. 'It,'O··.· what

. .1, .. , ~',. ~ "ly,.",~ ,1ilI! ~ 1..1,1. , ,=, IIW' . I.V" II 1Iir.' , ... u . .. I. . . ~.. . ~ l... .. . ~. _'-= M ~

B-1 ,.( ard de Voto bas called "the literarv fallaev ,~

. ern. T" " .....,. .., .. , .. . .. '"' ...,. ,,/ ~

'With respect to the second related. problem=rhe American experience of ·w'o··· .• ·.r~·d;1 W,'·'I, ":·'?'f' I·· servina '!Jj('!. an accelerator of faseis un r ,,=th're, e

rl n."",, . .,!t, .. u. ,J'!;;;;r. ,I.UC u.a .. . .. .,~, . ... ..... . .~ .... _" _~,' ..

particular aspects, are wo rrh noting. Fi rst, in :t:urope 't he War sh ook 'i h <, 1·-" "I~ b iasis of ,',.',,'," :', ',:; ietv ,;, ,r 1'1- I"'I;~' 1:··,:1" I: <;'",." ]~.'.' 'It: -,. nslat d int .... t ,f) m,Ofth , .. 3S.lS o. SOCle y, a comm.O.l:'l,p,I,8J,ce c, ,aS~lca~,I,y . ra._,~s_a,. e , ~, __ .l"O

P svehoanalvt 1C terms, bv Siamund Freud as early ... ··· as 19[ 1.$..:50 Secondly

sy ,," jJ l. .. . " ',}J ~e:;~ -~ H - ~ ~ • ••• • •• ~ ~ •• - c, ~ ~ c • • c C ~ _. •• "

the direct and, indirect effects of the War on, th.e morale of the 'Middle classes, w:i thout whose 8 up port the rise of f ascis m wo uld have been. inconceivable, were very important: the pligh t. of th e holders of Russian bonds in the west and. of war bonds in central Europe; the creeping and later galloping inflation. that undercut or destroyed,

11 d d .' T1...'· dl hould noi th ,i fl [ f

sma~ an:. mo .. erate savmgs .. ' . mr tty, one s -1'O'Wi.·· ~,nOI,e' .','I,e' 1:II :,'uen.ce 0:'

"h' " " ·Iid'''' L. .. ,- f": , ,,- - ", - .. ",' -':[" -,- '" .. ' 'iI.." d 't, .. """ d int- . , ',," '. '" ," , ',' 'd tnose soraiers wnom [our years 0.1 war ,1,11.81' . orne, 10:0 experience .

f .. 1-' th ff f h th A' ",,~ h d.

",,' : ".,', '; "",", ":C ',', ' "'-"-1 ,,,-.,,".":,' ,,:,,:,,'::[""'''':'' I',""':""-"'"'~ ':', ",,~ ,",,',,',,-,', ' : ,'. :.:.,,""1' 1"·,',"'('''':'''' ":""'1 n'''''('

pro essie nais 1.0 t. e use or rorce, many 0, w. om t, I,e " srmisuee ,,8 .. _'_ at

d' '. '.' . ,'b- " '::I-'i ~'",1 '"T"1r .: '" ........ '; och ,',:':,' '1'",,' ," ,(I:' ":'\'1 r I'l, ,~. '"',":", mtic n ~ I" the R·· .... ussian

,emo, l ]zeu,., ,1.l.dS epoc .. , saw .ore,l.gJ~, In.erven lO_~ lD __ ~e = _, ~ ~ ~ _

"lR"":- ,,,, '-, 1-·-I1j"o· "1' 8' 'c; 'W"" ~:~11 "!II'~ t"1T~, Fre J'vo: -'n"i)! 't'IrI!il'l;Te;m···· wehren the I' "'"g" 'IO"'UJ'ri .,eVO_lh.,l,n.. S'~.ui, 4Il<"" .u'~ .rr·,J' L\..·'rJ.~ . ,IJl", L:l! ".,;" .. ~:" ~',J',==. ,,I..,,.itf<,_r,~ .... ,,

0, f D'Annunzio, 'It·ih,""e,Dn:s',~:i~':ti '0':(1: 'M",:: ,'U" ssolini ,9.)1[ I '"d·' of C:::,O':',',U·I rse the ~S-.A. of

," ",', " ," " ,r" Lo h.J' , .. ,.. .,,' OJ v.I. u , II,," ~, " ,,',," , ,I", , __ = " ,,~_ _. ~_

·H': itle an d 'V':':O',: n L~ ud d endorf ~:'fi.

, l. ~r ., . . .. .. . . . ,-".1Jl ." .•

'While: the effects of World War ] on American society were numero'US",SI, the three major effects ofW'orld. War I thatfaeilitated the rise of ~"'" "," - '" fa ,,', ",', ',' d":' ", ,t ,,' , .'1·:' .,' :t"," the '~U=, iit ed S"':'li ates 'G>"" ,'," ,--,' '1 , .... i:'11 eurepean aseism ao n.o, app,,Y .0, [ e . _.01 ec .... a es. .renera [ socrar

demo ralization ':i<!, g concept that 1;t1J both vague end diffieu It to "', docu-

u ... · .. l .. ·:.:,_."lll,~ .. ··.~·.:·~I, ",~ gl :.! .... ,_,_ .. -~ .. ,_ L ,_ .. L.I..;;Ii._.' .1.." .' .. :<,.l_.,~ u.. ..... ' ··."I=·l~JI1~l _ll. .:_. - ....• "

. ,''' 1r 'b· ;'1 ·t', .. ;',": ,.,' ·,t'" ',.:: "', , ': 'C',' "t',h.';" ...... ,:.:: t'ih-':::,-"· ~:.' "~I :d.", ',' ",i;'~, ':'. ,".">"':1",:: ·f··· ,.····'11 ·t'hl fi'hl'"'R':,'

m,en"", e U_, aCOu,n.I,fY over "I Fee .. ,ousan . mlltS away .,rom .'.H e ug_~L_,g

'was les:s 1ik.[e:ly 1.0 be s,boc:ked out. of its v'alu.e's and ex pecta ti on.s than, ','·:h·..::;' ·~E:' -",-. -: :';-I"CI,"'~ ~'I·:·t· 'I'~;'> .1.'1;--- ~'~ ......• ~I· t..:1':llrxi-mit: to tbe' con~ tee ose . uropean. coun Fles W.Il,I.lC,U. were ,I.n Close JL o,_,~~_~_, __ y , _, ' , ,

flt,ct E:~:e'l- t.hOlllg.'h an tmp1ressive: ind,1l)striaJ. financial and :rn:iH.taty~"

,_,t, ,~V m.. '., . ,1,,', .... '.H., _~~" ,,~~ __ , _" "

mo'bUization d.id. take pla.oe' in. the 'U'Dit~ed, Sta,t'es,-, ·some' :five: :miUio:f], men [e:nlis:ted or we're: dr.a;fted~, of whom two rniUion reached. Ftan.[ce '(·'d·1 C10··.: ,0':"0 ..•.. 01 ' .,., 11~·' ·d,"j'":, "dl ";', "b'·· .', ·t,,-t"'h.\-·'~ ,.::. 'I'n. i (1'~,c·'a."t'''I',o''''ln: ·t,1roOltl thl.e'

an . ,,,),' .. aC-.bua II,Y_1e lU com, ,a,_, _" er 1.8 nv H1U.II.e",. ...lJl"". e .....

