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AIRCRAFT DESIGN (MECH ENG 4108 & MECH ENG 7062)

Due

   

(Due 03/03/2011) Groups members

                                                                         

(Due (20/05/2011) Assignments 1 and 2

             

(Due 10/06/2011) Project reports and drawings

Topic

Introduction

Aircraft design methodology

Aircraft design introduction – technical task

Aircraft design introduction – team working

Aircraft design organisation

Aircraft weight calculation

Mission fuel weight

Tutorial

Public holiday

Public holiday

Sensitivity analysis

Sensitivity to other parameters

Tutorial (project discussions)

Tutorial (project discussions)

Tutorial

Standard requirements

First estimation of aircraft design parameters

Sizing to stall speed requirements

Sizing to takeoff distance requirements

Sizing to landing distance requirements

Tutorial (project discussions)

Tutorial (project discussions)

Drag polar estimation at low speed

Sizing to FAR23 and 25 climb requirements

Tutorial (Flight lab intro)

Tutorial (Flight lab intro)

Sizing to time to climb, ceiling and manoeuvring requirements

Sizing to cruise speed requirements – matching diagram

Mid Sem break 18/04/2011-02/05/2011

Tutorial

Tutorial

Aircraft three view and drawings

Overall configuration design

Overall configuration design

Fuselage design (crew and passenger cabin design)

Fuselage design (overall configuration)

Propulsion system selection and integration I

Tutorial (project discussions)

Tutorial (project discussions)

Propulsion system selection and integration II

Wing design considerations I

Wing design considerations II

Empennage design considerations

Landing gear design and integration I

Landing gear design and integration II

Tutorial (project discussions)

Tutorial (project discussions)

Weight and balance analysis

Stability and control analysis

Lecture

                                       

4/04/2011 Lecture 19

4/04/2011 Lecture 20

 

7/04/2011 Lecture 22

       

2/05/2011 Lecture 27

2/05/2011 Lecture 28

5/05/2011 Lecture 29

5/05/2011 Lecture 30

 

9/05/2011 Lecture 32

                       

2/06/2011 Lecture 45

2/06/2011 Lecture 46

Date

28/02/2011 Lecture 1

28/02/2011 Lecture 2

3/03/2011 Lecture 3

3/03/2011 Lecture 4

7/03/2011 Lecture 5

7/03/2011 Lecture 6

10/03/2011 Lecture 7

10/03/2011 Lecture 8

14/03/2011

14/03/2011

17/03/2011 Lecture 9

17/03/2011 Lecture 10

21/03/2011 Lecture 11

21/03/2011 Lecture 12

24/03/2011 Lecture 13

24/03/2011 Lecture 14

28/03/2011 Lecture 15

28/03/2011 Lecture 16

31/03/2011 Lecture 17

31/03/2011 Lecture 18

   

7/04/2011 Lecture 21

 

11/04/2011 Lecture 23

11/04/2011 Lecture 24

14/04/2011 Lecture 25

14/04/2011 Lecture 26

       

9/05/2011 Lecture 31

 

12/05/2011 Lecture 33

12/05/2011 Lecture 34

16/05/2011 Lecture 35

16/05/2011 Lecture 36

19/05/2011 Lecture 37

19/05/2011 Lecture 38

23/05/2011 Lecture 39

23/05/2011 Lecture 40

26/05/2011 Lecture 41

26/05/2011 Lecture 42

30/05/2011 Lecture 43

30/05/2011 Lecture 44

   
   

WEEK 1

     

WEEK 2

   

WEEK 3

   

WEEK 4

   

WEEK 5

   

WEEK 6

   

WEEK 7

   

WEEK 8

   

WEEK 9

   

WEEK 10

   

WEEK 11

   

WEEK 12

 
School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design Introduction Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I Introduction Copyright
School of Mechanical Engineering
Aircraft Design
Introduction
Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI
Semester I
Introduction
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
Slide Number 1
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
About myself:
• Education:
– PhD in Aerospace Engineering (Aircraft Design) from Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI), 1999
– ME in Aerospace Engineering (Aircraft Design) from Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI),1996
– BE in Mechanical Engineering (Design) from Iran University of Science and Technology
(IUST), 1992
• Research Area:
– Optimization techniques in aircraft conceptual design
– Aircraft design
– Active and passive methods of flow control
– Plasma aerodynamics
– Vortex flow
– Heat transfer
– UAV and MAV design
– Composite materials
– Sustainable energy production
– Wind and wave energy devices
• Contacts:
– Room S232, email: maziar.arjomandi@adelaide.edu.au, phone: 83038128
– Webpage: http://www.mecheng.adelaide.edu.au/~marjom01/
Introduction
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
Slide Number 2
Page 1 of 270

Aircraft Design

 

School of Mechanical Engineering

What we are trying to do in this course:

 

In Teaching Aircraft design, we require students, either individually or in small

 

groups do engineering.

