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# PRESTIGE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, INDORE

## ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT

BATCH : 2008-2012
PRESTIGE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE
INDORE (M.P.)
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT
CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY

## EXPERIMENT No. --1

Objective:
Study of Error Detectors.
a) Potentiometer Error Detectors.
b) Synchro Error Detectors.

Theory:
a) Potentiometer Error Detector:
All feedback control systems operate from the error signal
which is generated by a comparison of the reference and the output. Error
detectors perform the crucial task of comparing the reference and output
signals. In a purely electrical system where the reference and output are
voltages, the error detector is a simple comparator.
In some other systems with non-electrical outputs, the output signal
is converted into electrical form through a measurement or transducer block,
and then error detection is performed on the electrical signals. A position
control system, with both input and output variables as mechanical positions
(linear or angular), may however consist of two potentiometers - reference
and output, which function as an error detector. Other devices which could
be used in similar applications include synchro sets (for a.c. systems), sine-
cosine potentiometers, hall effect-potentiometers etc.
The Potentiometer Error Detector consists of two identical potentiometers
electrically connected in parallel and supplied by a voltage source as shown
in figure 1a.
Fig.1a Basic Circuit Diagram
The symbolic circuit representation of a potentiometer error detector is
shown in figure 1b below.

## Fig.1b Circuit Diagram of Potentiometer Error Detector

The input shaft is coupled to the potentiometer marked A, and is held fixed
at the desired angular position say while the output shaft is coupled to the
potentiometer marked B and the position is indicated as . The potential
difference between the variable points of potentiometers A and B is
proportional to the angular difference ( ). Therefore, the error is given
by,

-------
(1)
Or

## Where known as the gain of error detector, and expressed in V/rad.

The Laplace transform of the above equation is,
---------
(2)

The block diagram relating the output E(s) and the input drawn and
shown in figure 2.

Or

## b) Synchro Error Detector :-

Note:- Students have to derive & write the Transfer Function of the
Synchro Error Detector.
PRESTIGE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE
INDORE (M.P.)
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT
CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY

## Remarks if any, Signature of lecturer:

EXPERIMENT No. -- 2

Objective:
Determination of Transfer Function of DC Motor.
c) Armature Controlled DC Motor.
d) Field Controlled DC Motor.

Theory:
Write DC motor description covering following points
1. Construction and principle of working
2. Types and their characteristics, applications.
Derivation of Transfer Function:-
(a) Armature Controlled DC Motor.
The following assumptions are made while deriving the transfer
function.
(1)Air gap flux is proportional to the field current.
(2)Armature reaction is negligibly small.
(3)The back emf is proportional to motor speed.
(4)Field current is constant.
Figure shows armature controlled motor,

## Let, Ra= armature resistance

La= armature inductance
J= total moment if inertia of the rotor.
Θ=Shaft position
Ia=armature current of viscous firction.

## Where, Eb= back emf.

Taking Laplace Transform of both sides,

## Va(s) = Eb(s) +Ia(s) [Ra+sLa]

- - - - - - - (1)

## Now, torque developed by motor is proportional to product of air gap flux

and armature current,

Tm α φ Ia

Tm = Km Ia (φ constant)

## Km Ia(s) = (Js2 +Fs)θ(s)

Km ) = (Js2 +Fs)θ(s)

i.e. Eb α

Eb = Kb

Eb= s Kb θ(s)

## The unknown quantities in above equation are Kb or Km (it can be

shown Km=Kb) Ra, La, J and F, out of these Ra and La can be found by
bridge methods J is found by retardation test. The only unknowns now are Kb
and Kf.

## Note:- The procedure of deriving Transfer function is similar to Armature

Controlled DC Motor.
Students have to derive & write the transfer function of Field Controlled
DC Motor.
PRESTIGE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE
INDORE (M.P.)
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT
CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY

## Remarks if any, Signature of lecturer:

EXPERIMENT No.--3

Objective:
To determine the Time Response of 1 st and 2nd order system using

Theory:-
Whenever any standard known test signal is applied to the systems, it
responds according to design and nature of the system. This response is the
function of time and may be divided into two main parts:
(i) Transient Response: - This occurs just after the switching or after
any abnormal condition (due to fault or sudden change of load).
This is the function of system Transfer Function. This response is
mainly due poles of the system.
(ii) Steady State Response: - When the system becomes settled and
starts its normal working, that response is known as steady state
response and is the function of input. The portion of the response is
mainly due to the poles of the input or Forcing function.

