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Blair Whyte 07NGAETO Jerk Type Fuel Injection Pump Report

27/2/09 Doxford Workshop

From the fuel tank the fuel travels through filters, heaters, circulation pumps and booster pumps. The injector pump works off its own cam fitted to the camshaft. This cam is also responsible for the injection timing. This type pump is of the helical control type. Fuel fills the chamber above the plunger. As the plunger moves up it covers the ports and forces the fuel to the injector. The helix design means that the spill port is then uncovered to allow excess fuel to drain away and also for the pressure to drop signalling the end of injection. A non return delivery valve is in place to stop fuel escaping back to the pump and maintains high pressure giving good injection The vertical slot in the plunger is in place so when the fuel cut off point is reached the fuel can return to the spill. In some designs of engine like the Sulzer for example this is done via a spill valve allowing the excess to drain off. The amount of fuel delivery can be increased by changing the design of the helix. If the ports to end injection are uncovered later in the cycle this would allow more fuel to the injector. A double helix design would mean that the forces acting on the plunger would be balanced whilst wear would become equalised. The function of the Quadrant (pinion) and Control Rod (rack) is to control the motion o f the plunger thus dictating the movement of the helix. If these were out of alignment the range of fuel delivery would suffer. It would not be possible for a complete shut off or full on delivery position depending on which side the missalignment is. The control rod is operated from the governor which controls the speed of the engine under loaded conditions. To set the timing of the pump a torch can be shined through the barrel with the plunger being operated. As it moves up the light will be cut evenly. If adjustment is needed the screw can be turned. Another method is to set the engine at 15 degrees before TDC this is the start of the injection process. Light is shined through the barrel and plunger raised when the light disappears we know the correct setting is reached. The sight window lets us observe the pump operating freely. The clearances of the plunger and barrel would need to be altered if a change in fuel is needed. For example if a change from Heavy Fuel to Diesel the Heavy Fuel clearances are greater than those for Diesel as it is not such a viscose fuel. If those clearances remain too great then leakage could occur so they should be tightened up.