 

Course objectives:

 

• Design process

• Engineering methods in real life (this is not the same thing as calculation)

• ng neer ng group)

i

E

i

teamwork

d

an

t

projec s (w

ith individual

ibilit

respons

y

i

n a

Aeroplane design (what we really signed up to do)

 

Introduction

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

 

Slide Number 3

 

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

 

Course specific objectives:

1. Design an aircraft using the design process.

 

2. Use design requirement to define specific aircraft configuration features.

3. Estimate aircraft size, weight and thrust required to satisfy mission requirements.

4. Do an engineering analysis to assess an aircraft design’s potential to meet given design requirements.

 

5. Compile data, compare and assess current aircraft capabilities against a specific design requirement.

 

6. Make pro/con charts comparing design concepts against the desired design matrix.

 

7. Do parametric analysis to select design variable values.

 

8. Work on a multidisciplinary design team.

9. Write an engineering design report.

Introduction

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

References:

 

• Aeroplane design, vol I, II; John Roskam (main text books)

 

• Aeroplane design, vol III, VIII; John Roskam

• Aircraft design (a conceptual approach); Daniel Raymer (recommended to purchase)

• Aircraft Design; Ajoy Kumar Kundu

• Aircraft performance and design; John Anderson

• The design of the aeroplane; Darrol Stinton

• Airframe Structural Design ; Michael Chun-Yung Niu

• Standard Handbook for Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineers ; Mark Davies

 

• Design of Aircraft; Thomas Corke

 
 

Introduction

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Course mark:

• Final exam: 70%

– Open book, two-three problems

• Project: 25% (2 students per group)

– final report and DRAWINGs

– Assessment rubric

– Deliverables (hardcopy: final report and drawings; softcopy: pdf format of the project final report)

• Assignments: 5%

– Two assignments

Due on 20.05.2011 at 3pm

Submit to the submission box on the 1 st floor

Section/criteria

Mark (total 100)

1- External design

10

2- Weight calculation

5

3- Matching diagram

10

4- Configuration design

15

5- Drawings

20

6- Format and clarity

15

7- Research activities

10

8- Completeness

15

Project assessment rubric

Introduction

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

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Introduction

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Aerospace internationalisation

• International business competitions

– Airbus is competing with Boeing

– Russia is trying to join EADS to be in competition

– Japan, China and India are entering the aerospace business

– Australia is reinforcing its joint venture with US and British aerospace industries

• Too expensive to be afforded by one country

• Major political influences

• High added value products

• Most prestigious industry

• Related to safeguarding the countries

Introduction

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Who is a good designer?

 
 

• Always asking questions, curiosity about everything

 

• Great associative power: lets them recognize and draw upon parallels in other fields for ideas (implies that designers have eclectic interests and often roam for a field in science and engineering - said to be “interested in everything.”)

• Presented with a problem, always seem to respond with a flood of ideas, then look to interactions with associates to sort out the good from the bad

• Strong inner directed personalities: are sure of themselves, able to accept with equanimity the guffaws at the poor solutions they propose along with the kudos for success

Introduction

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Computer & designer relationship:

“New engineers today have an overdependence on computers. They have a tendency to believe everything the computers tell them. You throw in a bunch of numbers and out comes the answer, and therefore it must be right. Just because it comes out on a computer printout doesn’t make it right.

I should be able to go to a wing designer and say to him or her, “We need to change the gross weight by 5%. How does that change the bending moment of the new wing?” If that person runs a calculation on the back of the envelope and says it’ll do this, that’s fine with me. But when someone says I’ll give you the answer in three days when it comes out of the computer, that’s an overdependence.

You’ve got to have practical thinking people who know what they’re doing.”

From Benjamin Cosgrove (Boeing Head Engineer)

Introduction

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

A design team:

The other design teams could be added Chief Designer
The other design
teams could
be added
Chief
Designer

From Lockheed Corp., Dr. Bouchard

Introduction

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 11

Copyright - The University of Adelaide Slide Number 11 Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering What

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

What is a design?

• Not a clear-cut/scientific or completely rational process

– Despite efforts to formalize

– Neat flowcharts of steps aren’t real life, still needed as goals

But! Some systematic procedures available

• Creativity/imagination, but not pure inspiration

• Broad understanding of physical world

• Beware of cookbook approach:

understand your concept

• Never stop asking questions!

Introduction

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

 

School of Mechanical Engineering

Type of design:

 

• Selection (“catalogue design”)

 

• Configuration (assembly of selections)

• Parametric (how big is the wing?)