## Time Response of First Order Systems for Unit Step Input:-

A general expression of a 1st order system is given as,
C ( s) 1
= (3.1)
R( s) sT +1
1
∴ C ( s) = R( s) (3.2)
sT +1
1
For unit step input, R ( s ) = Figure 1 Block Diagram
s
representation
of a 1st order system
1 1
Put R(s) in equation (3.2), C ( s ) =
s sT +1
Take partial fraction,
1 T 1 1
C (s) = − = −
s sT + 1 s s + 1 / T
Take inverse Laplace Transform,
c(t ) =1 − e −t / T (3.3)

Figure 2 Time Response of 1st order system for Unit Step input
Error, e(t ) = r (t ) − c (t ) =1 − (1 − e −t / T )
= e −t / T (3.4)

t →∞

## Time Response of Second Order Systems for Unit Step Input:-

A general expression of a second order system is given as,
C (s) ω n2
= 2 (3.5)
R ( s) s + 2ξ ωn s + ω n2
Figure 3 Block Diagram of 2nd order Control System
For unit step function R(s) =1,
1 ω n2
C (s) =
s s 2 + 2ξ ωn s + ω n2
Take Partial fraction,
1 s + 2ξ ωn
C ( s) = − 2
s s + 2ξ ωn s + ω n2

1 s + 2ξ ωn
Or C ( s) = − (3.6)
s ( s + ξ ω) 2 + ω n2 (1 − ξ 2 )

Put ωd = ωn (1 − ξ 2 ) ,

1 s + 2ξ ωn
C (s) = − (3.7)
s ( s + ξ ω) 2 + ω d2
Rearranging above equation,
1 s + ξ ωn ξ ω ωd
C ( s) = − − n
s ( s + ξ ω) + ω d ω d ( s + ξ ω) 2 + ω d2
2 2

## Take inverse Laplace transform

ξ ωn −ξ ωt
c (t ) = 1 − e −ξ ωnt cos ωd t − e sin ωd t
n
(3.8)
ωd

Since, ωd = ωn (1 − ξ 2 )
ξ ωn
c(t ) = 1 − e −ξ ωnt cos ωd t − e −ξ ωnt sin ωd t
ωn (1 − ξ ) 2

e −ξ ωnt
=1− [ (1 − ξ 2 ) cos ωd t + ξ sin ωd t ] (3.9)
(1 − ξ ) 2

## Put sin φ = (1 −ξ 2 ) and cos φ = ξ

e −ξ ωnt
c(t ) = 1 − [sin φ cos ωd t + cos φ sin ωd t ]
(1 − ξ 2 )

e −ξ ωnt
c(t ) = 1 − [sin( ωd t + φ)] (3.10)
(1 − ξ 2 )

Since ωd = ωn (1 − ξ 2 )

e −ξ ωnt   (1 − ξ 2 ) 
c (t ) = 1 − sin( ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t + tan −1   (3.11)
(1 − ξ 2 )   ξ 
  

## Now, e(t)=r(t)-c(t) where, r(t)=1,

e −ξ ωn t   (1 − ξ 2 ) 
e(t ) = sin( ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t + tan −1   (3.12)
(1 − ξ 2 )   ξ 
  

 −ξ ω t   (1 − ξ 2 ) 
 e n sin( ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t + tan −1   = 0
e ss = Lim  (3.13)
t →∞  (1 − ξ )
2
  ξ 
   

Case-I: ξ <1 ; (Underdamped Response)

## From equation (3.11),

e −o×ωnt   (1 − 0 2 ) 
c (t ) = 1 − sin( ωn (1 − 0 2 )t + tan −1  
(1 − 0 2 )   0 
  

= 1 − sin( ωn t + tan −1 ∞)
= 1 − sin( ωn t + π / 2)

c (t ) =1 − cos( ωn t ) (3.14)

