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ALICE L.

BADESCU

GRAMATICA LIMBII E,NGLEZE

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EDITURA 9TIINTIFIc.I. $I ENcIcLoPEDIci
BUCURE$TI, 1984

c Dv I ti T c |lTREc r'r'1'r oF
lonE beensamethingof a baxlefield,. "The tettitoty of En|lisll teachin{ hd,s Anon; tl,r mdnu i!:ut" na,ob.inp toryht oL'ti' thot b.t,\".n trts"fit||\e and d?s..tplire Flrir udes 1o ,r.age.'r anclrcte Cu aceste curinte incepeutn d,inte numeroatele efecluate altima in treme asupra limbii englezeactudle in Anglia. Prima. atitudine,aceea,,prscriptil'n", esteautori.tail, natmotird.,ingrddird gamaticii ld,tineale secolnla; ile numeroase reguli, stibuind, tncd tn idealuriLe al XVIIIlea, $i aparlinind azi unc; i.naifili erwl,{te rctragrade;(.ead,ea ti doud, tttitudinea ,,descr'ip1irn".etle modernd,evoluaLi, dirumici, VIE. Limba ln1ti popor eroluedtii fovtE tupid ti &ntrudictariu dacd.na este cantolatd. In Anglia nn a edstat niciodatd o Aeademieasendndtoarc celor d.epe cantinent,"The Royal Aca.lemf" fiind fonddtd in 1f68 d,ercpeLe Gearye !11 III-lea &l At|glici caclusir p.trtu lncurujareaartelorpldsticcprin infiinlerca unei scali de,:L6enti (rearca un.i exla:ilii anuale cu lucrdrile (ilitlilar |lestitieni in oiatd. Incurajarea scriitoritor filrrdsese, !rctinri stribcchi, seamu tn d,in sueeranilor a nobiLilorcatcgaritau in juruL ( rlii. reg(rle arlulaa "lhej,|rp^Irons". Lituba Si ri d,'st^td o d^,n:t. t;n,t,. F,od.r,'l,;rn,t :i sstlplnunpl, ,tp -r(ipgs l:nettsl,' rat|Qa,,r's I:n4tsl"..inJ 'to ,o.ut2.o ,jun* sd tnan'rp. lintp tl" s".otc. ,,limba e Ek;d, indusirt reguliLe naticd.lenrecte abliga.tarii". E Od,atd insd cu descoperirea Nd,iotel.egruf ti a tcleriziunii ti eu ftspindiree ici. prin intenled,iulacestar culturii in mose subiteti.prestiliaascmassmediA.bah.nlo, putctii s-a tn(lindt sprc an nou nume coresii a|linrleosd nai a noile et'enimente, nstfelEnglc.a IIodeLa fast nnnitd "BBC Englisll''. FoI e curindinsd, $i ptsoane renite d,in lo(tte cnglezc, faplul cd ]a BBC rorbeau,in direrft d.ialecte coLlwile lumii. LimbaengLetd d.lfu.atil la BBC d tncetatde a mai p ea fi consideratd .,madelulunic" ti s-a dd.optdttermenul de "SlandaftI EULish" pentru socatildca rodel. llcest nume lare sd aibi n1o.i saianta li )Lii en1leze nrulle .lc suprarieluirc, deaarece preteazdIa conslrut:lii earelat reda nusnle se Sanse gtumatir& poatefi dascripli\A muhiple. atitfaartesubtile.citFi faarte utiLe.Asttcl., snrrp rfr cri tt irar. l/on,?nla, ra r.ccivcd pronunciation f,4.P.r, un tomcn paate a(cptal0le,accepled. archaicsaa la re,l.uracft stard.rd sou subslandard. cepled. rlnrcfe rhle. pfe{eraLlesd l,rtfcnd, |bdcscert. obsolele,anl,iquuted. sut,errnrualed.suterseded. old-fashioned, outwoln sduj "it r{!1es il js out cf daic";rlc. nd i,firilum. ["1'oulhcr]4. Lx inrcputul tedului 0l Xx-lea. Dani.L Jon.:.\1.\.. hoflssol. Erncritus in Phonoticsil tha Ufivorsity ol London, r.s; incqte s.ria dNfanrirci,"i dic studiul littlbii cngleze. lionare toneticeenlle.etti carc arcau si reroLulione.e
tlntih s .1 dlia. \:i,7i Ililliogalia. p 6!6. :' lll.tl L' -{nglii,, lronul lilrii po{i-a rveni ailt lr.trl,a!')or. .ii li J, mrilor. ln orilinea sur(trIBC, a bl"lia1 ia r unic lni r ndt udiiuz i' Dii hita n n 'e : 'D t i s h B r i d c a s t t l S . /?d,pler "Iour coat dalfs ron ili{rhin cl..l" \au simpl,: "Io(. .oor ./trr.s". ctr o n' brrl" n..drr,l",Ir"+ . \ Liilr , l.i.,ri J.r"^1",. din ili lFr p |, r - , - - . lo o i nr a Pr o.mo osr)

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|i-.\r tt,!)\|rh. litrctrctn,:te:.tr,ti nin _. ln p{ala winului sdutii.dionat trr3nounc;ng Dirt;onnr\-'. dtdo ti !.ri!: ..,1;doi :;rid.dar (n n a,r int .lia pranuntiel ori tl,e ldbi lare pronuntic csrtt:ntt si carc isre de a fa.ce 4 -refltnn gtqlfi. ,\capul arcstui d.itlianar estcd...Linrel.ltra. dt trai prc.l] pa..ii:t, ,to unlio tipid. i ieb.inletil in mol ol;snuii in t:anq)rtali,(te dtr. n nnntir considerali.L persadtre de scoltvi:.at.dm swt t \n!ti!.i.''l "Thc booL it n rcca l of t\:rt nat ol thrcr;ts at rcBanat rrli!"n.B to
ot t rt uDt i. r',od o to Ip. : , 1. 1, 4, r apv a- . ,.. tt..rt tt, ,,.., |- t . ^ p.^ ! 1 ^ u t , " . . . . I b , nurt:d t;on .L vp t.1, r y . , 1 t , , \ r , , r . t , t t ; , h. t . t . . . a. ) . t . t t . ! . 4 1 ,r -j al t.. I.L, f

Il L , /1 r.a , . . . \ . , ii- r ^, , t,r, 1 .,,F .' j .,. . ,i :.,t,r,,,.t1,! t. \r:l t,,:t.h n d a t' , abr c r : or f . P ,\, | ,,i ,,. , l r, I,p r. \.-.,,i , r-. I d.....t ot,r,r:tn o. : 4, n ,i ru t.4 ,p tt)p ...,..., R . p. {H e-\,j to "r" hr r r t' .,.,r ,r. P n ,ntt n I ia . r rI pphr i -. o J i t:r .p r,,,, c L r t. ,, ( a?casti o&zie s.a canttato,t ii tinbt en:].:n nu tja. te ftl!,t, a sinlurd. limlri, ci clt c:t:isttru .Lottn cario,ntt:: tintba s,:riia larr a li,sr ;r n,: $ritte nt\glish) ti.li.mbu nrbitd (spoli{\r English). lriat dtit.bne nnt;.h .nklti t.a fun|i .t..l t. D rc .l $ t .n u: aJ . : t t ' 4jind t s .;rt,..t p o stL t lic t . s . alt f ir n l rc l rl i 1 ti : a) ior m al s pe e ,h (s ti l L 'fat1 na t. c u m ro n i os, trn\;i ): t 1)) rrn ,ni \I,i1iIg (stiLul ftrnnl s(:tis). ; di:ir sri/'.1 t1\reic?. ,/irilllj le:at. juid,ic t-i. !t.t::tires.: c ) inl. r r r nal s a ' r c o l l 0 q u j rl s p e rh (s ti l rl infornat t\)' tr\i ti 3 (nrti 1); ^-,tu j /J ./, J l inl" r r r , , t r . ,,r," .1 1 ,,t. .l !' i t\r... ..t1\.): rut,, ' pl ' t' ...r lni r nhnt i" ; ,n i o u s .l 1 " .t /t. t.,t r' tu ' l ,,o, t. ' ,..t.i ,r.:,: _ d,ela puncnl $), ad,iirrsin.t aitftl u stil in ptuN. .lL]i rrunatit:icnl uu iiitrorlus tn .o .r n , 0t |, ot : r td t4 ..p a ;l i ta tp ,,,,1 s ,' :.., , t,.' .," : ptn" at!! !,t. L.,o.tdt u tst, I r ar ed) . Se atrage at.elid. citilotikr c|L,irl lnnl)a u!\e.d. eduraterl ir?^vraliDriic(tiri za i . c ult . iar uned u c a te d :re i c i l a l j z .1 t. (,i l n{j xl i on : i .c u tr. Ii rri i ful tri i : s,colarrz:rfe.ifvntnturii. culiur.l: 1dr cdurrlie lln Lniha. ntl nn) - r\Ntlrpr! (go!d rd bad): "Ar io nnl1nefs. hc hls rorre"r a erlu{ra. a (.rette (un copit) : I l , l s ul: c dur ali o ,rtu r' -i ' . -i ,,' .,rr: L ,,,1' t.nrt:tu uf: ' " ,.,, I l a ln - , , . nt r pn r..J :t:l a . tt i n !ru ,4 tn tt,4 ,t..

Aryuhthl ddoptat in trnns.icre. fonatt:d tr ftrst $i este (d

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Saftina pe cat. rni d.n &tntnat. a furt r/iof.i - ;t m.rmmoth lrlsti o cuilt spur,n:l"'t: ^t:1d rrt^t.. t:r,.o d. ,";n."n.,tLt r..u,,tri oL r.n *.ln. \\/a..,dd u: p.t. a tt..pott " 1r rrt,. l.rtlp. fit,. .,.tqrur.. tn
I Prrrr',!ia d in s , L, l, a \ nqlei x los lil. is i, n !n l e l . d e o t d e i e t . . ', . 1 . a . . i , i . i h r r l si o rll. [ ia] . r . ' Fljr r r c { f r a r Nt , it il d e s . r d e r e r t r ! u l i r . F i t i r t i t f d ! t r S rlfrfarr.n lr! .i | ., t O,' o- . -n . .' \, ,r"! !r , r r,rh_ , ,l t:,:,. ".. i,,, , i t ,i ,u r 'r . r 'u L , r i semlu l nl lll,t r:lf;nc t bs ln I ij: 3! 1. lr , , iL{ 401. n \ g b ! \ 1 i t j i l . I" a t r ; ! i t a j t \ . ( 'h t t t.rk.us. itlll .t... .afc ldmrNfri'' rp dra.ii Lri.hxti d,r si,at .nttczi si ille Dersonatjtiti ina(rmtLr. uhirr sir._rlnLi. .\..sh r.oli ii ufivr$ii:-Lli ;lnt h liiRti si asi..1zi. turut r"oi, c,i or r iilof . |, r \ uiplia ljir . s r lo r d c l . r l n , . f *. a ! . i r g e n i r u . s i i l -slll , Ll . stil .ula^ ial : stll .nfart..ris n . in r.onvqsrtiilor oliiNriif. tamilir|e !..)pfr. . . knU oqti.a l sp t.h/. jrL f of t r as t . l iot r \ f r s it ir t f s ir ! f i s o r i l . i i t . {t c L r ) f o r d d t c . . r.!rtl lir.er

CUIi'NT CATU

CEITOR

ulrfotrnelat t& 4 efa.anstd,efat nqral. dtical fu inccputltLa.est.lti. seeol (inloI uir t a notni aLi.ruluit tt (rcu.st aul 1 p r onu tclc p eNnnal ; \\ho i . loc (1,e i a e \\h.)m ; i hf t's ne lcnlrtr it i! l. locu prcpo.ili ei d ltt n \ eth si u inaintea cwittLt lui ta l N.rc se refeft (rvlo is it for? I|'herc ure 11ou cani g holl!l) etc.. ctt., ctt:.)este nnsiderat core(l acum. (Yczi fipitalele @rcs?un.ito\lc /d Indiee.) t! inrclis. tot (e(a G tste &ctlm eore(tgranntlcd .rtl conrldl4t sloppy. Gaanad,updsinplifftdre, darinla le u tittiga lintp. t:it.mai mu.Utimp. a a(lusti ertindered. telor Nntruse. a fispunsuiior tnanatilabirc. a snnctelorinjtrnit lor IalLIe. S-a a(eptat un aLLoiteriu: ditttlt l me.selt)r the man in lhe slreet, (fi sintboluLt:rtd!?nnului ( tlc: obitnuit). Chiar t-i d. la &tcilrele niwftiture, ptolctotii ro aiscLtrcla.ti Lintbaj surprinzdtor. bc (? intedbd un nai\'. -Nu ttiu !ruflaticii ? - Pentu m stLtdcnlii sainu i. Itutr.e tirept 'old,faegies"( :bd, H?nt!/ Seeel, lta t&ri(i!1 u|, toia ]u sfiltlt L te.alulai pftcetlent (in Ne\! Fl!rglislL Crammar. Logical ard Hisroriral 1392 si 1696), anticlptnd s rile d,c fatt utuale: " t he rul(s af |rumtu dt lolie no tal ue cftept Le state,n.nts of ftl(:I: whateaer in gen al us. in tl languafe is lor th&t et! ftdsan granl is tati@llt eotrc(t." Litnba s. sthb hn r atittl r.lpiditat(. intit striitorii dniltr '50.'60 au deja un it inte.h . Pcnffn strti.ini insai. e&re sint in matea lor tnajoritate cititari. inslt,'i. )a lintiir n!]..e tu uiutarul unti grdmatici tadilional.e llr? ncapirct nu:csdrai ei. , ?entru a li se tontla o ha.i solitli si numai rLupdaeet:a i si.nr putetl {Ia s&nla. in pradid, da *hi.n xirile prctctie sdlt liitoare di limb& en!le.d..
',,. tclegtwnali.ti.ilui Otto Jftl'5dz i/r "The Fis!enri.rls E!glish Gramln ,', 1938, .l ture r?d,e en!\e.d: "as sotncthing Liti.ry antl derclopingund,er .onlinaal !r.1nt.1tie& flwluaions. $omcthini that ls founrlcnon the past anrt pr$aris rhc $'atJfor the futnrc, sonethiw that is not eleags rcnsistentar perf.ct. bur ,lallessing anl, pe.fettible in onc pord,, hunlan." 7u ,\,o;;n nr\tyt.. : . j, , . p"' n, , i. , i t on P a t ! . r . 1 l d ,1,tb^tp rl"sfe neri-

( L 1'i,\ t. l), 1tt.TE Crunatiut rl.e[aln tii-ica luuare con.:eputii Ld.e tat].ilianat.. pe ,Si t tratale apnfu ddt taatulJroblet )tt de Erumaticd,p;t ,iulu st dc(nn pa fnontenp.legrunaticalc st.Lifice liniii engtie;i deci trtai ?ulin (t:t:csib;Le (Llriarul\t nmain. f..t t ot;: o tu!, u. t,.,. tu,trti tr !orotiat ,, a tr tnyt,:d s; t,c bozr,tnr "odui,.fu,Llt, ., .tat,.rt.. "n.: tn..t u. ttr.t,tt ,.x"r,.tt"iu;,i ranate de o&menL. Irtt. u s.t urnldti t&ntfarna|&. etaluliu tinl)ii si uanld. J)e S a urmdrit.sd se dd,apuc tenninataSi.li !.tlcatti t:it ijdi brit:i ;i. cit n;ai ya aptapiatd.dc f.nanenul s1ud,;at. rcnsi,t;;i it ,:d sint t)|.'Ltc etenlenre deosebhc tald de gtatnatica lLmbii tot drr,. (:unitt Ii: genvt;rut. ri.itorut lulti t. t!e&t, i,,olut o '[.,t l0 n J ',,,',t.1t,:.,'u p,r[. ..tot,1,.,.4] t,t.,t,.
l4 rt" 4 !t,lot i: t \ ir t $1un : n . . . - t . . p t . . , . : . . . a.., n,t,paptp. - t u, . dt . t df pn\ttlp ".J,rt, tir - : . t s d ; ' , , ' t lot - . . t t . . t n . , I 'i , . , n r , , t . , . . . . ', I , t p lt t I.n tDtnn It1 t t t n dl s lt l. .

t'entru .a .agrc tnta srutli.rul nt&terirlultli. s ao i tradls. ptin un?le emnplitirairi ti notc d,e sulJal, tit mai, trnthc d.jte ttesprccitttLtu ti driti.a.lid, englptd ti despn sTecifitul abi,ceirrilor Lrad,ili)nateenlte:rtti. Latted.are pdragrafe nu tcNn&tu t& inujt tul pind. lo stitlitut ti. p{dra d,c tt s. lutea /.r.e triniteri de la o prubio n Ia altd. ti !.ntru a se ei.ra reperdrite. id.tdt.. i ot i un, i", t,,,,;, i" ,"r,r'.,., ,t.,tr..rtt'tt[0. Lrt . 'hrs,t'tt
L-t .. o\tltt |n.tt , ; i, qut s l po4t d psl, d n .n , tut.. t t t t t . 1; 1 I \ [ nn.

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,t lp.luln;i.n . pnlpi, d,e

Sperin M wrca tlepLisn cLitrc (utoalcj (u tlsitL;Leasi d.drui& specifice .le nu t.LLun..L tarsnte, sd [ie sprc instruiru. intercsul ,\i s.lisfaclia ci.titorutui

E ;)TT{ i R A

TABLA DE }IATORII
Cuvlnt cAtr citito! Cuvlnt lnainto .,... 5 8

IIORTOLOGIA . .. Sul6tantivut . .. .. . .. - .. . ..,. .


Adiectiwl

t:t
9l ,2t !,67 229 247 457 489 5lt 520

Numeralu1 ....................
hepotiiia.

r..

snn{xl
8i;u*a prcpozlli"i. . . . . . .
Sintara tlazei. 524 5?3 626 629

BIBLIOGRAFIA INDICE

MO RFOLOGIA lrroRPHoLocY)

SUBSTI.NTIVUi
l

{. tI,

CONSIDDRAT]I G!]NEIIALE
1

p.9: t7 t7 ti Ii ti

CLASIFICARE\ ;SUBSTANTIVELOR SubstMtfo oomue 9i suhtstrtiYo Foprii . srbstantive comune

3 I
. . . ... b17 It8 918 10 t2 13 t4 15 t8 t9 20 t1 22 2X 24 t8 29 30 31 t2 33 3i 38 39 40 4t L2 49

8 SdDstMtiYo eoncroto ti s u b 3 t8 n i l l e b s h a c 1 e . ..... . . Sulstantive abstractel Sulst&ntFo ttrdiYiduslc si slD$iMti{o colcctlve .. Srlstantive iniliYiduale . sulstantive coleotive Nume dc naterii ti de mise conc.e Sobltcntilo rumer8bile li ncnumerrbilo
Nun iab ilitok| . . . Substantiee numtdbite . Substannve cono.ete

'

C ar ac t er is t ic i. .-. -..... . . Calcgorii dc sulstaniive numcrall


Substuntioe nenrmetubite

Car ac t er is t ic i,.-.. .. . Categorii de substartive nc ! , m Pr ibil. , . . . . . Numcle spotu.ilor Nrmele de materii sau de mase Nnme dc mai.edi sau de nase iul .. - . . rabile ln Produselenaturare . A nim t r lele. . . ...... Plantele comesiibile. . . . Numelc de mase :ibslraole.. Nune de masealshacte nenunerabile Catcgoriide srbsianlive (hnel). TII, GENUL SUBSTANT]Y]ILOR. D eliniliel. . . . . . ..... .. Gnurile ln sranlatic{ englczi. . . .

19 7g 19 19 19 t0 20 20 20 2Q 20 20 tt 2t ?1 '2X 3 :r4 ,5 25 26 26 t6 26 2tj 21 27 21 3' 33 33 36 37 !7 37 37 37

llasculin ti leninnt . . Genul,subsiantivelo..are n ic{ naliomlitatea sau lrovenienla regionala G enulc om un. .,.. Exprcsid Sranaticaldd enxlui . {\.. NU]IiNUL SUtsSTANT]VIJ].Oit Col3lilorstll gon$8|e.. Ptu..lul Bulrsti irctor '

6t 62 63 87

i ,;.ror"...''illi,;, ,i !ifl,ll"{i'i " rd-.,ji,,;"0',1-2.+h..h-rsnrur'L i";;'i;" s,rEUrdr,


.;;,;;;':i; -s. -i.

90 91 92 DerxrtTlrrrr 93 95

: -::::=

t4 Lryq In tc.ninate la singular 't sau'le snbstantive in'q. . . .. . terminate Subslantile ln terminate -th .. . . .. Snbstantilc rrex
n al.

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P lu. dl6

,;? ;;i ;;;

iiJi,i. i, ,";*i rormr 'i.t!ru"rpr"'p ,'iva ", l i ; i n l rllisu b slin ti Ylecolectile..-...

ri,iiii,iir'ir*"i'd.r," Plumle strline

:i n ru r "

' dr ' . t lu" dl .

ly: l. li .

;;;

33 ie .10

;; i0
il i3

' 'nr rnt"res ri'l^ i,ji,i:i' '" J";,i1 rormr,-ir-ar.cu aii*it ," ." , ,,.,,,1 ." r. L ,o .i ! lu. d" , Pl L rJ" r lin f r r r c lP dp r' 1 r'

D o u l f or m " d" t n. r al u

l s rl i l p ri l

113 ';:, :j;


l:9
:11" Ii o

1iiJ"] o'i.i;l; i I in," s .r" 'insu e "\p".r:'P . .: i' li"i"r ,i,ri,i, i'"llr rr" "r'r 'd onarir: 'au Pto!n-n'a fg'onari "a ', .. Fj'"ii"i a.."-i"it- d.i animare .
9luralul I'luralnl tl Jra l u l Pl u mhl substaniile)or.conlnse .- . . numelo. })roprn. . .... . . ur n. r lt " t o" . .. l u i e tr.ti .. nnm elo.dc " ,te rc .. r..t- ... ' . . . .
. .. , . . . . . . . . . , , , . . . . . , , . .

ill ltl i;l


: ;;; ;l; . j :' ::t

:'1 i: i;
re 60 60

. ,

. ,1"r", i'i" '.. "t'"'par li ro rb i " P . J' Pl u i , r l llor 'ul'


L Ll,J.f J ,'rt ,a nti\". ,,

:.. r" r\d..

::;
189 l ;j
198

ii
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6lt

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CAZLL SUTISTANTMLOR co ..;o 4- . , i, :, , no. , "


liomiistiru l ......,._ ..

,,.,,

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D . riri1 jc....
{u cl i i . . . . . \ominatirnl \ooaur' Ge n l t ' nl . . .

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.

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3B
64

Deii n i . .j.c . . . . . . 1 .

... . Fu n 4 i j rra d tr c pr e. . . . . . . . ,. l o rma l , . - . . . . . Cenitirul eran {t. ca.ut Pofsie .

:.

;13 3l
i ti :ti t !28

rormi...............

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.:

{j5 66 66

:: .'.'',' 331 33
14 2i a !80

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283 !85 300 307 3n8

i3 )' 3 1t ia

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srrBsTAN:cl!'IJI,.SUMAR

15

_.L 4a
VI. .C.LTE CHESTIUNI REFERITOARE LA SUBSTANTIV ......

Substantiwl adjeotivat Chdinear r v inte l o . . - .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. ..:. . Func$ile substantiftlui VII, FORMAREA SUBSTANTIVELOR Ds de& . r . . . . . . . ...... Alixatia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P ief k . . . . . . . . ....... S uf i: . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. Dpr iv dF a r e8r , 8 i e 6... .. . .. R E duc er ea . . . . . . ..... Atternanl lonetice Ab r ev ier ea. . . . . . ... .. SclimDew cslogorlei 8flm3uodo. . . . . . . . CoDpur c r m . . . . . Sui6tertive tele$opate ....... . .....

944 345 347 357 359 360 36t 368 373 a?4 482 383 384 399 40t

7A 7A 19 19 80 80 80 80 a2 a4 84 85 86 88 89

...