.. .. . . f"fi···· .. · ·11 . -".- ·f"'--I- 't· . - .. - --, -t,'~~ - , 'II 'ti. ···f· n

ex:pe'f,i"ence' was SU.~:,lCle:n.tl,:Y' prurl:'U I, .:0 tra'um,a"Il.lz,e' a :POPUdl!lOll OJ. o~·~e:

h'I.,' ,,1,' <d" .-; '·'1'1-'·;, ...... '1 ~ t'1t-,a,"t'i :iltd;"·e<d', it''',.;i!'l',f~· .o,,·:ln· •. ~.·t's···· .d'vn, ':a, ·m'l ~;ii.:',ml. 'o··'pt~,m,i~:m,. 8.-ndJ __ unure" ml lv,n J!l.. pr.t.. .L,.." .... , , . 1. ...7 ." ",I~,,, ," .". - ~-_-~_--!Ii ..-

resiH.en.ce:~

The case, of the A'm.e:rican. middle: classes is ev[e n mo:n~c [c:[,e',ar,-cu.t., II

578,

Peter H., Amann

anything, the war restored an economic prosperity that the' recession of 1.91[4, bad interrupted, The still very largeclass of American farmers 'benefited from high farm prices, while the urban middle class profited from the boo ming war economy, Holders of 'worthless Russian bonds we .re few a,' n d Am ••• ie rican war 'b' ':o',,"n·'.',dl~' 'W,: ·'e;'c'e; IC,iQ';;d,"", O,,'.',:["{" in stable d ollars, ,(iI~1t!

, .Ii,,",, ,',' ,., r.l, , '" , .. IUl-.I, '" ,., ,r ,PI/.&..Ii. ," 1.1.11., ,", "",lilg.f ,~

the sharp thouah short-lived. post-war economic crisis defus .. ed the

'''''" '",' ,.,~" , ~_ ,.,' " '" ,,', ". " ,", [, 1..1", '.'

" rod , . te ", ':,: .rti ' , infl ati ,C', " A" '11,t'I:...··"1 ['Ih' U"· S·· far "I" .. ,' ,'".:',," "", , "t, ffer

m,o ·,'erae war J,me, L,-~,~a.10IL~: ,I,. "uoo.g,.' ~~'." "armers cca.me . a. S,UI"I e.r

fro m low C' ommod it Y,,", , priees du ring the 119:2~,O'~, 'iO::O',", one "W', -ould claim

,", . ,', ~"" "~~~~~~ .. , '="',': I, ,~V,;:I' " .. , ,,,1101,:..:,11,.,, .. 1.", ,;.11"", " "",I.. ,.!lU.I,

t"'b-'" ,t" d' ' .. ~ it· .suchdiffi 'I Ities the UI'I ·'t'''' "d'] State ',' ',: ",",t"· ,,:, '" d :: 'd' ,;"",,: "':.'~.'

'" "1,, . " es,p __I·e, S UC,~,~, uL ,~, ~ CUI, "I'{~S,,·, Ie ..... (H'e ' .. ' .a" >8 W,t ,Il'esse a emo ra.d-

.' f h iddl I 'b~ h h." h 'I", I ..

zanon 01." u e middle CLasses, eompara I <I,f: to. tJ; at W,~dC ,I took P',I, 3(; e In.

Europe

U_. I .• ~~ •. - ,_,,:,~

'The specific combat experience of American doughboys also dif-

fe ed sha "':1'1"'"~ 'f'" 0'1 '( that :",' ,f: ~E: I' 'I',:' , ::' ;',:'11 " : sold ,':." :', ' . ":' , ~'" of ", ."h··',:·:' [ 'l'~": . d

ere" ~liI. rp y 'r m t a. or nuropean so~. ners, many 0. W om uve

thro ugh f our or more' years, of near ly 'U.ni.nt[e-rtnp-ted front-line service The firs st Am er .. ican battalion d id not 'r[e' ach the fro nt U' ntil Oct ober

ll.!\.ii . ,[ .. ... ,', ~, " . A-. , . _. ~ a..ILI. . . _, ~ " ,_ _ . " ".., _ J ,~\I..Il ~ ~. ~ . _. .,'

'~91"7" thirteen m' 0' .. ths b efore th e" A."" ",~,. sti -~. ~ - - "~"\ji~ A' Tn - rican ~ ter .I , .'.:l .:;. I 1. , '~~.:i1. ,I. • ..•. 'n. U.1li~1.i 'f ~ .:". I,,, .. :.:c.rJi:I.i1.18, lC~'; JiIlLa.:SSfl,,~: . iIlL[e'r,t. :~n rn.~r""

vention in the fighting took place onlyin "the spring of .1918;, and even tb au a'h the American Bxp ,ed'i ti ona 'M}' Corps 'held twen t.'y', ',: percent of the'

.ttl ... o--~ .. l.t .. " 1 [., .• ,,] .... >_l •. "':,' .. ,J ,J.. _ . .1;,.;. '.' ,J.. . .... II ",_.: ',""" . . .• _ ..

French front just prior to November I'L 1'918,· onlv a third of the

•• " •• ,. 1 ,1,.. , • ~ .. I'~ . [', l."""! 1 .~, •• ,~.. I _. • .'"..,.. J.. . . ,[ .11 .. , .. , , "" .

American, servicemen in Europ .i e ever took part in the fighting and

, " .,,,.,, ,",",., . - ",',.., .," , " ' , ., " " " ,," .I..". , ,lc. " ",' '0" "

I 11 '. '. han si h .' b

[[ I:. 'I.' r .... ··:m, •. 1 ..• Tn:, 1'1 I:,"''''i: ~ , .. I, .·:r . 'I·· ,.'[ ;i ,',,:, .". ,;,'i: '~"' .....•.• (,.

on y ave. y sma mmonty spent more t.,. an SlX mont . s In com at.

Th 'U' · d'S' h d d f · ·"1" dto ci ili

;\', I," .j -, :~·<·· .. ·:\.'i··'·.· ~.~< nan creater anarmv ,'1.1':[.',"1, or civi .<·· .. nsa .. I·[·: •.. .e .e '<>'.~ 11·.···.·.·.1

",e . mte . ~. tates.r ,8 cr-eate .. an a.rmy out 0 (;IV1. ,lans an .. to CIVl ,lan

'11'~4f"e··· th e :'y:': return red once th e W,',,::, a: rr ha d end ed I. The W"Wi[' '1:t'~[1 n ',0, "t" form red ' a ..

IIJljl~"'" . OJ •• ,_ ~, •••• '_ll' ••• _' ••• ]1] .. ·· 'l~. ' •• ~~, ,.[ •••• ' •• l~.l·_·. 'Ii l."",I •• ' •• ~_, ,111AUI " ll"·_ll,ll .'

1 f '. 'II" f>i ~ 1 h " ~" d"

C,,8S,S; (L: mintary proressionais wt ose reintegration mto everyaay

civilian life would nose maier problems."

~ ~ ---= ~ . ~"" ~ .. ~ - r ~ ~ ~ - --" :J ~ - i l' - • • ~ ~~ -. II!

To sum up': i:n loo ki.ng for American equivelents to the two major European crises that are wid ely believed to. have fostered the d evelopment of fascism there was no cul rural crisis of s uffieient scope to underm •• · .. ine thed " om iinant liberal 'I values 0':.' rto Ieeitim a, te an ,8,' uthoritar-

un ,"",Il. I ,~ ,u,~ .. , l. ,R, •... , .Ii, .. ~,I,. ,. aJ.~,OJI .. r .. ~cJ. l., ~, . n ,. laJI,

';:91'0: a "ll't, .e rna ~,t·'~v",:,.'e' to dem nocra .. cy , A.',' ',' t the sa une time th te : exp erie mce of the

Ji u.., . . . .1.1,. Ji. . . IV U, ,.. ,",1' .'!ior. ' " , . . ,n..:II .... , . 01"....,. . ,I , . r Ji .. , . ,. . ..11,. ,n

"U'···"it ,A 'S·~~··· ,it .. ' ~'b· W .. ~d· W·' d· '~d·· ..... ,it, d· , .. ,·'11,:"···· ,t"" th ' E~·;'· '("n

. nh.eu ,:~·'!J.,all.eS In ':',l1e >, o.fl,[ .. ar [,I; n.OII,. [' UP,I,u:;;a .. e .;, e ,I~U,~ opea~~

d 1'" h A ~ ~dd"ll 1 d .' 'I d' "d'

t rau:m,a o:r :e mo:ralLlze: t.l: e ,~,~:mer.lca·n 'ml .•.. "Ie c ;,as;se~s ,(1,n < certa.1"n,ly~,1."