## Case-III: ξ =1 ; (Critically damped Response)

From equation (3.10),
 e −ξ ωnt 
c(t ) = Lim 1 − [sin( ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t ) + φ)]
ξ →1

 (1 − ξ 2 ) 

 e −ξ ωn t 
c(t ) = Lim 1 − [sin( ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t ) cos φ + cos( ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t ) sin φ)] (3.15)
ξ →1

 (1 − ξ 2 ) 

Now, cos φ = ξ and sin φ = (1 −ξ 2 )

 e −ξ ωnt 
c(t ) = Lim 1 − [sin( ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t )ξ + cos( ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t ) (1 − ξ 2 ) )] (3.16)
ξ →1

 (1 − ξ 2 ) 

Now,

[ ]
Lim sin( ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t )ξ → ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t
ξ →1

[ ]
Lim cos( ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t ) → 1
ξ →1

## Put, in equation (3.16)

 e −ξ ωn t 
c(t ) = Lim 1 − [ωn (1 − ξ 2 )t + 1 × (1 − ξ 2 ) )]
ξ →1
 (1 − ξ 2 ) 

 e −ξ ωn t 
= Lim 1 − (1 − ξ 2 ) (ωn t +1)]
ξ →1

 (1 − ξ 2 ) 

c (t ) = 1 − e −ωnt ((ωn t + 1)

## Case-IV: ξ >1 ; (Overdamped Response)

MATLAB PROBLEMS:-
1) 1st Order Systems
(i) Plot the Unit Step Response of the systems having Transfer
Function G(s) =
1 1
a) C b) c)
s +2 s +5
(ii) Plot the Unit step response of previous problem in 1 graph.
(iii) Plot the Unit step response of
1 2 5
, ,
s +1 s + 2 s + 5
2) 2nd order systems
Plot the Time response of the system-
1
(i) ; ξ = 0 .5
s + s +1
2

1
(ii) ; ξ =1
s + 2s + 1
2

1
(iii) ; ξ =0
s +12

1 4
(iv) , 2 ; ξ = 0 , ωn = 1,2
s +1 s + 4
2

## (v) State the difference between time response of,

1 1
; ξ =1 & 2 ; ξ =1.5
s + 2s + 1
2
s + 3s + 1
PRESTIGE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE
INDORE (M.P.)
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT
CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY

## Remarks if any, Signature of lecturer:

EXPERIMENT No. 4

Objective:
Draw the Root Locus of a system using MATLAB.

Theory:-
Root locus analysis is a graphical method for examining how the
roots of a system change with variation of a certain system parameter,
commonly the gain of a feedback system. The stability of a control system is
determined from the roots of the characteristic equation 1+G(s)H(s)=0. For a
system to be stable the roots of the characteristic equation should be
located in the left half of the s-plane.
A closed loop control system having forward path gain K is shown
in Figure 1.
The characteristic equation of the system is given by,

1+G(s)H(s)=0 ………..(1)
Any root of equation satisfies following two conditions,
1 +G ( s ) H ( s ) =0 ……. (2)
∠G ( s ) H ( s ) = ( 2k +1)180 
………… (3)
Where k=0, 1, 2 …
The root locus method of analysis is a process of determining the points in
the s plane satisfying equation (2) and (3). Usually forward path gain K is
considered as an independent variable and the roots of the equation
1+G(s)H(s)=0 as dependent variables, the roots are plotted in s-plane with K
as variable parameter. Form the location of the roots in s-plane the nature of
the time response and system stability can be ascertained.
The Procedure for plotting Root Locus:-
The stepwise procedure for plotting the root locus for a
given open loop transfer function is given below.
1. Starting Points:- The root locus starts (K=0) from the open loop
poles.
2. Ending Points:- The root locus terminates (K=∞) either on the open
loop zero or infinity.
3. Number of branches:- The number of branches of the root locus are,
N=P, if P>Z
=Z, if Z>P
4. Existence on real axis:- The existence of root locus on a section of
real axis is confirmed if the sum of open loop poles and zeros to the
right of the section is odd.
5. Break away points:- On the root locus between two open loop poles
the roots move towards each other as the gain factor K is increased till
they are coincident. At this point, the value of K is maximum as far as
the portion of root locus between the two open loop poles is
concerned. Any further increase in K, breaks the root locus in two
parts. The breakaway point can be determined by rewriting the
characteristic equation and therefrom solving for the value of s from
the equation below,
dK
=0
ds
6. The angle of asymptotes:- For higher values of K the root locus
branches are approximated by asymptotic lines making an angle with
the real axis given by,
(2k +1) ×180 
Where k=0, 1, 2 …upto (P-Z)-1
P −Z
7. Intersection of asymptotes on real axis:- The asymptotes
intersects at point x on the real axis is given by,

