kOLuL LlJ|kAJukll lN

l|klOADA lA8OlJl8JÀ
Ccprloscl prozootörll
|poco posoptlstö - Jrösötcrl uoIloltorll, cooto×t lstorlc sl soclol
Dozvoltoroo prosol lo ll¬bo ro¬ûoö
,,Ccrlorcl ro¬ûoosc¨
,,Doclo lltororö¨- prloclpll, Vlooll kooölolcoooc-lourc¬ötor
,,Arolvo ro¬ûoooscö¨
,,lropöslroo¨
lovötö¬ûotcl lo porloouo posoptlstö
kolcl lltorotcrll lo porloouo posoptlstö
Goocrl, spocll lltororo
8crlltorll posoptlstl sl oporolo lor
Ccrooto lltororo. ro¬ootls¬, closlcls¬
Cooclczll
|poco posoptlstö - Jrösötcrl uoIloltorll, cooto×t lstorlc sl soclol
Dozvoltoroo prosol lo ll¬bo ro¬ûoö
,,Ccrlorcl ro¬ûoosc¨
,,Doclo lltororö¨- prloclpll, Vlooll kooölolcoooc-lourc¬ötor
,,Arolvo ro¬ûoooscö¨
,,lropöslroo¨
lovötö¬ûotcl lo porloouo posoptlstö
kolcl lltorotcrll lo porloouo posoptlstö
Goocrl, spocll lltororo
8crlltorll posoptlstl sl oporolo lor
Ccrooto lltororo. ro¬ootls¬, closlcls¬
Cooclczll
l. |poco posoptlstö ÷ Jrösötcrl uoIloltorll,
cooto×t lstorlc sl soclol
DoIloltlo
coocoptclcl uo
posoptls¬
cooIor¬
Dlctlooorclcl
|×pllcotlv
ko¬ûo (D|x)
kovolctlllo ulo l8=8 scot ccoosccto scb
uooc¬lroo uo o·|movo·o ooooo·c|o·
uoooroco oc ovct loc lo prl¬olo lcol olo
ooclcl sl oc ovct co scop lostocroroo
rool¬clcl uo¬ocrotlc. |lo oc uorlt sö
l¬pcoö o ooolltoto o tctcror ootlcollor sl
ulsporltlo pctorllor scproootlooolo (lrcslo,
Acstrlo, Aoollo sl kcslo).
lrl¬övoro popoorolor osto ¬o¬ootcl lo
coro coostlloto ootlooolls¬clcl so trozosto
lo vlotö.
lo ko¬ûolo so rovloo lo l82l lo uo¬olllo pö¬ûotostl ucpö co pctoroo
l¬porlclcl oto¬oo (ko¬ûolo oro torö scvorooö o l¬porlclcl) locopcso sö scouö.
8ltcotlo ro¬ûollor oro locortö. rözboololo rcso-ocstro-tcrco oc Iost toototlvo uo
lcoro lo stöpûolro o torltorlllor ro¬ûoostl. rcsll ÷ ßosoroblo, ocstro-cooorll ÷
ßccovloo. kovolctlo proprlc-zlsö s-o ¬oolIostot lo uocö otopo. rovolctlo ulo
Voluovo sl voloolo (|oro ko¬ûoooscö).
loIlcootolo occluootolo ¬oulIlcö stllcl uo vlotö ro¬ûoosc. ßolorll lostörltl lsl tlo
coplll lo Ioccltötllo ulo ströloötoto, lo spoclol lo |rooto.
Jloorll vooltl l¬pco o oocö ¬ouö sl toblotcrl ooproctlcoto pûoö otcocl lo törllo
ro¬ûoo. Acosto scol¬börl brcsto scot ovluootloto lo ¬ou co¬lc lo |·|tc|c uo
vosllo Alocsoourl.
|lo scot osl¬lloto ¬ol roplu uo Io¬ol sl uo coll tloorl scolltl lo ströloötoto, |nso
bot·ón|| s| bo·bot|| s|-ou ou·tot mo| Jcoo·tc bo·bo s| ontc·|u| |uno oóno |o
o|cznc. (ulo jcroolcl uo co¬poolo ol cootolcl uo Looooroo uospro porloouo
l80ó-l8l2)
lootrc o Ioco o co¬porotlo lotro Occluoot sl ko¬ûolo loIlcoototö uo uo¬lootlo
oto¬ooö o¬ olos co crltorlc sl¬plc sl totouotö olocvoot. ¬ouo vostl¬ootorö.
Vouo ocropoooö o socolclcl xlx
Vouo ro¬ûoooscö o socolclcl xlx (ulo
porloouo uo¬olllor Iooorloto)
2. Dozvoltoroo prosol lo ll¬bo ro¬ûoö
,,Ccrlorcl ko¬ûoosc¨ o opörct lo ßcccrostl lo
8,20 oprlllo l829, scb coouccoroo lcl loo
uollouo köucloscc. |sto prl¬o oozotö
ro¬ûoooscö cc porloulcltoto coostootö sl cc
oporltlo louolcoootö, oozotö coro pcoo bozolo
prosol ro¬ûoostl. Cc coolo lotrorcporl, zlorcl o
opörct pûoö lo uoto uo l2 uoco¬brlo l859,
Illou ulIczot lo spoclol prlo llbrorcl loslI
ko¬ooov .
kovlsto o opörct cc sprljlocl lcl Dlolcc Goloscc,
co¬oouootcl or¬otolor rcsostl, coro o obtloct
oproboroo oporltlol oozotol.
loltlol, oozoto trobclo sö poorto oc¬olo uo
,,Ccrlorcl ßcccrostllor.
lo ccprloscl zlorclcl so pcbllcoc to×to
ou¬lolstrotlvo, stlrl polltlco sl ¬llltoro, ortlcolo l
ooto uo lourc¬oro, ccprlozûou oolcol
olo¬ootoro uo lstorlo, ooooroIlo, co¬ort,
ocooo¬lo, loucstrlo otc. lrl¬cl oc¬ör ccprlouoo
co ortlcol oultorlol prlvlou lstorlccl zlorolor lo
lc¬o, lostllotörl "ulo löcotrc", lostllotörl "ulo
oIorö", loIor¬otll uospro ,,¬ozotcrl", plocörl sl
soslrl uo uo¬oltorl lo ßcccrostl, stlrl ,,uospro
lccroroo pö¬ûotclcl, coro ¬oroo looloto cc ¬oro
spor".
lo oocl l837, zlorcl o locopct sö pcbllco co
scpll¬oot oc¬lt ,Ccrlorcl uo o¬bo so×o¨,
¬ooozlo ccltcrol cc o co¬pooootö Io¬loloö.