S U B S T A N TIVUL
(TIIE NOUNi

0ENnBALE I. CONSID$n-{TII
p s l " p a r" H d " \ orbi r-" rrp doru' l 1F:' o[' i trl al ' ' Dc linilic . Su b ' l s n l i ru l P ' in . obiF cl a ' s ^ i n re l .g . p o p l a n e r" rIIi ' J1. fi i nl P l " pl anl cl " l u" rur' r' e\rcrFnl o pp pl cn' rr rpor: tn .u: ir il. . . " li" ni l a ..l ' ri l a n ^ l i u n i l p . -h s ' a l i i l ' Fl ' i d ml rdl rP ' l r" ' h'l A, ' ,o s .l i 6l ' I" a'

sr

STA]['I\\-EL OR, II. CLASIFICARE,\ S1]B PROPI\II CON{UNE SUBSTANTIVE $I A. SLTBS'IANTI\iE


comulle (a a t,' tL c ' n \,,, t 1) SubstantiTele ,obiectelor' de acelali fel:
dos b i .d tn !' llolFr / -er!' . l i i ndi . r-d 1' r' rrr^r I oP l e Inmrl y

s3 s4
$t

ptoprii (Prop'I AodnrJ num-s' un. obi.cl( Jeosbin- $ 6 2, Subsraoti\cLc proprrr Subslsalrvele dul de loale cFlelalte ,obiectc'din acceo:icategorrF. seogralr'e fiintp locuri (oumrrr. denumesn sp s.riu .u ioitiald maju."uldr 9i csrp enl ii in rcnere),nalionalil6!i (substanliva adjP.li\e). aqlrp $r.gal,a\rr (toldeduna dc gen fFmrnrnll ur,icalp'. urassre, laifun" elc. istoric", operilrter"r". sliiDliticp.arlisli e el'.. anumilPlrlulalun ercdrlrp' 'prole.ionalFsi culluraie. lnlrpprjcd'ri m;r' i dF labrirarrc Pr' onorifi.c, lunile anuiui qi zilele sipi5mlnii etc :
c ur J c r i" lno ao n iii-ii T 11 n L c h a F s l B.n N P \i s th p I L D i . ' i " L n^nub" :j l erpt T l r;l 8 i n Ro{1nia Romanian Eulole ^-inar l'lie W{ oi lhe Roses B.itish Aeroslace Airdali Group V ot d' ! 4p.l ' 1. 5pn' n l dtron' Rolls Roxce

O bs . r oalLi: p rn p ri i a u d c \" ' i l s ubsrsnl i rc romunF si ca al p sc t J nele " ub. l a n l i !F sr r iu r : r inir ir li m n u s c u l d ' F F r , t l F d i s l i ' g' dF nrrmel " propri i r" sn" l rte: d) obip. l. n u m j te d u p a Io c u l tl e o rrgi nc: cl : \11_J n' rml e of nF nl " o b pdt r nl u a/ ;l d p n .L d n : l l to p ri u : r S !' d '. u nu' \ m hr . r , ' r dt J d a l i p l r,i fl i n /rl r. J .I L o n Jl ' . A ncIT ,t,, a l: nor ieln n < C l ri n a l .," ii" , . t . i" . d. ,i " c o ri rr' / ' o i n I' l ' n u r ' l n ,:r ' i l i | d r' ro cul l gF oi r ai l J ri 4 n\;n l e i .l u l , Er" n ;;.; , , ' " " " ' . , din .\nglia) l t)imint sccuddl r' ' -5' 1r" .1' L^i, , u" rro n " ;i ,u " 1 .s L ' s l r' l i i b p s" fl ' r ^r i rri ; tu, t t , , ' lh t ur ' t' ' d rJ ' " . 5 P ,n t ni ni l ni J r' a ^r t , at ih. n -a n .:' o " . 'i ' ' ' i ' r' l 71 ," rl ,1 \y ttrJ . ' ..' r. J p " .r. i nl -l p .Ji ub...ar" rv.on n " ! ln , ! : r rrru l _ s P ,l d u J " ' ' ra nr ' LJr" I rrol ' rr' ri . ] \ s d c o o .rrd.i o n rm ' l r g l a ' th ' n t too\ p6o,' i ,i .J' n . e ic i c : " \ i: j, , " ; ,- s i " ;- i i :..-. L i , . ,-. t,,t.r.t;tai - . i s/. !ric r il, d' lJ ' dp d e rj \a re rb u l r,a ,n /.rr:P nnmele trnor unsaDc de pc coastr Caiiiofri'i '--;lli'i..-et'"..

s7

/:.il'tr, 1: olundilr < Holl|ild 1: Oiurda\ jer s . ul< J er i u u i n c rn rl n l -/.f!,y i . -( - m ar oc hinl s e r ioic .ol i ll - \Ia .o l ,r l h ,e l i !l ,,,r,.., < Il o rn ,tt nnn L- .lift\ lcatit.nal). soia. .rd,ipe.l < OLlonnx rt r.o, d,iije,rtr ai rc.hiul[i o rr./s i: prntoli de sport. rxLlii:tnrii < O\lod iorai lnivesillf di,, .\dliil) :r,/,r ( : r n' de X eps r < Xe re si l o ' ra l i i a n ,i rt ,tn ia) SD ,,r ,1..7..i ud I.'l de rfirlesil luri-.si hfrl < Ulsref iprorhiiD id nofddl l.l,rLd.ili ,/ obiec t o um i l .c d u p i i v e ta to ri i . d e scopcri tori i . fabl j canl i i , i nspi r8681 o l n o tsf u1m l- n dLr e,, r,.1 rrrc l i i < rl ,o rd l n fo fg h xml i m de sl .all ,.i i .ani c, r rr i \utbrntJ l- Ln I.l !1. sloli inpfimcabilil sfu . hanji din a.csi !rat!ri{l) <rtE ' Rubory irrdelf lal'ricdnLulLril
r r ': i p l l l pl,.l r' l, ' i Io ''d . d! lL r qi , l' -"'1 - , r 'r u i. il . , "t d' l " \ 'n r n 't ,1 bi " ' nd, I " r't l lln' lri Jo",l t "lp " ' 1. : ' r d' , . ', .' ,. - tI u f.r ' i. r I I.b t lof . . . . ", r f,\., i ' . r' J , d I n r'. J o r 'r L l .'''r ' ; o1r , I l..lrd Ro@ (: atrtoinolll.lr.toneli thvf. lfica a..idrrtall < Lltl in1:.i 0e1l ' -:.-, ., 1,., , I , r , - \ "t - \ l, l .umli.r. os, P ', n , lr o pr: n l" ." , 'u + ,,n aj. . .,. l: un l ilii sl ai, r r c l: l. . laic nnt r r l dt i . \ r nden r r ' d c C i n c m a l o a f d f i er l i r r : j u l'h . i .rir . \ ( t ! ! oul. in iulor i. , i. t i. c r , , . ) < O r i r i L 'i e r , i e l i . i L . L Q ! !.cdiu !.n trd irmP rn ,rn de Arir ii l i. , s e. I ] { i e tuni! t).rtl..d ,os d. ( ir io"t r iell. < lh. ot or e i R o . r e r l l l l 1p.:lrlinle al SU\. i.rirt nr.n , \li:jl. r f lr r l r jr c ij 1.rl d. \r. l\old . , 4' I 'r ', r . ' ' ---J . ' rllr mtr l( lo r-n{lLr l" oli -l \ l . " i r r 'r d , r : ) r , ,ln' lr L' r ' ", ' \ '' t l ' " " 1" 1",' 1 ". r' l.' 1. i l , l: ". ' q- ' i- l" l I r ' j. ., r,l1 1: tr! voll) < lllNs a\ d. ol Volla lf iz i. id ilal i a n , 1 r 1 ; - l 8 l t ) a qdu t:in wrtll < ( J aniNi \ v at t { inginc r ii inlc D t a l o r s c o t i r n , 1 i 3 6 - l 8 1 9 i ; ' ,. ;,ll ., illt r Lrlf,j 'r, I

c, lucrui fi teNoane iumite dupn creaiori de opere de arfi Bau dupd personajedin istorie, legendi. literal,urn. artn etc.:
o a:desa. / un l1.in, ln di.il,a!,ori a Gdin:booush l- trn lal,lotr d. fiainsb.roLLghrl n /udas (:xn trlLdr'tor d'r lrtteni) th. tiadn\s o/ iird,.. l: nia.ii linaiciaril a .th!ll.cl2 l-r^ riimnril rdnilo, a r-eLtt I, n stliuic a z.ilci Ycnusi o ien,fii. caccplional d-A irumoasrl: It wft a -r-dDls../r ol lio nloodhonnds .lnd .r lerlc..

s8

B, SUBST.\\TT\TE ABSTR{CTD CONCRETE SIJBSTAI.iTIVI' $I 1) Sut,staDtiyele rete (Cant:rett,VolnsJ numesc .obieote'{ mdtecl|, riale (persoane. din aninal'.. plante, lucnrri, fenomene evenimente realiprin simtotea inconjuritoareetc.) de a ciror er.istenln putem da seama ne

ss

t J-l4na-. (kritl,atouqr. o.lebN lrorl.rtisi si pclsagisi enqlez lltll-!7331 ' ' .// r ok.-p F. ' d ll. d \ idi ,r, .r .' t...,. i r ". , , |. . : . ,t .t r.. , . .,- .. ' T 1 .,d,... .t,{ t. t... r vP/i 5r l . I tt,un rt ds l. , r { &r l $t c t it lul r i z e r r l t h crgieza Ldianicd l\l:) il' iil:

l0

2) Sulstantircleahsbaotef,{6slrdrt rvod r/ nunesc acliuDj,stdri. sim- S 10 lnsu;iri, relalii etc-rconsiderate no.iiuni: ca ldmintej senza_tii.
l.iour rcst hcalth

N otd Unele substantiv absl,racte au si scisu 6chimbat:


' , |

con$ete, uneori cu in!e14

$ 1l

4 r lr ' ur . o/ il 'l . li. , i - i, . r ' , , u b r n ', i d- li. ' ! l- . br r r .. l ) , I a' " . ! Ii 1- . , . r i, r ' d61. dr n ar ' aL. lt "l ) . I J "r ' P 1 ld, . / o" r . on, r , nr l: ni' , b, . , I ) ,,,.",",""

'u , . , '

I : .ro,,,"t. ri,,, *r

" i "v

r _ .h i r " l r; (.,1 .,ra,,) , i n ,j In " .t..,r .on. I 1 "t

C. SUBST.{NTIIEINDIVIDUALE$I SL;I]STAN'TIVE COLECTIVE

S 1'

pot fi: comune,atit concrete si absi,racle, clt Substantivele cindla singularnumesc singurobiect: S f3 un 1) indiridule flndiridadl Norrns)

.--" {i}i'j {ffl,.

,{r'jntx:s,r "0",*.,a: {;'.:'#* {l;i:" {l*r {R'i'""


g 14

J .t,pr I to $n

J lilr t odk

J sl oon I l ],]' t

2) coleetire (CollectieeNouns), cind la singxlar numesc o pluralitate de ,obiecte' identice sau similare, privite ca un tot unitar:

---k {i:?J

{Veziii 5 3) nume de materii li do mase conorete (Namcs of llatter dnd. Concrete S 15 ,MarsJ qi nume do maso obstra0te (Ntlnca of Abstact,Udssr, clnd numesc mateda, substanla sau mesa unui robiect.': I col otr I mill I dir( rcv-a I sold 1\\inI m"ir 1 sour 1 tubb. | . o. t . , I k noil, dee I t,l-\L:on | ;n.ell:L nr,l t '.",,,., 'e'Im'" 1ir'iroiojrh\ 1mur, "-",1',"" Obseraa!ii a) Unle nume de n&terii de$mncazis,;obie.ite corleclionate din mate S l$ riile respeclive5: t D.oss al,iDnrie. aliirnril isurnanli\' colecli\'l 1: (: otJic.t.dc alami, alAol,'{nii,,strurtrrrtp ,nL,zirale alrr,-rr dc D/a-.sds d;1Druri,
l rzdic,rd: a u. lit or nl lla nn oor , f r r . et . . r . prbL,l gi,g,,: ' s , s 1 . sLnl esrldril,'i {1. alniarf. ploal. (t. gl.a41:. c n i 'L (1. p,'Lsari. 3 rtrrrl.V, (!on.r.il guoi; (abnrac| l]|{(i'ri. uosLji. iidicnri. rroNfBui 1. '\ ': ' a4 l. - " np tl:a"tu". t r r oa. tof riii. liri l ' Trrd ., 6 i\ ' n, r ' I r ''. ': . r ' r 't l / r . i ', : "il"r r r nglezeDli resleclire.

.u"'",.," {$i",i:#-iir: {ffi;ii#"'{ilit:itil: { Bill: 86)

I auiien,er I ili(hl, 1 p ro l c L a ri a t sdl arv 1

r ltock 1 te,m

20
" ' , . 1, 1" 0, , o J n t: I p r" r' I rrP p n nt:I r1-h" ' 8 l echi , :i i ;", ", o ,r.;\ 1: bani m a ru ' rti m" { d n tri l rro J dnr| ol d e m' .ri p : " r ' i \)l ,i " ri d rl d- ( : t n ! r na., o o e rL n n l ) r/o :* s L: r , anuei os l i n z i , o l h ' l a ri l ifur l: lcrl aL i;n (: rtr\ li.r de celcal) ;n trons (: in lanlu ) (vezi ii S 30) precun 6i Denumirile pro{:luselor naturale, prelucraie sau nu'
/ PI ) i \ ' 1, " b lFr ' o' ' /. /:r' lnr 'o 1' .LiLk. LtrLtt/r. .h"r'sts, , l (lr1 Lh rn, dn ,k, go05e!t nr k er . por llr J , er r '

A lt

din sini ea alinLent', dsimiiate, puncr'de vedersrairi'"l"i.i"te ",'l-ri"r""- numele de matem: natical, cr.r
i, ,.' : '-r.-.'r'tJ,i .dp.'oi. ,.u" ruu-. r'ip" \uod'o'k r' .(' \irl"ru" Ii". ".ln,on

;i ale

s 18 51e

Il. SUtsSTAr'Tl\'ll NUIIERABILII $I SUBSTANTIIII NE\UNIllrtABlLE NUItI]riABILITATII


tCOUXTABII,ITY)

ln qran,atlr" moJ"rna,ir .ritFrr - .irp stau ld bazdimpdrlirii subslaomai su . ' a.ddaug"t ur' ' rrlprru,nou loJrtp^urrr .i'"lor r"r' rr.gor iiJeexpuse ln riamari';, 'i dF'i qi In 'lru' lura lrmbrr engrFzc: ,,enltu ur;e.1la-fe ii)',,.rliiu", d s bsh;t;IPtot (cour10b'tttsal '\atnsJ'

{20

SUBST,UIIIIX NU IjRABTLE (dbrca lNl)


(coulitlBrE oR cogNT NOttNS)

sPr

hoLJ s. ' t" + tJs foni l i es, n I 5ubs ldl li \* 1 , a a : I' ttc t, n b ' rrL ,. [t o' N " " obrF Lpl ' pa carF i c (l a ,t . j. t dpot sF l . .i n l .o r.' i ' l Prr " n d n l td \;1 " JFoJre'' *" U" - ; , uJ d e nun, es 'cP ou' f r ; n,i 'm;ra t" '"* nump' " bi l " tu ,-i l orn' d, de p t* o ' i u b .ra n l i ! ' ' ' d ' u rtt o tL tIn l a tn t,t' n a | n { 3 du d" i nl ucuttorrLecP sl ural " qoY a s;t,3 t ' t ot lr ' *d" ot nurnP rsbrl e ca r" . t er i' . , i' i, " r P ro n ' rl u i r " rb t r J i ri n ' l i ! a r sLD ' l dnti !el or

1) oeracteristiei.

s22

2) Crtegorii ilo substantivo numerabile' qi ,q.iui ini"a, rn genere' majoritaiea substantivelor comunel conorete. nunlrJ"stul dc msrPd" substantrve i,'ai"ia"af.,.i. r" fri'lic d" 'on'lc\l u ' .rc apsrlin.elorldltF,aregorii rr-zi S i r' l:ll 'rl
d. J

, ; " ) .;

, ti ,r

-a r.,,p" . : . '

ib oF[ "". ]n ,lDj' 16

r hd

k': h'. d :jJk'" d srtrt'r -

r r ' i- bf l

| d ' " ' pi o n 'o u h ' . , . ns: j1 ,"i; 'n " 'o)ii$ ' " : , " lllg

- 'o u g h ':

h:rd'k ; -

t r*

! v r nt Fr dr a

s2 3 se t

SUBSII\TIIX

NllllullDB"ttsIrn
(UNCOVNIABLtr NOU\S]

f4D4! ATl)

t) Caraoteristioi. lntr-un Lilele numedc materii sau de maseoorcretcpot li rlcnumerabile(s38)' l lnlercsurui sd eu modiricarea i'""i S:ol .""#;i;;;;;il"'r'i "ii"i

!l

de,r+iD,osFbirpl,linr'" d', ' p,clpgorii F - h1rl" 'ub'ilJ 1i d"'iereu oe Jutr irrr'n1i' \^'brrnrulur sr dcp'rroP limLr jrl 2.,r,,l .orrp"o ". -rLlar/r
d, r, , rt nplt d t r!: 5u b"l ln li\plr li!l,t. n. \ ' 1, ; , ' ; , , 1; n- . n; . lnu :ht.r. l '" o ' 4dt ^t ' s . [ L r ' 1. j' z n '" J 'i n l h o n . 't o r k i o n 'L 'l 'r r r / hoLv' rru"rp_

$25

i tu ; ; ; i r ; ;;;;;;;'"i i "cr F ra r.' "i1 rp d"num'r. r" f ^ r r; n u " " r" ' r : i d e de lluril form; au. '^-' in mod obisnuit. iiu se il" au ieclt lo"ma de singular3, construiesc singularul'slnt in "" snerenume de iranimat'e dcci de gen neulru' '"i ' nu nonilmernbile au articnbl nholnrit a/alr.(: olre)' l,l Sobsturrti.,"t" etc' r ** iia"r .i'ii"i"". ,qstlelnu sc poatespune darktL':ss'[an' ^ oirel':xs ^ ncrrumrrahile 2) Categoriiale substantive d, Numelo sportwilor:
, r. , ui' l o- roo b.,b o rrugg r. . :i. L . .o" nr . , r i . " ldl l"l 'o lob - - a" r ' g \ r or 54 l J n '4 rporo r ''q ' 'l i l i 'g r 'h \

s2 6 s2 7 s2 8

Acestea nu au dectt forma de silrgular fi se conslruiesccu singularul llo's $ 2 9 6/ \umclo rlc malcrii 'nrr de a.e rorrlrcl' t ll')1 1 ut ot 'an r I lnttttaLrl"oi s//r'l 'r' JU n.umrr s,noAP,t;ot btr un la ol -\'orr, )c,:.r'or,., qi stni -consideratenenumcrabite deodrce obiectele pe ii'"'".'ai. ci numai rsu*Le De asemenea'ere poi li uu-r*t". ;"";;'i";;;;; "i"n"t,i. ",i nu au nici articol nehoiirit.
A

intr'un contoxt ii Nume ile rnaterii son ilc m:rsecolrcrcte enumerlrbile ln numerabile rltul (Vezi S15) INN] nunar s3.
rcffe-" " f : catea boabe sru lfionraie (matc.Gl I (,n J te ' i ' ) l: ha! t ur d r = ftrnzele de ceai uscalc {m,rl.cfle) 1 -- biurura (narerie)
I I !uDi( ili llidul) {nL rryi )

S 30

tNt s8. ti Pl. I sE itl , o ('.+' 1 'ur 'af.J Indi\idrrnl

Ieo

sor,.

./,,"r,. {:fl:l:lirX,
I 'e,s,

| i nl. t I ss. | I rl I I sc. I I p1I sq . | I lJl. t

{' o i , . . e l , . o / l e d : i a l '1 " lin ,Flrri, ra_ i o n , {j ' t r t i L m 'r e . i 'l u) teri l / , = L o , P a r cI ' {, o n c . r t , i n d i v i i l u a l l t x i c a 'i . a t e g u d r / 'd \ : t e f i i d, "ri l,ndtqi' ] .ou, : 1,' I rrfurn ' ul strPr Icor' rct, iri,l,lidurl) soa?s: torlii de supir !l $hiskY *f t i s / . r : l u n p i h e 1 . o , "t . i n d i \ i d u d l ) , 'l 6 i , e : ( ', a l L u P ' L l \ h b t . Y ( ,u , r r . t , i n d i l i d u n l ( m i r ' a I

ci rdrio """'j;in:,':;l':;"':'ii*iLs'"1.i;']'.';u.","".rie ri raaiorereroDie. {s 38), ** 1T"i$l ca sc i**i'"':!'" 1s{!5-1e') cnre comro,,A ur str,gu,a. **"l,Tli#illjtl"l.? ""* -.*, in rrl,rnda.

deii cu torml ilc plurnl. aN"inleles de singulaf qi se 'onlro'te cr al'al'r: "\o

a,,r,/,e./ i:,t:lli"i'SiJ'liffi;'"".' ir suA 'i

2?

tNN]
b/?t

tNl
0.7/s- caresofii de cone de p1. ,.'cs: \'iie perlN;j in abaiof (indiljdual - matelel

ca.nc .a al'm.nt (materi) dc peqte o.t aliment

:.iarne

: ptine . . : piine pr'ljiin

a.ars : categorii de can. {niateri.) ss. a /nn-w tetl e {.onc.ct. indirid{al) : rreFtilconcFl, .ol'rliv) /;rn !1. /isi4 : spacii d-" Iftli lindiaiduall pl. ,re&ls: {Ielud Ct l,iirc) ss. d t asr - un toist (la un bi!! {abstract indiriiltral) pl- lrsrs : toasrurl sn. 4 cians. - o s.himba.e labsl.a.l, irdividDal) sare h cl i mi c tt sa. a rol :o n,edicin[ l.onoel] n!. rolk : Epsom saltss,snrelling satls. (individual)

i l
(mndiment)

'- mtuunlii, bani nil.unli = sa.c naluau

: gaze naturale (pPntru iluninat, saitit 5i lncelzil) (in SUA) : lenzind pentrtr

"*

(in chidie ii m.di' gi,i,!,:*., (Dasdconcrtl,indi{idu{t't)


areind.i? : 6bi0ie de arcint: m;nede de arsini lcol.otir) pte.es ol siit./ = norelc de

(nrteri., nasn .onueta)

pr.

dsint ({zi S r lt)

s8. a snod (elc.) l@": (matde,mrs, cotro..&l pl . (eonc|et.indi{idnal)

qiftt {lo

I : uana dc mr.1 , o n rre l ,1 .i n d i .

tl .

bl ane reni N (onl ..[i i r l r.: a fu. cap.( fb ioet, a fv stolectc. /rl ry: spq rr, .i l i l rl i e]. de bl .i nurii oni r' ti or.t" : a /onrol lurs: Shatl 1 tdke n! f\tsl

; )r",ill .i:; is k t,n,,.t thp,, rn (- re'!.ia loarte ahesitos. dfv.nil'i }NNc .fl0l.,"L sar rol)ula'rl . t l l" r ' r a- n ?i' r . . ' r ir ni r r " t D.-n "l . . lum . . F , p " r l r u ) n ,ll ,q .oltr . . r , r r J , . aniq: 1 t ^ f l 'l p r r i .ra h modi). ..fnr

sat r.reciij J r 'r u l d . . " i a

cu ,.r;1. icinrn,Ll dziiri in -\ng!i{.