x=
∑Poles − ∑Zeros
P −Z
8. Intersection points on the Imaginary axis:- The value of K and the
point at which the root locus branch crosses the imaginary axis is
determined by applying Routh criterion of the characteristic equation.
The roots at the intersection points are imaginary.
9. The angle of departure from the complex pole:- The angle of
departure from the complex pole is given by,
Φ d = 180  − (Φ p − Φ z )

## Where Φp is the sum of all angles suspended by remaining poles.

and Φz is the sum of all zeros suspended by zeros.
The angle of departure is tangent to the root locus at complex pole.
10. The angle of arrival at complex zeros:- The angle of arrival at the
complex zero is given by,
Φ a = 180  − (Φ z − Φ p )

## Where Φz is the sum of all angles suspended by remaining zeros.

and Φp is the sum of all zeros suspended by poles.
The angle of arrival is tangent to the root locus at complex zero.
MATLAB PROBLEMS:-

1. Sketch the root locus for the open loop transfer function of a unity
feedback control system,

## Determine (i) The value of K at s=-4

(ii) The value of K for ξ =0.5
(iii) Obtain the closed loop transfer function for K=1.66.
2. Sketch the root locus plot for the system when the open loop transfer
function is given by

## Determine (i) The breakaway points.

(ii) The angle of departure from the complex pole.
(iii) The stability condition.
Note:-
• First solve the problem on the paper and attach it with the
Practical.
• Using MATLAB draw the root locus & compare it with your result.
• Take print out of the result and attach it with the practical.
PRESTIGE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE
INDORE (M.P.)
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT
CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY

## Remarks if any, Signature of lecturer:

EXPERIMENT No. 5

Objective:
Draw the Nyquist Plot of a system using MATLAB.

Theory:
Nyquist Criterion: - Nyquist criterion is used to identify the presence of
roots of characteristic equation of a control system in a specified region of s
plane. From the stability view point the specified region being the entire right
hand side beyond the imaginary axis of complex s-plane.
Procedure for mapping from s-plane to G(s)H(s)-plane:-
The first step to understand the application of Nyquist criterion in relation
to determination of stability of control systems is mapping from s-plane to
G(s)H(s)-plane. “s” is considered as independent complex variable and the
corresponding value of G(s)H(s) being the dependent variable plotted in
another complex plane called G(s)H(s)-plane.
Thus for every point in s-plane there exists a corresponding point in
G(s)H(s)-plane. During the process of mapping the independent variable “s”
is varied along a specified path in “s” plane and the corresponding points in
G(s)H(s)-plane are joined. This compltes the process of making from s-plane
to G(s)H(s)-plane.
Application of Nyquist Criterion to determine the stability of closed
Loop systems:-
The overall transfer function of a closed loop system is given by,
C (s) G ( s)
=
R( s) 1 + G ( s) H ( s)
(1)
G ( s ) H ( s ) is the open loop transfer function and C is the characteristic
equation. For a system to be stable the zeros of the characteristic equation
should not have positive real part. In order to investigate the presence of any
zero of 1 + G ( s ) H ( s ) = 0 in the right half of the s-plane, let us chose a contour
which completely encloses this right half of the s-plane.
The closed path is ab → bc → cd → da starting at
a ( s = + j 0) through b( s = + j∞) , along a semicircular arc bc of infinite radius,
c ( s = − j∞) , d ( s = − j 0) and finally from d to a semicircular arc of radius r in
anticlockwise direction in such a manner that r → 0 .
On traversing the closed path for independent variable s in
s-plane as above, the corresponding point to point values of G ( s ) H ( s ) are
plotted in G ( s ) H ( s ) plane and change in argument of G ( s ) H ( s ) is noted.
A number indicating the zeros of G ( s ) H ( s ) which are located in right
half of s-plane is calculated by the relation:
∆AugG ( s ) H ( s ) = 2π( P − Z )