.. ····'''r ' "" ·t"'b"·/ ,,'t . 'i' ".... t ~ ,..' "d'i

no!!. c~ e·a.I.Le ,8" __Ire.a ;en~,n.g ,prael"oflan ,guar·. "

] .. fh"ri' :"'1:' "l'~:"h'-I~':<:""1 I'[tth,·,t,~·, ", ': d",·,'····l W,',b" ":"'-1" =n. I. ,~,~e, ,~,l.na ,ilna~y:us, we .~,~,ave a resu,~ ,,' I. ~,~,a, .1.S ,para c. ox].ca~., .... eegan

b· ;Y' ,g;I~l'lku:d:' ~nlo 't:Q:',I t~'e', 'p:,'a,'''ra<i:' '~:g~,:"m'; :0' ·fl" A,' '" 'm' ; ;IiiI!:r':::f"'~nl [e~-x: ce'~ ·.'p·.t' ~o':'nla:, l'I,"I'S:, "mi . ';ilm":I'p"I"'T~I"n'cO

" Q I" ,.Ii 0"· .Il.l." ,," ' .. ,il ... . . . , " ..... ,1,,,",Q. ., . ·,1 . ,il. I" .• ,,' ,.Ii, ,',J' 0

that its 8[coe':ptance precluded a co:m:parati ve 3,pp,ro3[ch to U .,S~ p,o:l.itl,-, ,cal h'~s.tor\J . .and ,end' bv' noting······. t,h.al a ,com 'Ic,arative 'p:ens,p,.ec.tive: lead,s, t~o

. . . , .. 1 ... ,J "", . . .':J" , .. . . , . . .., p.,. , , .,.. . . .. .. . ... ..

a f',e· n, ':e'''w'' ,"e·:~ rl;,e,··a"l~ ·z···~·a" t,~o' " '01 ',t·b, '9It'· 'tllhe··. 'U~"" 'I~ ·tie"'d' I :S' t':a''''t'e;Q ''l!l~'a·~, ~'rnd, lep;1 .e·'v,c;._(]i;p··'lt1;'~1f1i ·a,'11

. , ,... . .... ~ l, '. ll~ ' .. .' I!ll, . - ... ". . "~'. "1.·.. .. ,IJI1' . ." '.' ... ' ... ' g " ... 0 .111& ... ~~ . lft1 '~l ,- .. lllljJ.\1,11 ... 1,.

:,':, ,""', ,:",,·,t·"~ .1,~" ··'II·h"'·' ""', '1"' ··,~,t""dlt·'lh········+,L··,t'"r":t·,'h·"":"""',' 'd",'".:,,['. "', ,,,,"fl" an e,x,ce,p "lona,d's,m, muc,~,~, ,mo.re ,~l.m.[,e ... ,,~,~an. 1",I.iI.al. 'OJ " ' e gran". sweep 0.

Louis, Ha'rtz"s, ,Libe'ra'l Tra[dition:~

] "~h" 'f"" .,'" """l,,'t,· .. " " .. ~, ~ .(,,',."1'1 .. A···· 1t, ," ,tlb 'dl'f~'

nng . .1 O'fmn a,e my COll'C,IlUSlon. as 1 .. 0.11. ,0 wS..-: S jJ,a, ·e as .. , e e.!n' ~ 01

the :ninet[eentb cent u:r,y;, Eu.r'o:pe and ,Am,erica shared it com'm.o1l1iberal :t',,··~,1{,t~.o,:' DI t'lh',",.a·"'t: ~no,,,,'k. [e r;~,or ;cle'~~-Q'~'v:e1fn:me1j1l't. Q(nd.·:, n:rog:[ie···.s···~·· tho-u,gh, its

.fu.-'U,I"I,."." .. ~.t".,., , ... ~..., U:~'V ... c'~~~~~.,U U~~" r~ .;tt;" .. ~, ,,~~,. -~~ ..

C7H J,'"7

vitali ty d iffered f rom co untry to country I' :I n twentieth-century

E- urene this liberal trad ition W"- Q~, to be - weakened by the - tides :0':'(-'

~'-'Vr·'/ .' __ ll~ II ,'.: ~~ .. :'il. ""_'~" _ ll. III : llll, .... ~ '.. . .... - ... ~" ", - ,I=.,~ , ",_ .lJl .. - .. ,1. _ ,~a .....

irrationalism an d"'] tota 'II war conditions wh .ich ~i!i1·~~11 the wav f ;.-.:-_" ,-:

.1", ., _.iI, __ ,u~ !OJ ., .. , _ __ _ _ _1. ,_.Ii. ~ __ . u'-l, I.i., U',U,,, I",·, ,-,'q.,;,v'iJ, Ii.- '. . __ y ,_or a

fascist ass a m 11'l·". the success :0' ~ W'" ~ "J' ~~. 'd: Iepen ',d' le ,.d·.- :0"-' .:,n,·- V[ ':-'9:r'-'Y:'~ n I 0' '~~C·· :1Ifi~,c:;;

'l~ •• _ •• l'- .. q.~.~~J .. , _~ .. ".~ ~,,~ l~' .~lt.ll~lllil :!W-,] . " .. . " ""' <." ,I. '0. [.:ty~ . .Il Jl.

circumstances. In. America there: were DO such 'tides, but at most a few .. ,mt: ,on b ore :k -r:~ 'Lib - 'r slisr ;, "',' th -: b If'___: ad ': .'"' ·,,·t- :;' :.- [:f th r I'l [ :":,':, -_' ·C'.:'_ "'.' .:,- -'k:',C',~

s a __ . " . 3 __ e,_ S" ~_ e~a __ sm, In L. e _oa.es sense 0], . lila overworeU,

term therefore remained too solid to invite a serious authoritarian

C' h a- I'lle- -'n- 0'8

. '. li~ c .l·.~.", ,I ,6J~'.

Notes

" '~S

An earlier version of this article, ~ntiUed "Les f aseismes a,m,erdc:ai:ns des annees tr-e~t-e: aeercus ,et rif!le-X:lOllS:'~ written in French for a Euroeean s·chola.rt-' audience '- :::-,-;_-ftj!i-:" [_"

1"'''''1:' - - - - - - ~ - , . -- _ -- u _ p -- -. ,. _ -- .. -- _'1 aU-'I,jL~~~ .... , , apl" ... ars

. - th R' -1)1 d':"''',·, ,,'-" .• , . d '. t: n .... ·,'''''" _. G·--·~· .,. M'; ,_.I. ,I', 'N"j ~ '2[6' (- ~'902\~ .1'7-' ''''Ii.~

Ul, "Ie: ';Ie, u:e, ,,-',ur.o'lr,'ee ,Jd .i..!'c;'UXl£,me:'.uer,r.'t'" O'm',~a;e t' o. I, J. !t. iIY)", "', ,_ , ;j,~,

:published by Presses Univ,ersi-ta;ires, de fra;nc;-e' for the 'Comit~, de rHistolr-e de' ,Ia Deuxie :mi-e~: Gue :rjl'ljli; 'M, end 11· ~ ~e': .1 :3' 11m I ind ebted to ·t'L;.Q@.1 ;ltQre '~Olj p .. ermi ssio •. !T' t,~ ,ad·' 'I!li_p':('" and

_ .... !!;,iII;n" ,I. u""' __ II'~ ~_"V, .... AiI. _. ," I,. ,'!W "-'!W_ ,Il- __ .I:I~ ..... lll.1: _ ...... 0]11 _I:, ...... 1.111 ii!!'a',1: _iI!l.ILU ,,!GI;I., .... u

update an En.g~isb version for an American readership, ]: also 'Wish to' acknowledge support from -Ci R..:;r,'c:J!"'~9Im';· ,O:t:91]]tf, :(··U"l.'n-~v--·e·:t:~··l-tf~y,:, '0- f Michigan) a ad an 'N'i,'IE,' iHI'- -S-'I~m. nmer .