: 1t:*.111i'i"H:9) lb:i"$iii.l"1!.ii'fli:'"Xlii".*u,' -*""" ';,jil'iil

'B

l \N l
ai r, r|Dorlf.ar {ixtci .o.rPL:1j \ nr b1 t ^ t. 1 ,. o n t lLP. r ir . . ^ t s. .ft lLe ot - . trt\ln]l |J dif . n , , r i, , nt l !l

i\ l
d t . : r . . . . r s t i f l . : , a a '. o / .'nftt: . r. rc prt \ n ntt, tn Etor d \ i 1 r i F {m '\ 1 a a , l t , 'r . : jndiridLLai , e,,/i kof,.fl.; sln o ta$idi dc lrnal,l:

tn

I;o r rPmcrtrlr.r our JtpAs ,. lr,, ln.kf. mom al school? mtiiare /tix insJ!. rl ,ili niasit ibI ri flrig nrrli iCl," = Q(iXfr i ; ? , t r . r L i l n t r r i {i , a l e g o r i i ! : ;rr r!flin s.ump|l: ,dt,n : cosl.urul unLli joc\eu ( l n r i r ! i i P - p . a ln r r u l d l l l ' s r \ dLLlxi 1.. p!nirr cn.. alea.grl

.,

( 1

mitrs! (dasA couf,eLrl

!!

\.ezi 3i flann.l. li!r'r./ (S 146) pertru direrse nume d' rnaterialebtrcbuin iu (ariic'rl de) illlbrnrinlinte (,i ca sinbol n,i 1^t" I" pi;;;l "".'"*"t 'si "u-ii

- ""li "f"iilliii'i1;**.

. s a rr n u l L t" " . ' 9 t l to' r fot .i tn natl ' ttod ri " " r. "i' . i" i- p, " r , ' " " InrrnJ J-dl er" rrhudar/ n ;tt,, nut ni- ot l t - i n r' l e l F ^ n ' ti ..to o t-ti tl b r' r' u ri rg ' r]0 tu r' \' " l u ur' l F f crF l rs rorr' l rfa ul . pr nn -.ru i p d e ri | |ulu" li r: * \\h3l a/ d/( l !arr a c ,ta qF r at or j l, .,.d l e x n r:i d Ir p to d u s -l mor' rron ll0) ,rab. etc.) have vou todayl" (Vezi 9i S -,tni-"i"r". '--* L r m at or r " lp a n i mc l " ru L l rp l r n u rn ' . d u bl prp rr' rrFbui ' r11' pdLpl ' ul n sau L o n r . \ lul ip r el" r l a c l ' ' i l d e l p rn p l a ' p d i n spF' i ' ' ri r rrrcror dnmpi r' ^ la carnea lor ca alimentl: nune de nateri c [\N ] nume de animale [N] (origino fran(ezd) (odgine laxonI)

de sint ,\cestpa asin'l. cu nunere materii $ 3 r

ar

P"nrrirob'"r'.tii g;n"r.l" - '" r'dca $ 158

162 $39

or. .oe (< Ochs,Kuh)


iL/ ; , d lnu me tolPd i\r f olor jt in ' om er l, T.ntihnie ctc < ,s.tr '.tnr

flcsl 1< r&,rn) tNNl

n.ar lo.jgine nr c.td) I\\l

.{dI

anini nul'r'
.

tflth . . , ". t . . \ r o 1r te.L "E.r : "' - r ' .1 , - - or . l , , , t r i. dl . *""t,i.. e.a r",l i r i; r ' . , - n '" 'J l ll\ind vid ldi'|.sli//.ub . ' . 4|' iv . . U"|. I \ \ ' ' ' d' |U. . , ' ,

'

',.4 l d \ a

, 'r '" r '.-''''. 1 / l '- r l " r '

d r. , , d " m 1 , d . -

10' {' He s'//' s/'rIl llliil-;1" Jilli,|Ji,:'"' ^


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,.,:,:;;, ,:,I ,.;.,..: ,,. ." r, ri ri n .rl,_ fr ",f;l;f ) ,,


.r rdc. ,ir? \ ' ' . ' , , r i \ ' i: i: :. '.i

i i;:frti; li.:';1l ltrld'''llii;ji;*ti'r:;,'":;i:ri : lli'"' irj'


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r4

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. ) PIuIt.l6.\,nrp.lil'ilo. i DjrJrrrivelpar' l" Llp um"" i"r r'imild ' ' pr:i. El' au nur, ,i lurmi d" insulsr' '.on'rruir.n u sinsuld' ,, l;;" ' ru rul ";-;l; .inJ.F rahtri la .p la', r,ci'au pr^lu FlPpr'omF LrDrrp{rrrrprnJ slu..i batc ttnmerabLt frunze, semin1.,e), e') cereate:baieii. cornl nlaizc. milld, rice. rve $trcat etc'; E c c e p 1i e : ools, umai plural ti acordat cu re$ui la plural: 't u t.',i ai plon! .)r'imo':r":.sra$av. rol"rv. dill. rFnnol r':Jtli'' "t lJur.l..in'p"pp'|mi1|'l,l|.|"\.'\Ub"rb. e") tegutn:tel de s'nEo- s1n\ (numerubilecind ne rclerim ia specia insiii: nu d{!ii lorrrrn Iar construit cu singr.rln|ul; 'ri'nd r r"l-rir', l1 pdrr"J 'r,'"'rrbir" r-'l' i "p rir';' - ii, ii,i.,ii't" .o'rpJ'a umnl rrd-lrntll 'r auo-l lLbor.ulp. lrd.l p'...1laauoInrn aili sinsxlarprF."Ja o" arli.olur n"hu';tr- rr '' plur'l: pl,rrrl ri ,s b\tn ) 'r t rmd d"ir'-'rrlar ir' un'l 'r'r: | ' "p .,6Dng fN\'t Do ron til.r .arlnsP." rh, ;LL":",p.1 t\l I ooJ._h' o b g "rbb'6. lo J{.r' " to .' a b b t p t4
| .' l ;/ / o. ' * \ \ r."d t , 1. , 1; - . p. . s lt l 8 " rt' :l l a ' P' Sh " ,.i rl h s rd l J ' m) t .l ' uE

rtl i fLo-

sh l ' ,J l ou"

ii. ;i,:1.') l,n'il lJ,i''"""iilT' "l;,:il'%i"",'l'Ii;.,i r' 4 " ,'*o I mi i " i tI


d d " s rn ;$ _ oul ' l r iii o ,i ont ll S D " Io u _ -' a a anoa, pt . + [ \ l " ,,r,'-n J u 4 o n J l ra \F l o i 6 ^ f v ' r ' rmrns

i s,:n, lffi.))r l-'iii'L#fi,il.Tl'*.,,, ba,a, ,\F:r

s34

\ \ nn I rn . h J \p ,o " ro :n ]o u t .d l rd' ,,n o@ t \ \ , ;.. , , ; , pi - " t \ l r ;ma ro P \a " F L n e - n g In ' p " i n ;: B t u s ' Ls s t ' t o u ts J re n u md i fo rm a d . p l urhl pcsrd srru' r!: b i m b a .u l o ru l i r' l nl pi ul 1rr d Un" l" . u6" r J n i r" ;1 i | ,,,/ j\ Nl{ ll j :p frr' T h i . b ro o \o !\.p rL ro omi ' l " pP " " i n,t' ,,,,, l oudonI l '.;;; ; , , . i s r ' d d " i rtu ., I\' Ih ' d rs o " ' u fld " rr' 4s Io" l un" h: bur " y o u to u l " ; ' f 4 r0 " " 6 rn " o r \' cpa!l ' mdno$ I :r' ' r . r r i^. J . O bs er v alie Toate substanti!le de la capitolul c-) pdsircaze lorrra de 'lingular etnd au funclie adjecl,ivah ($ lijtj):

.i r$ii Tlrii*ii"ffi :lf Al ;;*r'; ";;.:; *::rlMu*ql'l-,; ;, j;r rr!:il :l :


olill:"i " nn.!,. | "I;:';"' r t ra' ""'ii,ii,lrli, ,*,;1,'? ' , , . r ) : r r J aP ( l- o r nlb"r d r '"
' .-.a nl, ip,'-, ! i/r:;qh ct(1 1. sl o 7i ! 5 ,1. ? l..l gr./n -p \ ir , ' i S s ( j\ ' 0 PraTnL . t{d. '

: i tflii:",',,-,1;,""1; :,r,6;

: tAb " tro 1 ll os \" rrsrr l t . \ Lr \ ' 14 d n o \ 4 l ):to tt '' tnri ro' ^n' .tu r' . h ts td !, 1 i t" r4 ttt1, rn n t" l ' ;t l Ltl o' aP fu. paP tt!t' o Dtl n t t . . t r . t r c Lol, ! e \rl tanattt' $s tan4' kna| t ti to i ;". . t v u' : . s " ; -n ' ,. o \. t)o ' | ' . h ' o | l h l ' a ' rui onnprc j ' . ta tttl tc t' s l ' n " n.rm' rrbi l " 'i r.. p , i" . , " or ' t , .' ' ;ttn ' l oi tr' r dp. inl u rH r.i .-.o n " l ru i F ' ,r,' i ' c u l a ru l. ,t,i tr' t " . ' " turt anti n nt . ti ri ' oroi " t ,rl ri n ra \i n !tu l P ' l g ) 1ot . i. i. in' Etr.ol0. r\sia.Engldd. Iloliand: Boslon'N'q'Tork; ['larc]i, Jtrne. eic n sti i 6 si ' i r" umrrd J u " " rrl a ' r, L tri - t a rr " t, ) | d :' 'u " tr ' p i r,l -.t. rr rJ r" l l utal dl dr" r:rrbr rom;' ;.sp n u m o ro rs p , z u ri l p sp " ' ' . , a" ' ' " , " . i" i , r r . .i ' g u l o r i n l i mb . a n p l a ; ." " 4 ' / i l dFrt' ' Fa/; pe rrn rrndu ,l 're r r aJ ' r . 'r .;tor nea\.iznt. Pntiu a so da numai citel'a r'mple: inslltc - abuse a.Li 4 s fa tl ri alaceri - butrncs aplauze -- aPPtdure ' .'mran1| musaiiri
( o\' i. 01.b,ltl P

s3 5

s3$

t - , , r , ": r ii iniormatii inloF,alii se*ctc .unoitint'" despfc stire friri ljeacuri. litust'r rrogrcle crmli(ri'"uri .hele

no", ^- 1, - infotmd ti'nl - intaUilenu k:dge of -k'ot - Ptust"s bbih --sLalPitl ldughter, Iit.

""

Pluralc cn irr c-templclede lrai jos, intilnitlr lrcrent in traduceri, slnt inad.rnisibilc:
{b,s.s. adripi. ittl ,r,s'r, ir1,rii,{tion.. kno\rle{lg.s p.o3'ess'r. lLome\rorks.slollingJ, I} eic

Nume de mase abstxlcte ucnumenbilc intr-ut contc]lt li ntr eralrilein altul

S 3E

tN \l
nr."r,dily : nbsd.dil.rl!

sg.tL Pl
pl. pl. r" o l r' r.l ttl t to ti !tr .au i l i tmdti F a b .!rd dI 1,oi rcr. i ndi \l n' ,111 : d ,.aur1J o fruntr'scte (.oncrctl Rodrnian PeasantFotner olten arr : f/i'.J o comranie, o so.ictate com,rcialil (con..cL. 0ole.l.iv\ : on.nt e (cotelnill (concrei); : a miscrau! 2i..1 .l humdnnY o bialir eparl unian'i umanisiice d.d fun;,t,ir : Etiinl,lc
.ole, iisc lczi ! 10, l:1, 14

tNl

.omld ,, : tu r dr , t ie . . r nl, ni. . 5 0rie tdtP {a |\t . dulli n, us ar r r L I hear r:ou h{d .ampan! yc.'

l;
!l

: vezi S t 1t.

r PentN subsiantrvele abst.aclc. irditidtalc

tli

t NN ]
Mdi, il,, lclrrilir'. lflf ionr.l lh(e lt M, bt.nd'rtst lI ntlb rl lttl

iNl
d {sctlr -r1rn 'rdio i.onofe1.indiridr.ll tlrrv i neF racro.

(:

rr) th. Tutn on (aff, io(n. HarP ,j.n sot the t'1ktt tlP.s

ir r ' i. dL Ll{ r .,, . sl.rll L. r r /1 ". t uaF lat lie h' t " srr.(fd r / rt t -dp' i: l' . in J n' lli ' 'n ,\, tta .,ri r , r, J n' / , 9' N' f l . n|! l ,in rrn.'r = n 'rrn I lo, r r f l r r r pr c i' r I F labr ' 1z l11l t].t,i!ion li\it ? ' t ' I li: ! il r j isi .'h \tr., L;l ll l'ut t rn ktP"t ra, tt ('! ,'/ h ! 1- \ I n' t iniPht Jl,n ll l. L)itllal s.. ln' tenni.snuchot tPt'rEL'n

aroorn-o

catl e.i

hon.rt. i ndi vnl ual l

{;
r.ieoisn,r fs.rlr : apdr.1 (1" TV i!on"ei,

ili,'ll{'ll
1"

ru' ,r" reresion,onisiir?


,r lel.luion

o,i (oll. do$r, ull

il,,r"ii*: "

indiri I niilri(on'rPt,

lpl

,arrl6- tnrli

!39
,-

CateBorii do iubstarttilc PI9!'l..n.,frl. alrslr'actE

' ,iole.t'!e nuN n. 'ndiridu.ne

indiridrale .ol.cii!e

I
l\l

t\\l

.-....1\\l

s .10 s 41
l, DpIi'li!io. 5

tII.

{iB\UL

SUBSTrt\TIYriLOR lG nJ rl ir' :r" r"' t," p":li'l

l\TRODl-j(lliRE

: "'",1 il\i','lii "1.""'"' l; :li;,ll::;'l;::ll.'.i'-ii,i j1";:i'Ll' aro patru gc.urr: grflmrtica englezd' Gramaticn eiglezit
2) {icnu le in niascutin, ferninin, romu!L qr rtelrtru

',u"'-'l-

c4i

,''

.':l:ji,l:i .i:i,i:,-:" ,'^::.:': ,.,,"i...:;'1"1,,:'';;, . ';;,i ,r'.1,n*;,i:.'"": i:.


dprr,l r-l'. ' - tI t h lt d n :lr h to t

r;l t';"lit i'l'"li:':r :iir,:l/. J",.";:: ij ,;'j;:,;il ';l;iJ;1,, I :, -; ll',;i " j'11''"'';' ,;i.;j"i'i,,,;l ^",t:""*'i"l ""

a/ Substantiyelr de len masculin ( llasculir,r: Gnner) numelc fiinle de


r.rla. lrfro Iandlord

S 43

,/

Substnntiv.le ilp !4
gi Ntrcss h. r o' n.

fcminin (frni
laDdhdr"

in. GPNler nume"*ctiinte de )


Ia.

$ J1

,:1e ../ !.n (onun (Catnnon Gender au o singuri for n ) -<ubllnntirle trrrrlrtr nnbtlo serie:
..nsii triPd'! f l-rii. c l, ild puPr i t ! ac ! ! ef I upil

$ 45

Srlrttdrti!.lc de:tn n tru ()tut$ '.1./ flinrp .'l ?t or . , I pc l" jo,r


' "\ book s!.'xg

ninsu &ntlcr ) numescohiecLe


oti r,r inl"rFj"a71l

.s 46

"pF. ir r . ol lr de

estcrdlulal. cu alie cuvinte $ 47 [oderniLsenul Eramatical lrr lirolr eneGzd p ,,r unFlP et r.trp.ru I. t.,rlir-" li: tlor1n!61-,.,trgorii l,;ulo-i, dupJ .p\ or.p1ii care. tccn.i prir {balrea lor de la regulii. atrag ateniia asupra prezelrt;i uni interprctnri sdrtilo. scmnificati!. in intenria vo.biton ui (ceea re elrcl.rii r., r,., ur.ra\,. t. \,p. pru,FlFU :'at: 'le obi.,; ,iLitotului l" ls o r.clrli obilnuitn np.,\i/J. '.,tr rl r un i'l"r', J .rn,pld .\"1,i"

0'""it;snl

*'ill

",t*t

se e{p,imnprin nijloacel,ri.dl saulranaticale.


FJ\PRESI.{ GE\ULUI

s4 8

A. tr\PRgSL\ LNIIC,ILA.{ GENULII ,\rcsl capitol Inprinzind titluri de politele, profesionale. ororilice. nobi ! 49 Ii'|- .,u di.tir.i|l a,"rdrt" p"r',,r rFrir. .t.'p;i ,11c. in 'en.r. supu'P unor u/.r,le i r-!Lli J. "rlolr3li- lrnro ol.rp.p-.rfl'..rlrlur,r d \or rplFrl rru cdluril. r'"nrioi,e . i,i i trP:i ur ii '' r;ilurr:i Pdirori.onla { .l U" '" .implili'At. 0minli'e 7r roela indi'51rrle .l'i"r. ;-".' r-'p,. cl ii - "'l ',u ii i. .. rc"o,i,r".l" . r'inilor:a l. "'n""r",Ji ' ' l" 'pli - -rn l" o b" "rtc side . ln co trast cu limba romnnd. u de cele nlai 1l llasoulill si fomirlin. multe'subsl,antn'; au lonne diferite pcnlru a marcn dcosebifea de gen. tn limba rElezd majoriiatea substantivelor au o singuli formi atit pentrr.r g"n rl r'..i"ulir'. . il :i ppnltu ,.1 h-init ? u rpndinls,jlr^'o I i!Fl'r" in ld\odI'un r i"a t"rrn.l"r d" me. ulin, prphrulF."lor le ,inine Toluir. rr ' zul Lrnui reiat;\' ;c de substan|ivi, Iemininul se dcosebe;tde nasculin p n: a, uo sulil adiugat la lorma de nasculin ru sau liri altl modilicare l) intrebunrlarea a doui cuvinte diferite; .t .onlnon"i"o cu un cuvint care indicn serul; d, aite'nodali$fi de a se indica genul (gramaticale,prir contert etc)'
L Prin ,,hnba erglezi nrodcmiL" inlcltge linla enlrlzade la anul 1500pitri azr' se : genrlui .onnm. -\pa.iiD dcLi

$ 50 $ 61

&) Ge aL marc&tPrin s lirc: .Safirul -ess: mascuLin fcni'nin


atb.,
a.lol adlenl!r.. imt' d sa '1.. i' rlhor t)aro' bpnpi{rt.r r,nd!.tn r t,oml, d. rt r .luke t ml t?r Pn.har tf,r Iound.. siart god leir lannd er./ lion nrLlagt. J nrarquB ,

masculin
msl4r m,'trn' millionaif. ncgr ldtron ! o. t ldcst prince prior Droolet irciriet"" i'.oi""tsheptreFl sonAster steNard

femtnt'n
- misi.ess - malotes litroin's - lorrPis.-lrtewAs - Prtn@ss -- Proptrcrdss -lropriekess* -Protrcclr6's' shelhdills son8stess

albas

arl\ent r r r Ar Jmb 6s ar t $' L rut nor es r - , laronas b 'rieiat Ps s - , d oc l( o) r Ar " duchas rmlr'?er - gtallesr -g oo u4s

rrr

- l*"':'
lioD"s nunagerdss m"r.hioness

-sllward.ss ticresr

.i.-"r waiier
ivar(lfr

- tFeount"-; - rart.css
-sddrtrs

li.tiii:'*-,[]"l,lll;iHm:.
-undergriiod4,e,'

- Nlarin(r srltan Jo,' - dond It l hrr sfdi ol F.: dornn, l a rnrnal srgroru sirno/ rliuui itrlicne) ncro P anl -P aul l ue undergrndue/. (glur!rJl

Doui substantrve au mascun ul fofmal' de ]a fcminin:


fhi.le) sroo bride widowa $'doir

S 52

b) Gennl in(licdr prin cuei e diferite: lasculirr

1 dai,r -

l sn,ql e rl j l l

,a ,," l:liii:i.lii' 'iardloa.' 'e"ilu'jc'e i":;iil[;:: #,1:.,l]'t..::l;' liTi:ill'irli :1,

!9 c 4 n qlc z at lc l r J a S ,ro l a s u b s o l' ' l ) 1 o rn ' a d !

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..rt|.,nr,.,rr,/,ro.r..

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sa,,.a\,.a,in'1 :""::1"1xT'J i'li' ;.Ji,i;1111i;il'"'.ril"l"ii-" tns'mnara o'isine
'"il"Li- ".rlut*ij"lotu'iroare*
J,

x9

Iria.. I

Iinga
lad

llrs

\liss. lI$ 5, l\ladad{e)

Lord + nune Proprn,3 Stu+ nune !.o!ril3

Lady + rume Poprn,s Dame + nume Proprnrs

j",; ;l l;l' i:t.ll".l ;"i;,# ,,,.,,i';t"0,,,1*L J:9,T,,,i""'i"1 l l ?:, i;#. iliil' ". o'":::i,Yir:':":"*)T'3iX
"'

;i;2";}:^-i,::' ,1.'Lii,;':;";:::. ",,,","u,qi#;o;;:"t; i:[1";i";)':; 0brd\ia" , Lur.d" 'd'J;i.iiil"'{i;is'l"l:r"). ,, .",is" n'u'j '',r.
do
l.ebuieuimd '"ln |o'd ;ad n' ' ' 1"J nnI m "! t oPt i' ' ^m i5un. nd. ' ' | l ] , r soLialA in l"|io ar1 a\o .bi| or U|' |' ' I n. onlr 4' ' ' U||m ba. om . na

rrl':l'' s6 3 )i,",:ii";r;::,iii:,!rrt;:l;jr;i[:iri'Tl'u.{'i'"";r on;i::,'


"in, ry L":r

:1i,"nob pnr'"/rl. o,r, . ,-a n,n,,r rmh p ,n r,u

''iill"'i.i.,i"l "il"l;; :x,l;I'^x.: "iili'"g;"9::'1,"1".";i"': '1 li,'i"b"l,?;'Lli i[';ii3":j-I'?{iI;,il:l'iTiTi'i:':"""f;""i.ri"3,,,'i;;iii"';'llli " er". M,'. Choi^i,
-" ; CriA-;i;t;,"," prorrrii. accstesubstaniivaLriniliale majlscule: Pdpd, Mnnmd'

: i i: *t-[i"1{"',r: !ii" :'i;t::', ,)l;?;,':.i.'-1ii;,1?,i'ii "'r"r:' ";:'t ::f'; ",:,# ;n';


';:i"j:1"'#,1'1,, lll:iF':i.f;:,?;" lij#i"Tl,l,1l;"i;"
s6 - b:t rit;. i, r ".;r ,l?t,*[l'1"ili,:y:r ;,',*.,,; ;;,1,]"r ^:,i"il 4 i.""11,S
bF ilU md'.inn ,'1p dp ldm 1|ip( naiobi' n' ||nn: |d! nr |' ' |' n' . indicet r e aDa rd.|n |im|ld|. ] ' 1lioda|i, ns J d.(nLn"pd. |J m ' |t s n n 9 . . j p ir O li\ i"' . So l i i l u l. t/dy Olr' rkr. ma i d -s 5;" Lo upt u", n' . iodr lr I edv dlivie !. L dlu $ rp or "liiJ r ' ld p r im e- e ( ' r 5 d u r r l n 'r F " 7n ;4i" , . \ ' . / i li Lo' d 1 1t jn urui raror,r "o u deordlc cu o .h.I to td, ' o[ t h' B' it t h Lr pi ) \ n r "t m a r l n 'r ] r a d ro14,ntoodla