## Where P is the number of poles of G ( s ) H ( s ) having positive real part and is

a known quantity.
Note that the change in argument of G ( s ) H ( s ) is measured w.r.t.
origin (0, 0) in G ( s ) H ( s ) plane. This procedure calculates the number of
zeros of G ( s ) H ( s ) = 0 and not the zeros of 1 + G ( s ) H ( s ) = 0 .
However, from the plot of G ( s ) H ( s ) the number of zeros of
1 + G ( s ) H ( s ) = 0 which have +ve real part can also be determined if the origin
of G ( s ) H ( s ) plane is shifted to the point (-1+j0) and the change in argument
of G ( s ) H ( s ) plot is measured w.r.t. the point (-1+j0) in G ( s ) H ( s ) plane. The
number of zeros thus calculated is also the number of roots of characteristic
equation 1 + G ( s ) H ( s ) = 0 .
As the s-plane region wherein only poles and zeros of 1 + G ( s ) H ( s ) = 0
with +ve real part is under investigation, the expression relating the number
of poles and zeros present in the R.H.S. of s-plane is written as,
∆AugG ( s ) H ( s ) = 2π ( P+ − Z + )
∆AugG ( s ) H ( s
Or ) = ( P+ − Z + )

Or N = ( P+ − Z + )
Where ,
N = Number of encirclements of the point (-1+j0) by G ( s ) H ( s ) plot. The
positive direction of encirclement being anticlockwise.
P+ = Number of poles of G ( s ) H ( s ) with +ve real part.
Z+ = Number of zeros of 1 + G ( s ) H ( s ) = 0 with +ve real part.
For a stable system Z+ =0, therefore, the condition for a control system to be
stable is
N = ( P+ − 0)
N = P+

For most of the control system P+ = 0 , therefore for such cases the condition
of stability be, N=0
The closing of Nyquist plot from s=-j0 to s=+j0 is given the following table
according to type of G ( s ) H ( s ) :
Angle through which Nyquist
Type of plot Magnitude of
n
G(s)H(s) is to be closed from ω =-0 to G ( jω) H ( jω)
ω =+0
The points ω =-0 &
0 0 0 ω =+0 are
coincident
1 1 -π ∞
2 2 -2π ∞
3 3 -3π ∞
“ ‘ ‘ ‘
“ ‘ ‘ ‘
n N -nπ ∞

Note:-
-nπ = clockwise rotation;
n= type of transfer function;

MATLAB PROBLEMS:-
1. Draw the Nyquist plot for the open loop transfer function given below
and comment on the closed loop stability.

given below

## Determine the closed loop stability by applying Nyquist Criterion.

NOTE:-
• First solve the problem on the paper and attach it with the
Practical.
• Using MATLAB draw the Nyquist plot & compare it with your
result.
• Take print out of the result and attach it with the practical.

## PRESTIGE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE

INDORE (M.P.)
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT
CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY

## Remarks if any, Signature of lecturer:

EXPERIMENT No. 6

Objective:
Draw the Bode Plot of a system using MATLAB.
Theory:
Bode Plot:
The Bode plot method gives a graphical procedure for determining the
stability of a control system based on sinusoidal frequency response. The
transfer function of a system for sinusoidal input response can be obtained
by substituting jω in place of Laplace operator “s”. Therefore, if the open
loop transfer function of a system is G ( s ) H ( s ) , the corresponding sinusoidal
open-loop transfer function is G ( jω) H ( jω) which can be expressed in the
form of magnitude and phase angle.
The variation of the magnitude of sinusoidal transfer function
expressed in decibel and the corresponding phase angle in degrees being
plotted w.r.t. frequency on a logarithmic scale (i.e. log10ω ) in rectangular
axes. The plot thus obtained is known as Bode Plot. The logarithmic Bode
Plot has an advantage of being approximated by asymptotic straight lines.
Relative stability of a closed loop control system can be determined by
plotting its open loop transfer function by Bode Plot method. The Gain Margin
and Phase Margin is determined directly from Bode Plot.