.. ~,,'" ~ __ ~ A ~~AJ. "-.,I~R"L_' .. ~~=_l' .i •• ,]I, _~,.l'._ 1 _. 1~~llCi' l~ •. _.~[I. _l ••.• , .•.. !\.II! _ - .IW

Fellowship. I have also benefitted from the elose critical reading of this article by Pro:resso~s Dan Levine, Gerald M oran, Donald J. Proctor and Seth ·W~gd[erson.

580

LibentesUnio» (Lexington, ~:9.·· •. ·6·.·2~:" W'·;i~1~.a'"iio Preston, Jr . A·" ·1:I~e~·~ 'Q.'Md··:: Dissenters:

~u" ,~. ,,"'Ir"" Vi!' u· . ~, .. , " . .i"li.o .:I,.c "'~!I!, !I. _ J~. . _ liiL!I ,1,111 F'. ""'.","' .. ~ .. ,. ~ .,. I ~.il' . 'Ii . ~.il'''1[,. .;1.1[,. ;;]I, •

. FederQ'1 Suooression (jet' Ro.-dietl/'S, 1.903-1'933 (·'Catttbrrd.OP.' .. M'A.· 1'63)." Stanlev

- . ~ -:t"":y ... 'J ... ~ . ~.. ~. - - '4.. - ~. -~ ~ ~ ~O""'~· , ,,~. '.' ~ .... ~ ~ ~ ~ y

C'I"'b en Lif A Stt dv .' c· 'N'··" iI-"'V" , '" Th -. A" '"""'F'"" R d' '·S:·~··'··· ····r' ]'9·')-'9" '2\00 ii' D litia J ·oe~~jI t1;, ~ tuay til "a)d,"~s"m,. r ne .. unencan .. en "care 61, : "t-'iO~ ronuca

Science Quarterly',~ 79 (,19,64)~ 52-7.5;, for Mit,chtdl ;8, background, and outlook, the' ¥ery

1[:-:- .ir- mind ed b •. ; •. , dOt' - '-p'h'-"-: b ~.' S'" t ,- i' ":1- -.C C,'-I);. - In'" Mit:·~ '1"""" J' .... '.,. ·~:·l' ~ : ':".. ("N'= .' Yo [ :k'

· .ilL =ml. ~ .. u' . ],O~~ a,,~ , ,.:y:y ~ ,1Iiney ove,.~, .1.'1 .• ' ~ '_ ~ ,Cne .J cll·mer., £iOd IClan '." ~ f:W ., or c.!!;

t 96,3)~ passim, for his, progressive background, but partlculady 196 .. 241' fof' 'his role in the 'Red :SC~i1e~

S·'· . 1I'~ -, [ -]'·,-1 ,-,'" '1 the ··d··' [ ··I~·ed-· '-'1-,·:· 'h",-, -.(11- 'N:' ',-. ["" ",,". '8"' ".' ..... · .. A' ."'.'c~(;'. < (- .. ·1.' ,n.': '" : .. ~ ... '.~.' ,.. .Ii, tll,ave, re .leu OD. . lU.e, a ,m. I 'u.! . . ... ,. O:Sd,l!e. .~ orman, . " ,apgoo~,~, ,r,r:0;J.tSSt()'f1,Q . ,,--Q.rJlo, .. s

(New YQir:t, 1,928).'. and the broad er neFs'necd:'V'e' n,FO'\11,.,.; ...... 1 ~,-" P~" 'I, 'L- M····· u F"-:h"IV- "So F""

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Des anw,." a"ure 0 .H o.,eran-oe In . "e ,;S" . Q,,.,,na, OJ ,t'2.,me,r'Cl.1n, :,~j',t(),~J\.) I \.17~' .•

e« .LO

~o.

0_ ~. have found the most c O~in""~~;FI: and useful d.' '.·:·sc:,Uo·S'.I·n;1']I; in Sevm 'O""U' r'MI -L' inset and

. .,,'. Jj" , .!P! .. " '!;,;o ..... ''''-'11".. Iii.., , ..... \.:!'!Il. '. ,I,., .... !I,.,..,.. "'111[1· .. !!;,iII':!!", !!;,iII".. '. ".:I!. ",-",n ." o ••• ~',J'" .... [ "'~ ,F.:I!'!;,;oIL.. .

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· .an . aao, .I,l,W' ~: ,O,d':JIC'S oJ umeason: ..... :lg'."J "'ng ,~;""Tem~$m' In' America, t, ~rj-'~","'. !!'

2 d" ed (CJ1~ . '1918"")" 1 '16' 1'3" 1 thoi c • I!.. 1 - ls - .. - "- Ijili' - d th th b 1.. th "K"]

, '.!fl;.~ ,e ~ .~'J(:ago~ .~~' ," ".I,~ , '~'-'~".' ~I ~ '~'~])U,gu ., a~SQ consuuec ne t. lref: .oo.f(s, on "!I,i.e [.: .. ,an

th "iii- ," , .,t.. . '-l ,0 .• W'"]'l~:' =p R-' - d 'il 'T'I... v" £.0"1\" "17'; . " A C·' - "t" -"-" ,_,"

IL a!!J. aile ,nadon,a, Ul seope: '.~ .~.' ~ .I,am ,~ <an~ e.1!~ me ,,n,U' n.sux ,t';,,;an;7 en' en "ury 0"

In'~am't} (Phnadle~-- h"a '19~5' .,) ... Da--';'d '[M' . Ch alm - "- H';: ~ d' ..... . •. TJ:.. H"~:"'

· "'[/~' ,.' J • C'" I,~ ~." .' .•• '. ~~ P ~]L:]I ,~~V·· .~ , ":~ ":VI· ~ -r ".. '., ; a: , ,.eF:S~ , :,o(Jue· .' iJ.m"encan~s"':: .l:. ,'Ie . :,l~

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Ku Klux: Klen j'"' tho C,'1ty.:', 1'~',1,'C',-,1'9,'3,~,(···'N· .• ·~W Y erk 'il ~6:1-·:)· II "h'" ere is a m Q;"'UI~.;j:!o need fo .·r an

~,. ~~ ... :-.~ ~;T~r'~" V' ', .. ~'. ~V .. ~ ~ ,1"7. ,"." ,,'Ir,~1 .. __ ,~ .11"'iI[I,~-"" ~ ... ~"

un-ro-d ate sv uhesi ~:" :".':"'\ •... l"~'iir'· .d,'j,'I. of nublished '·:"-·d···:1 "-;~I bllshed local

!llp Il-O a e syn" esis, mcorpcratmg me . ozens 0 !pu.~ ,Js,~,~e~, ana unpu~ ,JS ,~ ioea

d ,. 1 d;' d d' ," h l 'I(" h D' 'W'" ld "Ih

an re 'i ana sn _. "S """ - '" -. .". r. - ".' .' '.' . j . "I' ~

,'."~ II,B[·', r~"'~~l""LI,e~, proaucec 1.'11 tne last twenty years, ",en.net' .'.~~a.", ~",.'e

V:"'-fb· Ie Em ".:.[ - .. -T~<' 'IK' , V'·I"· 'P"l"' ~ ,"'.' El""' ", ' ~ '1',( ~-_ .. - .. ,- 1 flJ.".,,,., "-",."J ".,t'l·:·"",:···-·-"d·-~"·

'. ];S~ ue .. III,plre, .. ne ,ll A.I!UX iI'!i.. an as ,an . ecrorai ['V!l.Qlv-ement.~. -Q'Urna, OJ nter« ,fS--'