,, Doclo lltororö¨, rovlstö opörctö lo l8=0 (loocorlo-lcolo), lo losl, scb coouccoroo lcl V.
kooölolcoooc. lrooro¬cl pcbllcotlol o Iost o×pcs lo nt·oJuct|o prl¬clcl oc¬ör. luooo cool
rovlsto coro sö Ilo ,,co roportorlc oooorol ol lltorotcrll ro¬ûoostl¨ crootö uo scrlltorl ulo tooto
provloclllo uo po torltorlcl vocoll Docll sl coro sö pro¬ovozo o lltorotcrö orloloolö, o×proslo o
troultlllor sl oözclotolor ootlcoll, oro oIlr¬otö cc loslstootö, cooco¬ltoot cc rosploooroo
vooo¬ootö o l¬ltotlllor,o obczclcl uo trouccorl uovoolto ,,¬oolo prl¬ojuloosö¨. ,,Nol vo¬
prloool cût vo¬ pctoo ocoostö ¬oolo ccloötooro o ocstclcl orlolool, loscslroo coo ¬ol
protloosö o cool lltorotcrl¨, ovortlzo so¬ootorcl ortlcolclcl-prooro¬, V. kooölolcoooc. ,,lstorlo
oooströ oro uostclo Iopto orolco, Irc¬oosolo ooostro törl scot uostcl uo ¬orl, oblcolcrllo
ooostro scot uostcl uo pltorostl sl uo pootlco pootrc co sö pcto¬ oösl sl ool scjotcrl uo scrls,
Iörö sö ovo¬ pootrc ocoosto trobclotö sö oo l¬prc¬ctö¬ uo lo olto ootll.¨ kovlsto lsl ¬ol
propcooo sö pro¬ovozo o crltlcö ,,oopörtloltooro¨ (,,vo¬ crltlco cortoo, lor oc porsoooo¨), sö
so cölöczooscö ucpö prloclpll ¬orolo sl sö ovlto ¬otlvolo uo scoouol, procc¬ sl tot co or pctoo
ucco lo ool¬ozltötl lo vloto lltororö, lotrccût ,,lltorotcro oro oovolo uo colro, lor oc uo
uozblooro¨.
lrostlolcl sl loIlcooto o×orcltoto uo rovlstö lo ovolctlo lltorotcrll ro¬ûoo oc Iost uotor¬looto uo
orlootoroo so prooro¬otlcö, röspcozûou oözclotolor soclotötll sl ccltcrll ro¬ûoostl ulo opocö,
uo colltotoo o×coptlooolö o scrlorllor pcbllcoto, orcpoto, lo corpcl rovlstol, po soctlcol. oporo
orloloolo(prozö, poozll, osocrl) olo coloborotorllor, soloctlcol ulo prloclpololo rovlsto sl zloro
tlpörlto lo ll¬bo ro¬ûoö (to×to uo Go. Asocol, l. uollouo köucloscc, G. ßorltlc s.o.), o croolcö
lltororö sl ortlstlcö rouoctotö uo V. kooölolcoooc sl o soctlcoo lotltclotö JolooroIcl Doclol,
ccprlozûou stlrl vorloto ulo vloto lltororö sl ortlstlcö o color trol provlocll ro¬ûoostl (Voluovo,
|oro ko¬ûoooscö sl Jroosllvoolo), uospörtlto prlo oroolto vro¬ololco.
Coocopctö lo Iolcl ocosto, Doclo Lltororö ovoo lotr-
ouovör co coroctor loro roprozoototlv, Illou o
trlbcoö uo ulIczoro sl orlootoro o crootlol lltororo
ro¬ûoostl uo po lotroo torltorlcl locclt uo ro¬ûol,
oo röspcozûou, cc¬ so proclzo lo ortlcolcl
prooro¬, ,,uorlotll co ro¬ûoll sö olbö o ll¬bö sl o
lltorotcrö co¬coö pootrc totl¨. lo rovlstö s-o
pcbllcot o copouoporö (ocvolo Alo×oourc
Löpcsooooc uo C. Noorczzl), procc¬ sl oc¬orooso
olto scrlorl volorooso, lotroto lo potrl¬oolcl closlc ol
lltorotcrll ro¬ûoo. prozö uo C. Noorczzl, v.
Alocsoourl, V. kooölolcoooc, poozll uo Gr.
Alo×oouroscc (Aocl l8=0) sl C. 8to¬otl, Iobclo uo
Alo×. Doolcl, ortlcolo uospro l¬portooto poozlol
popcloro sl uospro Irc¬csotoo oblcolcrllor lo sot,
so¬ooto uo C. Noorczzl sl V. kooölolcoooc otc.
Aproopo tooto oc¬olo uo prostlolc olo lltorotcrll
ro¬ûoo ulo ocol ¬o¬oot so lotlloooc lo poolollo
rovlstol, cooIorlou ocostolo, lo ccltcro ootlooolö, o
poouoro po coro olto pcbllcotll ootorlooro oc oc
ovct-o.