## Bode Plot for Transfer Functions:-

The open loop transfer function of a closed loop transfer function can
be expressed as:
K [(1 + sT1 )(1 + sT2 )....]ωn2
G( s) H ( s) =
s N [(1 + sTa )(1 + sTb )......( s 2 + 2ξ ωn s + ωn2 )]
(1)
The sinusoidal form of transfer function (1) is obtained by substituting s = jω ,
therefore
K [(1 + jωT1 )(1 + jωT2 )....]ωn2
G ( jω ) H ( jω ) =
( jω ) N [(1 + jωTa )(1 + jωTb )......(( ωn2 − ω 2 ) + 2ωn ω )]
(2)
In decibel equation (2) can be expressed as:

## ..... −20 N log 10 jω −20 log 10 1 + jωTa ..........

ωn2 − ω 2 ( j 2ξ ωnω)
..... − 20 N log 10 +
ωn2 ωn2
(3)
And for phase angle,
∠G ( jω) H ( jω) = tan −1 ωT1 + tan −1 ωT2 + ...... − N∠90  − tan −1 ωTa − tan −1 ωTb
 (2ξ ωω ) 
.... − tan −1  2 n 2 
 (ω n − ω ) 
(4)
The bode plot is a graph obtained from equation (3) and (4) consisting of two
parts as follows:
I. Magnitude of G ( jω) H ( jω) in decibel
II. Phase angle of ∠G ( jω) H ( jω) versus log10ω
Procedure for drawing Bode Plot:-
1. Identify the corner frequencies.
2. Draw the asymptotic bode plot. The slope will change at each corner
frequency by +20db/dec for zero and -20db/dec for pole. For complex
conjugate pole and zero the slope will change by ± db/decade.
3. (i) For type zero system draw a line upto first (lowest) corner frequency
having 0db/dec slope.
(ii) For type one system draw a line having slope -20db/dec upto ω =K.
Mark first (lowest) corner frequency.
(iii) For type two system draw a line having slope -40db/dec upto
ω = K and so on. Make first corner frequency.
4. Draw a line upto second corner frequency by adding the slope of next
pole or zero to the previous slope and so on.
5. Calculate phase angles for different values of ω and join all points.
6. Obtain Gain Margin and Phase Margin from the Bode Plot.

MATLAB PROBLEMS:-
1. Sketch the bode plot for the transfer function given below:

## From the bode plot determine:

(a) The phase crossover frequency (b) The gain crossover
frequency
(c) Gain Margin (d) Phase Margin
2. The open loop transfer function of a system is given below

Determine
(a) Gain Margin
(b) Phase Margin
(c) Closed loop stability
3. Draw the Nyquist plot for the open loop transfer function given below
and comment on the closed loop stability.

NOTE:-
• First solve the problem on the paper and attach it with the
Practical.
• Using MATLAB draw the Bode plot & compare it with your result.
• Take print out of the result and attach it with the practical.

## PRESTIGE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE

INDORE (M.P.)
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT
CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY

## Roll No: 0863ex081003 Date: 09/05/2011

Remarks if any, Signature of lecturer:

EXPERIMENT No. 7

Objective:
Determination of State Space Model for classical transfer function using
MATLAB.
Theory:
State Space Analysis:-
The procedure for determining the state of the system is called state
variable analysis. The state of a dynamic system is the smallest set of
variables such that the knowledge these variables at t=t0 with the
knowledge of input at t≥ t0 completely determines the behavior of the system
for any time t≥ t0. This set of variables is called as State variables.
1. This approach can be applied to linear or nonlinear, time variant or
time invariant systems.
2. It is easier to apply where the Laplace Transform cannot be applied.
3. nth order differential equations can be expressed as ‘n’ equations of
first order whose solutions are easier.
4. It is a time domain approach.
5. This method is suitable for digital computer computation because this
is a time domain approach.
6. The system can be designed for optimal conditions w.r.t. given
performance indices.