• Original (What could be called conceptual design)

• Redesign (new versions, improvements, etc.)

 

Most design projects use several of these types of design

 

Introduction

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 13

 
Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering Engineering is CREATIVITY: Good Designs look simple From Virginia
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering is CREATIVITY:
Good Designs look simple
From Virginia Tech. University, Dr. Mawson
Introduction
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

 

An engineering design approach:

 

• evaluate (or define) the requirements (customers/regulations, constraints/performance goals)

 

• understand current approaches (what’s done now?)

 

• think of some possible solutions (creativity)

• identify a variety of possible concepts (concept generation)

• concept evaluation (analysis)

 

• select a preferred concept for development (make a decision)

 

• do the detail design and make a prototype (analysis)

• test and evaluate (scrutinise)

 

• continually refine the design until it’s a viable product

 

Note: Many of these steps are repeated, it’s an iterative process

 
 

Introduction

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Some facts

1. Visualization may be more important than analysis Quality sketches/drawings critically important

2. The design engineer who remains on the frontiers of engineering finds himself making only a small fraction of his decisions on the basis of numerical analysis:

but understanding fundamental principles is crucial

3. Failures: Only a small fraction of engineering design failures would have been prevented using advanced numerical methods.

Introduction

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School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design

Aircraft design methodology

Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I

Aircraft design methodology Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I Aircraft design methodology Copyright - The University of

Aircraft design methodology

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 1

Aircraft Design

 

School of Mechanical Engineering

 

Design as decision making:

 

Design is a net decision making process

• Decisions could be very expensive “you bet your company”:

– Airbus A380 vs B747X

 

– SU-27 (Supermanoeuvrability) vs F-16 (simplicity)

 

– Military bets: the JSF, winner takes all

• Design decisions make at every level:

– what’s the wing planform?

 

– which airfoil?

 

– what materials?

– balance - stable or unstable?

 

• To su

ort the desi n decisions we use :

pp

g

 

– Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO)

– tables of pros and cons

 

– relevant experience, observation of prior practice, case study

 

– education

 

– team working

Aircraft design methodology

 

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering Engineering design process • Invention (idea generation) •
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering design process
• Invention (idea generation)
• Engineering analysis
Creating phases
• Decision making
Synthesis
Analysis
Decision
Making
MDO is an approach for
decision making
Aircraft design methodology
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
Slide Number 3
Usage of
computeUsage
of compute
rs %rs %
IdeaIdea
GeneratGenerat ionion
IdeaIdea
EvaluatEvaluat ionion
Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft design hierarchy Aviation System Maintenance Standard
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
Aircraft design hierarchy
Aviation
System
Maintenance
Standard
Flight Crew
Aircraft
Airport
Organisation
System
Structure
Propulsion
Avionic
Payload
Wing
Engine
Indicators
Passengers
Fuselage
Fuel System
Radios
Cargo
Internal
Empennage
Nozzle
Weapons
Communication
Landing Gear
Air Intake
sensors
Aircraft design methodology
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Aircraft Design process:

Request For Proposal (RFP) Technical Task (TT)
Request For Proposal (RFP)
Technical Task (TT)
Conceptual Design Preliminary Design Detail Design (Prototyping & Flight Testing & …)
Conceptual Design
Preliminary Design
Detail Design (Prototyping
& Flight Testing & …)
Tooling Mass production
Tooling
Mass production

External Design

External Design P r e p a r a t i o n t h e

Preparation the requirements

Internal Design

r a t i o n t h e requirements Internal Design Design Manufacturing Manufacturing Aircraft

Design

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Internal Design Design Manufacturing Manufacturing Aircraft design methodology Copyright - The University of

Aircraft design methodology

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 5

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Design stages:

 

Conceptual Design (1-3% of the people)

 

Competing concepts are evaluated

Performance goals are established

Preferred concept is selected

What drives the design?

Will it works?

Will it meet the requirements?

 

What does it look like?

Aircraft design methodology

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Design stages:

 

Preliminary Design (10-15% of the people)

 

Refined sizing of preferred concept is done

Design is examined (establish confidence)

Some wind tunnel tests are done

Big codes are used

Actual cost estimation is prepared

 

changes are allowed

Company is involved

Aircraft design methodology

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 7

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Design stages:

 

Detail Design (80-90% of the people)

 

Final detail design is done

Drawings are released

Detailed performance is calculated

 

Certification process is started

Component and system tests are conducted

Tooling design is started

More and precise wind tunnel tests are done

 

Prototypes are manufactured

Flight tests are done

Only “tweaking” of design is allowed

 