Orlootoro Doclol Lltororo ¬orooo lo ulroctlo
croörll cool lltorotcrl orloloolo lo soos ootloool, o
roollzörll coltötll prlo ccltcrö, coro sö proIotozo
coltotoo polltlcö o ootlcoll. O otoro orlootoro
prozluoozö lotroooo ¬lscoro lltororö ro¬ûoooscö
ulo uocoolllo cr¬ötooro, procc¬ sl octlvltotoo color
¬ol l¬portooto rovlsto lltororo ulo opocö -
,,lropöslroo'', ,,ko¬ûolo lltororö'', ,,kovlsto
ro¬ûoö'' s.o. - coro ovooc sö cootloco prooro¬cl
rovlstol uo lo l8=0.
kovlsto ,,Doclo lltororö'', lo coro sl-oc pcbllcot colo ulotûl scrlorl Costocoo Noorczzl sl vosllo
Alocsoourl, oc o pctct sö oporö uocût o sccrtö porloouö, pootrc cö o Iost lotorzlsö uo coozcrö.
luooo ro¬ootlcö o losplrotlol ulo trocctcl lstorlc vo rözboto losö Ioorto ccrûou lotr-co olt ortlcol-
prooro¬ coro uoscoluo rovlsto ,,Arolvo ro¬ûoooscö'', oultotö uo ocolosl lourc¬ötor lltoror -
Vlooll kooölolcoooc.
,,lstorlo ro¬ûoooscö ¬ol olos sö oo Ilo cortoo uo cöpltoolo, sö oo Ilo poloulcl ootlooolltötll
ooostro. lotr-loso vo¬ lovöto co o¬ Iöcct sl co ovo¬ sö ¬ol Ioco¬, prlotr-loso vo¬ provouo
vlltorcl, prlotr-loso vo¬ Il ro¬ûol. Cöcl lstorlo osto ¬öscro soc ¬otrcl prlo coro so pooto stl uocö
co popor propösosto, soc uocö so loopolozö. lotrobotl uor lstorlo sl votl stl co scoto¬, uo couo
vool¬ sl couo ¬oroo¬. Do couo vool¬ sl couo ¬oroo¬, trocctcl sl vlltorcl, lotö tootö Illoto
oooströ, lotö ¬ljloccl uo o oo ccooosto.'' (,,Arolvo ro¬ûoooscö'', or. l, l8=0)
,,lropöslroo'', pcbllcotlo söptö¬ûoolö, opörctö lo losl, lotro 9 loocorlo sl 29 octo¬brlo l8==(=2 uo
oc¬oro), scb rouoctlo lcl v. Alocsoourl, l. ßols, loo Golco sl V. kooölolcoooc. Jltlcl lropöslroo Illou
scprl¬ot uo coozcrö uo lo prl¬cl oc¬ör, rovlsto oporo scb uooc¬lroo uo ,,|oolo stllotlIlcö sl
lltororö''. luollo uo bozö olo prooro¬clcl roloc tozolo oocototo uo V. kooölolcoooc lo lotroucctlo lo
Doclo lltororö. roocotoroo lo trouccorllo ,,coro ooovûou olcl co lotoros pozltlv pootrc ool olcl oc pot
l¬booötl lltorotcro¨, pcbllcoroo co¬pcoorllor orloloolo ro¬ûoostl, roportlzoto lo trol soctll. l.
ortlcolo uo Ilzlcö, col¬lo, lstorlo ootcrolö, oorlccltcrö, sllvlccltcrö, lolooö, ll. lroblo¬o uo ocooo¬lo
polltlcö, jcrlsprcuootö, lstorlo ootlooolö sl Iolclor, lll. lltorotcrö. Alötcrl uo ¬oluovool, lo lropöslroo
oc coloborot scrlltorl ulo colo uocö provlocll ro¬ûoostl, Vcotoolo sl Jroosllvoolo. Alcl oc opörct lotro
oltolo, ,,Dospro ll¬bo ro¬ûoooscö¨, uo C. Noorczzl, ,,lo cooscrl uo ¬ûoolro¨, uo Gr. Alo×oouroscc,
,,Lo o vorocrö'' uo D. ßollotlooooc, ,,lostorcl sl ûoorcl'' uo A. Doolcl, ,,ßobo cloooto'' uo v.
Alocsoourl otc.
3. lovötö¬ûotcl lo porloouo posoptlstö
8cb proslcooo luollor prooroslsto olo vro¬ll sl cc cootrlbctlo coor cörtcrorl potrlotl, so pco
occ¬ bozolo lovötö¬ûotclcl lo ll¬bo ro¬ûoö, loIllotûouc-so prl¬olo scoll prl¬oro lo
prloclpololo pörtl olo törll, scoll pootrc Ioto, scoll oor¬olo lo copltololo jcuotolor, prl¬olo
scoll scporlooro, coosorvotooro uro¬otlco sl ¬czlcolo. Cooloctcl lovötö¬ûotclcl osto
ouoptot oollor corloto olo soclotötll. Doscölll uoc uovouö uo ¬clt ootczlos¬, loIrcotûou
cc scccos oroctötllo locopctclcl, llpso uo locolcrl coloro ouocvoto, uo ¬oocolo sl ¬otorlol
uluoctlc, söröclo o×porlootol lo ocost uo¬oolc.