## State Space representation of Systems:-

The nth order differential equation is given as,
dny d n −1 y
+ a1 + ..... + a n y = u (t ) (1)
dt n dt n −1
It is noted that the input u(t) and the initial conditions
dy (0) d n −1 y (0)
y (0), ,..... at t=0 are given.
dt dt n −1
The dynamic behavior of differential equation (1) van be determined
.
completely from the knowledge of u(t), y (t ) , y(t).
.
The terms y(t), y (t ) ,……… y n −1 (t ) can be considered as a set of n state
variables.
Let, y = x1
.
y = x2 (2)

:
:
y n −1 = x n

## The set of equations (2) can be written as,

.
x1 = x 2
.
x 2 = x3 (3)

:
:
. n −1
x = xn
.
x n = −a n x1 − a n −1 x 2 − .......... .. − a1 x n −1 + u
A general representation of set of equations (3) can be expressed in the form
of state equation,
.
x = Ax + Bu
Where,
 x1   0 1 .. 0 0 0
x   0  0
 2  0 .. 1 0
 
:  0 0 0
     
x =  : ; A = 0 0 0 1  ; B = : 
:  : : : : : 
     
:  : : : : : 
x  − a − a n −1 0 
a1  1
 n  n  

## Where x=state vector (n× 1) u=control (scalar)

A=Matrix (n× n) B=Matrix (n× 1)
The output equation is given as,
 x1 
x 
 2
y = [1 0 0 .. 0]  :  (4)
 
: 

x n 

Or y=Cx
Where C = [1 0 0 .. 0] , y= output (scalar), C=matrix (1× n)

MATLAB Problems:-
Q.1) Obtain the state model for the transfer function given below:

## Determine the state model

Q.3) Write MATLAB script to determine the state transition matrix for

Note:
• First solve the problem on the paper and attach it with the
Practical.

## PRESTIGE INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCE

INDORE (M.P.)
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT
CONTROL SYSTEMS LABORATORY

## Remarks if any, Signature of lecturer:

EXPERIMENT No. 8

Objective:

Theory:-
If the performance of the control system is not upto expectations as
per desired specifications, then it is required that some change in the system
is needed to obtain the desired performance. The change can be in the form
of adjustment of the forward path gain or inserting a compensating device in
control systems.
system at the cost of driving the system towards instability. However,
improvement in steady state performance of a control system by gain
adjustment is possible in cases where the system is found to be within the
desirable stability limit even after altering forward path gain. In such a cases
a compensation network is introduced in the system.
The compensation network can be introduced in the system as shown
below,

## Figure 1 Arrangements for introducing compensation network in a control

system
The compensation network introduces additional poles/zeros in the original
system thereby altering its original transfer function. The effect of adding
zero to an unstable system results in making the system stable as shown in
root locus plots of Figure 2.

Figure 2 shows the root locus plot of an unstable system for higher-path
gain. Addition of a zero to the system transfer function changes the shape of
root locus as shown below, which indicates the stable system for all values of
forward path gain.
The networks used for cascade compensation are described below.

Figure 3 shows a phase lead network wherein the phase of
output voltage leads the phase of input voltage for sinusoidal input.

The Transfer function of a phase lead network shown above is given by,
E o ( s ) α (1 + sT )
= (8.1)
E i ( s ) (1 + sαT )

Where, α <1
R2
α= and T = R1C
R1 + R2
The transfer function given by equation (8.1) can be expressed in sinusoidal
form as
E o ( jω) α (1 + jωT )
= (8.2)
E i ( jω) (1 + jωαT )
The pole zero configuration and bode plot for transfer function (8.2) is
shown in
Figure 4.