' - ' ' , " ! :';") :;"

ol'"i,i.l';"""",.,i

",i d.oori, " , p , r' r, / d , r' n s o , i, b n d n , n r

+#',ij:it;ii;.ii", ]':.';*ik"'r" il;#dfli'["flflH,i r::i:"",'ri,.r

30

$56
Mdsculin

Gen comun

I illJ

{5 6

.) G.nut m.,rc.lt pri.ntr)tn cdfint cdfe Lnd;cd se$ul


FcmLnin
rnd.groorr bo)'' ls a u n'anl run
gifl siud.ni shopgirl

iil;i;; ;: ",-';* :rr,x;1"i:,-ilr-"r r;;,. i,;{.1i, .,,,l'i'ii'l:

ii''i#Ii['i'1'i'* iifri;i"",r iti ," i,';',":i,


,f i, 1i; " 0 i
lin lr\it IrrLFrl.r' r i, i i ''l

:; 1',: illt,:;;;;, 1, ,11;'1,,;1,',


,,:l- ":;: ,'l;
lr l

u ,n ,,ir

3! llasc lin Fcminin

Gen comun

rilisleornc/pl ) shopkce!$l ai rarl nsiro.rut. splce i.lrveller


An i m a l e bull calf

d.c

buUdog ]re bi.d billy-goat

Inll biich

d.) Alte nodalttdli d,e ind.icarea genalui t(mtunr Odat5 cu emancipareafemeilor qi cu lncadrarea lor pe scari lot nrai largd ln diferitele sectoareale vietii cononioe ti socialerezeryatepiri relatir recent bdrbatilor. nxmeroasenume de profesii. funclii sau demnitdli, precum ti mulie substaniile care 6ratd apartenenla ]a o orgflnizalie politicn, sociald, sportivE etc.. au inceput, sA fie folosiie !i la fminin. de cele mai multe o tntr o formi identicd cu aceeaa masculinului. ali,eori cu anumite modiliciri. ca, de pilda, adeugareauDui sufi! sau a unui culint (fcmale, girl,ladE, naiLl. aoman) care se indice sexul: player, Aicountant. clerk.d.octor, (bus .)drieer.engiteer.farmer. mechanic, sritet, authorl paet, lead.er, secretar!,teacher, M.P. (Llenber af Parlianent), prime Minister, captain. Lajor, sergean\ comnunist, socialis!, acc. .hantian elc. sint denumiri adoptate fltlt de bdrbati, cit !i de femei. ltuthores\ atialrh sau arialr?ss. cond)tctress, Ambassadrcss, d,octrest, ed;tress,inspectorcss, mayorcssjpoctess,girl studefi, girl tgp4t, Iadll cashier, laiLA san teoman doctar, Ladg report$, Lady tApist-seffetarA, femaLeeditor, female san watnan naaeList,eaman artist. aoman aeiator, wom&n cLerk, eoman councillar. wonan ruslonler, waman jodrnalisl, eaman Membcr of Parliament, aoman eriter etc. slnt substantive de genul femjnin, dar rar intrbuinlate ln engleza actuali-

s5 7

s5 8 s 61)

,2 Pentru desemnareagenutui len1irii Ia numele dc profsii etc., subsian_ ca din tivele de gen feminin com-pus doud cuvinte scriseseparat.. ln-paragrafrrl precedent, fdrd cratine, sint inlocuite in mod cureni prin substantivele de ren ma"tulin corFsDUnrbrosra mri preris spus d" gen .omun taF rdiugar"r cuvint,rlui.Jrc in.li"a epnul hmirin ,^c*la est" adiugsl, num&i aiunci cind nu se inlelega din conte\t .; esie vorba dspre o lemere: Gemrl teminin indicat prin pronume:
ir P | : . , - , i _ll. ' \ eJ n , ir..S n r Ctnit gennl feninh a D :.t, ' 1 " r -. t r--i \' . 1 ..' -i 1 ,. m\ d' { \ \" .i bl uP )-

5 60

reies.. din c.)ntext. cneintul carc indicd genul este

dactar'a gil tllpist, elc TlcY wrnted to halo a @oDaD \ t tt s ;' l [' i P4 J r" \ rJ n j ' " I n A nE lja ex i s ti o b i c e i u l c a p ri rn a s c .i sorre tri rni sa de o f" mei c une unosn u . ." a i b n m ;n l i o n 0 j n prrsnl eze. dupi sFmndtu16. I'r'n . , r p n- bi

5 61 -

rurss sau llrr"s,spre e\ernplL: ,.7.G. Patker (Miss)' Ilditar", o practicx foarte utila Dcntru FIiiara- -r^;ilnr u cdrp.rrpa 1..punsului,rn "pe iel rn rozurile 1n "siF 1'n1r.i', re ind,'"rd prinrF,,' .ub.l;nrir J^ "n .run "' d''ol. cd.itu, la$!.r, Iibrarian elc. csrc iBalici nalionalitotea sRu provcnienla regio2) Gcnul substantiYelor nali. - Substantivele compuse cu termina,tia - man! lorlneazii femininul prin adnugareacuvintului wrman sau girl.' lll ascnlin
an Dngiish''a'/4 isatr snt.) a D u i c h (,ord' (satr s,rl ./

Toate clelalte substantive care indici nalionalitatoa sau provenienta regionald a unei persoaneau o singur{ forme penhr ambele genufi ,siapa4in aladar gcuurur comun:
lias)0 Eriton Dritisher Bulgar

cantahigians

Uneori. pntru a se e)tprima in rnod special genul feminin. dacl aceste nu reiesedrn contert, se adaugi tromdn sa\rgil 18.adjectivul corespunziiior:
r P o m i a r l /rronr" san gtrl r .l i p a i e s e /@ ,r,i san gtfl l I a Spanish faDmaD sau 1 a T d rk i s h fs,ona, sau sif, st.l ,

I G.P.: Cctoat Ptactiti.ner I ntrdni care p.aotioil medicina geteralil. sin t ac r lpat i c d ld S i0b 'n\L fpliil, I Esn, ar t ! J lm ent e t u\ r nt ' r lr i I i, r i lFlp a D,",oDtazrat din Der.nsnife. : r r r , r b; ": o i1 t..|in\,. "fa a@tr;e;o n - dp la Lan, l, r , t gr 6 Or.nio r -. d " t j n\ h", 1 od, r "4. r . 11 t. , L J I

B:I 3) Ccnul comu . - liriemple de substantivc de gen cornun:


, 'l'rll etistr, artistel rilerk .odrnunGi. .odsh , ook (Iclist orphan pcsidcni eDemy gucst pupil lcotuler render .clalivc mol.orisl ( Vez i f i $ a: - 19. 6ll lrnjrr socialisl, slcakr. traleller lypisl: ris'lo.

S 62

Notd Unele subslaDlive de gen masoulin sau feminin pot fi intrebuirlate ea sJL.lanlived" gcn,nrnun da"5 din .onLe\r .p In'"lFgF,l1r.r ". p rorbr dp h-,ini'r. Din r"ar. i un -ubqtrntr\ .1"gen, nn,unSi nu dc unul '.lo ulin -r,r catrgoh fac parte:
pis lor duck goose, etc,

B. XXITiXSIA GRAIIATIC-ILi A GXNTIUI l) E{presia grarnaticali a genului consti din: p' ,./ to.i brli.sl-d ir'l^ ,ri'ii .ubstantivulLi1'rirr onurr"l l.-,nr'dl cor"..i drldr. rrds ulrr .du lFt]rnir: l, r' -1.r. lr nFr.osrs " :: d
TIrc do.rof Las come. but s/,e is ht.. is out : , . iii u, hour r so . ]Iy.o , it /

ss3
s$4

,) acoldul substantirului cu adjectivul posesiv respectiv sau posibili tnlocuirii lui prin pronumele possiv corcspuiziior. la le|Soara a :l a t.ti :irqular. masculin sau feminin: u'$ :r'onr.rtld w.dins ,ts red tie?
'Uie s/;rel had done l./ iesL lo. thc w.ll Enzetle. 'fh. @.&cr took hoDN lhc pap.N l,hat $c.D niJ. (li!. r.rd.tuf l,hes. notes: Uify re l4-s. The.d, is caling oui or that boirl n-"canseit is rts own.

!6;

c.) acordul cu pronumelerellexiv sau cu pronumelc dc irtiirirc respectiv, h persoiinaa 3 a sirgular, masculin sau femrmn:
vpr, u .ou, l , , h: n+ lf | , l i: | - r . I r J is ,d b y . h , o . ' ' : . r' a.;.0 hq' . . ". b . . , jor ing n, ; 4/ nn "p$as '; so..o lan pmb a Thf led,f./ 1: l$ionai d. lolrall ntns.Jf and .nplaincd the collesc tcam. I was lokl the laael had d.signcd l,Lc.osl,rmcs narll.

s66

2) Crtzuri specitLlc infort $i .7/ird,,;nJ r'-.J Jrn un,.i rn."1rx:r.i ,/ :uh. dnri\Fle baL,J. .. t.rl n r.-J sr-L dF obi.Fi n-u r". mi al-s ir li'rbr \orbil..: t t' , .h brb! .romis i i5 ,rJ:r3. ts Calltlul, clitd and sive it'or: hrnch.
"lhis liflte c,t4, lad tited ni Dr arms a gaod Irfft ol trs sdrall lilc; oltcn I could sel i, io lausli Nlien ttu rnothoi couldn't. "x{v mother dandlcd ae and sms, 'll;w roung i, is, how young'."'

s6 7

r dttisl a:\ artiste slnt sulstantive de gn comnn, dcci antlele lnlrcbuinlnte {til . , " . , mei,"r,,: p.D ru iJ r b. f : o{ ; . ' I o: t J p. I . r gd In l . . t . . u r 9.. r.t dF..ffrrsf., ' r. ,-, di.,.,o1 ldlFrlal', , . r "m r ahDldl- s , "r , u gusl u l i . . l , '. , , " r , " p a r , . t : i . d- . h[ o: l' I o.,,,pi lo rira. u np ori..r Llp' oi. . . ". ulpo"ir J .",. ' I . i , ,,,i .r tr.I_. ..d n rpald' . . . d , n" . 1 , ". ' F o"i" a l ', 4 r r o ' lor *, unlsr uLre dr r.!rcz4 t djii o, t , , bl, ". rll T\rain. ,1 caiLe.ticut Iont.c ,t tintg Lflhut's L.ttt. I \\:.ts. r*cats. Th. Pldy.r Qtt.:.t. j - Granatis limul engreze

34

ir

insn r.este subsl.antil sirt considcrate e mascutine tcmnrine. sau In funclic de serul copiilor r.spectivi: ^dseori
I gar c hly h .r n j l l l : ..n . \6 i rn g rv . '1hat d'ild lL{sr'L ral.n /.ts loridgci fu Nill he &,oldrd aglin.

s 68
$69

D_/PronurnLtr: ne;; s/rc indicii in general diferenla de Fex. Une.rri inlo(uieso tns d nc ulr ul, r a i n c a z u l p ro n u m e l o r n e h o tdri l e: Il ]on aslt a,rrdy iD lhrt sti! t. ne Njll shoiy Iou $h.rc st,etiv.s. rftt. S 114d1 . J S , 11, . , r ti \p l p .r' . a ri m u l c ti n, tu.r, p-.rri . pnc i ci i n.p. rr) ' 1 , -rn p -. ri nl ' - r p . l, s p n p rr" r.a /r' ..l ,r,r,t' rn ' i , r;.n..1i \:' .r-.un,ff' r' : ' ,Js" \ul Thc rrll hid liurl t/s lis. ;\.,//' Nas scnrlnrqout ts r.nrnrthatri coclia doodle,doo. Se atrihuic inBir adeseori arestor subsi,antivo gcnul mascutin, indiferent \\ .. .t -t n t /." a J t,fl r' ,r,r. t," ous t. | ,.. h L Ud ".:u ,t,,... on,.ri \..Lr ..1' Th. r.ii.l. d rhr storl Nas "The Cat lhar I'alks br ]tnn!.tf'.|lool I i i t,

\ \ i , . , e l 1 i , , i , l i i r ,,""in

, \ nior iiele. i n s p F c i a l{ i c h d o m e s tj c e .s i nt i nsI desemrare ti pri l ] t)roD ul nc d e g. nl c , ) r esp u n z n to rs o ru l u j l o r. rn a i a l cs atul r.i ci nd ti sc n,er;ri t,D rnzd n u niele s au c ind i n l ff\,i c o n .q i d c rrn tcd e ordi n ai ecti r: Th. ,.d. lrld /r. cnlJs la,l leit l trail. ' ilf . ! \ ir . l o o l i h g a i a i c r i n l l ,./ c h i dons.
'l l r: , , .,

t . l \" . I l, ir nii s c ri i n rI d .! l o r !o n i f l i d i $ l rr i s l i e Ii ,l i i g? ,c .l rrrl . i.' r, In F" ^:.ra.r ' ,n, S . . r if " , r , t s s t x rJ , u rrl i l r,u ;: l a lL 'r, r at l, . . . " l) o ro n tL i n k n /..1 s ," C|i1d. " \ \ . 1 1 . I l i i p i o l l ,i D k r. n o ,i ..s "

-,r

',r.

u:1. r' ,l . rr

Cind ur arinlal ire pl'rsorilicat. pronumclc corcsprnu itor vr li i. sau sia. dupS ser. in cazul pirsonificdliloi tn ca"t, nu irtereseazn r:onsirleratiite d e s ex . s ubs t a n ri v e l c c a i e d e s e m n e a z n a n;nal e narj sau puterni ce /rri dr. .]|?hant. Lion, nnk.g. tigcr, do!, donket|, horse. pig etc.), [i citova in af;r, de a|csLea (cdnortl, flu etc.), sint de obicei rnasculine, pe cind ce.lecare desennc{zii animale ])iici sau slabe (rlrari.sr. rut, hdre. 'N]:'.]e pisii . tarr"rl erc., ins.cte 1c,.) sint, feminine. Fa terja hotirnlte lnsii in najoritatea cazuiilor: T lic dr nli. " , o N trl l i rfd to l i r n a s te r o l th. trfal cnt rrc had recei * d. T lif , n r r e l i rrg l d l i l a .l n r s l a mc . ''Ilrt the ,{rr.D sii,Linslonelr otr l|ai rlacid busl,sooke orlr Tli.l o,,e wonl, as il l,ts soul n, ih{t ore s.rd /E did ouipdur.,'?

s7 0
$?1

m' d nhi. nlr il / ,,h i :, p 1 r' ,r/a { n u l na:" 4n " a,r /,r?;,;, di n l i -bi cn c lr / a \ p, hp , ,tu n " : , rrr.l rrn l i u n i l - rF s p p .ti \p .rnt tor.ori l i " d Sint. in genere, masculire substantivele care denumesc: ?ariunile intense : ,:i acliunile oiolenLc anger ,r ul, l c a r. te rro r,1 o \.. ,l i ro rl . d e s l ai r;.rj mc, rnddc., $ar. ct.:
'll. Iii|li.g. Jr."r v .l;or;,.i. z l.:.\. I'or. t he l|at.h.

perso li(iri. - In stilul poetic sau retorio,un numir mare de /l -q.lto substantive nrrrnede objecieDeanimate de abstraclii.considerate -sall in

denente (ale naturii)j fenancnele naturalc .\i a.spectele aLin naturii imPrestnilnte, pnturnlcc eLc.: storo, thund.r. wirdr snn, mounlain. ocenn, river. sfreimi summer, anhrmnj *n,tcr, iime. drl, sleet, ileaUr.tl,c grave (- moa.l.cal,etc.: tr !,11111 3i: d{nger, las'. etc.

!73

ru,r.le dc flnlii, rirri:


i i.te de mrnti :
]ltn

lr,c Danubc,thc Thanrcs, Iihirc, cl, the


Neris, the Cheviots, Scai!]l, Skiddas,, cl..;

s 7r
$7

Sint fcmininc substantirele care sugereazi o &raLtnittit:ai frmini. d s^n ,,r rnracter m|n. bLind,dr ce, a/er,arsr prcrum ti cclc care .ntlicn fertiLitate.L: illi'ite sentitnente insusiri: ei ', io". r'\o .on. I r' I |o l, n, ,nl |, . .1,.' Lrt| Lum'l.tr
o.l" . . mp t.u,.u h .Jrh . up. , ju5r h. . r . . . . . "i . t . ; , . i , ", ,,.t,,, "...

s7 5 s? 6

r.:(1e triLedluridc cdructer \atire $. consecinlele lor: urlition, ir.rice, enrX.lolly. j'ialous"1', ranilr, !ice, el..i lfidc, r\.0ngc. Lr.ason. Atftft obiecteL, d.in fenome elefi aspectel.e naturil.:
' ' "| | ' ' noo n'n '|dI''5 "'.\\o ||d: ' ' |. . p|: ' g'

s7 8
n....5i v. p' a-.. f."1r\.

rit.r:r

nume de abstraclii:
I b, { ' J .

" , . \ er. r\. eto rn ry. er |p"i"r ' . r ^m 4. . nr ' u- . p,n" p,.i y, lrulh . vi, o". \ . . n . "ir n. , .

s7 9

nunlc comune4i proprli terinrial-ad.ministratioe (numelede tnri. provincii. tiiuturi. localiti,ti etc.);
.otrDtry. 1and. fathe and. nor.herland.etc. llre SocialjstRepublic ol Rotnania, G.eaLtsrildn. the Soviet Lrnion, !'raice, 4to. Scotlind. Delon, Lanci6hire, cte. Rooliarest,London, Mosoow,etc.

s 8{)

O situatieaDarte uu numclcilc tiri: o geografic, d'-l p ;ite iin punct de vedere' sinl ace"qtca de gen n.xiru:
Crer r'iratn is an island. capital London. 1!61,i, liad51,40t.023 th is lD inhabitants. poliiici, d'l privitc din punctul de vedere al wielii care le animn ermonic{, literari, muzicali etc. mai ales inpliclnd Ei lcgrituri rfective, nunele de.tnri sint adesea l'e,,tntz:
71" . S a:.li t n "p tbl( al F nnn: n hd ' r ' d"\ / d, . ar,{.- n -5 ;o t o ,lv m oult n: n. : s L?. l,iJ' . r b\ 11.-,. { : , Ione $as ihn in the days ot ler 8lory. oppl /,.Indp.

$8r

d'"_./ limbaj spo.tir', eohipelecare iau parte lfl o competirie internalioin nali poarti numele ldrii pe care o reprezinti, nume care, tn gramatici. este considerai ca substantiv peffonal colectiv, acordal c\\ thelj, their |i eho:
nopon:o \n 'l /n,i" lrJ J l $innins lr p D, d: , Cr p. t ; ] at Btitr.^ ,' .rorp lo $inning hd 4\ \ or ld ChJ n p i o r :p .

d"") numele tlrii este dat, ti sul'eranului ei, in special in literatura mai \ ffl)e (vezi Shakespea.e, picseleisto ce, 'King Lear", etc.), precum ;i nurnele de regiuni legate de titlurile nobiliare puri,ale de personajelerespectiv:
.t n o, -t . o\.rr-., A '. a . ".sl, - e- el" ll, nr ' ". , 1 . - r "t.o"\toll, , .r .t tttonJ e .. t-iI.. 1." l'.t1,.,. t -'.". i. , . . 11. 1, L, r al llt r J n , , ' . \ n.t' . l.r' sOnslc"irt"Iilnsl-c{f". dar . a' s r { f Dilif , , lLLiii\ or ilit ir o|j s . j n i r .

86M N, r m ^1. ilF /r;/,r" r,/,,/; .i n l to l tp m i n i n p: Cambittge ULi'ersitlJ, Ox[ad] (jLire.sitlt, late UaieqsitlJ, .t

s83 $ 8r

Numele dr.l.lrJ" qi ale tti;rlelor art, thiloso|hY. scicn.c, el0.

etc.

Denurnirile de pare a Ii lnzesirat

noloare, st1niui,
rrolrlont.

toI ce

I o ' o , n o L i v c ,! f f -

Neutre pentm majoritatea vorbitorilor, denumirile acestor obiecte sint ad.spahrnininF. spF, pcrtrJ p.rsosnclc.ar.l. manipulaz; sint ata-are tn isl :i
I a \p r. "o r o o. m v . . ' dn | | r 1k , . / . , our " ! " r v d J v . qn, t t a r j a , i n t h " n s l " s o D l ] d . \{J p.";" .,a t hp t t ot b. "h?, ot t , " \1r.r i- h r I nalr ir $i . o. r , o/ o,ah"a t l. r : s r - s o . . s r o n r ? I s"j.d lh g, , . : . n. ia. n ou. . \ ' ^ nnJ p l .

srl nd;d{i l. I r \l'ijn nrnnpls e". Bi4. dtuk". a-d

!a 'i.1

Ssr:

Distinctia intre obiectclemasculineii celefeminine. a5acum a fo:t erpusi _ lr a.acl pLnir. nI ,51. LAdpir,rtr..pp'lat6 ,Jp Loli auror;irtip..rp dintr. ri l.\in.t Inu libcr ;msginrlrel. ln rezumst, tot ce at'esau pare a avea o personalitate- {io un alinal. o plJnl ."u .hi.r u l,i.ru ,dr" dpcimnatprln pronumel.ppf"^r"l n.., utin ' ..,r hr.;',in, dupr crz. Dir pu rir ,, fiinl4" lip.itn de nersonaLtaie c"oiii m i' i. arrimalcle ,tiarp"r."in"t"rr,a,ur.. si-r dpspmnare prin pr,num"l. 1i personalneutnl it. cu iormele corcspunzitoarc ir fi ;rsef, sar disprcluii,orltuit. o . _pJSul'btali\olo oolp.lire. .drp dcsFmnpd?d plur0litaltd" .obi," o. pri\rlF.a Jn rol si .urp ..,or',truip...u Jot tla gpnul n-Ltru: "ij.;ularLl3.
'lhe .feQ nds obeyed nr olliceN. The fdnil!/ is praud ol tr membeF. The arltr. which rns trlt ot ts usurl e,rthusiasm, .rlrsscd ii unrcsorcdly(Pe^tn lturnl yezi S tt!)

IY. NU.}IANL'L SUBSIAI-TIWL OR CONSIDERATIIGENERALE Substantivclc pot, avea doui numere:singularqi plural. 1) LInsnbstaniivest la sirgnlal ( Singula;N n ;be; arunci cind deseme )
bool w:rlcli )abl leaf

neaza un "qrngur oDreci:

_",

tJru,'i pt tat ( Plarat Nunbet atunci desenneazd cind ) TJ,::?l'r "stera


loots Falcles babies l.ares

Nu au plural decltsubstantircIe numeiabile.


1a etu r,lon ? aipl n" 2(1 . tin o, tBt n. )L, lt C; on, nt . t An ) . ,\3. En"t \ '), New-York. 19ri1. r($ -orld Jo u liLc to ; auJ , U, / . , , r . I ; r ' ) , t'eing o\rnrd bj dr. FancJ se.jng i/ pvfl 3 \'e 7i !' 11 2a.

NUMANUL SUBST^NTI\TELOR

87

ln )imba cnglezd,in mult mai mare misuri decit in limba rolnini. nu erisi:1intotdeauna un acord intre lorina substantilului si numdrul tui: cuvi te cr: iormn de singular pot avea inleles dc plufnl invers, cuvirte cu lorme de plural pot avea intelos dc singular.