Dotorltö looötcrll strûoso cc vloto, cc oovollo ol, lovötö¬ûotcl lo ll¬bo ootloool, lo spoclol
col scporlor, uobûouosto prostlolc, uopöslou ropouo obloctlvolo uo lo locopct, po coro sl
lo propcsosorö prl¬olo scoll ÷ coo o lcl Lozör sl coo o lcl Asocol. AstIol, lovötoroo tooolcll
¬öscrötorllor ovolcoozö lo stoulcl ¬oto¬otlcllor, loscslroo oro¬otlcll so prolcooosto cc
corcotoroo ll¬bll, loolco osto oboruotö lo courcl loro ol slsto¬olor IllozoIlco. Nc¬orosl
tloorl lsl co¬plotoozö stculllo lo colvorsltötl ulo |rooto, Gor¬oolo, ltollo. |l stobllosc ocolo
looötcrl porsooolo cc ¬orl oo¬ool uo ccltcrö sl cc porsooolltötl polltlco loIlcooto olo
vro¬ll.
lo Jroosllvoolo po lûooö scolllo uo lo ßloj so
loIllotoozö lo ßrosov, lo l83=, o scoolö
co¬orclolö, cooucsö ulo l83ó uo Gooroo
ßorltlc. Jot lo ßrosov,lo l850 locopo sö
Icoctlooozo co ol¬oozlc. lo ocoostö porto o
törll, prlo ströucloto cörtcrorllor llc¬lolstl,
lovötö¬ûotcl ro¬ûoosc ccoosccso o uozvoltoro
¬ol occootcotö. koIor¬olo lcl Cczo oröbosc
procoscl uo lostltctlooollzoro o lovötö¬ûotclcl,
coro ccl¬looozö cc loIllotoroo uolvorsltötllor ulo
losl (l8ó0) sl ßcccrostl (l8ó=).
Lo ßcccrostl lo l8l8, Gooorooo Lozör
loIllotoozö ,8coolo uo lo 8Iûotcl 8ovo¨, lo
l8l=, lo losl, Gooorooo Asocol uoscoluo co
ccrs uo looloorlo ootorolcö, lor, lo l828, pcoo
bozolo ,8colll uo lo Jrol lororol¨. Vol tûrzlc, lo
l83=, lo ßrosov, lo Illotö prl¬o scoolö
co¬orclolö, ovûouc-l co proIosor po Gooroo
ßorltlc, ool¬otorcl ¬lscörll ccltcrolo ulo
Jroosllvoolo.
=. kolcl lltorotcrll lo porloouo posoptlstö
Vorltcl lltorotcrll posoptlsto osto cö roprozlotö covo orlolool, proprlc
ro¬ûoosc.
8crlltorll posoptlstl oc roollzot oolcl lstorlc ol lltorotcrll. ßölcoscc uoclorö lo
l8=5 cö ,,ro¬ûoll oc trobclotö ostözl sö loto¬olozo¨ lo splrlt uo ¬oolIost.
AstIol, opoco posoptlstö uovloo o orö o locopctclcl co poro o oc Il coostrûosö
uo ol¬lc. Alcl pcto¬ clto sl louo¬ocl lcl uollouo köucloscc. ,,8crlotl, bölotl,
oc¬ol scrlotll¨
Lltorotcro oucco lo prl¬ ploo ootlcooo ro¬ûoö, looorotö pûoö otcocl sl ostIol
lo oostoro ¬ûourlo sl ootlooolls¬cl.
8crlltorll ro¬ûol ovooc ostIol couö voruo lo scrls, o×porl¬ootûou, oroslou sl
ovûou scccos, crltlcotl sl lovötûou ulo orosoll. lloolorotcl ocosto ucco lo
oostoroo coor Ior¬o olbrluo olo lltorotcrll coro so vor coocrotlzo lo tl¬p.
Dotorltö Ioptclcl cö so coostotö co rooros Iotö uo ccltcro
ocropoooö,ulo orobo roccporörll,lltorotcro posoptlstö
o¬ostocö locootlocc vûrstolo lltororo,ostIol ro¬ootls¬cl
ojcooo sö coo×lsto cc closlcls¬cl lo ocooosl porloouö.
Do oso¬oooo osto o opocö, lo coro tloorll cörtcrorl ro¬ûol
ploocö lo stcull lo ströloötoto sl vlo cc co scIlc ooc pootrc
ccltcro sl lltorotcro oooströ. v.Alocsoourl, V.kooölolcoooc,
l.u.köucloscc, G.Asocol, Costocoo Noorczzl copötö rolcl uo
oo¬ool ol locopctclcl uo urc¬.
5. Goocrl sl spocll lltororo
Goocl llrlc.
losoptls¬cl proprlc-zls oucco o poozlo llrlcö, ¬llltootö, potrlotlcö sl
vlzlooorö, uo ovocoro lstorlcö, cc röuöclol ouûocl lo Iolclor, oso cc¬
oporo lo scrlltorl co ßölcoscc, ßollotlooooc, Alo×oouroscc, kcsso,
kooölolcoooc, Alocsoourl soc lo oruolooocl Aourol Vcrosooc,
ro¬ootls¬cl ro¬ûoosc so o×prl¬ö lo spocll lltororo co uoloo sl bolouo
uo losplrotlo popclorö, ¬oultotlo sl oloolo sl poo¬cl lo vorscrl soc lo
prozo, ouo, l¬ocl, postolcl sl so coocrotlzoozö lo oporo uo oporto tloctö
ostotlcö sl loolt ¬osoj potrlotlc.
Goocl oplc.
Co spocll lltororo lotûlol¬. bolouo, co¬oulo, uro¬o, bos¬cl, Iobclo,
ro¬oocl, ocvolo, povostlroo,
Oporolo roprozoototlvo pootrc ro¬ootls¬cl ro¬ûoosc scot. ,,loozll
popcloro olo ro¬ûollor", ,,Coooo Colrlto lo losl¨ (vosllo Alocsoourl),
,,Cûotoroo ko¬ûolol¨ (Alocc kcsso).
ó. 8crlltorll posoptlstl sl oporolo lor
lo porloouo posoptlstö, uo pllo ovûot ol ccltcrll, lltorotcro ro¬ooö ccooosto
o uozvoltoro oproclobllö prlo cootrlbctlo, lo Voluovo, o scrlltorllor.