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ib ... r'un.u·; , . 1;;]1 . u"", ,~, ,~,~ ~~'" 01,1 .... ' . ,I." ~"~, u .... ·~J<JO ..... u,I!.l "', .!Il.[ o' ",. I... ., '"' 00 1·1:11 ii!>, "'"]1 ... ~ 1.1,"""" !f" Q,~

e'~FI! tIO'. ":n orf ]. 9,'2··:,3···· . 'If-.·u~, ~,~ 'p:··r. 1I'i1',,~fij;j:l!;P, CjO·.· 'mi. ~ 1D:~"p·. ···p.o· .··,r[·t· '~O·· .!If !i?1"\lI' t"~hl""~'~~ '''~h' .~+ t,~.-. 'K.·· 17' 'K .•• · .. ~1'~:iI('"l,;lk,iII>;

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European. fascist 'm.ovemen~s~ did not ch:allenge tbe: foundatio:ns of 'th.e polhical

""\l!~'···m·· ~J)"~~i~ ~- J.~

10,. The definit~ve treatme:nt is Le,O' P.. R.i'bu'ffoj ~'H:enry 'Ford. and The [,deraa-

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.Lan.d;' PQ1lte'rns of A mer,ic.a:n. Nlll b,J.i:$'m~ 18'6fl-19,'i5 (New ,Bruns:wick", 1'967)" 277,-,286;

AU 'N ,;, d~' F k E' 'R' ·'ll _ d it7'.~ ,..,J' C'I.. if J,A 15 1933 IN

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H:~fl,er,~ Me,in ,KQ,mpt, Sentry ed:i:tj,o:n; (Boston; 1943J~, 6.39. In. 1938 Ford on his seventY"'fifth birthday 'w',a.s ,a,warded. the G'f,a,~d 'Cross, of' the Su:p,te~m.e Order of (~be German Ea,,..;le U:ile CourtJiI TY;fSOn in ·the wtOr'ld, and. th~ n - ,t A' : c: :;' IIi t b~: d,~ ." '"t - d

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w~th th,e hi8hes;~ d:istin<:tf.o;n for wbicb non~Germall citizens 'wer,e eligible. j ames, P'oo:~

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'2'O'IL). '''',9:-'" T'~ -, """ - If',," ,11["":, ... .' -t R-':'" .' ',. TL. Il'"""'"'' "','., " ··i(,'·· I . ~,.J:., -" .'L_, A'" --." -,-,; -,,", '('D""I~ ',' '1111;£-:11)"

~'V'-""" '~ .' u;O,[R,a,s ~. " uosset ,:,ace. ~ "e :,1310,~f oJ ,an ,U;J;e,Q: til ~~merl,CQ [, '. a~~las,~, ,~:71)'I.)'I"

370430; Charles ,e,. AJe:xander, ~Propbet of ,A .. m,e:rican R,3£ism': M adkon Gr,ant ,and

it'h- - IN·;,··' di'",', 'IM:·~"· ,'"·b"' "Ql.,-,J.", '",,>oJ' ('~ l1i6' ',2:)" 7·3··_M" 0" "'[' H"'''"j,'''d' ],~,".. R'" ~ N···.' ,:-,"", " .. '. '/::'" ."', ;

... e,," o,~ Ie. yt!' ,.rTil:yJiOn.~ ..i!:;.JI :I,7~:. , ~'.' ?'\)I!~~ sear ,-,,,=,an~ ".In., ,IQ,Cf!' an,,; , .. QnQn~ dy,.n;

A m.· ·-9·r·~""#1!~ L:· :I.r~ ~"B. "'0' ct'''o'';n'' ~ 0,4' ,8) "7" ~ _,] 3··>D1,. ·IO·,··\ .... n''lII~~' 'I!" 'P'·\·L"'·C'~6jri Ii!' ~I''''D''''-:;'''''" ..... M,d.' :~'h' ,8 '~Q"'-'

~"~.~'lbi"Uil, ."IJ'~ '11,. ·.· .. 3.,··, ,,17 ','"" ",1 ,-~o,~ . u.~W ,ft.'~" ,~":fl!.''''''~'~'''' ,L~~'lI:;u.~I!;,. . .:!' ""'U·.· ~."."" I:f.·~

'" (N 'L., 'iiI" !l°6"Q)" d'M' It. 'H' H" 11 E·I • ,--, d," . A"..,J' •

;gres,s'l"ves. : ,[ .' ,as,[liVll. e, ,IJ 'j:,O': .'1 ,an. ,I:: ,a:r~, , c,. ~ ,a~ ~ er" ~ ugenics.: Here ·.it.anan ,1'1, i Utuues ,n

A. '~~Dog~,. in the Nighttime" Problem

[ . . .

, ,

S·81

Peter '[]' A''"' m an "'"

1.:... ..... :_:., ,nl~ t", : " I, ,g 0 ~J,

I·,'''·~~ Z··· ;,~ ~ ~ .z, u •.. i. -. 'iii3-' '("~ .o'7·,c) - 2'71 20£ J ur ~e'f.lge:J,ciJf,Cn,re.~ L~' ..... ~ 7' .... J' .;: . '. . :I."" .~ ,,-"' •.

2]6·.·· TLI1·~ thesis ~P'" stated ~nl Smith T:~ ·l\a·1i,'.D a .' -N~:~a'~'~>(Ii'~. ·8·:~·9.· •• :

..• 121 "'"... "",.,1", II., "". _I!;,;'. II.. _ .. IL., ,. .I ili- 1<1' , .... ~ __ _ . _ I."'V'.I~ .•

.27'~ The clas;slc biograpby is, of course T'~ Harry WHUa.ms,~ Huey Long (New York, ~.rn6i9)' ·~~_'h-"~--1.. was nreeeded bv several ~··th~ -··f····~,-··" able reintereretations ~!il a less 1,'7> .. '.;; 'W\ ,leu,_·M p'L~e.y sevei ~~, Q., :er ravera e rel,m.e~.prell,a.JOIlS Q~.~ ·a .~.e.._J'

monumenrel scale, for example, Henry Dethio·ff,. ""Huey Pierce Long: Interpretation , ". L ,.:'- ,';'. S·'···~· .J':. oj! [(P\6·lJI.)' ... [·.12- .... ., .... · .~.~,...I Pete ·K· -.~ ;\II!'R·-·c. 'L' o' -~~ Th.e · .UJll.S.; .~~Q,fU',UQnQ-·. ·11 UuleJ'; ~' " ~7 . !"i!' ., ~.Ii. ~'-'~J~, anu ,I(" e er ~ .:clOg" b J uey· ~ .og,. ._,. '--~_ '

Louisiana Kingfish, ir Histl),.~ Toda \1 ~ 14 (' 1964·)':' I;S I, -·1, 611 There is ,I, recent, verv

_ IJ' IJ,. ,J

· ~. : rce ,: tive '. ~ lint . ~ :ti 1.- d' i\li' n[:~ t he Lone and C' -·O:lil~[kllhl mo'" vemen~';t! .. A· ··la~. :B:r.' nl\i"'I~!lll'.. .~ - ·,ices pe.!-'II.· ~ Ih ~ . '1;00' J 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ U;,J 'Y' ~ . u. . . ~ ~ ~e ~·L .. ~ ,,",.e~u~ ~ ~ . ~ ~. . ~ ~ ~ [~Q" ~ . ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ L!lI!." , ....... ;no Q ~ . ~

• (," D.. . '" C-- 'N(- -Y·~·' k iI·no '2[')-" -TiL-"'," . I' nali ··t·· -' ·b'· .,. - ··h··- ~.~ .... f' . cf'L ~ 11 n·30--· ] .• ~~. - 'F-'" - t

OJ .rl.fHlJcU ew or,! .. 1 :::ro-., .. :u,e Jou.rna .lSJ!Clog:r,ap, .. Ies o. IIU!e 1'",:' ·8" . .llf.,e ror.res·