Aircraft design methodology

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering Design and costs Funds committed Decisions made Aircraft design
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
Design and costs
Funds committed
Decisions made
Aircraft design methodology
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
Slide Number 9
Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft development process From aeroplane design, past, present and
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
Aircraft development process
From aeroplane design, past, present and future by Prof. McMaser (Boeing Co)
Aircraft design methodology
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
Slide Number 10
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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Main Technical Objectives of the Course:

 

• Preparation of an organised “Technical Task” and understanding “Mission Specification”

• aircraft conceptual design

 

• aircraft preliminary design

• Some aspects about aircraft detail design

 

• Detail design was mainly covered in other design courses

 

Aircraft design methodology

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

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Aircraft design methodology

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School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design

Aircraft design introduction – technical task

Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I

– technical task Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I Aircraft design introduction – technical task Copyright -

Aircraft design introduction – technical task

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 1

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Understanding mission specification:

• Market survey

• Operational analysis

• Customer requirements

• Economical manufacturing and design

• Reliability considerations

• Maintainability considerations

• Flexible design (could be slightly changed in design process)

• Continual improvement (development of a family of products)

The requirements should be realistic, practical and reasonable

Aircraft design introduction – technical task

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

A successful example: Boeing 737-X market driven definition:

A family of 100-157 seats mixed class – A design for simplicity Basic aircraft:

Maintain high reliability, proven systems, reduced maintenance cost The next additions to the family:

Retain existing 737 digital flight deck (crew communality) Interior improvement (increased flexibility and passenger comfort) Modified wing with chord and span increase (range and cruise speed increased) New engine and nacelle (reduced noise and emissions, improved operating economics, better performance) Modified vertical and horizontal tail (better stability and performance) Increased fuselage length (increased passenger number and comfort)

fuselage length (increased passenger number and comfort) Boeing 737 family www.aerospaceweb.org Aircraft design

Boeing 737 family

www.aerospaceweb.org

Aircraft design introduction – technical task

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 3

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Feasibility study

 

• A feasibility study can be defined as a controlled process for identifying problems and opportunities, determining objectives, describing situations, defining successful outcomes and assessing the range of costs and benefits associated with several alternatives for solving a problem (Alan Thompson, 2005)

 

• The purpose of a feasibility study is to determine if a business opportunity is possible, practical, and viable (Hoagland and Williamson, 2000).

• It is estimated that only one in fifty business ideas are commercially viable. A feasibility study is an effective way to safeguard against wastage of further investment or resources (Goften, 1997; Bickerdyke et al. 2000)

• A feasibility study should contain clear supporting evidence for its recommendation. The strength of the recommendations can be weighted against the study ability to demonstrate the continuity that exists between the research analysis and the proposed business model.

• Recommendations will be reliant on a mix of numerical data with qualitative, experience-based documentations (Wickham 2004).

 

Aircraft design introduction – technical task

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Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering Feasibility study www.cartoonstock.com Aircraft design introduction
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
Feasibility study
www.cartoonstock.com
Aircraft design introduction –
technical task
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
Slide Number 5

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Feasibility study discussions

 
 

ItItItIt isisisis notnotnotnot aaaa literatureliteratureliteratureliterature surveysurveysurveysurvey orororor benchmarkingbenchmarkingbenchmarkingbenchmarking

The topics are:

 

• What is the product (benchmarking)?

• Intellectual property?

 

• Technology required (literature survey)?

• Regulations and standards?

 

• Market environment?

• Environmental issues?

• Who are the competitors?

• Critical risk factors and mitigation strategy?

• Industries involved?

• Business model required?

• Financial issues?

• Marketing and sales strategy?

• Production facilities?

• Operating and maintenance organisations?

 
 

Aircraft design introduction – technical task

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Technical task requirements:

 

1. Introduction (Project bases, funding, customer & …)

 

2. Standard requirements (ATA, JAR, ASTM, MIL, AP, FAR, …)

3. Performance parameters (payload weight, cruise speed, range, takeoff and landing distances & …)

 

4. Technical level of the product (fighter generation, superiority & …)

 

5. Economical parameters (cheap UAV, passenger-kilometre cost & …)

6. Power plant type and requirements (engine type, fuel type, engine life cycle, engine environmental characteristics & …)

 

7. Main system parameters requirements (hydraulic system type, landing gear type, avionic devices specifications & …)

 

8. Special systems and miscellaneous (weapon, individual television & …)

9. Reliability and maintainability (hourly failure rate, maintenance period & …)

10. Unification level (flight deck, fuselage diameter, airfoil & …)

 

Aircraft design introduction – technical task

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 7

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Aircraft conceptual design:

 

• Preliminary sizing

 

– Weight (payload weight, empty weight, fuel weight, takeoff weight)

 

– Thrust or power (thrust loading)

– Wing area (wing loading)