Gooorooo Asocol, Costocoo Noorczzl, Vlooll kooölolcoooc, vosllo
Alocsoourl, Alocc kcsso, lo Vcotoolo. Gooorooo Lozör, loo uollouo
köucloscc, vosllo Cûrlovo, Grlooro Alo×oouroscc, Nlcoloo ßölcoscc, loo
Golco, Cozor ßollloc, Dl¬ltrlo ßollotlooooc, lo Jroosllvoolo. Jl¬otol Clporlc,
Gooroo ßorltlc, Aourol Vcrosooc.
lo rûoucrllo cr¬ötooro vo¬ prozooto oporo cooro ulotro col ¬ol l¬portootl
roprozootootl ol lltorotcrll posoptlsto.
loo uollouo köucloscc (l802-l872), ªo uoco ¬oro
porsooolltoto o lltorotcrll ro¬ûoo ucpö D. Cooto¬lr¨, osto
prl¬cl ulotro ¬orll scrlltorl ol opocll ¬ouoroo. lotr-o opocö
uo ropluö sl scbstootlolö ¬ouorolzoro o soclotötll
ro¬ûoostl, uollouo köucloscc osto cocl ulo prloclpolll
loltlotorl lo uo¬oolcl ccltcrll. luollo solo, coro o×prl¬ö
tooulotolo oooorolo olo bcrooozlol lo ccrs uo o¬ooclporo,
uozvoltö ¬clto lotcrl olo llc¬lols¬clcl sl scot loIlcoototo
portlol uo toorll olo soclolls¬clcl ctoplc, olo so
coocrotlzoozö lotr-o sorlo uo loltlotlvo sl octlvltötl coro Ioc
ulo ol co ouovörot ctltor ol ccltcrll ro¬ûoo ¬ouoroo.
l802 (ó loo.) ÷ 8o ooto lo Jûroovlto, Ilcl lcl lllo köucloscc l ol |cIroslool Doololopol.
Ajcos lo ßcccrotl, lovoö ro¬ûooto ucpö cörllo popcloro, lor orocoto cc uoscölcl Alo×o, prlo l8l=
loscl Noc¬ kû¬olcoooc l-o Iost uoscöl.
l8l5,l8l8 ÷ |rocvootoozö Ccoolo orocooscö uo lo 8coltc Vöocroooc, ccoooto poozlo lcl
urlstopclos, poot lo ¬oro ¬ouö, po coro o l troucco.
l822,l829 ÷ Dovloo scccosorcl lcl Go. Lozör lo Coloolcl 8Iûotcl 8ovo, ucpö rotroooroo ocostclo.
l829, 8 oprlllo ÷ Aporo Ccrlorcl ro¬ûoosc, prl¬o oozotö lo ll¬bo ro¬ûoö ulo lrloclpoto.
l830 ÷ Aporo volc¬cl ,,Voultoll pootlco ulotr-olo lcl A. uo Lo¬ortloo. Jroucso l olötcroto cc olto
bccöl orloloolo ulo D. l. |llou¨, poozlllo orloloolo scot.
,,Cûotoroo ul¬looll¨
,,Jrocctcl¨
,,Drooolo ¬olo vorbo¨
,,|pltoI uo lo o tûoörö ¬o¬ö¨
l83ó ÷ Aporo, lo scbrouoclo lcl uollouo l o lcl |lorloo Aoroo, ,,Vczocl Noloool¨, scpll¬oot
söptö¬ûool ol ,,Ccrlorclcl ro¬ûoosc¨.
,,2bcrötorcl¨
vozl, ¬o¬ö, co ¬ö uoorol sl ploptcl ¬l so boto,
Vcltl¬l uo vlootolo po sûo ¬l so lvosc,
uo Ioc s-oprlouo-o ¬loo, röcorl ¬ö loc lo spoto,
l¬l oru bczolo, ¬o¬ö, obrojll-¬l so pöloscl
Aol lol¬o-¬l zvûcoostol... sl zboorö uo lo ¬lool
l¬l coro... oc-s' co-¬l corol sl oc stlc co l-os uo.
8l colu, sl roco, clto, cö-¬l Icrolcö prlo vloo,
lo broto o-o¬ ol¬lco sl porcö o¬ covo,
Cö clto, ¬ö vozl, ¬o¬ö° oso so-ocrcclsoozö,
8l olcl oc prloz uo vosto cûou sloocrö ¬ö strûoo
8l tro¬cr uo oosotlc, sl ocoll-¬l vöpölozö,
loroosc ulotr-losll locrl¬l, sl plûoo, ¬ölcctö, plûoo.
......................
Cö-ocopo uo vlsoozö, sl vlsc-o llpltcrö
locopo-o so proIoco, sl llpltcro-o z¬oc,
8l co-l ¬ol Iocl po cr¬ö° cö olcl uoscûotötcrö,
Nlcl rcol oc to ¬ol scopö, Iorooscö Dc¬oozocl
loozlo lcl uollouo, uostcl uo roucsö
cootltotlv, osto uo o ¬oro ulvorsltoto sl
llcstroozö ¬ol tooto spoclllo. lootclcl ll
plöcoo sö uoscoluö urc¬crl, sö oIoro
¬ouolo, oscpro cöroro oc loslstö losö, ulo
uorloto uo o pcoo protctlouool plotro uo
to¬ollo. luooo poozlol osto ro¬ootlcö,
pootrc cö vouo lo poot co ouovörot crootor
uo lc¬l. ko¬otlco scot sl colo ¬ol ¬clto
ulotro to¬olo poozlol solo. trocctcl co lzvor
ol ¬ûourlol ootlooolo sl co lzvor ol
rooooorörll ¬orolo o ooo¬clcl o¬clcl, lcpto
tooulotolor ulvorooot lo porsooolltotoo
¬orolö o o¬clcl, scrprlouoroo störllor
ooootörûto, o sootl¬ootolor lo zooo locortö
o locopctcrllor ÷ ,,2bcrötorcl¨, rolcl uoosoblt
ol ortlstclcl lo soclototo.