D""'I~l··~' n'·· ·u·-· e~ 'Ii!' L: ","",M'I7' A' -<""hin~l:id·:· .Dio~i!l7r--tl--,·n~'li' '(-"'N"'j'ew-' _. Y·"-','I')or--k· 'L9':"3:',c,)'" "", .... 11 C·· arleton 'D''''"".i·lj~ ''7''1."", ~ .~ .... ~ ~~ . "_ ,_ - ~.;T ---,~ ....... !<~., --., !II...-~,!"if~iU:I;. o.l;-e:·· -r"'!"'! ..... - '.,'-- .~. "YI'~ _,.:!! .~,.) .. '~~!liI;!J. '.',.~ ''IiO'o," , ~iIi ~g.~~:!i .E. r/it:

S~I:_' _·,,·'('Y·'; p-. L' · .. ·"' .. i/'P·-·.,.-h,-'·~l,-··d:-:~l·ii.,,"'· 19··,"'S:-)······~· ~ "I"~·tte·-·,,,·\··~h~, '1·" .-. ~·~,·ad·--i.- .. ~~,-· iastbv

, . ,Dry .q-J .. .uey.· ,;. . ong '\ .' lae .. pIJUl, .. J... were WFI.. ··m .10, II . e "o..n.g S.I~ .ow ,cas '. 'Y

EUrope'an fascism and aile far more critical.

2::8: ~W-?··l~l~ iI8·_'·m. ~ .. H::I:,\~ 'iJI Lone 'i~''l C for eh ese fiaures and ~.,~ .. ;.,.;,l'.c Io '11\" ,<.!II narrative ~··lS·~O. -rv

... 1. " , I I " 3"" iIr.iIJ'L,-" ·U'Ijl:tO ~I I IJI.} , . ,~, ."- ,~. , .:l! IHI. I.'::'''' JI~U ,·1 Y. 0 II U.tLl," IJ. lL J.

of the Share-Our-Weajth movement .. 'F cn' a mor-e analytical account, see Robert :E.

"S: --I~·-d'~i· ~'. ~'lr ·L·· .. :,:.-·:· nd the P'\ .-.: ide nial Bleetion of ~·9·"6···· itt L' ' r ,' .. '~',,: •. ',., t . H=Y'I·_····: "1 1'-6· - Dy[eil' " nue...... -ong, ,art "e . reS'.l e,n lail Eo ,ec:, Ion O. iI..}!j; ~QUISUlna .' . ,~-J Qr.')' ~ L

{:197.S)~· 1 J. 7 -, 143, and Brinkley, 'Voices ·of Protest :179-186:!! and. passim,

29., James A", Farley, Behind .the Ballo-ts (New' York, 1938·); 249,..250" Robert Snyder ~ w'ho examines this, episode in considerable detaH" concludes ·that Lon.M t~ulnin.g·. asan i:nde~;endent in ~ 19'.36 'w(r~.ld. have denied Roosevelt the :'re:side!i1ey'~_

~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~. ~_ ~ .. _ a~ ~ ~ ~ ~.~ ,P ~ ~ ~ c~ • ~ ~. ~ ~~ ~ __ ~ " ill ~ " ~ ,a, __ ". ~ ~ ~ ~" " 0 ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ . ~. p., .. ~ ~ " _ ~ ~ ~. ~

·:S·~-[ ". der ~~'" ~ IL-"'-' .. ,fi'", ]- 4' :3':,

· nyer" n.uey ong '" .. ... ~

1111; Lieser and 'R'C' aab ''T''i. -. p~·"':;'l;t~; c~~, .- •. {' U': -.--~ .'~-- [ ~,n..~_.~4'i(" ..:rv'.. _-lr~i~'. ;.u .. ~ .... gg ~ .~. .6. 'Je ~ Q,': ""fCS OJ . ~llre4SQn ~ ~,?~ -.~ ;:7."'.

"}'~ W'··I]··'-· '~I' H---:' , .. 9 , ',"8"'8'"

.:1-.1 • .~ .~C.I .lams" '. uey :LV.ng ~ '" 'c.

3-.2.. The best ~,ystemaUc,~, th.[ough. perhaps ()v'cdy sebematie, ,analysis, may be found. .'. : F kiss "T'hle Political -. :.(1' ~.~'[ -,., -,".,- ~ik"i],· - ... ,~,- ;-~-, ,~,-l'A":-'_, ne "'. _.~. ,:- F -' .. --". '.11 .--H, •. ~ '2[~- '~'6' ·5' ]11 ere .~SS,~. I,,,~ = 0, .. 1 ]t'ca. .. ·all. L.conom,l,c r~d,.OSOpu.y Q~, ,.m,ncaH ~ ,asc],sm "I -oJ "~.

H:O'wev'er~ the autb.or is toe ready to confound populism and fascism,

"li'"li' AI'~ - B· -' ~ fl.-·l ~ ;ijI'H~~ ~ ~ 'L ~ . ~ t'h ~ 'SI'h - ~ O~· . 'W' - ~ lth U' - . - ~ t ·d· t~ - ·L·· "t .;;P.;;p;:,~an ,~·:fln~,.[ey:r. =~uey ------,oing;... ie ~., lare.-!(u· ... ·_< eaun .:.~.O'vem,'en:: ·an!. me lWLS

o:f Depression Dissidence, ir .LotJis.ia:l1a .Hist.ory, .22 (.1 '98, 1 ):: :t 17-1.34, and. his ·Va·ices.of Protest, ~179[ .. ~186~ of~er rhe fullest. analysis oftbe movement. For the: distinctive rele of

the -S·jJ·~", '-·0":, .-- ·-W·~:'·I~·h·,···j, b- - :'"[ 'IL'-:I , e; ; •. "'-.':" c-.: -.' ·1·~,·'I10·~·[ '.~_'-.' ,· __ f·-t-·I;..~ '~L"-:'--""" ...... :i;- .• ~ . ,.~'.~

~., e '. I:I,IJ'C-. ··ur~~ ea., ... , C,IiU.·. S In, ~ OlllISI!3,na. as 8,n ex,,,cn,SIO.ll 0, ,lie. .' an.g m,aC[dne" :see

WUHam:s Hu:e~-' wn·:tt. 130 .. 731 .. ,.

~~ ~ iIo ~ ~ • y - ~ ~ ~ .... .. .

34., Beals, The' Storyof Yuey Long, 312., It may be objected that this s<ort. of aHbi is stan.d.an:l: otperad:ng: p,roc-e-dure' for .any pnHt1c:ian.~ wba:te'Ve;r h.~s· ~deo:togy. 'Yet thls is

'Iitl' 'Si~ Hr~ "s ·M····jil-·~'~!~JII':·: ~ ·~-·~t·~.-f·~·;i .~.~. :h~·"i.~- ·,:· .. ··d,·· '".' ·I,-·~t 1'-f't' :':~t'~il' _.-- '~I'~:h",-,~d' .~. '.,. 1,·[·--·rt··h··~1 '.~' ~O[I. ,~Q •.. ~,,~e~ e L .,u;SSOlJun 1'USJ 'yln\g ~. ,IS .F·aL S a,galills.e" ~s·- S[()D,g. OilS .ln, no" . ern

I·t-':a·]v·· ft'1"n- "'''''':r~·al]·1'i'' [c··~·n.t'·I~·g·~~:""";I~~. '!I'~,o]:e'-'[n""Jll!o h"'-li'1!' ,3 [~..,..".n '~ono:r.'I'liI_]· C1··P'~1·lfi]""'?~"'~ -1'(-: W'.-,a.iI!'·

. -- ',;T • . " ., "'"'''''' ~. ,III, ...... , . ,~I _ ."'""LiI .... ,II ... " · ... ·1,. _, . , ............ , g., .• Jh""""r ,I.UU ,!II: , ., Cilil. " .... liI,ilil ...... · " •. ••. ~

:necessary to make our way by cv~olence.~, by sacrinoe, by blood.; it was· necessary to