S 89

PI,URALUL SUBSTANTIV]'I,OR 1) Ileguli gcncra)i. - Pluralul substantivclor sc formeaznaddugindu se .l"J dupi con.oanala surdpr.i [z] dupi .Flc la ring,rl ar.\.csr \ sp Irron,,nl -s sau rlupAvocalele cre sc i,r{l: Eonorpr
ch e q ue .|.q ucs

S 90 $ 9l

tsl tsl Is tsl

bead chrir rir.jle nccl

--heads -.hairs .iril|s hecls

lzl lzl lzl l,l

cinola

cn'enm

tarcc

-payees

lzl l21 tL1

tri S 9S

2) Substantivetelcrminate in c mut preoedat de litcrclc c' (d)9, s sau z' pro,,unlar.rFspari\ l.r. l r.. ldrl. ., vu fzl ptim,. "'H tlural l.,minrlid -.s llltr lrlonrLnlofu lrzl:
8das. - garagcs
rillagc jnds - o -village.s - juds . r

terni atil la singutar in lii.crete -s' -x' -z' -sh: -ch LtJl $ 93 3) Substanl,ivele primesc ternjnalja -rs la plural:
bn*r claser -- Io\.r - lillLzes lez.zta \nizz.s fliintr iish I'cach mrtoh s.nd\i.| pincc{cz -.hinl,z.s lrshc bea(,hA .. Datch,s -saDdNichesa pi!.c+26

A se observa pluralele plasses(sg. plus) Fi rareori,llJscs Gg. bus) (i'eDit din SU,\). Obscre&t,ie Substantive.letumiDate in -ch pronunlat [k] sau hl6 urmeazn regu)a generah erpusi la inccpuLul acestui caprtol: , ',',,r' 'r- ri..t' r/ah. tkl [].1 ',nufl'i t-t.l i ' n i h l.Ll p a r r idn , L h l ." ,i d r.l ' . ' k . r
aDoch - t'd t-tl -cloflis L-ksl loc\? " on l xl -lochs l'.sl 4) Substantii'ele terminatc in -y lrecedat de co'rsoani lomeazn pluralul !n -ics3 astiel:

s9 4

s9 6

Ad i . r , p) 6. n l. ' . U , l h l , L l . t . L l i i 0 . . J,i ,, ' , i, , 1 s nnir . h b l tJ L E .L I-. In l .J n .' u l . a .r\-.i [,]' . i Su b sldn' : v ' ll l@ds " h ru s l -l e u ! sprfi ' l i I' pl " ' r. t i h d u /.4 d " o I ' r^nrnl i cT ! l i ".r'., / r . " nl \ i i t.ar' \r' Il pr on ,n ra l .d :i o r' rn^ri r' " a rs td .t. l " ro rd n ' . 1 ,,' .1 ul r . n" l " ' . " o' rl I u1 .l ' l i n '-i mb ,' l' il lt r i ? Dronuntat flr-\'. 3 i crminilia: i. . - f ons le d i n s tu i l (s e mn Lp l d ra l u l tri ), L l ror.ni l di n i r.nsf.rf,a.ca v ocd 0 i Ii .i l e : ? s i ' e I t oc rl { { l c l .g i i l !rl 1 l .

B8

!... | !; i: rrrm^1.r'n.trir :i t.,rril.,1" rorl'ira .ub.rrnrirarc. in mod .L cu rnrur r\ce ronrr:


ou. l,$o L .1s rll il,r llcnf-{s thc l,vlvs llif Tlr.fs slitrid D\-s $hr-s

96

(ln irsn -)' e,{teprourlat de 1.ocalii.l.r t,lural se adaugi nunai un -s pl|,oun!it lzl:
iroy r)o]s (liv d{Jrkft lic.lJ

117

Substa l.ir(le teurin.ric ir -qu} nu (msliluie o e\.eptie. dar tiind cX .'r'rul rrt F/.r'r J ,'l , a ".re o:,',,; ro.rl; ' fri 1ir,r. / "r t,r,,,l. n' iI Pr P: cu l\\ l, o e.r ,.Ir ' r r . ' t
'.r colloqtrI - - ( olloqui/:!ol lrtrr pt I . llit i: - solLloqfiis r)1,r1i...1

si substa ri\': -{ !e oLrscry.r fornrrlr rlf lhr.nl rll] rrrtrr:LtLirutui


is ! r lk , li s ir n

lrl

5) lI i(,ritatre slbslfrti\clor t.nrir.rte jn singularirr "f sau -f0 primesc .t ]a t)lural:


. lr ' linr . ll. n lr i , l it r ic r r r LLlf glr ll iLr Q f l , : l i, a! lr indk f r lr il f s g. . i\ nnr it r gr lls dnr r t itfu.i ijtfl srn, Ii ! sirilc - Irroofs ililr, silcs ijl,,s *s t r i i e s

99

tlnclo substalrl.ivcld.ninatc in -t sau -Ie formorrar nir.i pluralui in -/es Prcnuntat lrzl:
i, . . I lPaL s lr eNt Lh' f i loaf . r LI lru bf ( ?s 3 len'.r s r r er r is lhigr s - lo{ r . r - - r ! l. r - lulr'.s clt sr,[ slltl lroli krile tilt, wil, -. L,ps s!tr?.s .hcl,.s \ol.cs kni|cr tn.er \rir"s

100

un eazspecial: srill,iilr, nat,,ri n,,,artn). .ri/i/-t'tr. (: pt. Citevasuhstantire anrbele au folmt de pluial:
s.rrrf slafl s.rd.ls. srinr(.:: si{flJ. star.rr llDf N'll{l - Ioris lioorPi; $liitrls. lthures.

l0l

6) r, Substnnt.ircl. termirato in -o preccdairle consonnjt iornreaziDluralrl in fs cind sint cuvint obisnuites:r, inrroduse mai nutrn vremi tr de Iimba englezi:
r go _ r (,ho.r lr.sl olr lrcroA inos qr ilo/ j rdio lres, o lr.ro m os qI ilo nfgro l{l.llf o loriilo lornado iofll d0 rfto negro.s polalo..s t o m a l {r c r - t o r n {i l o ? r L.fpedos - rrlo.r -

t "on n r , , jp. + . . . Ft i\ |. r r t lr . t , , , ,, 2 "1.,.. i.,r \ t / . . / . , r . 'r r , ii lu, , / . , . , . . / , . ., I: n uma i. ci!{t niseadr ii, . v it r ir f ir t r r ibii. r , , s n a , . i r l .''l . \ n^r ' ' . ,, r ve zi l. 14; 5 U,rrli,l / . r . , ?J . s lr . r , i . L rl!,a.. r s t r nnj t r , Ff i, ' r f lr f it , , r dr A (

dii.Iil.'r calii,',tide rarne de racl)

oa

89 S 102

,J Cind nrsn.o final este precrdflt de vocali, plura)ul ste rcgulat (adicn trminat in -s): porioiolro .nbrro iolio nnnoio Iamboo cx(ntoo edbrJos lolios lunoios -}amboo.. - 0L,clioos lorlololios

radio -rrdios secnario - s.en.rios shtdio sl,rdios Hindoo Hindoos Lang&oo ltangaroor g 103

c, Dintre substantivele terminate in -o provnile relaliv recent din limbile sirnine (tn special din linba italiann). unlc capii,i -s la plural dacd stnt mai pulin frecvente sau daci au o sonoriLal,c prea sirdin6: albino cnsino .h.ono dJnanio rugnfto allinos -.asinor .hrodos dXrrno.s - magnetos photo prrno q ra rl o lhoios p'{nos -rN nrtos

d) ,\ll.e substantil.e strnine iefminfltc in -r) au ambele forme de plural, fapi car dovedeDte sjnt pe ealc (lo a li asjmilate limba eurenti: e; de
b.njo iJra\d: .alico (ontralto orino3 i. a . n;o 1. . . " o ,,h" ' o grolro halo banjoer -barjor, }|a\or, hraroes .alioos. 0llico.s - r orl.ralLo.(, *n|ralLt do!,nh8 -dminos. I nin eo lr , . r ' s o. " - fr"., o " Ir ". o, _ jh.||,,.. t "|lo. . gtullo.r -grottds. lralo.s -halor, l.s$ Danilcno daronto nrollo torli.d ! r o\ i. o olo . , , t r LU stiletto lola.ro -l.sso.", lrssoes manireslos, minireslo,s ncmcnhs. mencnlocs - xiottos. nroLtods torti0os, portico.s t ! . \ " 'r . t r o v r 'o , s .op"dt - . . opr . , n o . - stjlcttos, stilcttoes lo!a(os, Lobir(,oc.{

! 104

ln timba contemporani. substantivelesirnire terminalc i -o la s;ngular tind s,, iib., li pl,r'.'l rmb.lp r"rmindrii. e) ,\brcl ialiilc terminate tn -o primesc la plural sufixui s sau 's (vezi

s 184).

! 105 S 106

7) Suhsiantivele terninate in -th primsc -.t la plural. Tcrminntia {}s se pronun,tn[0s]: de indusir.r: d, Ctnd esteprecedatd o rorale scurti sau de o consoanii, breruri, deatni, nout, sn,iLhr, births, he.rthi, hcnlths,siaurr, nroDtlrs ,, in cuvintele:
lcaLhs, faii}s, !+owths, sloths

c, In celelalte cazuri bath j',uil'


Orlograliat li tyfo. ./on,m '/tus (trrsoaDi. I'aina

l,ls se pronunld Idz]: tborol ai',.0I


Iatl,s nouths ti{lhs Io u l .Is lbo,dzl t atrb4 fpo:ozl l j r:0zl

l: nwtit,or. rovi(l

40 Unel. substantive au insd ambl pronunleri: lrrutl'.lrJ0sl . I tl -81 I Ilrrc:01 broll,s Ibrrdzl,tbrr:osl mdle.iale) I tkl.Ol olollN [kl.0t (: Ie]uride slola, Irlluil sau alLe
1 .,, [ lrlh L "d Jre dh " . ll . 1/ l bu il, J " J n i J pln/r s ru rl -, r,.0r lo :01 o ..oi ,f.:o i ] uLh, r LLlu' , i4 ( : ll' int s l s - dr ll' " [.u ldll' s r lo: G , o, 0"oJ ' l' lf li: 0. 1, - . l, i

mJtpridh)

| 107

rn, 0.. r J/] [ir,.oj \tr J lF r'i:0-. "i:n/ \rPdrl' iri 0r Urmdtoarele subslantive fornreaze pluralul 8) Plurdle rcregulirte. prin s"himbarea vo";lci t tlutotrcn PI.rrttk):
lo,l -let 1, , 1, h - it h g,0se - gest morac: lozse - mnie -troe

lJ/l lo:1/l l ', J t i . ') / l

s r08 s 109

Trei subslantive primcso termrltdlin 'n: brothe.- btthr,n- {! 14s) child- childre, (Penl.rD cotrluse ctr acfsle iuvniic, !zi S 16! 1tt) substnrlivclc 9) I'lurals cu acecrfi lormi tn li sirguhrelo respettire: Unele substantive di limba ntglezi au aceeali lorma utiL la singular, cit ti la plural. Din aceasl.i Lategonc iac lartc: o, ' rl,\d d, un.rrr !1. drr,/r' \d l6l); l/ sub.lbnliv.l" o/r'l \ - 0'u :'r 1 ',i 1or"7 t"; i s c ''a s sLlp [ ,./ |a , I s:s,./ iLhs ld' I iv "r n l. t ,l . mJsurS. ca dr ur,pl, .ub.rarrir" '1'- J.nu,er. urilrii patthl.cton.,rrrr"ori r:r,r',i/or.;-r,dr". I'plufal aldturi J" lorma fothon,taot, it ia -s. aL,si i"rm dn plurJl , nl,' it rJ'',.i., (u ",, pa u siagularului. spp,ial ' " tn limbai'orbitn, cilrd sint umatc de un nuneral ce ildice subdiviziunile sau de un adjeciiv: The wil.e. sas tci f.t, ls{n faat) ttitt\er' 'fhe
n..p. rikc Nas LPti latlon(s) 'fh d.ptll ol l.Ie $atu wrs lour /nr','ns Itc is si' Io, l t dll r \'''i I ' l l l l 'r / l\ Poaot ll'r ol t \ o t . , "d' .' p J v ldr - i ; r rr' DJ,u, "iJ \ h " lu inl ..l . : lr ' J F, , . t / ) ". n" , (rl l 'r o l \ ' l" l or ' . . ' J '.o ' / t li ' (\i,i i,i 5 l.lB9i oI l " r ':

itt.

unitatca de nisuri' Subsiantivul rl.Jn.s.cind desmlreazd sl,c weisl's !tr'?: s[o hasrrt on wcight. tcn
Tric! b;rlghl l.*o r/dre oi ilour lot lhc .anteen.

esle invadabil!

n '" l " r l a 5lo' ioue \ 'F d f i ',/ ,, ld. , / " r\ca d o. : - i' r " s ir r c u ' 'r l , 'r i ' Srnsrltr lruoa. , "' , ' lo' . d L l' r 'r r " l , / r 'r ' r,m.' fo rtu.rl .",r;..j . ui"u' D r . t a n d i r i J 'r " " ' L l 'u ! l . r 'l u l iI t in , r' na, nd rar.p lrd'lL - 1. ' r . l t d.rn&usa. trl. dtnLkt n / I t o^t . . I lii 'P 'r.,lctaL r , a _rt,". i . i 'u \ rlul r, . . r , \ r , ; i" , nr . 1, . ' u, "n' r ' u p l r " ' l u i '. : 'o '', l r ''n L " l r ' I il' r r ' ' a r '- o r ' Ptu."t.? "a a.l |.',,]la -1,,,,l.l "l, s r ; l r l 'l a r ' i '1 l"nii l l i d' r r ' : r ' unr ' ' L', 1' 'r' rt: L; l i l r 'r P . oJr' | - / 4.' 'tn L ' P r , lar oo, l'r

4l

?,, Substantivln foat, lrcrse, sail au la plural forma de singular cjnrt in seamnn ,,infanteri,sti''J rspcotiv ,cavalcrjrsti:!,,,na.i,c,i, sens (otectiv: cu
Two llionsand /oot n?z o. thc ru. T h. cc hurd .ed /me .on . 10 t h| r . s . i. Twcnt.j- sdil /,ar., ,ro, lhc bai.Ue.

S 110

f) Cruft, aicraft, sedcraft.space-taft etc. au plural cotet;v cu aceeasi q l1l formd ca aceeaa siDgularului,dar ou verbul lft plurat:
,l, o -.,- . t i' t r r al ! r. , lIJr, ' lha,rrlk w1 , i. a, o'o l. i. , \ r r lr \ ' liant r ' or $1.I p r , j \ . pt ) al. t l 1i, : dr .

t0) Pluralul ti substantirele eolectirc.


o l s'rbs ' r nt ir elp . ol ..ri !a s I tn g F n .' e (v e z i $ t,1, o .i neLrra torrrru d ..i r'-u l- r si t,r:\i rp,.0 un ' lpq" n ,..a /d u p l u rc ti rH te d e .h i p .rF r d.n' i ., -F c - I 1 ot "-i l o lr F F e\ . m ol rp o r' i n r," .t-r ..,t.A o ri r. ,,r n,utt m;i ,,umcroasd lD lim b a e ns lez d dc c it in l i ' o b a rn h i n i :

$ r12

n.my
a$ emlh

,1.:r

j,,mily

, rot r d

ot ls pr inAr

.onmittce .omlany

g' n F rn mF rtrtrn\o . juri iesinrDl pu ic Loop

l*ri)l

llignt6

i s u s a rj tn ta l p s d .,i n g u t,r s" rr J" pt,rr" tdup.i ,r2,0. ^ . ,Su b sta nr r r ele. , lp.\rrf "a l p a .o .rd p rJ l i Lr n4 r u n i n tr,E . si nt ,ubi tsnti f" i ndi 'rFn u m pc . . olp. 'd riduale qi se construjsc cu singalaral: Tl e .l d s s oar lak en n v a v frr a u e te ro n f. Thc enmittee ..nstrrs oI lwelva ncoolc. llis /n,ri1, s,as sma1l. , " n^$ b i , . rd r. d .1 .' l .o " . \,,., .o t l r,\p f.,n,,. l l " ,,' - : r 'I h c l ru f ( J nD{ dlst o d l i rs e ,!r;i .. Tr( tra,hing s r a/ / , , as ta g i . l p F hr J lnq, l" m" m b ri r ..n fo n -n 1 i . Ci n ,l c ole .l r\a sp . ons t r , r ic s , L u p /rfa l rl : N.,rl J , ll r r " . / , . r , ' p " " !i \" 1 ro o l r" r' t... 1 i " o tF" i !i t" l i i . sub.r ,r.ti Ji t

h ovP ' . F o dn . nd"bl. ' . liI . . Hi" lann lt ,krc all dsl. c l, n lhr r lc ds . T l,rsr rn,lrl, n .! !rrv lin. . th r qr r . - t , l t ok , r , , ii lJ r r r 1 . s _ t ; bt"a " rs.r.,,/ ' Il' 4 ril hin ' -,.,// u.' it t , \ ! , , ' J t o I r ' r u l. y , r u, t , ti , , . I russ : poDoll.

_.- "1::i,l:.-" n erj t.i,,," . a tort lJ n 't-l"!! . _H. , od n -,P ot J p atrt. .


"lh"ht iln;l

dr -i i|l,s,i..n{.t,r
'Ja

, gt , t Fr wi t t Lt

alt , pt , r "

nd;r,.rJ -rip$.,s,r. oi f"4e


dpJrio"ni. . l, tr,n d p st /. LUn-

p l".,r . r , , t " is - r , . 't,l;d" r"' I (rl tup r , c iini c t , ) on rrn... , . , ht r

p$J dr t d

n J a- J loul"\

t o, s d . ,

t, r,r.r rru t i , nr s " \ r i . i. r . ' r i|r J ol . r : . i r r . . d u . L d \ i . t v r . ! . o . . 1-L. ; " 3 Lal b an . d. tr"r i, d"lf , n: , I . J lple) , r k r t : dpm . , r/,/ trerchdiP r0 Numnrul unui sxlstaniiv .otctiv csre indicat de verbul sau dc dterminantii !:sprclivi (arliool nehol{.jt, adjectiv dmoruiraiiy etc.). -

!19

eolective.cu verbul intotdeauna la Plural fcon."dD/ Linelc snb-clanl,ive buldr!. i fantry, mili.turtj. palirc to.).pot fi preceddtoii de un jrumeral cars le dn sensde plurat individxal:
al,ih. ,\.\.ral con!Iab\rrrlt u/c licepirlt ofrler al, l,fc d,e/? iacins thc litrglisl,. tit. tlu'1stt,l. l.Nroh t,ftnt, ,r.ne nilitatll /d,. slopt)ed l,o Natch thc pflio{fls in lhc prtk. (: noli,len,c,rl di..d thts t.i!rli,i. ?i,o ,,lnr

Numrroascsubstantirerok{ti\c au ti tormn (le plur individual in -s d{i cu ingelesul .,mai m,,lte grupe de; divizi din categodarespcctivn":
rrngressii r onnf ils . . o{ ds lLf m s I lef ls il).lis g. odps he s hor s e h o l l s iur ns t uinis t r n , s pr'rks pout lr i c s ptrl)li.s sPnat.s soNietics sqtradrons 1.rnrs irt,cs irros. et,i.

113

calllr:,rc o situatieaparte tril a!'c:rin trecut -sisensde r) SubsLantivul est. conltruii in dcsemnincl singurarril1lal. limba englr:zi:lcLuali un singuiar. numai ru pluralul:
\\'hcD{ia i,rih e . alt l. anr t \ t f r l / ) r ir h, Lr , r / , e , r i d l t h f i l o l i n 1 [ c an3.r.

cc,rlsideti fiin,l roleciile ,sisubsl{oiivelemenra dj tinii granruticicnit la S 108 109 d, l), d. e. i47 r, b, r, tiil. 16r. cu alte ruYinlc orice tionat; substartive cu formn de sinsLtlarfi tu-telesde plural 11) Snqulflro ftrrl plural. - Lnele subst&ntivo din limba englezi au 115 trumri singular. in vrme ce. ir limb.r rominn. substa tirclc corespunz;toare au alit si gular, 0il li Plrral: 114
infornariof inlclii{.nof" k ro \r! d s e ldsjrge melrlrtr,dis. rNnel lNdrrair lfosrss strerql h \roda

precurn ql:
hail. lightning. slftt. lhundcr, 0lc.

116

nuneLe dc nLatcriil !i nxmeLc.rrno. ln generat. sdslanlitcLc alistrdcreB, produs'Tatuati { .r.alc cr..l. uneori.hiar prFlu.'dlP UU n'rnrrr 'incular Si dci sirt Ienumrabrle: b,rdey busvness' hrppiness nlnnr -1;r Iea.e
lnil.ion saDd 1H.W. r'owie., l Dictiotut! o[ Mod.m Dngtish a dse. G. Curme, op. cii. etc.

] in reIte .n"" . int or m dlii s "c r plp. { \ rll's".on "L ndd , u bins la"Dl indiv , J , r il l a d @ r , p t - u o d \ t , " ) L . r tnsFrmA , , pro,lu s ix 8 .n ral lnllr r f J i . au indnql"; il' _ PA r \ t tl P N d u . ' r 'd n u m J i u n 'i n g a l d r u I nlple r cn lcL tiv (: t ' r odus e nat ur alF. agf luole) .

. Vezi ii $ 10. ? V ez i s i $ 15 . 3 Ve2i si $ 31. t A nn sc ra.e conluzio lntfe subsl,anl,ivele ,ur?Fss t l,rzrnlsl (: hph,l dc a li p.in o.lo' o.utrati actititate intcns{) si 6us,acss t'btznrsl i: {laceri), ca.e $e deosebese sralni, rronunlic ii Inteles.

{l
Her adrt d a@ alfa* excelleDt. lsfatutile ci enu Intotdeanna e]cetente.) The fnnrute in this mom,rtoDss ro vado s peiods oI sr\ne. (tlabikk nin acpaste came.{ dr stiluri dirdite.) rlr.4-\ llurb lp ;Flun ot;aa hr . I olt o$ed r hp t r un. t , ins n t m l l ) n a d s t ! . , . r . I ,

-* . ^_

into

n '.,r":n l^ .m t : ; pv t io. t \ r i ur n, . , lans lr ii n a L . t . r - t , d r i a t " . , u , " t , i p a j _rG n ._| 4r4tspal,ur r1 r,nt'rsLr o. ) In , ; rtt Hi\ Anontpdeeof hisrorv ir apr\. sticht. t( "t,ein \I lui d" is , or i. . / ir i t ojr t , . t , , b. . ) ' rn n: " lra 1. al lu \Bro" ; . t o b" , ht . uqr - t in r ' , , \ an. toa tp b oEar t " t t obu^ dpp' s " L v . , r onu t 4 p b . , c a j p . ) Li x+ st jrn lh.', b mgs ar ' r J t ha, l . , , 5 . ur pf l- Ls . \" -" . "." i' 41 l' d1"nql , "" IIi. . L r" .J ' . s g t t s 1t r . t , , , , r \ . , I . . : -. . c t. " tr' tJ .rmb d . . gt ! ; J . . r , . r o. , r t . : 1t r . t u, otn i r . , Hrr ,r.Dcrl {,&e taihrq idsr. t P\teile . pdftseeu cn repczi.ri!nc.) ,o \\-' 1 1., 1 u". 1, . r . n, t t t h t p- n, d t ; - r r r . s : r , l h . "Lr. \ . r r . , t Ld, . ' . l rJ I I'i.: p pr,. r . . d 'r'r.'

:{,-rrn:,rrarpinljmhaenglezA'hr"ratulci,jndsint plurnlFinlinbaro,rdnai ./ susmcnlionot.{j lli,. a\rnd , |rtetes ' lA lr.'lnprpdrnrr..Ibstantrvplpn. s"u rJcptural .i a.ri ru pot ,ala idma dp.ingrtar r,"r a,;;;l;i ", L-r!"l lnFhotdrjl d .aU dr. al caruj Inrpt.sFst; dp (ineul6r.DF A..Fs.or; de .:'- oll r,F rofpflm In unul singur dintr. plcmentch .;mpon"ntc al" t^rali, ';tL rF.,rrspmla un.u\lnt ajutdror {i/pn. /n-. et..) ca;c sli redcanuania -\stfel:
' n ! l' l o m obillr o Prostrc ' n- or m ilP o pnne r n r ult er o a ,;a / n t + l \rc c - d p ,,a o t w rrt., lnn @ticle ot iurniturc) (rornall : a pta? ol nonsensc

O b s . r ralii a / T r p b u i.r e{ln u r laptul.x sub.ranrivptc ma is u s(S de

il . rj, r . o n b i_ $ t 1 7 -

i P ' 4 ' o t i n to rm,rti o n (ar rem ot inlorrnatioD): : a ioat ol b.ead d /d s t o r l rg h tn i n F 'r .drl oI r]'und,rr grindine {piatrl): haitt a haitsroae. !l_ }aitrronss Tltis gouet js a beauiifur ptac oi \rorl. :, l2).Plurale ldri_singulara. ln aceostl caLegorie se al]i substa tivele care nu l .,i l lat na dF plu rd l { m c j o ri ru t" r t.rj n i n a l . i n .sr tara un .i ncul ar , u d- los i in tp b s . S u b s ra n ti ! F l " .u p , i n sp 1" ace" r, f - . p r,l ,/i ^r t,ur.cr nrrr,,* " : 'l ..
:1L-

{ lt8 "

n mohil,i: o pi.s.r din nrobilifr ,9, i' 1, ; i" . r .n i at . !1l al or.i de " a t,.;,...,,.\.r' .t .o , i .. \,.m p j .rr.d t I s a: . , t t , ,,., i .. i " . a;.* ;.,;,..;l. at 1, r ^t t t , , . . . rt,-' ,tn \.1 !..,. 4 . i . .t.,| ,_..,r:r r..rnt.,,l c rrn.tr..
r lu ",' . r i fo r n r jd ,-,,' t...t tn. r,. l i o_r-r: ,t".n..1

t r: : s.rs 1 g151- 1, 14) .