Co lo totl ro¬ootlcll, pcoctcl oblsoclt uo plocoro ol poozlol solo osto o×porlooto proprlo uo vlotö,
coro copötö o volooro sl¬bollcö lo ploo oooorol-c¬oo, osto o pozltlo coostlootö, po coro uollouo
o sl toorotlzoozö. ªlo oporllo orlcörcl ortlst soc scrlltor o trobclt sö so vozö sl ooroco oso¬öooro cc
vloto lcl, sl cûou oc Iost llpslto uo ocoo rolotlo, uo ocoo oIloltoto cc Ioptolo, lotû¬plörllo sl
potl¬llo octorclcl, otcocl oc Iost rocl sl Iörö lotoros. 8l po cr¬ö, co pooto cloovo sö uoscrlo s-oc sö
zcorövooscö ¬ol bloo uocût ocooo co sl ccooosto ¬ol bloo°
Grlooro Alo×oouroscc (l8l0-l885) osto pootcl col ¬ol roprozoototlv ol
opocll uloolotoo kovolctlol uo lo l8=8. Jl¬brcl ¬oultotlv, ovocotor, coro
l¬pllcö colo ¬ol proIcouo strcctcrl olo sooslbllltötll loulvlucolo sl olo
orosclcl ootloool, loovotlllo stlllstlco sl prozoulco coro ¬ouorolzoozö
o×proslo llrlcö sl oocotö lo coolo ulroctll vorscl o¬looscloo pöstroozö
poozlol solo o volooro sl o copocltoto uo o¬otloooro coro troco ulocolo
uo so¬olIlcotlo ol lstorlcö.
Dobctoozö lo Ccrlorcl ro¬ûoosc o lcl uollouo köucloscc. loltlol scrlo scb
loIlcooto lcl Lo¬ortloo. O oporö l¬portootö osto ,,u¬bro lcl Vlrcoo lo
Cozlo. |l osto cltl¬cl Iobcllst octootlc ro¬ûo, lösûouc-oo opro×l¬otlv =0 uo
Iobclo lo coro ouovörcl osto ¬oscot ulo coczo coozcrll octorltötllor
(,,Cûloolo sl cötolcl¨, ,,Droptotoo loclcl¨ s.o.)
D. lopovlcl l-o oc¬lt po Alo×oouroscc ,,col ¬ol uo soo¬ö Iobcllst ol oostrc¨.
Oporo lltororo.,loozll¨ (l8=2), ,,8cvoolro l l¬prosll, oplstolo l Iobclo¨ (l8=7), ,,Voultoll,
olooll, oplstolo, sotlro l Iobclo¨ (l8ó3), ,,Vo¬orlol¨ (l8=2), ,,loozll¨ (l838).
8crlltor Iörö o¬bltll uo ootorlototo, Alocc kcsso (l8l9-l859) oc o scrls ¬clt. Clcuot o¬ostoc uo
¬oloocollo sl oloocrl prooroslsto, ol sl-o oöslt ouovöroto vocotlo scrlltorlcooscö lo prozo
¬o¬orlollstlcö. ,,losll sl loccltorll lcl lo l8=0¨ osto co tobloc uo opocö ol soclotötll ¬oluovooostl.
Alocc kcsso oro ¬orltcl uo o Il slototlzot lo scrlorl uo otltculoo luollo oooorotlol solo sl uo o Il
llcstrot cc toloot, lo coolo prlvloto, oIortcl scrlltorllor posoptlstl pootrc uozvoltoroo cool lltorotcrl
ro¬ûoo orloloolo.
Oporö lltororö.
,,Cûotoroo ko¬ûolol¨ (l850)
,,A¬lotlrl¨
,,losll sl loccltorll lcl lol8=0¨
,,lolotcl lcl Dcco vouö¨
,,Docobol sl CtoIoo col Voro¨
,,llotro Jolclcl¨
,,8tûoco Corbclcl¨
,losll sl loccltorll söl lo l8=0¨
lo ¬ou sl¬llor, ,,losll sl loccltorll söl lo l8=0¨ oIorö co tobloc ol cootrostolor sl ¬orovcrllor
o¬ostocoto. Avo¬ uo-o Ioco cc o locorcoro uo Ilzloloolo (spoclo uoscrlptlvö lo prozö, coro
lsl propcoo uo oblcol sö ooollzozo tlpcrllo o¬ooostl lotûlolto lo soclototo sl sö trooö cooclczll
cc coroctor ¬orol ulo trösötcrllo o×torlooro).
ßccoto pöstroozö co vöult coroctor uocc¬ootor, loIötlsûou loslcl co po co loc ol cootoplrll
ulotro Occluoot sl Orloot. A¬plosoroo pltorooscö, popclotlo otorooooö, clöulrllo l¬pozooto
orl c¬llo, coostrclto lo ulvorso stllcrl oroltoctoolco, portcl sl oblcolcrllo loccltorllor uo ulIorlto
otoll, ot¬osIoro uo coroovol o copltolol Voluovol s.o.¬.u. scot prlvlto cc co ocol crltlc, cooo
co oc o×clcuo louclosoroo sl octolroolo co¬pllco. loslcl, oros oproopo ooccooscct lc¬ll pûoö
lo l830, scrprlouo sl Iosclooozö po cölötorcl strölo prlo o¬ostoccl loo×trlcobll uo vocol sl
ooc, uo lc× sl ¬lzorlo, clvlllzotlo sl borborlo, ,,¬orovcrl ooccoosccto ouoptoto lo ¬orovcrl
ccoosccto, oblcolcrl borboro oltolto po oblcolcrl ootlco, potrlorols¬cl postorol toplt lo
sorvltctoo Iocuolö, ¬lstorolo crostlols¬clcl locrcstoto po ¬ltcrllo pöoûoo, scporstltlllo pootlco
olo |vclcl Voulc locrcstoto lo socötcltooroo oocroulotö o voocclcl, tot co-l vocol sl co-l ooc,
Occluootcl sl Orlootcl toplto lotr-co tot oouospörtlt, cl¬oototo uo vro¬l sl uo l¬projcrörl oso
Iol locût clöulroo s-or uörû¬o uocö ol scooto o sloocrö plotrö (...)¨.
lo ooso¬blc, ,,losll sl loccltorll söl lo l8=0¨ rö¬ûoo oporo cocl obsorvotor lcclu, pllo uo
ovlovlo Iotö uo loooouorolo vro¬crl opcso, uor copobll totouotö sö so uoloctozo Il×ûou
ulIorlto tlpcrl sl ¬orovcrl ulo oolorlo loopclzobllö o opocll uo troozltlo uo lo ¬ljloccl
socolclcl ol xlx-o.