• Sensitivity studies

 
 

Refinement of preliminary sizing

 

Aircraft design introduction – technical task

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

 

School of Mechanical Engineering

Aircraft preliminary design:

 

• Configuration design

 
 

Initial layout of wing, fuselage and empennage

 

Tail sizing, weight and balance, drag polar, …

Landing gear disposition

 

• Sizing iteration

 

• Refinement of preliminary calculation

 
 

– layout of wing, fuselage and empennage

– Weight, balance, drag polar, flap effects, stability and control, …

– Performance verification

 

– Preliminary structural layout

– Landing gear disposition

– Cost calculation

Aircraft design introduction – technical task

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 9

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

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Aircraft design introduction – technical task

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School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design

Aircraft design introduction – team working

Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I

– team working Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I Aircraft design introduction – team working Copyright -

Aircraft design introduction – team working

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 1

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

How does a team work?

• Efficient team interaction

• Team decisions: what do we need to do? decision making is a key aspect of design

• Individual Analysis using engineering methods, including computer tools

• Meet to put results together, make a decision, decide how to act on it, and go do it

• Don’t stop at a point, go forward

and go do it • Don’t stop at a point, go forward – ’ Don’t forget:

Don’t forget:

Whether we like it or not, we are all in this together.

From Boeing company

Page 20 of 270

If you don t do anything you wont have any mistakes!

Aircraft design introduction – team working

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 2

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

What is teamwork?

• It is not everyone getting together to work on the same homework problem.

It is:

together to work on the same homework problem. • It is : – establishing the question

– establishing the question that needs to be answered

– each team member taking responsibility for a particular task and doing the work

– putting the results of each task together at a group meeting and establishing: Did we answer the question?

– If so, what's next? If not, how do we recast the question?

www.cartoonstock.com

Aircraft design introduction – team working

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 3

Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering How a productive team works: From Book: Building productive
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
How a productive team works:
From Book: Building productive teams by Varney
Aircraft design introduction – team
working
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
Slide Number 4
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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

What is an effective team?

What is an ineffective team?

 

1. Atmosphere - informal, relaxed, comfortable

2. All members participate in discussion

1. Atmosphere of indifference/boredom or tension/antagonism

3. Objective of the team is well understood/accepted

4. Members listen to each other

2. A few team members dominate

 

3. An observer has a hard time understanding team objectives

 

5. There is disagreement, but group accepts it

6. Most decisions reached by a kind of consensus

4. Team members do not listen, discussion jumps around

5. Disagreement not dealt with effectively

7. Criticism is frequent, frank, constructive; not personal

6. Actions taken prematurely, before real issues resolved

8. Members feel free to express feelings as

 

well as ideas g

9 Action: assi nments are clear and acce ted

.

p

7. Action: unclear—what is to be done and who does it?

8. Leadership clear whether weak or strong

,

10. Leader does not dominate

9. Criticism appears embarrassing and tension-producing

10. Personal feelings are hidden

 

11. Group evaluates operation, resolves problems

11. Group does not examine its performance/process

 

From Book: Team players and Teamwork by Parker

 

Aircraft design introduction – team working

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

 

Slide Number 5

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Effective teams contain a mix of personalities:

 

Contributor: task oriented, enjoys providing team with good information, does homework, pushes excellence

 

Collaborator: goal-directed, sees team mission/goals, but willing to help outside his/her defined role, share limelight with other team members, seen as a “big- picture” person

Communicator: process-oriented, effective listener and facilitator; consensus builder, resolves conflicts, seen as a “people person”

Challenger: questions goals and methods, willing to disagree, encourages team to take well-conceived risks.

 

From Book: Team players and Teamwork by Parker

 

Aircraft design introduction – team working

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Code of Cooperation for teams:

1. EVERY member is responsible for the team’s progress and success.

member is responsible for the team’s progress and success. 2. Attend all team meetings and be

2. Attend all team meetings and be on time.

3. Carry out assignments on schedule.

4. Listen to and show respect for the views of other members.

5. Criticize ideas, not persons.

6. Use and expect constructive feedback.

7. Resolve conflicts constructively.

8. Always strive for win-win situations.

9. Pay attention — avoid disruptive behaviour.

10. Ask questions when you do not understand

http://www.searchenginepeople.com From Boeing Commercial Airplane Group by Don Evans

Aircraft design introduction – team working

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Slide Number 7

Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering What is teamwork? www.popular-pics.com Aircraft design introduction
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
What is teamwork?
www.popular-pics.com
Aircraft design introduction – team
working
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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

A good team member:

 
 

• is a strong advocate for his/her area

 

• is willing to accept changes to improve total design

• is responsible

– accepts and meets reasonable goals

 

– provides data/info when a team member needs it

– data is accurate and presented understandably

– uses bulletin board to accomplish data transfer

– good communicator: lets people know what’s going on

Don’t do anything unless you understand how it contributes to your final product

 

Aircraft design introduction – team working

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Slide Number 9

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Project planning! Why?