..:L.r. tnt.DndtLah. k.trs. :.l l, r' \ . 1 h , a 4 t . 4 , \i. ii.i,' ,, t t " t t L n dp , a [ " fh f,",* . p r i n 5 - : r s L b s,a !ti\p .", '\ , : . : nl d rr

. n...t.,.. i ntrebur,t

44

MONFO!OGI^ - SUBSAANTIVUL

SIl9

oIt'\ti

ol tt"t)'lu;
loifs. iLfws. Litrls. elc i

bowcls, cDtnils, genitals, gill.ls,

S 120

b) bali.ti stdri dc sqiritl


m p. ( , , n' . . nn . 1 J . pr n' r . d u rt,irisnlei, sullts, elc.; d pr 4' .ri ..b F. m l JrLul i " !' i ri d g l ll uo n l ,rsr-l rai tnultc pdrli: l ' ,' l " j ' l ruds

5 r2r

c) imhtiicdminte .onpusd din daud sau

r.. t.r.. kar l .rh. l nr" kpF ll Lt ooT . r . . lf r - - , u " ..i L F s .,l o n .5 . boc |pr ' |/ jn: . , o \" r| | | .,' .,,rd " ' p ' U | .l .n n ' ' !' ' ' ' ' l ' ..l our' ' ' .hU r l i n rl nJ onq. bbP B ' r ' r ' ; , lir.. 1 F . l i l h l .l " ' n l rn o l ro r r' l ' r' 1 ' r d\ . " r \ - , 1. , ; ;r4 r' . L b l r.. 1 r\ l l rr . $ h i "l' d,) unclte ti instrumente conpuse din daud pdrlil rl ' ' { so" nl ' nprdF l bllo$" , lin^. 1 " . ' ' l i p r' " n ' l - Irl -r p b' rr ' /n r' f' l ' l a' . l ^ ks nn" ' . , pli_ : l .n c " l " .p - f.. .. a" r ^ | | ,

s 122

' a' kpB . frmpot

5193
lorl8its, bil)iftds, .afis, cl,cqucN (sau Sr',{ oheckeNl, darts, doninoes' drauglLts. marue1 nirretins, quoits, shrl,il's, ulo.I

! 124

f) tti.inlc $i obieLtedc studiu (substantive lcrminate in -i.s3r: i Fl rondur s i l ri " . b' l i ' l : J . t r oDlv s c ' . i_ o l . i -, 1 " r' l r* . d l rl .c ' i \hs. A . d p l o m l i .. ' l vnbrrrcr- on^mr s, el q' r0n,' r..l hr,tr, dd( . : : . . 0. ^on , .l t,q .,ru r' ' , r\drn' r ! Frnl ml ni s' g ' r..l r, rrm n , h )dro' Larrs. " \ or pn. - A p n t \s ' .. l h ra ri rn l r 1ol ' rr onp| G, k inr i, " . li ,n -.m p r" ..Il v n d.' .i -'r'Ji rrpr l pLLr^. rc: l' r' Ll " l " L 1r r s " . 1oit . " , . !o l ri . r' f l i ...' j e) n me leagnltt I tlie thl] ths. lrif CurtaLl,ians. IIrl,fidcs, tle llighlands. lhe lDdirs, th. Nell.dands' tho Ilnil,ed States ol ]\ntrrca. .lu.i h) stlbstantir. r.tbaLe i 'in| t s.

$ 125

$ 1!0

dissnrgs. doiigs, lcclinltsr, eiriings, sonrgson, leav;ngs, iodsnlgs6,Frings. lickingsl pioio"iLine., roting", scranting$ shalhgs, sctthrgs, sltoricomings'su..oundn'gs, slippings, sweepings, trilings, iakings, ltinniDgs, etc.i

5 12?

i) tuljective d.utenite substanti'te pri'n atldullarctl terminaliei -s, eommons'd.inla|lcs' ediblee {nli(E, bctters, litte$, cmoni.als, chemi.rls. comesr.iblcs' em!ii.s. n..csdics, nervs, nulli{ls, odds. Ohmlics, perishables,rcgimentals,riche* shorls, sla.ks. Urcatric{ls, 1ighls, ralurbles, cic;
I Sinquldul or.ralt alc hlelesul de "halal." ipentu personal sanitar. muncito.i elc.l: o ,cf;lrs lDl. l 1: s alopFt i) ,c,l a ' ''n r s u b 5 l d n . ubs l. bnllv ul) i biLlir , d . t n" n d d p s i n 6 ', l d r r l t u 1 ' -r,"i ir l t r P , Llr ; " , : " s c , o , u l I F S P A r \ : o 'd t d I o ' 4 t F rite d s"mn"d; d und d, n r p pip' l. de jo c), d nin ept , ( : o I , ^Pi' i) et t ' l J '1 n r 1 r , l o r i u l r r o r t i i l r p o r i i f,\ o o! . r ' . ' , u J ; o, . b, F r ' - m i1J L:' - i s nclF/ o r dp .r ' diu in t . r p r ", "' "r ' lr no' o bq ' a l:\i l1 , l. L . . j 'J . o i " " m J p n n l r r o"t' r n l " / b J '1 - i o f or , . r . i m . , i "dr ' ' la te Jn liln zo li I t he . ot unLni. I Pt hic 5 f../inf.. : qh t t iLillt ilF, . r r nplt ir ' oi r.,. , \ i. . li, ' .r-,r',rr. I.r:;.; l, l , 'J -rt a, el;! lade,1i. 'l r ''i r and todEins rtc. b.d

NUMARUi

SUBSTNTTVtrTOE

15

rr" nd .., a nn als. ,'r l, , v ps . a"n5r . . 6. i2 . 1- s pi. . .. ! n , ) . b . T . ' r s . . l n 'h . . ,- (- \dr. ul) . , or n j r r 'j con :n". , c onlpnls ( " , . '^ !.'\ i .n.d op sirAJb"i, J 6, , dr eg6. "ut . . ' olli p. . ' h r . , - p r q . . 'o b r ' :."s g , l l o {- . e " i l r . g r o . d r . o t"r.. . .a p iri 1r ' J , t ir F$nr r ( . 1= o dr dlit h: i) , lu n d . ' jdh : , p1 "iu l '. pi . lr diir ' . s r oals . c - o. s hJ J o u b r p =. inton. . . 1. . ,ro h,.igi. l p 1 n r . I 'n l i \ q . j . I n u n r r r o n c . I : bt 4). ior,in,r.,rpd s, (L'o lil li1k q, l. l. r ar r , nr 'r '. i '! 'u : l . p r o d s q u d r l e r ' o. lpnPa 1, . pFa\ d. : I.iA , ou lsq ur s, ltin .o u i n Ll , , -- - i r' l ,, .o m i 1 , , r ds . c r a. { l' . I . c ' , ur ' ) . h d , ', 1 1 . " l o ! s . s p i f l s [ - '1 i . . _. ' '/'" " a - , ". r , . ' r ' 1r . . , , r n_r on. . 1. r 15 l a n l i . L d n c . \ s p " t s , v i d n J s . rL' , r'd d i :r.st. whe.calrouts. worlrsj erc. .

.8 198

latinl li) sltbstantiw cn pLural latin sau cu dspect .:ndoiaj, ta.eliae, imtedimetli, imlondoabilia, litt'rati. n:rrsimli\ memoralilia, ,\(jordul cn vcrbul fi cu detorminan,tii, - Sulostantivclc nenlionate la ..rit purct (12) se construiesc tn generecu determinanlii Si verbul la plural. :..! rceplre: arl numele oe Jodafr: jyin'riB r.'"@s sreat skill. Dtu;shb is" a lciy entc.t ning game. b) d.o.iL name d.e boli: - measles9i mnrnps'.
. o n " lid " . @dJ ps, r s s e v .| P.o m!l i " d l i o n .ltants ts.ontagrous. .) nunele .rliinlelrr ti ale obiectelarde studi termindl, i4 -ics (cybernetics, .L,.trbnics, mchanics, physics, etc.) construiie cu verbul la singular: ,l.oas,ts s,zdtes sound. ,,nt.s ts concerned\rilh the nrinciples ol norals. 6l Hrr)nslaLics.ledls$itj! ihe Dressnre liquids ai (5t. M;ftenatics is indispensaua|o ihD siudy ol the exacl scierccs. arp,t.s r.cd,s ol li8ht,. Na td r\ se observa ci unele dintre aoeste subsLanLive ca: a.oasl;ds. etlict, mech' r'..,p .)ttl i" s l/ d, / i. s el( . . . l n d n a d o s e m n o a z r)ti i n !a re .l Fcl rr' ,.,uubi atul :, rd i u, s " . unc r r uies c .u v e rb u l l a p l u ra l : The dduti.s ol ou. new auditorium lcute noihitg to be desired. llis ethicsda above reproach. \t\e Mhanics ol plRy witing d.s unknown io lim. 't]trci phnneti.see benealh .ontemlt. Substantivele atlLLetics(: atletism) ;i glmnastica se conslruiesc: cu yerbul la ring ldr cind au inleles abstract, adicn atunci cind se refed t,rrctid la arta sau la practica sporturilor sau a exercil,iilor fiTice; eu 1.rbul la pldrdl cind au inieles concrel, adici atunci ctnd se refer[ la -ererciliile lnseti. sporturile sflu ]a
I Aici slnt cup.inse si subslantivele cnle au ta m'4 obitnuit tot'rl ile llurat, lormr ,i. sinsdlar (ttril -s) fiind rdeo.i intrebninl.ald: antic, d.chiee, bdta.h, contine. cu.I, . - . b pjuy. . io nd .'ilr,rl "r u r \ : nd o dm . or n d. ' r li ( o t . p i " N d 4 ', . u s t n h u +. ' : e A art - din . s \ m t un, qot hl p( lp dp obur i J n r , lr . d '. q i n ; , r l , r r l d . m , s r " r d r r i : , rbrd.ti\u t e4 . i ,rf /.4!,nl! r,.clcririir Inloeuil .u sllstantiyll lnlFl"5 o fli4 Dd bl ll J p s r nr r lar , s r . ; ' . r u 4 l i r-\\r' ; . r '1 . , , . m 'i 1 a 1 , r m : r r c d l u f i : r ii o'o rm, i r.l"lr d" - iogr ld, r 6' p ln Fbu, P ro e-.o t t r t ne 44BP\ d 1t ! 4 wr g. I n n l n u 4 :.: o " 't r . E " at.It

s 1re
$ 130

16

d/ Numele Un;ted, Statesof Ametica se consirui$te cu singularul cind lst consideraica numele unei naliuni, cu pluralul cind se referi la lnrile care al(ituiesc naliunea:
Tlre Lizi&li [ta,.r of Atuetk:a has ll'ashington as i.he capital'l:he Unnd Slat s of Amii.a l@rc roied thcjf rcprescntaiiresir (lonsrPss.) I)ir.rsc. - Substantil'ul n?es fiind un singular, de;i are formi de plural, se construieste numai cu singllarul: \i'hat is the D.,e.s., ,.aB is good narslio \oNadaF n.,rs,fd'ah {iln lghtning spced. ,Ue,rs qi snarnDlessint construite intotdeauna in limla eD-qlezi rontenIorAnir cu singdarul. .lxmrrons, singular. are plLtralul s r?r?ons.s;i se acordiL cu lcrbui la num inr l c or c s pu n z i l o r: 'i here d'd! a,,.rs al. the li.k oi l.he sqnar.. ,\ st,,,&nr ,rds sdred on u,c grilly pdll. Tnc iailill is$r,d s..a! lfunaae\. -\ltcr the colonirlisi rtiaclr, tl,e ]\lrlcrn villrge nas a s/dnrlcs. Sulrstantivele umritonre cu formi de phirfll ul.ns. arnnds. barracl;*. .arq'!. gallatrs3. headquartcrs, littlts. mcans. adds, thatiisa. lidi trs, li rtollsd (: atelicr, uzinn. fabdcii) - sc consl,ruisc atlt cu singularul, cit lri irr.rpluralul tn lunclje de intcnl;a \orbitorului, fo.ma dc plural a substanlil.ului insi rimtnlnd rceeasi pentru ambele numere: TIic arDI ,d.'o./a ra t,san o-e) empt-{ {l llte rnonient. Th. l,h.air. l)ad a .ar?J dc hallci, wllich (ds lamons. The tx'o amy .o?s /d'e lecn advisedoi Ure ohnngein La.l.ics. \:liere is lne an\r h.dokatt.:rsl _l$o T\e heddrra e^ or llc i.ade-unions oe. in uic saDresheet. The.e ,ar u (salt )linksl not lr lrom the niotel. 'rtft (saU-)ti1hs slthir e{sy reacli rr,., ferv. IL sar oDlv d Dedzs io ar e!d. tsJ dts e;rs produ.tiliiy ts culain to rcgjster a nurked incleasc. T)'e meansoi locomoiion {rrc ample. \Yhal's the ,lds: ID ihc clanpionship .onrcsl.-ihc oddspcre asainst ih. Driiish middleseiSht. flI"nls/ l- ThaDk Iou) Thants lerJ lruchl I owc mony /naz,ls. -vou .l'. r,lorts .rc reeded. The glad rlltn(s (c (siu oa") b.oadcasi lasi Dighl. ,\ Iuge nouoD.,tsir .oming inl.o being in otrr town. ao'ns /dre r.cn occtcd all ore. the country. -\..trnerons Cjtera numc de unolte fi de instrumcnte (S122) sint uneori cotstruite cu Trr tn's.w;r'so.s.1, i." ar old,'r or nrin.. Shc has lolglrt and tr is r\rllP.l.
lth .t n - t n- t . ;. n bd rtt I .f t t I r ' . t r r ' u, . ! :!,r bstrntirnl ,,rt!. nrfarialil n , , . l '- ! 'l ca lornl orj.n.c ar li inlelesul, pluilr.rl L- 1): sc dis-

I3l

of snrgularul. subinlelegindu cuvintul a ?a;r' o/: a pab of scissors, pliersetc. se

linl. (le snrgrihr ss lrnr rNruntnrr lkrri rrl.lkx:rl rsdll4(r, conslldl.,l! o]rnr,l{i si,isnlan,l, ii tlualul sdlro(! inr SU\. a.e li tl.
'to...t r. Lt."lt') r cslc liloa. tltd tidi\s " ( o r i s r V e r i F i \ 1 i5 . .i \' t, s.r ,' . g],,ntrl. tt. 1 uneori lxiin t-" n,. trofic. tt..[,t,"... ].

'Aslizi esle irni oniinuiir r a,ll ,,zae.

0bser0oti,e Cileva substaniive de la S 118-128, piiDtre care numele de jrcari, (: spectucles ochelari). tiarlrr1, lroxsdrs,rrpers rrecum fi cuvintele scissors, pierd sufi\ul 's. conlorm formele compuse, ii... cind au funclie adjectival5 fEsulii de la S 166:
b,lli.,rd a li" ,lrJuq hr b odr d nineph player skitue allev bdddr r oom bow. l r om pl! i|l scisso. ca5e speoiacle irame .usppnd f Lpll r o l . 'r b u l o n thrnk oilering resper bell

ll&joritatea celorlalte substantive de mai sus pistreaz{ lDsi sufixul -s tr .ompunere, in generepentru cn singularul dilerii ca sens de plural: paft l,..cches llonoursList. Eood!l.r,rin coaL $ofks r ornlLittee customs examinalion sporL! (\reziti 5 166tent'! con'tleinF) 13) Pluralo striinc, - ln dccursut anilorj numcfoasc cuvinte strnine au 5 132 prooes intFun :: rat in limba nglezlJcare le a asimilaL- li confirui aOest, ': :, ai mi. s.,.rm0i m1'p dupd vp"hi-r"J in.'..14/d .i dut.j "\rir l"rFJ lor . .r uldt;,. mxi mul l -au nai pulin.ir.rm.crisi. .ii ln 1'reranr. cbidr la .Li ]11ai muli asimilater paLternul dupn care au lost consiruite ln limba lor r: ifiqine rnmine, cu pufine exceplii, vidil sl,riin dc speoificullimbii engleze. Substantivele diD aceasti categorie,de fapt "outsiders' foarie ulili, fac S 133 ::rfte din marclc numir de cuvinte savante aflate in sectorul qliinlific, tehnic, ::-."dicaletc., provenilc in spccial dir limbile latinl (uncori prin iniermediui :r;lnlrezei) grcaoe (unele difccb. altel prin lal,ini). llulte -si acestesubsiantire (spre clcmplu $ 134-137) pestreazi pludin :]rl lor originar, dar un Ioarte mar0 nunrdr dintre ele (de exemplu S 138ll,rlr. pc lingi pluralul lor de origine, azi rezervat mai cu seami speciaiiqtilor, : L;i un plural englezesc -s, seinnul rodirii Fi asimildrii lof prin popularizare. in ,r n treiac&tegorie(vezi exemplclc S 144),ceamai numeroasii,cuprinde curin.l! complt asimilate de limba englezi atiL la si.gular, cit Di la plural. a provenienld strdind, in mrjoritate savante, Urmltoarele substanti{e de jji plstreazh pluralul originar sau au o formd de plural loarte apropiatd de a) {sc. $ 134

139):

opzs, {masna)olerar coder, cod;d,s, vo.trr, outos, custoder,eic.;


r Sub+alri\ul rnaah pJ5bnaz; lDsI tormd dF lluml ln cuvlnr'tl lhanksEiu;as. : S inc ula r,l .larlm rslr r { . t nlr ebuint ll. Plr r . alr l da & e s l e r n e o . i t n l o q i l , l n l o . u l d" c ph hai m r lt o or i. h a z r s e r o D 5 L r u i e t l e j a p l u r c l . t i t T h:sJo lo F \"ry u sp iul, . ' laf p d n ru ,r sp e\ita .iog ula r r l dol, n. ' t r p s ut r J pr . a p"danl.

48M

S !35

b) pltt.lle se,:etti (v. li S 140):


, oll oiir " :L -ic p -n!p l ') I ' n. . ' . 1, . . , . , oj tJrurtr... . " -j.. "| | ' ' ."|''|'.mp ||np 6'''h \ ! olha. : ! ' } ' \ po, - ' , . ' m ' |a. or l' h. . r s . r no p l | , r'tralslr'lplrJr . l" rr''r lnol _ p ''n pi. . r n"t , t d: Dlr ' 'r 'l r i r ' . "t ma r/ : In ' f l" dr'.ri' d _Dlrp rn.r Lam J ' o: 1l rJrn pr' li' " I

_ ilA._

'n l

lr

apq '^ 4 4 i

t 'd r " I iin

rpnP' r r r o ''

13li

l ro rau i!l p ,""i.i:t,; n. , , ., U$dirn'es ctc.

() plural. france.e qi 141) (v "s b' l"dr r and " "


- lr liu! . ' l: 1"o, ' . b"' ' "n", . no, , ' : , ' i.

\i

r i f '0 i ^ t t r '. t ''r i _ orJ" \lalarn I 5 " r r ' \ l r '. \ l a . F

13i

d) pturuh itoti.ne (t'. s.i i 142):


' - c - u. I l. -i . IU n | ' rr " . ' o r ' l ' : I d ,r r i I an. or a!1oil.ada, ru[o:rtrad. el.chrzi.on., lazzrroni; condoll.icre. conbamlino, lambini; p|hzro, lalazz,,'

ObserrolLe e uor-di. r,nLFiJFI'nnun:i- 'li t" rprrnin'i, !inS" rlr,s^ r',nli' . .r -Jlr f- r'. ksr.l si 0 eea a plurrlulur -s's r sl.a rr\ )'s ;,rl ,rrrl'ri s,s p/r S | :tl l- i:i, t"i:rl h roalp sulrrln ;rplF lpr'rinr'F in - ,s a . trc r\ slrc eriemplu: pl. sg.
*bavs - eritrr i .l ,c!es I dsi:z] I bc^i :z: I kra,si:zl l 0i :si :zl

iheJts

t 0i:sEl

(p)
\ur , r"Jsp ' .In a J, nri in' ,rin, m 'l' rrln buinl r" arr "ipJ "l' 'i 7 'rlpl 1,"rrr"l ru l luralul l"' ori!';rar. :r u , plur-l errgl' s' r' ruldl iir|.r' prcrL ,r doun lnrm" Je pl,rtll u'nr dihreoliel".a s-r,s:n I0rmu uncorr 'rr z-. ., mli ol,i.a,rir; sa', . nilrara. .F"ldlld slrrinr' Inlo'ilj in-strlul lrlprir. in siiintjiic sau t;hnic. Numnrul acestor srbstantil'e cu pluralul englezesc ls crelte neincetat, pe misurd ce ele se tnceti,tcnescin 1imb5: n) IrlLtr\tc lali t (v. $ 134 a): S 1Bs 'qi arcnrr: a'cnde; d,l: ldl.nna anl,ennas.rnlcnDddr rre'd ll \
Isc, -a: ol. -i ierralizl. n,unla - inim',1 { a it,, 1e), Inrnruld,; la.uno -la|unar' vertebrae, ctc lc.tebro -vtrtelrar, rftir@. l e I h7l ' il: l,s.-x. r|-.s ' J ' r - . . 'c 'l r ""r r la'rlnad, retr'a -rcirr's, u l r 's " a l " l '' '1 1 'u 'v l p D o l o r r 'r c a . r 'r " ''' n l 1 F q / r - n , r '. - ( r '? '

.n -r' q . ' li ll rune u,t. - i d l: olus a l' lddr o ir h i l l o p n 'r m / ' is lT 'j s l h m r h' . DotJmir:a mL,.s. i' m bus , |' m bl ' j' r. .;'"r.nn '},,r'|n |..5. ' |' L; ' n' l' 1' , ' _' ' ] ' U! s ' nUi|! lr sJnr0 r rrnnr_ .id rj q '.op s \ 'l l J b 's ,'rs . : ir ' op . s J r n b r 'P s "J rt"olndgt i s . 'r) r " 'r " um u lp lnin u nu! . i " 1n , ' "r m rd rl p rn r_ lrul"irrnb i1 J r la l-; {'n r r'1. ' cln|'"lrrn '..''rl]||'".'o ln|- ' ' di, al' ' oa! - r d|um . orru; m cnr i.u lrrns. .d ni0 dd, dc c ennnr r ? - d . , nr ' i m s . d , c P n F d r c t u a - d r c r npordj dllnrirn -cllh,\'iu n, r . c lr J nr io, - c r nr or l! n- . r t lor i' r m r , r 'z s 'i r 6 ; n ''r 'n c orm 1r1 1 e. - n i, s |' . n"' I \ t r o; ni. lus ole u D- d a u s 'l e n m s m a u s o r c a , a i ' int.mg d lu \rrrn- lr \ hx m . . ' f r r , a", . r r ", "t u c r t t no. t \ - a r u t s / 't u ' ,,"';., lnd

"";.ii.,i""r-.,
'lgallr .l t !d

ir p sl. 6 4 ' lb d ' 1 .