~·t·b)I;'~'~~ t'~-··'r[d - '., - ~[ d: lj,~,~·~ :1"[ -- W -I~ -d' '~b'-' i~''''-''-' ' -, ~:-;'I:~':~' ~: Ib-' ··t .1" ~l - ... - ·-,~:·iL··l . .- i~-'~'- ''-['b- -t< .. ·,

esa .IJI:SI~ u,e, o~er anu ~$'clp~.lne ~~an .. e y tue .masses;u. unpO\So:S.lll'.le ~o ;0 a:ln.

t.hem throu,gh mHk-an.d-·walie·.F pro:paganda, ,and throu,gh 'words" w~r·ds and mo:re' ·wo[r(h-~:pa.dla:m,e:nta'ry and j orurna1:istic: sham battles .. ~ Be:nito M u:s'soli:ni1. My ,A.u-to .. lJi.'ograpb:y (N ew Y'ork!, i 9.28)~ t 21-1.22., Or let. us listen to Hl,der~8 :pubHc m·llIs.:lngs.,: .". The jiQUl1l .mov~m.,n[t~ jro.m .theft's,' day~, e:~po,'J.'$ed ,the slondpo,inl .t~~'t ils' .idea must be .puJjorw.Q1"tl JpirUuQ·IIY·,· but 1'11(.1'1' the .defense .of the spi'r'itual'plf1I!Qrm .mu.st if ne,e,e;~~ so'.y be sfu:ur-ed by st,,'ong-orm m:ea'TIs. . .. Who.t w.e needed and SI ill need' w:e't~e' ,and are .' ... a' h;u,n,dre.d thQusand' and .(,1' se,cQnd hun'dre'd ,thQuJondft;g:ht,ers/o', .our p'h.~~fJ'St~:phy

.>(11 /'. ·li"{:'~ f"'~Q' ·"h·· 'Q'I"i~.,J' ·n· io"'li,'t wQ-r'l~, ,J'n .... ~, ...... ~·'Q·I· ,;i.'I;ii"i;~V~II>.'I!,t;c· ··'"",~!.·:.;~'t·· .~~ ~;D,L:I' 'Ii.' ·m •..... "'('i..l~m· .... fl"Hj"·t·r·~~J . 'V~~' ,.-,.[~ iii:. ..... w,~u ,:,~, _.'_". ~.I\. ... , ... "'~''''l~·~. !lr.-U~!I; _" ~,~I;:.", '-"' . ..:11:;. ,(}.I,*:. ~1,1; 11l"1~=~'O'[I.r!' :." Y:~~ U"tr-.l ~r&d' .. 'w;

tion8~ Q:nd it j's,' ,no.' .by dagger ,Q,tui'pois.on or pistol' d'd·.r .the rO;(1,d £"C1n; he .c.le:a·f-ed/Qr the' m'·oveme.ttl'~ bUJ hy I.he conquest of ,"he.' J'trt,e"ts.. We OUI.'$I t,e(J'tn the' Mat xls,'I's that the Ii. I:l:'u .. :r-'f' ml .... ··l'!t.~r ·Ol'.£~'~~ '~:t::"'.II!I"e'·~"1'! .Ii,~ N···· ::"'~~';;;M[nl', 5··.···0·· .i"'·fLl·iic'm.··... J,~:H'l'!t:~'C'! i~ 'wiJlil!'o·' -:m·.· :;i1II' "",LI''lYl;o~,~'~,;;:;>

J. W .- . ~ __ W~. IP. ..;J !I!.'J~ !d r ~ . ,.!LJI !II!LJI .• _ M,II'II!IV-llI'!II!~ _.. -. ~ ,y __ .~ .l·. ~I . " M!IJI UIIJI _ ,II _' _ _ _ !L1 -. ..r1P u~..,.- lJ:'£. !I!"JIP,

.. , .. -., ·-.r:-··z...-·· ,-. - .. ' i.'t[U,,·t.I-'~' .'-a1"._'" ~. M"-:'-' .'''. 'K" , ...•. /" C:3· 4 .ii:!'j!f") M- --' -~ .. - ... ,. __ -. ,~. -h~''''·-:ii.,·-· .. '

ma~.t,er .o;} tne,Sl:are ... inLI,~lie.r:", I,t J..CS"JI: ;e'ln ·ampJ,' ,,.., .. : ,~J~~.J' •. ~,.' ,.., pOUlt ,IS-~ .. 18!i. hJ(!i: lone'

is ·d.~fferent..

35,,., O.n the c.a,ree', o:r Gerald L." K.,., S'midl" for .3. scboia.rly account see R.~.bu:ffo, "_:P~rote8tantsl'l'; .5:21-7'3 1.;, for a, :reveaUAg: au~olb~o.Brapldcal j !Jsdfl.cation~ sec' :S~uds,

583

Terkel, Hard' Times (N ew York, l 97' 1. )11' 368=']7'7' .

. 36·, 'On the evo':~udo'~ of Father 'CoughH:flI and his, movements, I have [consulted the :follO'wing" Iisted by order of their year of publication' Nicholas A., 'M asters, "Father Coughlin and Social Justice: A 'Case Stud.y ~f a Social M:o've;m,eru~f#' (Ph, D. dissereaticn, University o.:f Wisoonsin", ,1956); Craig, N ewtoa "Fatber Coughlin and his National Union fo'r Social Justice," Southwestern Social Scie.nce Quart'eri)\ 4,1 {:I '960):: 34 :1-3511}; J ames Fenton, "Fascism and Father Caughlin j[fJ' Wi~cQ"'sin Ma,tl= zin'f o/'HJs,tory ~ 44 (.1.960.):, 6-,11 ';, GaryT, :M arx, The S€lci:'al' ,iJosis /0,'1" the Support ofa

D~ ",i!;;'_ :E"~ • 1:" ,iL C',iL 'i :r:'" C' it :;:~ ('0 !()., 'I 'Ii fil::2) G~ , A

,ep,r,'e:ss:ton era u.lr,t'T1US.l;· ,l"Q',ir,er <, :",ar,(es ~.'-(n ... g,,:~in [ ,oeF~e:~:ey, ~:;J',,;'~,;'_:-,eorle,:,.,

Conrl on, "The Potitics [of the Social j ustice M,o'Vem'ent'" (Ph, DJ. disseeration, U nivershy 0'( Tennessee, 1,963);, David R,. Bennett, De:ma:gog;u'es in lire ,D~pr:e:sst'o'1'l·.: A,mef.i,CO," Radicals an'd' Ihe Un',ion; PtJ'r.~y (N'[ew' B runswiek, 1969); Sheldon Marcus, Father Coug.h:Un': 'The' Tumuhuous Lie pi the' Pries: ,of the' .L.iuk Ptower (Boston." 197'3); Richard A,. Davis, "Radio Pr~est: "The Public 'Career of Father Char~es Edward. Coughlin" (Ph.D'" dissertation Unlversity [of North Carollna, ,I [974); Lipset and. Raab, '/1Je Peiu tes qf Unreason, 1 67 -186: and ,Alan. Brinkley t. 'Voices (){ Protest,

31., In his systematic summary of Coughlin's ~d[eolo,gy) F erkiss ~PoHti.cal and.

ECOn.O[fldc Philoso phy .of American F ascism": 18,3,-25,6, also '~is:ts a third current that he labels N dlstribuds.m/~' but, 'this strikes me as :no more than a variant of ortihod[Q):;, [ea'lho'lle social doctrine, .