Dospro vosllo Alocsoourl (l8l8-l890), co ¬ol tûrzlc uospro Arooozl, cc oroc s-or pctoo spcoo cö
oportloo cool sloocro opocl, ol sl-o locopct octlvltotoo lltororö lo ooll uo prooötlro o kovolctlol uo
lo l8=8, lotr-o porloouö uo lotooslIlcoro o lcptol rovolctloooro, uo oscooslcoo o ro¬ootls¬clcl, sl o
vo locoolo posto clocl uocooll, lotr-co stot ¬ouoro, louopoouoot. lo ovolctlo lltorotcrll solo so pot
ulstlooo col pctlo trol ¬o¬ooto, trol vûrsto. prl¬o, o cocl ro¬ootls¬ tlplc, ootczlost, llrlc, o uoco uo
ll¬pozlro, uo obloctlvlzoroo vlzlcoll sl ¬ljloocolor solo ortlstlco, o trolo, lo sIûrslt, coro ll Ioco sö
rovloö spro tootrc.
A Iost cocl ulotro Ircotoll ¬lcörll rovolcloooro ulo Voluovo, rouoctûou L¬procoö cc
kooölolcoooc l C. Noorl Dorloolo portluol oolooolo ulo Voluovo¨, prloclpolcl ¬oolIost ol
rovolclooorllor ¬oluovool.
l85= - Aporo scb coouccoroo so ko¬ûolo lltororö¨, rovlstö lo coro oc coloborot ¬oluovooll C.
Noorczzl, V. kooölolcoooc, Al. kcsso, uor l ¬cotooll Gr. Alo×oouroscc, D. ßollotlooooc ,Al.
Ouoboscc.
l859 - |sto oc¬lt uo uo¬oltorcl Al. l. Cczo ¬lolstrc ol oIocorllor o×toroo, vo Il trl¬ls
Lo |rooo, Aoollo l llo¬oot pootrc o plouo Lo scopcl roccoootorll uolrll.
l88l - lrl¬oto lro¬lcl Acouo¬lol pootrc Lltorotcrö.
A Iost co scrlltor octlv, o ovct ¬clto volc¬o pcbllcoto
volc¬o uo tootrc
4,,Corlto lo lol soc uocö Ioto -o ooooocö¨ (l850)
4,,Colrlo lo provlolo¨ (l855)
4,,Colrlo lo voloolc¨ (l8ó5)
4,,Colrlo lo boloo¨ (l875)
volc¬o uo poozlo
4,,lostolcrl¨
4,,loozll popcloro. ßolouo (Cûotlco bötrûootl)¨
(l852)
4,,loozll popcloro. ßolouo oucooto l louroptoto uo
v. Alocsoourl¨, portoo o ll-o (l853)
4,,Doloo l löcrö¬looro¨(l853)
lrozo
4,,lstorlo cocl oolboo¨
4,,8cvoolro ulo ltollo. ßccootloro uo lo |lorooo¨
4,,loll lo l8==¨
4,,uo soloo ulo lol¨
4,,ko¬ûoll l poozlo lor¨
4,,O prl¬bloro lo ¬col¨
4,,ßorsoc¨
4,,ßolto-olbö¨
4,,Cölötorlo lo AIrlco¨
4,,uo oplsou ulo oocl l8=8''
lrozo ulo porloulco
4,,8otlro l olto pootlco co¬pcoorl uo
prlocl Aotloo Cooto¬lr¨
4,,Voloulllo ro¬ûootl¨
4,,lrlotooll ro¬ûollor¨
4,,Lo¬ortloo¨
4,,Alocc kcsso¨
4,,Drlurl¨ (ro¬oo scrls lo l8ó9,
pcbllcot lo l873)
4,,Dlo olbc¬cl cocl blblloIll¨
4,,vosllo lorojoo¨
4,,Voroörlto¨ (ocvolö scrlsö lo l870,
ulo oo Illou pcbllcotö oc¬ol co ¬lc
oplsou lo l880)
4,,lotrouccoro lo scrlsorllo lcl loo
Golco cötro vosllo Alocsoourl
Dro¬o
4,,Cototoo No¬clcl¨
4,,Llpltorllo sotolor¨
4,,2oûrcltcl rlslpltor¨
4,,Dospot vouö, uro¬ö lstorlcö¨
4,,|ûotûoo ßloouczlol¨
4,,Ovlulc¨
,,ßolto-Albö¨
Oporo lltororö ,,ßolto-Albö¨ osto o povostlro cc olo¬ooto uoscrlptlvo sl ¬o¬orlollstlco, o opörct lo
oocl l8=7, lo o|cnJo·u| ocnt·u ·omón| po oocl blsoct l8=8 oultot uo Go. Asocol, sl opol lo
,,ko¬ûolo lltororö¨, lo l855.
8crloroo lsl oro oooozo lotr-o porloouö uo oulooö o octorclcl lo stotlcooo ßolto-Albö, ucpö co
voloj Iöcct lo Occluoot, uor rolcl oorotorclcl lo oporö ll rovloo cocl cölötor strölo, co plctor
(,,zcorov¨ ) Iroocoz, ¬ouolcl coostltclouc-l ,,8crlsorllo porsooo¨ olo lcl Vootosocloc, o¬lotlou
totouotö sl uo ,,Nolvcl¨ lcl voltolro.