.,r1.rI"on n, -ii d,ra,r,

o ,-e p-rdrur/ds- t1.,,r4

NTMARI-I! SUBSTANTIV]jIOR

40

r '' di r r I I o r n l r 'm - r I m o _ n' J ; n m'\i o r qi' a r r i. f ill" r ' r o r n r m '4 n' l' I n i'.rni "", mofatorid, rclirr.dlt -rellrendums, r'leFrda, sara ."..1-nrtns, , .r."i"ii"p ^ r . , r i . - o r t r '. : r,r.,.a . ' a"i' : s - , - . . r . n. . b"dr . p. .,', rml . .Jrd"n'.. '| ' n. ' i, 4 ' v n' iii' r m j ,iirnr. ullimat t p '" _ o i \ '' r li ' r ' i o ' 4 al 'l p | n d r r ' ; r'r. -iri r". -nB r"n . r ' ' i, " i i ' r in , "r ' 0 " " t " 'd a r 'i '. . " . -, ^ r- r ' i. ". ,;.ii,i.. '" " 'rr' ,.;,..i o-o., r : '. . , , , r p\ r , ".,i";...,.r..s',,-"'l,.statrix.s, , i.statri.u' fto. ' n, rr:e,irLfl.es,' testatrlr J 3: "ot r ' , - ' or t 'r : 1 . n "r :l' , . ' r . 1. q ippr l' s l' r ' 1 5 . I ip p-* 1 lnar "l "/ 'r ','..

b) pllvale 1recetLi: -trttl: ||aumo- lranmt, traumtn, tss.-ii pl. -s (engl.), * (engl -rl aniomat,n -attoDatons, atrtomrlai"il'cri'a - 'fite ), i,,s. -onr lt.
' | * 5: m "- ''n l ; ' dn ald"r ' . dr onlr mdJapolia r ni ro 1. . -h.t.-.s . "^po , lrcio iv : ne "^pol: s ^' r opol' 'r' ' irtz'c'", chrisalises chrisalddr; irls -irjss' lss. -isi !1. -eF (L'ng!ezl..idesl: chrysitis sphinaes. slhinfs{. -x; !1. -cs (eDgle']. -gesl: lnlJnr - lrrXnx.s' larv.ges; sphint slTrn \i, sr r r n! ds . er . : : ] rinr r , . . 'o D . C J ' n l / s l r " u loD, . a\ . ' opr 0, ' npue u ,rnp ".. "l' : D r\ r h F:

S llo

rJ;,, b" ad h" u l r' r' l -, - . r . r ur r ' . { r ' n g l " /l : ' c (' )rl l : :o F , _ .d i " /' h; , f J ' 1. .Lr r . o" r' p !' " o r - p l r Pa d sI.I' l P^ ' ' r p' " l n n' r - poa n' l n " d i "" r, lrou$.aa - tronsscaN.troussc4,., et'c: ':lrtrraniedu
cic' lss. -Ni tl. { (e.glezl -el: auloitf{da -autost.adas, autosftad', io " an: . / 1, - i : bd dir r , b' nd: | . b J n d i , . , i tsc. -e. o : Dl. -q '" o n ; r glplt g | '" l l o s lrbfFro-lrbrFro ilr lplilnlji c l' pllo (l lrr. ' al" ldil'i'1 n i, lod _r0n. sol' !^p"J_n r_ d r ij s ' n. . / o ., " 1r1 pr"-ro - h r / o s hpt / l. m por . lPm pi: ! r r uo' o i.mm ^r' "d o. .o prin r

c) pluruIe francezc'.

S l'll

(1. plurale italicne: )

s 142

c) pl rale ebai(.e:
.icNl chcNl.(, .|crnt'rn ,

s 143

pturale asimilatcln limbr,

s r{4

tVarialtn amer.: sanitarirh sanita.iutu, sanitarid !{m J t ar alr ' : J iir r b l d rP' o re J i r.' l o T p n ,;; : ; a \ ' o- . ,., rr' f.rt . n r In ' r' bLi al 1L. nin r \l J i obi: t s e .. \ L l o l ta ' o tu s . - p In . I 6 Orascleinorne ale riitonnri " 6lo;ni dc sitAurN "sfe clJdoP san c!.laps o ?t,.tu." pcd;nfi-(F T. w;od, the Crcuntaorhol EdstisL Gtamtuat' ' L o n d n-i:"i"; ) "ir." ; z i' po n l .ex n s n o l ,i s m n ,lt 5; nr t e "t. " t ub - r oot t f d n o ri . n v :n o \n l i : Im tb i n h" " n! at tal.a. nl, adeseaIn bioloqip a..dp. :0 \re r i pt . 6" u; i n ,h ri , i r. l " r" s r S l 4 <

50

S 145

14) OouI formo de plurnl cu irleles diterit:


t,'t^ ,. btathtre i: irJtil i^nIi,i. tup t ht pnt r * r . dli dps , ngp \ p, nl , n . p '. I \ '1 1 , . n 'r m l f , d i aceleiali comDniGti, societili clD.l .o{r i: vacil .\!',, A;d ' ( $hJ , c . lr i"r a| I / . m J k ilp penr r u r ur n a r e a o p d . . l i i . u r . m o n d d o r l 14 i.. I d 1.e { : z ar un, c Fn: i. od$Pni d. g. n i u , | :.r.r . es s 1, i"ir . . , 1"1, , . \ "a,i It ex es I indc \ ur i ln. dr ii) l ino, nat . n; t i" l id "" i , " '': . i ' '" " t ,,.dilns f- medii (rersoanill aass i.- .ndjroacC, (d _cu]llrarizare a nasclor ctc.) !ezi: I ndtia metllt $r tuunrtudLa" I I t en, ;3 moreLle d clte trn Dcnnvl4 \ . ' t u' df , in pdn \ \ r... nrll.:lal.e ajo.cr cadre, !.rsonal al unor, irstitnlii elr.) sbfir i | t l t f 1

. 8 "1 "'-

m.lit m

-'"J -''tt

.r. ^

"t

1l

I , o. r

\ d Lm u/ ll"

O bse r a a lie a,lorh(: natrial. stoln, pinzn)are plrralul clrtlsa (: ieluri sau bucili (: de stofe sau pinzi). Pluralul clath.s? hain) nu are singularin engleza contemporana:
The satesnansloFcd rs fario''s .lrrts l.o chooscr.omThc shc Nore \\'cre vc.I smart. 'nlodcr

$ 116

15) Dord,plumle cu acce$qi formi, r'hr cu irrteles diterit.s


rnei urmel, rl. ,f.c.l.r lss.) l: (,hiulas'r (pl.l l= rari.alodi pn!'i h sru slb golxn,ihi) (ss.) (: c!lo.rre), pl..onrzre (pl.) i: dratell {sg.l (: r'usola), pl. .on7d$s (tl.l {: comPts) ( s s ) (:o b i &i l , p l . .z r,o n s (!1.) t: rmrL) (ss.) [: a!dic), p]. da'dss ddtuse damaEes lpl ) (: deslilCubni) ( s qI ( .L r' n d " a " r l f.l . D l . d" dr' sl .,s dt o" eht ' ,o ,s n i c d p l F rn i n .,,rl i r" l ul pt d4t ih^t ' -i nl " l ' r ..dnmel breech brc{:lk\ cot ut cotaure catnpdss .onrsser

'

j o D l dp

I Pt\ra1e1e Lr.lhr.n ii ll,r, lnrL iorme lilerarc, dcntelc. .u exccplia $tbstantivului ,.arl'.n cn scn$rl dc .o,/4i. rs"a.,rs g .niu . on dr g, r ' r . : lood er t l B, L; ,s 4r.1.r t),L\a: q"n;; .:^r.-b po\ Fdlr ' nd nr J b" J F r i pl j/nta.. ar' ) i sg . s,rr.. i ' t 'r' Nd to '_ r . m iJ L' d. " inr or ndr r . i '.Iul , u r d j i / r ' a m 1 +l o r ( p r p s i . r d 'l i o . 'a r...il'.nla roj r ir pt . ) ' hnut ' t npdt n . , r iJ loa ^ n m u l r 'p l . r r r m F n l p l i a r , r i n \ i lplpviziuo'r ti iimlnl el,c. cn accla$irinlel{s. .'Ih / I l.\.lqllr , t , - 4t s , 1 m " hop"t . " lor In e s t J m p '. . C . n J o , r s i v ' m . t $ , , . . tot rop J r ' r . o Ino;.dJ-d- i p' n1.. rL^ r n, , pe + . J ' t er - e. \ J J " p a ; p 1llF r " a r '$ ''. 1a1" d; d ; un u d. i r . 'n . ' 1 .../t ". ' ' 5Cd accast{ acceolic, rluralul s,ueas arc si sinsulrrul star,. r \',. J p; s "o"" t n, ' pr o- ur , u l o i : , , o f u l h l " 0 r . , l o t t s I k l J 0 s l . r l l " . 0 'l tlJr,l",

(s r06,) . i, , t u" t k r r,,rD z l . 3 scnsu.ilc aralalc aici sht nunai cacrnDliliciri: e1enu .eDrezirfi l,ak intelesul'lulrlel la orc singul.fll ru esie m;rlionat nu au si;guh.. .iLc substantivclor meDtiorate. t V ez i $ r lt 8, trn , 1 rl o a .

NUMARUL

SUASIA

Tl\'EiOB

i: 1P l {: ) (: 1sc.J 1! r ) L: (se.) {: (p1) r :


l:

sertnl), Dl. didr.r indispersabiti,iznenc, chilol.i) nr.ct), rl. "//d/s 'f"c]p, brrnuri molile. imbrirtnrirne) s.nljmcDt), pl. /eeli,as s r n s ,b i l ,trrtFu s c e p t,b ,l i ta ls i mpi l i P ) s. ,P,
panr ,ton; J" flan"t.1.

tlarell), Il- f?dnEls ,o , , r r hir n4 d" f lan"l. , . ln . p , i b l ' 1. I rrtn li la L ic lel s du lJ alt c joc u r i r ) (: m ot iv ) , nl s m ! , dr (pl ) {: ,i1i l. ' r a , n jur ul unr i Lladir i) iss) (: soisoare: liierll. !1. Llr.,s

t pr . l

l Lpr

1: dodl. pl. nau na nia'r'er., t)! are r I rLiqr niil p1. _n/ s . i, , ldan, r l (- ir Pr anc or F.lr Elet el ls8.l {- nr iluLl. r l. m r z t 16 (- pro.,is-!0ral al unei |edhieJ

r!1.r L:

(: nnmnrl. pt. dnrar

lprJ 1: verslrr, loezrei murltmel


duerel. 11. tan?s 1==

issl 1lpl. ) is g. ) 1: tprr l: lsc.)l=

parl.ci rolJ. !1. ralrs r r p mi s \r, r/1 . r,.u i r' s io r.n . j m o l L l . i n (i n ta ) Dunct e1c). Dl. r,,i",s

(rr) i:

imu4

lss.l{: tprr (: Gs.)(( pl. ) ( : (ss.)(: ( pr l (:

dulc,ati de irurrel, !J]. rr.s.rrls o.helan Je }roleclic) sl.rt), !1. ru,/rc.s lo c n i n fi ,,c a n to n o me n l ) chitani-r), pl. /adt",s lnapoierel,pl. rerz.u s

(ss.) sami lmuz.)i solzl, pl. r.ai"s l=


t: baranla)

lsc) (: bucelicr. lracment), pl. s..dps

{rl.) I Lss.l I r m n n . D .fi o J d i . d u rrl l i ' f.m p .l r.l , rn. k,,'


(pl.) L: t ,r,n " n ,,i F tu ti i , ri n o rl u ri : L o n di l j i l (pl.) {- .oslrn din tweed)
1: a!ii), tl. rdra,s (: un Il de stoli dc lini), pl. ,rcdrs

( pl. ) l- rcsturi (de mlncare),deFu.i {de mclal et .)l (: srrrtmol), !1. sp..rd.t"s

16) Doui plur:rle, rrllul colectir, colilalt individual. Cilera subslantive au doud forme de plural: o formi este identic[ cu aceea a singularului ;i are obiectelor pe carc ]c dcnumettei intalcs colectiv, adirn se referi la lold1ila1.o caalalLi, eu terninrtia reguhtn in s. este ur plural irdividu.rl li descmneMir
'\'i r$ - ir I o | ' n " l -..\1 ,' .. ^lln tu t \ . z o t u l L i mao. t r i. ) { v e/ i: i S l i 2 b ). , /dF?ls: Icluri dc ttrccd. r' ' ' i l .^.l ..r,Ji -' 1

.^lr7

5!

!r

sau /cllrt d! rDt.lrt,l. Ilit forlna cu illrlcs coleciil-, cii $i cea dif.rile .)bieclL plu|al in s se conslruiesccu verbul la plLtral (cu c\c{,l!ir substantivului dri ltuit')\
' . h4t ./,o , r f ' ,r:l " i .. l .1,ri ,,ni i , traats l ' 1.' i : h , p; road" rru .te , r, ,./r r lr r l t,ri t I .o b J Z . b o mo" Ln n I "l " ol , l , t . b o mb , -.r' 1 1 'b r'

s /.o ,t- g l o ,1 . . / @ , s onL , e ri " " ; a l i i J pior c r , " . Ji Fl . g h i u l " l " . ( n ' ,rn -d " .n a n The ereny .(rn.u (.'r abandoncdin tlie lield. {Nil ) - t h t ds . ; " - d ,@ n d a p ti r-n o u " a p -. (rri ) T t o, onio" . .,r' u . d i o m h tp n .n ,y d ,p \l ' ,ol " l :n I. n,L' r, \l\e t.it ucrc' ri!e. ll"na ts rvhal I like nesr. E,tl l.esh tL# anil kep lill Thc srll siNiee sl.or. l,as tuirs oI nll sorts rat zre corrjng nr drill ' I , r . , . or ,l y .r." .-t.1 " o r rt,e r,ta t,. 1 l' iuN. ! r nlei a n l l td n s c ri ,,e s P tz n s : l. - l u" " nl; J . /,,rs o . h " ' f :. o r h o r' . ni o " _: The shir rlied lhc corst sth her ./,erls ' r n" v : l, ir n" l 1 J /." /r. C o ..l i ) a u s i h ./e _ll^ i, i . r " a/o ,p rrp ,rid l rk i r ' o rd ,n.rj .t ' r' ' ' l l " 116 Tvo siotu were ii.cd tuon the irigate. l /" d J d rl h ' ' -l S oa- u " lJtr i. d .. o i"j. .' ,. d to r r .. i , ' r" .j ' ,"r
,n ' |

s r+8

rr 5uLdr',r.iL^lplrlt_t.ol',1:\,1.i/r//,\lp'.in-. inr Llorr,lorn.eJelrL,' limb ltanr' - t,pr,orr.-- o"m"ni ..tdI.ilid .rul".1 rr .celrrinr'1. tiar sau couun) Fi ou vcrbul la plurLrl:
''L i- n, lalt.l Do g, ' . r - A. ullJ l . od@ , b n : : s r '' r ' The r sftu stu r { lv ( ounir v / o/ , t / s ) . . Eh l d t h " n '' l a t i hp n T " rn Mnlo tr , : * bu"y ' ' ir o 1: lcmeilei birbatii) ,, t',.1 n .. f m i' a , t P n ' r P, , l i r ' : i '. I . J . an t[. .,i : .t ] . h- , " , , at , / in lr ti I'

j I tl)

F.ri-. .i .n 'i"eul 'r .1"" /r1A t ropur ' n'1. "7 n "h lin i\'l' muii /,//' ,unpu.,: lJr 'u lui.5 I 'r. rnpi. / rr' l:'n ,', tott t't lt sa.r sineir, t l/' songs, foLhstarLtst [aLltflIesrer' c) subs|anlil'ul t.oplc (: popor,nalnr e) steLrnsingular;i ore llulriul regulat pcolrlcr (: popoarl], nnltunt: .1 ,.orl .s masleroi ts own dPslinl In afard de aceste form' r.isid ,si un substantiv ctt formd de singuhr qi sens de plural, colcti\': Itc Zrolle (: poporul, cebe,icnii)sau individual (: oaneni lume, PersoaDe, famiLie):
r 1 1d , n fl.r"r r ial. i, ' - e: r dr l .'n o rn,. m . r : t 1" l ""t , k A . olll"i. .\r _' . ' r l 'J r . d r '. . " 1 '. ( . l h l h p l r i l r i l I ' ut ur L i r i l - , . '. ! F r o r l J . The ,;opl.f, ol lhc rvorld dzr lishling ror pcaoe

l lnlcks u rrm dl, f ol 1\ ! ,sun nrn tr\ut(u t ,rnddFspmn.dz,,olp.ti. ( , i\ : , ", . / s , , "ons t r , : p. t ", , r . ir g . t 1 - . r t se riial.ca ln tolalilaten ci si e;ie asimilat .d nunete de natcric sun ru lluralul cn tJ "t"m"n p t" , om r jon"n, " it , t u, t i. or i' . v a/ S I I : d . b ) . . S 1 5 0 . r..r rPl r,rlu Ln l^ li\ : r anaa p l 'r _ ' d a n a r r ' l . " n r L l pr ldr " fmid" \ nlt . l la. ^ r ii . r, . PU 1- .r vojt c" uJ drn l."r' rL ,., n 4 ( l' r 1, . \ 1 . /: "' o l-pr' a oorb' or drn li \ "t lir ", r . r "r ' lu": lr' \.:.n tatu ,. 'u "t , tNL$ c (S 15 ll ! S.n cri c d. t r odus t r al, 1r alas im ilr t t u n u ! n r 'l ! : d B ! \ a l o i c 1i0 sr lrio). $ ' rlA .RrDL LnL. tf lonl( 1. _ p or" ir .- r , , . , a/ . . p l .;"' tulor ' t o\ . - r ir i " " '

NUMANLTL

SUBSTANTNELOB

T \ t d ^ --. ..,,u the \o u'- /,o rL I $il lJ\' r.{ Ju

1, r , . ' l \ \ ' or r d f ^ ' t oDl" "r . li r ' ! i n ! r 5u' n l lr r r r ' nr r ' i | a l"' lt o p ' \ "\ r 1

l^l

p o _ l 'b 'r I '': n

tlnele substantive au Ia t7) Pluralul ln tul](tio dc s(lrsr' -stngdar .1" unul Jp .,;irrn rt 'hl;'dL'at' lt':,'t rrr plural ' rr n rh:i Intr'1 "."- ';i, nlr\ Lej,i llul dp sub.ra rit Si neavind plurali

S 150

l,uir*s

I'c l

r - a b u rl , n l . d r, A [\] ri i- i n q ,l te l ro l e , v rl L \\l t : !.x \.i l i c . i n trp n fi n d { F l , p ]. D,si nA Y s l N l . t - - ;tu u a ,, ro L n d i tc o l c !r1 1J I' " tta.tl l i N N l i: J d a c te r i a L s tt ;rr] tN N .l d r ' . l i on " i . i " o i ,. r ..' -, i. n trfr..,/r,/s )l I\l l- c u l u /i td t l rl ' \i r.n t I t\N l 1- ilcli.alcsii. lnldd.r), !l d./i.o{,ist\l l\Nl i: dricatelc labs|rnrL.).1 r : i o c- rl . . rn s l \l
.e No n li in lo n o \".i,p r e r l. i ;rff' l r''l i t-d'l T"r\l

l'1

1. o.l rr' '

crl\ i: i,n;r' {.o1, I iNNl .!,u I'rl )


(: : : i: I i: (.i: i: 1:

lir de Di.), !1. /ui.s t\l pir lfolecti!ll l\Nl i N l rrtd ti . 0 i n ,, f\l q h i a i ; { n tri n F In d t' ri F l ltN\l r,o 1 rr) r ' rr ' l l ' n ' .r. | .0 4/ 5 !l n o ,L a t: tn b .tra c I t\N l t Ii ic: zird; .oinunicrr, L.zr-i). Pdlels ll hirlii. acte. do.umenl.c; zia.ei Iczc, comuiclril llrLic Prrne de natoi',)l l\Nl s fu rl l , l l s ? o //sN l l i' l trr 1[\\ .o tr,.. ri .a o l ",

18) Piuralc dileritc (u inlclos de sirrgulnrelcrtrspectire:r' a) Nutn:le dc tfrol.fii si de pralnse nuttule {cer' e. zarzavaturi eic ), care. ;rin insnsi natura lor. arr ir mrid obi'lnuit fofrli dc singuLar',pot avea si to"';a de Dlli"al. dat cu o srhini.rare de inleles, irl"' 'Lnind in acesLcaz, oa produsclor rospectrve : ;i tn l;mba rolrrenn. ,.speiriiale nl.rlefiilor salr
fol lons linos rfools oil( \ s ifrs lsolll Noolls lul s . i,. " ste'is, ot''

$ 1;1
S l;2

(cl. s tL"/

adescaobiectc confeolioDatesau forb) N tueled. ndle,'ii desenln{)azn respective: u eori sint lipsiie de singular. in gene'e lnsi mate'tlin materiite au alit singular, cit li Plural:
desret; pantaloni /ld,ael l-- Iianeli) Ilannets l.pl \ \ ' tlanele lle .o.p -lcnnen 6 i ' , Losru m J. luin p d in llJ n' lel' r u"' pr d r ' ' r ' " n t J t . t 4. l: ,,.ulo n ';i;L:. | ;;:;i;' -i'',tt'i. : , ' r"i . : rp '.. 9'ro. ,, r',d r'1 pr ' '4bP"" sqro," dn nr s l! lr iJd ' du niil ronn - d nl' r l, l I

clc nu rel)rezinfi rod'eInlelesurile sub_ 'scnsurile ailtate sn,t numai erempliiiclri; stanlildor menlionate. '3 Vez is j S 146. . Xa;;Diie 'strbsrantiaul,d,s. Liu..stc an llufal 6 vi ' i ii P ag. 51, l ^ola Vezi li $ t3 ti lr3g 24, nota t'

6lM . ri4 (: /.,".d r .,"..d. cositor , lablli, t ir ic heal- a rt! {sg ) (- o.ul.ie de cons.ne; nn bjddn), (pt.li l,..t,ri .r,,

r,f f , l dn , . or . r r ' . r , , ads t t . .o5t,.," trn .$..J). t ntt a r.,J L, l o |. id. r f r , . t t ,,a,J. !:d.r. lyezi si S 16)

s r 53

c) .Nunt.:lr dc culati a| la phral in.tleFul ..nuanl, tonu de


,\1o . .n . ..t , j i. / . , r . ar t , . r li_r ic / pr . . . I1e lorfs 10 pairt r|c rcds ind ,tu,i;oi -.\utlmn tcares.
,a.

ale culorilor

Lnele plulale alo numelordo culori au inlclcsurispeciale:


. ,'.::

,r /rr s i...ns ,,trt..r i.rerJ

1:rr pr r r ' I . r I ' nlanir llr : r f . o. t lol l: liainc alltri l0idoni .]c ltan.lii rtbirl han'e g.i, panhloni ih llaDetil grir lxi i

,, F

,,

J.

..,,

o...

, ,t.,.

ilmsiil

ir 15't

.l/ Nurn"roase subsl.antive absl.ra.to oare,prin nntura 1or.si t nerrne r bi ,;iJ' ilip-i'ed" pl,,r,l,\",r S llr..rap rrrrr.n, iir,r.l,.ut .t,...ner" .i.. .rn,.2J...'.trlr.l,,\,d:uI,i.ir,lural;i ,l-,-rr: ,l orrhl , n, t-'l'r
I La !1 ilil. l).auh:s) t- n lrumtrs tr. o leDpie tu{qroasil a tdlh ipt. t|un6) t: nn aderr"irl uh nnr i.tue .lpt. int.ttige,/.:) (. . intelig.nlirl d ,r.,nrJr | o mescnlrrr.l t!r. nEonn4!\)

so manr* Itdzesr.s
1 'n , , , :o n. . q, i. nl J um "n , bn r p r J l , 4. r "i. . i 1,'t.r hrm ltr c / |, r r . i, ' I ' \ t r r . t . r pnum "r dt t r r I iol,l him a ifw ,!d5. inuncmlill r" r.,brt)

c) Alte plva.le d,iftrite ca inlclar rle sing\hrelc Ns!./!i.rt,,.