## Figure 4 Pole-zero configuration and Bode Plot for phase-lead network

The two corner frequencies are
1
ω= ; Lower corner frequency
T
1
ω= ; Upper corner frequency
αT
The maximum phase-lead φ m occurs at mid frequency ω m between upper
and lower corner frequencies.
1 1  1 
∴ log 10 ω m = log 10   + log 10  
2 T   αT 
1
∴ ωm = (8.3)
αT
The phase angle ∠E o ( jω) / E i ( jω) can be calculated as,
E o ( jω)
∠ = tan −1 (ωT ) − tan −1 (ωαT )
E i ( jω)
1
At ω = ωm = the phase angle is φ m,
αT
 1 
∴ φm = tan −1  T  − tan −1 (ωαT )
 αT 
 1 
φm = tan −1   − tan −1 ( α )
 α

 1 
 − α 
∴ φ m = tan −1  α 
 1 
1+ α
 α 
1 −α
Or tan φm = (8.4)
2 α
1 −α
and sin φm = (8.5)
1 +α
From pole-zero configuration of phase lead network, it is observed that the
zero is nearer to origin as compared to pole, hence the effect of zero is
with forward path transfer function, the phase shift is increased.
network allows to pass higher frequencies and low frequencies are
attenuated.

Phase-Lag Network:-
Figure 5 shows a phase lag network wherein the phase of output voltage lags
the phase of input voltage for sinusoidal inputs.

## Figure 5 Phase-Lag Network

The Transfer function of a phase lead network shown above is given by,
Eo (s) 1 + sT
= (8.6)
E i ( s ) 1 + sβT
R1 + R2
Where, β >1 and β = , T = R2 C
R2
The transfer function given by equation (8.6) can be expressed in sinusoidal
form as
E o ( jω) 1 + jωT
= (8.7)
E i ( jω) 1 + jωβT
The pole zero configuration and bode plot for transfer function (8.7) is shown
in Figure 6. The two corner frequencies are
1
ω= ; Upper corner frequency
T
1
ω= ; Lower corner frequency
βT

## Figure 6 Pole-zero configuration and Bode Plot for phase-lag network

The maximum phase-lag φ m occurs at mid frequency ω m between upper and
lower corner frequencies.
1  1    1 
∴ log 10 ωm = log 10   + log 10  
2  βT 
  T 

1
∴ ωm = (8.8)
αT
The phase angle ∠E o ( jω) / E i ( jω) can be calculated as,
E o ( jω)
∠ = tan −1 (ωT ) − tan −1 (ωβT )
E i ( jω)
1
At ω = ωm = the phase angle is φ m,
βT
1−β
tan φm = (8.9)
2 β

1−β
and sin φm = (8.10)
1+β

## Note. As β >1 , (1 −β) /(1 + β) is negative indicating that φ m is negative which

means that the phase angle is lagging.
Introduction to phase-lead network in a control system shifts the
gain crossover point to a higher value and, therefore, the bandwidth is
increased thus improving the speed of response and overshoot is reduced
but the steady state error does not show much improvement.
The use of phase lag compensation network in a control system shifts
the gain crossover frequency point to a lower value thus decreasing the
bandwidth and improvement in steady state error is noted but speed of
response is reduced.
The speed of response and, steady state error can be
simultaneously improved, if both phase-lag and phase-lead compensation is
used. However instead of using two separate lag and lead network, a single
network known as phase-lag-lead network shown in Figure is used which
combines the effect of both lag and lead networks.

## The Transfer function of phase-lag-lead network is given as,

E o (s) (1 + sT1 ) (1 + sT 2 )
= (8.11)
E i ( s) (1 + sαT1 ) (1 + sβT2 )
Where, T1 = R1C1 , T2 = R 2 C 2 , α <1, β >1 and α β =1.

## The Transfer function given by (8.11) can be expressed in sinusoidal form as

E o ( jω) (1 + jωT1 ) (1 + jωT2 )
= (8.12)
E i ( jω) (1 + jωαT1 ) (1 + jωβT2 )

The pole zero plot and bode plot for the transfer function (8.12) is shown in
Figure 8.
Figure 8 Pole-zero configuration and Bode Plot for phase-lag-lead network

MATLAB PROBLEMS:-

## 1. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is

given by,

Design a suitable compensator such that the system will have Kv=10
and P.M.=50°.
2. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is
given by,

It is desired that,
a) For a unit ramp input the steady state error of the output
position be less than 0.125 degrees/(degree/second).
b) The Phase margin P.M. .
c) The Gain margin G.M. .
NOTE:-
• First solve the problem on the paper and attach it with the
Practical.
• Using MATLAB draw the Bode plot & compare it with your result.
• Take print out of the result and attach it with the practical.