 

• Communicate what you are going to do

 

• Get support from team members

 

• Gain approval from management

• Show the customer how you intend to deliver the product

 

• Prove the need for additional resources and manage work loads

• Determine cash flow needs

 

• Keep a record of what happened compared to the original plan

 

Project planning! How?

 

• Set the project goals

• List the tasks (use Gantt Charts)

• Estimate how long each will take

• Decide on the sequence of tasks and the relationship between them

 

• Assign people, equipment and costs for the tasks

• Track the progress using milestones, and manage the project Suggestion: Use “Microsoft Project”

 

Aircraft design introduction – team working

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Project planning

Design School of Mechanical Engineering Project planning www.glasbergen.com Aircraft design introduction – team
Design School of Mechanical Engineering Project planning www.glasbergen.com Aircraft design introduction – team

www.glasbergen.com

Aircraft design introduction – team working

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Slide Number 11

Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering An example: From Virginia Tech University by W.H. Mawson
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
An example:
From Virginia Tech University by W.H. Mawson
Aircraft design introduction – team
working
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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Time management:

• List everything you need to do today - in order of priority.

• Make time for important things, not just urgent ones.

• Write your goals. Then write the steps to your goals.

• Set a starting time as well as a deadline for all projects.

• Slice up big projects into bite-size pieces

• If you run out of steam on one project, switch to another

• Say no to new projects when you’re already overloaded

• Trim low-payoff activities from your schedule

• For each paper that crosses your desk: act on it, file it, or toss it

paper that crosses your desk: act on it, file it, or toss it www.cartoonstock.com Aircraft design

www.cartoonstock.com

Aircraft design introduction – team working

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Intentionally left blank for your notes

 

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Aircraft design introduction – team working

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School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design

Aircraft design organisation

Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I

Aircraft design organisation Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I Aircraft design organisation Copyright - The University of

Aircraft design organisation

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 1

Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft design matrix organisation: You work for a project
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
Aircraft design matrix organisation:
You work for a project
You work in an organisational team
From Virginia Tech University by W.H. Mawson
Aircraft design organisation
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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Aircraft design steps and tasks:

Aircraft Design

Aircraft design steps and tasks: Aircraft Design Preliminary Design Detail D e s i g n
Aircraft design steps and tasks: Aircraft Design Preliminary Design Detail D e s i g n

Preliminary

Design

Detail

Design

Conceptual

Design

Manufacturing

Engineering Groups
Engineering Groups

&

Workshops

General Design (based on knowledge and experience) EngineeringEngineering GroupsGroups (based on engineering
General Design
(based on knowledge and
experience)
EngineeringEngineering GroupsGroups
(based on engineering
knowledge)

Aircraft design organisation

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Aircraft Design

 

School of Mechanical Engineering

The Conceptual Design Team : A Suggested Organization

 

1.

Leader

 

2.

Configuration Designer

 

3.

Weights, also balance/inertia

4.

Vehicle Performance and Mission Analysis

 

5.

Aero Configuration

 

6.

Flight Controls

 

7.

Propulsion & Propulsion System Integration

 

8.

Structures/Materials

 

9.

Aircraft Systems

 

10

.

C

t

os an

d M

f

t

i

l

anu ac ur ng — as

t b

u

t

no

t l

eas

t!

 

Aircraft design organisation

 

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Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft design groups: Beauty in the Eye of the
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
Aircraft design groups:
Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder
From book: fundamental of aircraft design by L.M. Nicolai
Aircraft design organisation
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Leader:

 

• Make sure that everything is coordinated, that the person who needs help gets it, and that communications exist between every team member.

 

• Set schedules and meet deadlines, working with the configurator and the entire team, establish the “vision” of the concept.

• Work with the group to define the decision making process for each part of the design process: What do we need to decide, how will we do it?

• Keep the design notebook, recording the project history, data and team member commitments.

• Lead the design review presentation. Make sure that everyone is working on the same airplane, and that the presentations and reports are properly coordinated.

 

Aircraft design organisation

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Configuration designer:

• Using either paper or CAD, coordinate the requirements into a concept that will fly!

• Provide the group with the design information required to perform analysis of the concept. This means drawings!

Configuration designer could be the team leader

• Configuration designer could be the team leader http://www.cartoonstock.com/ Aircraft design organisation

http://www.cartoonstock.com/

Aircraft design organisation

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Slide Number 7

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Weights:

• Estimate weight, cg and inertia of the configuration. Using the concept layout sketch, provide the configuration designer with cg estimate.