.38. J. have relied on Lipset amid Raab, The ,PoUt it's of Unreason, l :84- l .89';- for their

data and analysis o'r the 'Gallup polls on. 'tile C,ough~i'n phenomenen, 39,. S trong, ,Organ,:zed ,An:tj."SemttisM", 67',-68.,

40. Lipset and Raab, The' Politi'c:J' of' Un.re,oJon", 187',

41. This conclusion should be compared 'with 'the opposite view by J uergen Keeka, ,A,ngest,e'ilte zW.{:.J'che,'fj: F(J8chi~'mU's una Dem 0 I.; ra't ie ;,. Zur potifir,'ch.e.n Soz.iaig,'e'"" J'cniehl'e der A.nges tel/ten: USA 1.890-1940 .1m in tema I ionalen P erg.f:eicn (Goettingen, 19;71)J~ 2(\6-291'.,

. .::··t~Y. ~.~

4t:2. George: L. Mosse, "I rnUOO uetion; 'Towards a General Thee ry [of F ascism, " and

H'u,gh Seton 'W atso Il,~ "The A1ge [of Fascism and its Legacy," in Intematione! Fascism:

New Th',o'ughl';s and New ApprOQcne,s (London, 1979)[,~ IO-,15,~ 20-23" and .3:58.-.362; Henri 'M: ichel, Lesfascismes, (Paris, 1 '976)" ~ :~ -·1.4; Zee;v Srernhell, ~F ascist Ideol.<OgY'~ n ~n. Waber Laquenr, ed., Fascism: . .4 Reade« 1 Guid«: A.naiys,es.. Imetpt:t."tJrio.nsl• ,Bibl,~o"" g,l':aphy(Berke]ey' and Los, Angeles, 19'76).1' .320 .. ]37'; 'Ott10 Ernst, S,c'b.ued[ek:,opfj, R:evolurJons ~l-Oul'" Time: Fescism (London, 1973l~, .54-81, l S4--'~ 58:;, Hi R". K,ed'w:a~rd, !a'9c:is~: in 'We:s[f'ern Europe, 19,00- J'945 t I, 8-, 19'~, 77 -8.8,~ N olte, De, Fa5eht$'m'U$,~ 6,1..;89" 219-,:2.31,~ ,37 5-l84~ Pierre 'M i]za and Marian ne 'Be:nteu.~, Le fascisme au X.Xe s.teele· (Paris 197 3).~, 15-36, 43",.57", ~ 18,..,124; Paul M... Hayes, ,Fa'Sc.~S'm in :WeJJern- ,Europe, 1900'~194c5 (lQndo:n, :i 969), 18"·19~, 77~88; Renzo de Felice, In tetpretat ions .of' ,Fascism: « Cambridge, 'M A~ 1'977)., ~ 75,; Francis L" Carsten, Th,e' R'ise qf Fascism, 2nd ed., (Berkeley and los Angeles, 1980).; '9",4'~; Linz, "Poljtieal Space," in Stern 'V .. Larsen et, 301." eds., Who We,r, t he Fascists, Social Roots oJ' ,European Fascism (New Yor k, ~ '80)~

'~L €'o' ]~ 5' "9 l'::>3· L 65'

"lj(1!_l,] _::. ""'1,. 1J'U1.:·.·~ _: .. ::'_"_'r.

4,,3. Given 'the context of my ,argument." I am n.[oa considering social critics. gener.ally placed ~)n the' 'Left, 'who tended ro co mplain about, too Uu le eq uaHty", opportuoity and l.or democracy, such as Henry George, :&I'w:ard Bella:my and T!hO~$'tei.n. Veblen, though admitted,'~y Veblen. is in a class all by h~:rn.s.elf,.

44,: Paul T., Donovan, Henry Adams Q'nd Brooks Adams: The Education '!f T~!'o American .H;';stQr.':an.[s (Norman, ~ 96 ~ ),~ 194- .~ 91,S; Arthur F .. 'Beri:ngau;S'e~ Br,ooks A. dam s: A. Biogr'ap,hy (.N'[ew' York ~ I '9SS,), 190-19-],;, "Thornton. Anderson, Brooks Aid":":n~"" Co :"""I:'r~"''''~{''!'4' C":- o·-':"~'~'rH.;T""~·V"'" (Ithaca J,BS',: II')' 3",'7:'~ ~·3' '7':,4' .' fo "r- their "proto ,-'f' . a" seist"

_til,", ·g!r--,r~!IJ.I:ii ." ··!f~.;;II·_'~. ~~.i_i ~.![;. ~··.·I'.'b.liE;·· L)I"H,I,~ ~"'~ . .,1. IJ.III.:II~'~;" .7 .. .' ~ :.:". :.':_ j :.."' .. ~ ,',,', .. ,~'LIJ, . .'~" ," _ !Iir.I'.o.

'I F 'I,," ~h P r' 'I d E ~ Phil L r'" .A • 'F . ';'

rote, ;see ,_~ e:rl'!r.tss'j c.' ~Lei ,,',o,.ittca~ an_ , __ cconomrc " ~~LQSOp"jy 0',' American . ',3S(;1;8rn::

''l''iio.£ '1' '1'0" • 'C, . ,.' ·S·· '. . .MI U" , Aid."'···' :11, . 1:1·· I D:t..,·· .(: C- " Ib ~'.A. M"A'" ~ .oJiCAI'l

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C:'71' iI:' '7"0. J' Ii.. C··-, L······ - .. " - "J."'t.. 1.1,-· .. ';;-.';; A ",' ' .. 1" H' '. :.' ," , Ald' ,tB. ' ..•.. ,. 19oC""'li)'

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,48,., Paul L. Murp,hy" "Sources and Natu re of Intelerance"; 6(1··76; G'a,rs,onj i'!'poUti,-,

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Edmund W ilson, The Twe,Il't Ie:$. (N'ew Y ork, 1975)' moore -re:ve'ali:ng tban historical

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S. UI;.!J ~ , _. ~ = owe ~ e _ ~ J!. am. essenua ,,y q ~e Sd,O I1tmg. ue In erpfc u ano,n au V anoelil ..y rnest

'M:,ay 'in The End of'A mer/can- Innocence A Stud) of the First :Years ,of Our Time, /.911-J.917 (N'ew V or k, 1. 959)., whi~e f ollowing, much as ]: find Ids. na,tiOlf~!3H8,tic bias :d,- ("tsste·{llJ. the inter nretatie :': [of' Bernar-d, 'De' Vo to." The Lherarv F; ,U ':' (Bo "t, m. _IS, ...... -~-:Ii ,_~. " ... _ p_. .. ,I, n, ~" ... ~ .. . .. , . l' ,I; i.e ,L;.I:, eraL y ra. acy, .. son,

:~944) .

.50," Freud, "Zeit g,emas 5 iges 'il her K.r,ieg und Tad;" in Gt:sammelte ;We,rke" (Lon-

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MUi'ta',y Expertenc« ,in World Wa'r ,1 (N,ew' York, 19~9), the most useful ofthe .' b'L' r ~ ti l (A b tl:.. " L· I . '" e mnumerarae mJ.Liary narrauves, supptemen .. eQ,y ne senU-I,j:I;S.:OiIY, seme-memerrs or

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.19.1.7'-19'1.9 (Boston, :19'36,)., On the, inte,fv[endon [of American troops, ~n' eombat, see Coffman ~ ],,'i"iI;. :3' nd Harbord. 16·. ~:-,~ .6~B .. ··;!I;··.t [f'l-r'iI'Ii time of the Arm istice th .... , American

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combat ,a:rm.y numbered. 1,,~037~OOO at Ole front and :8:561,~OOO as support troops See James A:,··· H- uston T'L.~ 'C-:.n';:;ows· ,n./' r:I'!~;r'· A· '~rm"'Y' .1f"9i'''':I·~.('';['< I,: 7~·""5·· -1::,tl.53···· i,-W·'·:~ .o:!I;,e'I;'·}lnat O,1ji"

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~ 9ti6), 385,--386. .

,:52.. For tbe' disan,n ointm.e:r.u: of those who b[oped for ,;1 'nea,ceti·:.' e Arne:: ·,ca,·', m 'I;" t .',~

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,..4 mer,icani!tffl (W',a8,h:l-ngto:n,~, 19(2)~ ,43-47: r:or a oontemporary ,assessment., :ftom a left

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