Asouor, povostlroo oro co to¬ö cölötorlo, cörolo l so
scboruoooozö ¬otlvcl lltoror ª ol cölötorclcl strölo¨,
lotroooo oporö Illou lstorlo cocl voloj uo 2= uo oro ol
plctorclcl Iroocoz lo ßolto-Albö, lo voloolo, lo ¬ljloccl
socolclcl ol xlx-loo.
Dcpö cc¬ so obsorvö, tltlcl ovluootlozö cocl ulotro loulcll
spotloll, uooc¬lou loccl po coro lstorlslroo oorotorclcl ll oro
lo vouoro.
Norotlcooo osto strcctcrotö lo uocö pörtl. prl¬o prozlotö
urc¬cl porccrs pûoö lo ßolto-Albö, lor lo o uoco osto
uoscrlsö soclototoo po coro porsooojcl-oorotor o uoscoporö
ocolo.
7. Ccrooto lltororo. ro¬ootls¬ sl
closlcls¬
ko¬ootls¬cl osto co ccroot lltoror opörct lo o uoco jc¬ötoto o socolclcl xvlll, lotûl
lo Aoollo, uo couo s-o o×tlos lo Gor¬oolo sl |rooto, opol lo lotroooo |cropo. lo
lltorotcro ro¬ooö so pot luootlIlcö trol otopo olo ro¬ootls¬clcl. proro¬ootls¬cl,
ro¬ootls¬cl sl postro¬ootls¬cl.
ko¬ootls¬cl ro¬ûoosc o Iost procouot uo o Ior¬clo lltororö uo troozltlo uo lo
llc¬lols¬ spro ro¬ootls¬, oc¬ltö proro¬ootls¬, roprozootot uo vosllo Corlovo, loo
uollouo köucloscc, Grlooro Alo×oouroscc, vosllo Alocsoourl, scrlltorl sl scb oc¬olo
posoptlstl.
Jrösötcrllo ro¬ootls¬clcl scot cr¬ötoorolo. o×prl¬oroo o×ooorotö o coor
sootl¬ooto pctorolco soc luol, porsooojo o×coptlooolo pcso sö octlooolo lo
l¬projcrörl o×coptlooolo, ccltlvoroo spoclIlcclcl ootloool, losplrotlo ulo lstorlo,
Iolclor sl ootcrö.
Vouolltotoo stlllstlcö spoclIlcö osto ootltozo. Votlvo sl to¬o ro¬ootlco. lcoo,
oooptoo, lzvorcl, stololo, cos¬oscl, colvorsol, looorcl, uo¬oocl, courcl, vlscl,
Iooto¬olo, rcloolo.
koprozootootl ol ocostcl ccroot scot. Vlool |¬looscc, Vlooll kooölolcoooc, Grlooro
Alo×oouroscc.
Closlcls¬cl osto co ccroot ccltcrol opörct lo socolcl xvll
lo |rooto sl so coroctorlzoozö prlo. plosoroo rlocroosö
o octlcoll lo tl¬p sl spotlc, tlpcrllo uo porsooojo. Io¬olo
cosolcö, scpcsö börbotclcl, ovorcl,tlroocl,
oooorozltotoo, rospoctoroo uotlollor sl o troultlllor,
coostrcctlo oporol po copltolo uosIöscroto lo oruloo
croooloolcö, coroctorcl ¬orollzotor ol oporol.
koprozootootl ol ocostcl ccroot scot. looo 8lovlcl, Vlroo
Costlo, Dl¬ltrlo Cooto¬lr.
8. Cooclczll
Lo sIûrslt pcto¬ trooo o llolo sl sö uoclorö¬ cö
lltorotcro porloouol posoptlsto o Iost o trooptö
l¬portootö lo ovolctlo lltorotcrll ro¬ûoo. Dosl
slocroolzoroo cc Occluootcl ocropooo o ucs lo
o¬ostoccrl sl Ior¬o olbrluo, locö voo cootcroto,
scrlltorll oc pcs bozolo lltorotcrll ¬ouoroo.
Ouotö cc opoco posoptlstö so cootcroozö o lltorotcrö
proprlo ro¬ûollor, sl lo louo¬ocl lcl kooölolcoooc,
ootlcooo ro¬ûoö, cc tot co ccprlouo oo, osto rolIlcotö
uo scrlltorl.
ßlbllooroIlo
Voocol uo ll¬bo sl lltorotcro ro¬ûoö cls o xl-o, poo.59, oultcro AkJ
Dlctlooorcl lltorotcrll ro¬ûoo uo lo orlolol pûoö lo l900
lstorlo lltorotcrll ro¬ûoo uo lo orlolol pûoö lo prozoo uo Gooroo Collooscc, oultcro 8|VN|
Orlolollo ro¬ootls¬clcl ro¬ûoosc, uo locl Corooo
Voocolcl uo ll¬bö sl lltorotcrö ro¬ûoö cls. o lx-o, oultcro DlDACJlCÀ 8l l|DAGOGlCÀ
Lltorotcro ro¬ûoö ÷ Voocol proporotor po bozo ¬oocololor oltorootlvo ÷ closo o xl-o, uo
Cotrlool lopo, Vorloolo lopo sl loo lopo, oultcro NlCuL|8Cu
lstorlo lltorotcrll ro¬ûoo o Acouo¬lol ko¬ûoo
ottp.,,www.slluosooro.oot,Aooosoo,stculc-uo-coz-ro¬ooo-=-rolcl-lltorotcrll-lo-porloouo-
posoptlsto
ottp.,,www.oooolo.ro,l¬oop°ol=ro8socrco=l¬oop8btoG=C%C=%83cto%C5%A3l-l¬oolol
8obv=28oo=I8ool=8oo=8os_rIol=
www.wl|lpoulo.ro
www.olooo.oot

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