• Include the cg travel with load and mission

• Use weights equations in Raymer, Torenbeek, Nicolai and Roskam and possibly Niu

• Generate the standard weight statement.

Get the spreadsheet ready!

Aircraft design organisation

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Aircraft Design

 

School of Mechanical Engineering

Vehicle Performance and Mission Analysis:

 

• Develop the mission profile(s). Make sure the airplane can perform the design mission, and define the fallout capability for other missions. This includes operation of the sizing code and generation of carpet plots illustrating the basic sizing in terms of thrust and wing area, and the constraint lines imposed by takeoff, landing, manoeuvre and acceleration requirements. Compute field performance.

• Make use of information from the:

 
 

– configuration designer regarding geometric definition

 

– aero person for the aerodynamic characteristics

– propulsion person for the basic “engine deck” data and corrections to account for installation

 

– wei hts

g

erson to establish the s stem wei hts

p

y

g

Note: each one of these people should check the output from sizing to make sure that the data being used is correct.

 

Aircraft design organisation

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Aerodynamic Configuration Design and Analysis:

 

• Define the “design drivers.” What’s the best configuration to do the required mission from an aerodynamics point of view? Ensure the concept is aerodynamically efficient. Think streamlined!

• Provide the neutral point to the configuration designer.

 

• Estimate zero lift drag, including skin friction, wave, form and misc. drag. FRICTION is available for the skin friction and form drag estimate.

• Estimate the induced drag, establish a target span.

 

• Select the specific airfoils and design the wing (twist).

• Make the drag polars, and make sure they are trimmed.

• Provide estimates of CLmax (trimmed) for landing and takeoff and define the high lift concept required to achieve that CLmax

 

• Work with Stability and Control: Cm0, etc.

 
 

Aircraft design organisation

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Aircraft Design

 

School of Mechanical Engineering

Handling Qualities, Stability, Control, and Flight Controls:

 

Develop control power requirements (criteria) for the mission

Decide how best to meet the requirements,

 
 

– stable or unstable?

– canard or aft tail, etc.

• Estimate your design’s control power (be able to trim with adequate control margin at critical points in flight envelope).

 
 

– are the control power requirements defined above met?

 

– use X-plots to size the tails

 

• Assess design stability (use DATCOM or JKayvlm & spreadsheet or equivalent.

 
 

Note the new Drela VLM) Decide on control system

.

.

• Meet MIL spec and FAR requirements for flying qualities.

 
 

Aircraft design organisation

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Slide Number 11

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Intentionally left blank for your notes

 

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Aircraft design organisation

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Propulsion and Propulsion System Integration:

 

• Select the type of propulsion system appropriate for the specified design requirements

• provide the Thrust and sfc characteristics for the entire flight envelope for use in the mission analysis

• Define the thrust and fuel flow for the engine you selected throughout the flight envelope

 

• Supply scaling and weight data to the performance team

 

• Define the appropriate engine inlet and nozzle, or propeller system for each aircraft concept the group is investigating.

 

• Size the inlet capture area or the prop

 

• Estimate the installation losses.

 

• With the aero team, define the thrust-drag bookkeeping system.

 
 

Aircraft design organisation

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Structures/Materials:

 

Develop an appropriate materials basis (cost/complexity; example: compare volumetric efficiency of composites vs. wave drag penalty at supersonic speeds)

 

• Ensure a structural concept that “supports” the configuration, i.e., identify the load paths for wing, landing gear, tail, etc.

Define critical loads requirements for defining structural design basis. (Draw a good V-n diagram)

• See Torenbeek, the other parts of Roskam for structural design guidance, and Niu, as well as the overview by Raymer.

• Size the members (skin, bulkheads, etc.)

 
 

Aircraft design organisation

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Aircraft Systems:

 

• Landing Gear

• Details on systems required in the aircraft

 

• Crew station requirements, cockpit layout

• Passenger and cargo arrangement (volume and weight)

• Weapons system if appropriate

• Avionics systems

 

• Other mechanical systems (actuators)

 

• Technology developments and current systems used

• Concentrate on weight, volume and power requirements

 

Aircraft design organisation

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Slide Number 15

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Cost and Manufacturing

 

• No decision made without cost consideration

 

• Design decisions must be manufacturable

• Manufacturing cost should be considered

• Modular production techniques could be used

• If it is cheaper it doesn't mean that it is better & If it is more expensive it doesn't mean that it is better!

 

• Good engineers must be able to sell his/her idea on the best price

 
 

Aircraft design organisation

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Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering An aircraft design team! From Northrop by Sandusky Aircraft
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
An aircraft design team!
From Northrop by Sandusky
Aircraft design organisation
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
Slide Number 17

Aircraft Design

 

School of Mechanical Engineering

To start:

 

• Prepare your team

• Define a mission (remember technical task)

 

• Seek as more as information as you can

Don’t stop. Go ahead

 
 
 

http://uk.gonzalo-filgueiras.com

 

Aircraft design organisation

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Main aircraft types for this course

1 Home built propeller driven airplanes

2 Single engine propeller driven airplanes

3 Twin engine propeller driven airplanes

4 Agricultural airplanes

5 Business jets

6 Regional turbo propeller driven airplanes

7 Transport jets

8 Military trainers

9 Fighters

10 Military patrol, transport airplanes

11 Flying boats, amphibious and float airplanes

12 Supersonic cruise airplane

TO BE REVIEWED

Aircraft design organisation

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Intentionally left blank for your notes

 

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Aircraft design organisation

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School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering Aircraft Design

Aircraft weight calculation

Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I

Aircraft weight calculation Dr. MAZIAR ARJOMANDI Semester I Aircraft weight calculation Copyright - The University of

Aircraft weight calculation

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 1

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Takeoff weight build-up:

• WTO=W0=design takeoff gross weight (total weight of the aircraft as it begins the mission which the aircraft is designed for). W0 could be less than Wmax (e.g. in military aircraft)

• Wf=mission fuel weight

Wf is not considered trapped fuel weight

• We=empty weight (includes the structure, engines, landing gear, fixed equipment, avionics, and anything else not considered a part of crew, payload, or fuel)

• Woe=operational empty weight (includes: empty weight, trapped fuel weight, crew weight)

Aircraft weight calculation

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Aircraft Design

 

School of Mechanical Engineering

Takeoff weight build-up:

 

W

0

=

W

crew

+

W

payload

+

W

fuel

+

W

empty

The crew and payload weights are known,hence :

W

0

=

W

crew

+

W

payload

W

f

W

W

+ 

W + 

e

0

W

W

0

 

W − 

0

W =

W

W

W

f

W

0

W − 

W

e

0

+

W

0

crew

payload

0

W = W

0

crew

=

+

0

W

W

crew

payload

+

W

payload

The general equation for calculating aircraft weight n
The general
equation for
calculating
aircraft weight
n

W

known

0

W   W

   −   

1 − 

f

W

0

e

W

0

, or W

0

1 W

f

It means that we use weight fraction for

W

e

 

W

=

 

i

=

1

   
 

the components with unknown weight parameters. For example, if we use built engines, engines’ weights are known.

 

0

m

W

 
 

1

unknown

 

=

j n

Aircraft weight calculation

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

 

Slide Number 3

 

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Intentionally left blank for your notes

 

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Aircraft weight calculation

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Slide Number 4

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

 

How could we calculate crew weight?

 

• If it is not given by customer, use standards

• Crew weight is usually 85kg

• Add to this number at least 15kg for baggage (in special aircraft it could be up to 50kg)

 

• Consider aircraft type (e.g. in human powered aircraft we try to hire a thin but strong pilot)

• If it is a passenger aircraft crew is pilots, flight engineers, and stewardesses

 

• If it is UAV, Wcrew=0

How could we calculate payload weight?

 

• For passenger/civil aircraft:

– It is given by customer

– Don’t forget baggage

• For fighter/military aircraft:

– It should be calculated according to the mission (it is usually done by Air Force engineers; probability analysis, game theory, scenario imagination, world geopolitical situation and …)

 

– Droppable payload is payload (cargo, bomb, parachutist, pesticides, …)

 

• Usual UAVs have no payload (except UCAVs). Cameras on UAVs are not payload!

 

Aircraft weight calculation

Copyright - The University of Adelaide

Slide Number 5

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Empty weight estimation:

• It is estimated statically logW 0 = A + B logW • Roskam suggested
• It is estimated statically
logW 0 =
A
+
B logW
• Roskam suggested the following equation:
e
W
C
e
• Raymer suggested the following equation:
W =
= AW K
e
0 VS
W
0
logW0
logW0
logWe
We/W0

Roskam’s equation

Raymers equation

Aircraft weight calculation

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Aircraft Design School of Mechanical Engineering Roskam’s equation logW 0 = A + B logW
Aircraft Design
School of Mechanical Engineering
Roskam’s equation
logW 0 =
A
+
B logW
e
From Book: Aeroplane design by J. Roskam
Aircraft weight calculation
Copyright - The University of Adelaide
Slide Number 7

Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Intentionally left blank for your notes

 

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Aircraft weight calculation

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Aircraft Design

School of Mechanical Engineering

Raymer’s equation

W

e

=

C

AW K

0

VS

Aircraft Type

A

C