Ir,l.l (: jntormatii, ftiri, coDuni.'i11, nNliintirj, avtci

(r,1. f: a!rc (lisLfai)l lss.l I sfium dii tigarn; .ctrliri in, rtin,l,i. lomerlll general; .cnusa xnri onr Dorl, n unei f6e. Ltrl i:.r:nuir-1 ircendiatc); 1: ruine ris. ,r oJn.s .f a la en enpte) {- .cnnia din soli, .iuin) 1 ,lildift marc ii linplii on o lrzurmirl pl.l i - (,azarme,cazimil rl L . c o n d n i l i , p u rl ff. l i nnl .-Li al i l ,, asp(ci 1rl uri cl N

i:i:),'
LeahnSs Lta.t:' Lrac.:i:

j 1,.c l k J n i c n l l i : c a p a c i i al c) l ipr.l I l trt.n s ].l k a nd ' ts l 1: conl i ndLl iss. ir)'l l :0 1 L c l l .,,j .l i d u frh i i ial i ., j du.ul i r .t.l l
l ' ,.1 \,,r' r-r,.L l .,i . . .r L U .; .. r.r rn,l I t:.,...l .,,. rr:--t-i . ' ' .!.r

1!1.) i : d i ..r!i i : !o z i l i u rd al i !l l lsq.) t- p o e c h e l d e !o L i .n i .hj . de .i i n1 .1.l l LIt.l L: brclcl. Iientru pant{lonil

.' :

I r\'rri ij S 11 8 .1 1 t, l l l 1 . 4 sll,riantirul 6/d., are ,,hundnrds Dz.e or oI llLrrxllt ,/d..: ta.l.idgc', lS t 2!i)

ti .r I

NUMARUI, SUBSTANTIVIOR

5EI i, t , 1sir I ", q ' '


rsg ntddtp aq p Lhe VL dd k AsPs (Pl I , ro' :." ,"r I prort r ? {pl ,c tp t -r' r" p "L ! IPI rotk 1sg) : -. it" * g.,i

1 : s o l , r' 1 m i n i , tP re n ) i ' l \Ji ri I i i rc j d ' ,.s " d i n rrrr: rrr " n. t ' r' ' l L -t. L : o n o a r, .i n s t.l , ." " i r.:; .l i s rn 1 i . !c i 1 rr I' ^r' rm' rtl r t-1rrJ ob' i ' r,r.:' .n L i ti tl u i c d d "'m i . .ur5 p sp.' J /' r! f.nrrr un

Lil.h icadetnic.)3 \ FliL m llor i". m r r ir ' 'l 1: et ul m ed' ir 4 \ e r '! r d : l {' r i ' 1 l . lPnr ' i n' ' r . m ' di | - " poor t r i r I m l' , nalr r ' p. d' r r ' m i ' ons i' Fr J : ns lF' . i I om J gr ' r '. P"' r "r 'tl l. r nun' / 'n n r '1 a r l 'l ) , z inb r p l - " " b n 'r ' pr ls g. . ' o; . i. r l un r r I n F i n 'r ' l J - ur ur ii$ r I J ni' r ' .r briky'orLs. n gasworks, an ironworls. a steelworks. the lrorks fonncil

Toate pluralele de mai sus se construiesccri vrbul la plural cu cdceptia *ribstanrivJlor larraclr li itorAs, care se poi construi !i cu singuiarul ci d au sens de singular. 19) Pluralul substnntiYelor care trati nationalitatca sllu prolcnientr regionali. - Substantiveletrmidate in -s. ,r [i,J]'-s, ti +rc au acee'rtiIormii la singular ;i la plutala:
the lrognois l,lLcS*iss thc Fren.h th," Scolctr l're Iinglish

$ ll')6

S 1;7

Celelalte substantive formeazi pluralul regulat in -s:


the Czcchs6 the Danes Sobstanti{cle thc RomrnidB lhc Slaniards tre _q\t'des thc Turks

compuse cu -man sa\l 4raman formeaze pluralul conform


Dulchwomen Welshwomcn

regulii de la | 168:
aDui. hs oda n an Englishman -lirglishm{il r \\tlshNoman a Scotchman - Scoich!'cn d Cliinanan -Chinamn (Yc z i l i S ti t-t5 !) -

20) Plur&lul de tmirilor alc anin&le. forma pluralului difcrili de a-) Danumirilede animale au. in genere. aceea a siDgularului:
lic riuckoo kippcr -!i g i - kiplP8 onlf gooss - cahcs - gf6e

s 168 s 159

rl e zi s i s r 18. 12 8 e Bd oa'Hoturt\ t\' \@t Hatutrs, lJa@tuB ,tsr: lista de iitlu.i, decoralii de S u1. r u n \i ) l n l l Brrt. c u ooazia zilci Sale de na.ile.c,.espcctiv h {t , co D ief lt e

,'ii,[if]r{,;i --*,*ttl;llt$usltllg**l',:'',"

50 l6n

Mo

/,/ l 1.lr .,rl.rr ti\" ,tir, i.... '..l srn:,. -i :r t. rrL .'1. .nrj,t.r.u r.... .1,", , r,r.l ..It i". l,-:\rt. ,j, atin.ntr. or.,
i' a nIDLrfr ol Fjlil ,4a I I rt . lr ' , . b, r , l r [r., i rp. .ou 1,,.,,,ai: ra.iors Jnnsl or i, t in ;.

161

({...J rtrs. 109 a):

Citela nrlxrnnti'e Au o sjfguri lorni


srlrcr grrnrs

l)entm singular si plurat_


satnron tu.boi, ptc.

dcc. 162

r.jndeer

d/ .\lt r(artile u o tormi rle pturat cu inrele! cotecti, idenrici cu n FF - r inr ' , -s utu i . n ,p " u .i tu r., d L " p t,,r .tng.ta d ir 1i ^ _,1p" n:, ,;;" " , 4 . r . nur Lr / r s . I,tri F ,, ,,," ,ri i ,l p i n d :\i .i ,ti n .t,a,i ., drnuni tH 6. " . "

,l.c hcre nnv /tsn in this rirer? J h 1. l?' . , n )q n t n i t! l t, rh : j L o a r.x I


f tt.L | | 1t t d..a lit. r rl ?/ . . t r . h. 'lh@

4 .." t." ,1 I ''." ^ ..,, r.. 'tU Ltluts' at lhe CaqraUjirn brools a,, r..r rinf. '.idr@z ruD ulr lron |rc sen aDd Uifrc o., atsol)l!n!n tt.\t, a ke pike &d..rs.,,

" ,

/tsral

on thc truc.

,, b

e,

..,1

163

2l) Plualul substaDtivelor compuse. Substantil.ul comtrus csieformat, i ' , : r "r ,li', r 'rn Ll'rtir i\ nri "if,Jt .i u, , u t. " r c c i , n u lr" ' " u , in : ", ^ . . r, 'rF -l slalri\-ulprincipalPturahrlp .u t substinr,iletor,,,nnpi,"";n n,ni s" t&",eor; a""rt pu,,indu semrulpluraiului se numajta subsrani.irut riput: p
.,,,r,- marllal .oegn.\ gPrmar ,r/s arr)u.enl. ,c/-! s!:nel.l ra\y4ls r.rrrs pltenl ,ftdes to.bc e?rs oI mail /ddcr.s in taw ,i.s,at-ta{, ldlns-jn-lyaitins maids ot all-work

r. n

. . m pl .tp o r:i r,,

.:.. r, , u r rn ,i a Jr a,ti a.ti v I,n ti ng., :.b_

164

Cind printre elemcntele unui substanl;vcompus nu fiqureazdun sut) stanti\-?rincilal, se adaugir s la utrimut cur-int:'

:::' :""", jil,':l -ii:'i t, l :;1i {"1 :,,"i :;;i-' ""1","r'i,1 i';Ll', i,'"i', ;i; i,, ;1r;;',i',-;r.;".;;r,t;; j.'"il :,:;l ;i.-:iil,l.:,fl 6< : t .
14r . 1 1 1 n ,f.ti t. , E, : 5 cAp.iori, ciutir. 3 ftr1s : slecii dc pilsirdy'.

',oi;r.:,, . *;J-,1':,':i:..il;.I,i"', ::i,i ll ",-li:il l"jil;:,:;:,.b:iJ:",.,'

r r. l:,1d"11; ",i:; ',,1,4.me ;1;::';:;'i1LT,:,1,.ii ,',",i1 )1,1 ;r:r:

trp m "b an . tFnn"li dredlals pl'6-/o"fs H - , ',a Jp ., p Jr."l ol Itpr "did -\ud np a.r. - lhp $ df b ts4 r,,

. ' , , LL. oI A $rrat-noh young maDt,L{ pu", iD' y , r , , r d. . ' r ' I or l oi. l r u. / r . , . t , ^, pJ t L, . i/ u"r , f r , i , t , , I . dt .

r ood . n F r . , , / , ; , . j s merry so-raaali strJ d /,o'Es or I n . , r . , / o - . . . m . 'n r ^ . , - . . @t ,

Substantivele terminate in -ful qi -laadl tormeazi pluralut in,s: , up/,rrol o'oa nhr /,/. ni ton,l buLU"dJs rriDocs of ha.d/,r.oi n1r ot ,a,/odls lkra r,ot&/s r, ot
m.,lh/"1 .^ o _r 'ar'd y $nY,/s or /rod?h r r , . s poor ' / , / s ^t r . , d, iii1, , . .o.rti.odj .i touri!tj .a, Ud.ds oI rillagos i.ainloods ot NeeLcndc.s tnckloads of coul

S 166

Substantivul secundar al unui substantiv cotllpus DasLreazitn serere S 166 {orma de singa/or, chiar stun, i , inJ are spn"d. rlur;t s0; cind .sre pr;.cd0L tuncria de idrcrir. - un num"ralcu.ens dF rlursl, deuarp.F.ti',J.nlinFstc ',r-.,iind invariobil,S r;tlj. r.]n,,ne',.{himbi tr'pturet:'
a @o,n}.ush lhe glore departmcnt ,",\? - b! r ld ns sr? .lir t ins a D,oLkecl)or .t ./,s slro\i d /to a rr s l o D a i l ' h rl .s i r,l ,.n a thrcc'r.ac .oslune a ttn mt&r, liclure

. Fac_exceptiemajodlatea subsrantivclor secundarecare au numai forrna S l0? de plural (S 118-129).,subsiantilole rare. inr,rcbuinlare numai ta sinsLrlar, .,r I,U Fa pro.lucn, ..,r fr Ii n".t1rp , I r,, ., a.iFSFori suberar te li\, ^'rtuzir '' ^,t,u.F,rir m.i,nulrccu\i,,,. i,, sfairt d, .Lmi,it" uti,irt". Fi.,tir ,- in '' nr0i ha.\ent. ,bior';i .r,h:ran rrele obi_.r,uirts r\ind .err" J" piur.l:

'lhe ko,ds a .\s.,s r.ndor Aiants , p I n Ld . \ , , r r a . . O r j r i n i , . , , i o n -\e l)Ibti. n ,/,r,i. I \ . r , . , r t ndn l' n frJr .n ,'r' jl'^ 4"". r n|' , , , t . r nir , t . i,k s , o n j r b 5 a umulicdtian s saL.ltiLe an Indian /rrt,.s airDlaDc rhe Cl,,rcs and Jn.s bishibuting Centrcs t\ | | r-p tr lt n! 1qr s f , r bt . t , inj i t ' r L 1!e Lo rlor , ar i Th. i 'Ar.hii.eiitL,r-" ,lpdrds Drhibition ol P

ivezi ri S ,t5 :t61) Substantirole compusecu elmentul ..nan" sau .(tvomat',. - Cul.intul nt.1t san '&omanprimefte semnul pluralului &tunci cind ste elemntul prnr cipal al unui substantiv compu,!. Iiind detrninat dc u adjectiv sau de o altn parte de yorbire adjctivati:
bnsnrcssromdr t'hliqatuln .ongress@ndl -bdsinessdorua charvomt congless0ond4

g 168

l Cuvintelc substantiecle ln compune.ea -/,1 si ,oad au devcnil. de lapt suli{e, i l i r rora intfi sinL .dNid .ute r r d. r iv al. (5 Ji9)- Subslantirete asllel lormate erpridl

: Recura nu se aprici fn c;v,,i s,rbsianlivelorca: Getndn. Mlsstitun. \'annan, -. Att na\ notuen, Tu.cainan,.at!nh, ra?iwn e1.,.. ,iare.deii ternin{ic ln -mon. nu sini llnrlirsc in Imna englezllmodonri .r $rnisnii{l rn(n.

n rer.la nt,n nr Indidr@z: ,{n rt arnrs ,{n o i NrrJ

: hant t , n -!rfi - lnilirri.z rt rrns -rrn 2. , of \ r

llngljsh,,,rdr louuadan lr is hdo, r d , r nilk d! , f r n rc.dlcrr.,ra, toli..nrnal sto sfom(r

lhglishdlnn lotet ,?rr --lrislorttD -rtj]ktranen. necdleito,'.r Policesatnn slorl.vro,zu

tGS

Denlnr a arnta disiincl.ia do Ci d s bstantilul t .att san Qamatrser\'esl.c din,tian (sau .fo,ra;) -. substt$tif, ambii teimeni sexr ln formelcompuse primesc semnul plurfllutui: \ronr0r.ou'rilloB rncndrilncn
npniolk l, s l men nrilliNrs $cnscfrarls nr c D s ir gor s Iirtmen nnLsnriars

aratn (lislinclia de se\, Cind sribstantilul secLxrdar t/li/r : .slc ltiNit n..rrlsi dc substtrrtivulprincipal semnrl ph1lalului
,dn ,rt,r erleN lix d cN d,-killcs

1?0

Sllirstantircl{]comluse tn ck\ncltul 'ifoot'J. 'rtootrh" sau "ntouse", ca su} suu'rr/r.: stanti\e l)rincitale,foimenzri !lJhhn ir !J. res|ccliv 11.1//
la*t..l hnli /,,r lor/i?l 'I\\n\I l.,t l.vt)ur. lielrl ,,0r1.", tti! trt ,lilli /.,'r, nrrntu. Di, -licli tttJsleth nrilli /rr,r

$ 1?1

(lc lir. Cind lrsi a(esl. substarl;\e au 1'alor're .,11j., lelinrin invariabile sensdo plurtl: chiar dacir au
tn'!h^.hrs /oorriltrc t,ltrfr rr'ri|flLsl! '?.,i/rl)fuslrfs l,orD, .s l.,,r,!nrl's thnrtir\ - /oorst, ps ,,,{sr Jroles /,rrP hole , r or r r s ' I r r n r i s , r or . w, s ( l! { ak , r , , J . lr a! - - , r or : , lr a" s

s 172
\ 1:3 -

Titulaturilc (omt usc.


(nrora irtrn un sulslBntil'determirrat' d) Lr tituldlurile in con,punerea pirii Je !'o$ilc adjettivale.substantirulprim$te de ur d'lic,tir.r|Ic.,ltF semD l pluralului:
nla, l' ..'mtr . t," ' ttu"t .t" "1 (.noa1

sau ,orraris cirrt{i,, ;r;naals .ltf!& d'alairesd


r,r.rild Dhd a 2 Ind nrrn n: I otrrd. a ',n, rn l.d. Srtrr 0r ^ o, ,:l

iirre,r.rs senerul zortries lnbli. llurorl,c .Jroeis

' o n n ..:L t o n P .' 1 1 '

' !

'

r't ) r I

s.rsD7.s arlrs tl sd,seanb_nl_la$' strgeart_mdJ,.s

Ia h l {'\\

P\ '0

| .rct r"'

= ={ s . onr f r c ial. \as . ar c l&0r t onr el! ur I ndi i l e . \a dt, rirzboi. ., , , r ! . I nllel t l1. rt o4t."t-. l j q : r , ) +r I '.

NUMARUL SUBSTANT1VELOE

69

ultimul ouvint se pune D./ La tilulaLurite compuserlin doun subs[an1,i1'e. in genere la plural:
b.isadier s?a,fnlsl | ,ld. o t.a.o t. tt' 1i'2 .."n t licuienant .olor.lr li- . _. Loti\ Chnnallors T.ord lI /-" l. l\ lI a - "

.\ l7t

deli cuvhtul cnre a primit somnul dar d/fdlorugeneral sau dircctor g'cn.J'llls, cslc rdjecrir. ?luralului 'rn .l Ciler-a titulal,uli conrlnrsnu amindoi rermenii la llurnl: ct!. Iinlshtr Tenrplab Lordisj Justioe.{I-ordi!) LicnlcDarts.

I l7:t

umelor pmprii, l'hrraln numelol de fanrilic urneazn i 17C l2) Plurahl rcgulile pluralului substanrivel.rr conure (:\ 92. 93. fB. 106). cLr c\ceplil trnninnliilor -o ti ,. care se menlin la pLural chiar atu fi chd siDt prcodnt.e
ll. ll(N $ t|c lla lit r r lh. \ \ ' nllis . s is a ! t lc Co\ c r ll! I . r lI s t [ c ut r r r or tl!' \\nllirl the ]irrli.J

(lind numelede tanlilie estef!ctedal de un l,itlu se p ne sennul plufalulLri lia la nunele profriLr (in ]nrbtr vorbitn). lie la de unlirea titluhi (jn timbu oficialn):
Cortrade Jones f I I | 1 t ll,. Qrruade "/,u.sd (iidtba rorbiti) doadd.r JoDcs ilimb{ olicirli) Ca,nrad.s 0. Jones nrd S. Ilurphy | e \ I r . 11, . r t i n , l , 1 \ o r l ' t : . ) 1t ". . - . I t i. t . ,. , h J o . i d r r llr 11r . . / , ' . o- ' . | | n r l J r o r b i i

S f77

\ 1. , .dr \ r.,n , lrali lrirte :i sora . , r " o, : Colon.l Crosbl

|.rr".a,,",. r:","n ii ,,l,.'o,|': I tl' lli,. .t,,.//, lli nbr \urlil:1 1rt, v: ," -mi,r, r,nb' ',ii .l' , , ,.,
{ ,6 . i ,,,, ,r ,. v_, { rtttt .neus 1 lhc H{leI ,m/r/:': t tho i,/,lr^ llrl.I - l l , H " l .L r' - Llrc two llolonel C'orrtls
^ \l ' sti I t/.,u"".

L ,r .J r -i
P.oi- llcc{l

{ n.- ir r,"..,,,rr.
t.,/.b..r,!

, ,r ^ ,\"

7 ;../r

r. . nn , ,

ltccd and Conpton

(s r7e):

Prenumcle are la piurat s (sau s torrtc rnr in pri{lezarontemporonrl $ l?8


our Uar.fs. our llll's t he l$o Denier s i! s a u llades t h. t No D e n i s 'r

ln acelagimod se srrie pluralol conform regulii la prenumele masculine ,li leninine: Jefircls, Jerri6, Johnnids eic.: Ivics, Jennics, Judics etc, dar ,numele de luni au: Februarlcs sau Februar-Ys; Januari$ sou JanuarJs; Juucs sau JulJs.
'Ii I r" r , "' l I i ar ' ir' ri ' :.\.ti.oiu rrns.inrrc r , r inr r az ir in( , 7Lnn, , . li, i nt:i liiat:: "IIah! B t o t h o i '.

80u Numele compuse din mai null.c substarrti'e proprii sau dintr'un nume pr.triu + alt cufinle p nesc semnulpluraluluila ultimul cufiiti
r - l' - "t H / . 1 { r ' n' r ' l' .r ll \ lr\l l HL- u o '- $ , r J - 7"n. l' L "| Tl,.I ue like Ja.k irlhc-ro&j

s r79

I r,ii rdopl" s..ru -s,r ., rr "l I,l,rr'l'rlri p"nrru jos F '"iirorin', .itr .uLqra,,l,\p, nr' un", da i .i in .azul numelnr lirrile d rurbir' , I,oprii "rp frnilie salr al prenunelor: Tne d.isq's havo askcnthe J',s's io dniterItc o.dciad three 7'0n and J.t.u;\.

$ reo

Numclc protrii striinc au in genere,h limba enslczn.pluraiul numelor proprii engleie;tli (vezi S 176 1791cu uuclc exreplii in cAzul terminaL,ici'y: ure llnlenss lhe Cnesia tlrc \ie.us.r ilre l)uDotrh ihc Borsirs
t\e lloi',.or the Sifili.s thc LorenzoJ the I'i.olerii.r tle \cros i1i. (uri.s tl,. Julios the tiol,ti.fllis ure Apollos lhe nl Grturos

Ex( e p li{:
th l,ro C.{..li, the rlt./l/.i, l}. lnrt c1,..

s 181

Numeralele snbsLantivate 23) Plulalul rumeralchr subst nti\at. scrise.u liter urmoazirreEulile subltartivelor in pli'inla lo nnrii pluralului: lrYc.strr,s Ifu lliilht:'
nr t le lt r . , r i. J ol Lhc llt h 4 , . t u r v .. t/,.|l. . , . . r, /' Thc gif ls \ r f r P Fr ilnis iu , r . J i n d ^eo (i.N rre il :rr.r and s/r/rrss . Tlt roNing lll! . 1: J j 1liri I146) 1\ : er i ii i

s r39
| 183

Sorisecu cilre, princsc s sau 's la plur.rl:


Yox . 6' r and 7C' i ir i s m r ids f , l l s i r , r a D d 1 0 s J ior). ln l, lie J o' r oJ l, liis ir ' t r r r v lsau lhc l16r ' s ls { u t he 7r 60 J l

24) llurahl la plural: 's

rumelor dc litcrc. lJont roll ronr /'s.r


Sh. I on ne!.r \ r r ile

\urnclc de liter. prinlesc in gnere

(,mssPs hef /'s. lt as s " \ it li l\ v o s . r .

Unii scriitori ornit insii apostroful: \\'ril. "l.all' Niur 1,\ro,s. la Numele de litcrc pot li scris plural;i in intregime,astfel:
"Ll,c lNo e.s. e/s, .11s. .."s.s. eL. "r

s 18{

Plurahrl cbrcf iatiil.,r se formeaze ad6ugtn25) tlurahl abreri:rliilor. du-se in genere un -s la singular: (ss.lC.l' Pra(tili.ner) (plI C.P.s i: Gener.l \1" l'. \l P. r , \' l "r P: liar'rn I c | ., l .r (pt. l.jr'r,g [, .,. ' " lssI p ,,. 1: losicafd) hl ) p.r s
1r " Tatu a\ti. J.'rl: lm l.l 1 m.1". 1. , , , , ' r - . , r ' i. J i. l\'/.: ol i. lo io \ , nor . I '1,., ,r' ' .\ ". t \ "t at a, at dc Utlttr.:i ^r , : b"r i. ' i D. . , o1 ancric.tnii. , i 'tl...:. , '\ r 'r l . l v . I 'i r '. \ ll i . t 1.1, It. 1it I r '' d ' " 1

, ' d,i

NUII.{RUIj

SUBSTANTIVELOR

61

. I .' r'. .: lL. .!.r U t iq.l rol. , si -. s! I lb. -t 1 \ 1r _! I L, R'. ,.o : \l L r ''' . r. \ '.O 1 -.

.ap itJl) r - ( r , 1. ) c aps = l,on r) - { Pl. ) hs {: Nou nta , n) - ( pl) M t s (: volume) - (Pl ) lols l: ao rFte ) - ( PI ) im ls i: l,u nd .edlv eis ht )- ( pl. ) c s t r r: nound < libra) - {Pl.) l}s (: rArd) - hl. ) v Ll\ {: c.mtd,, ll - ll, r . ) ' , os : t)ro lhF r ) - ( nl. l br o5 c" e r. l c al O r r : c 4) i { plr C. S{) . O l ?r ' \ lon I nt d"r , - ( p l ) \ I O s -\l"Li ' \ fl O s \.r.r:o m m n. i. n"d O il6r - / ol. l r pl I P r r 's . Io 5l U i p. l' o! : 1 ' \ ' lpr

lnsi pluralul abreviatiilor alcituite din ilriliale Lrii scriitori formeazd (l188); s) ii:r1ind's (apo6trof la sinsutar
,,f.\ \ LP \ N .C .O .' S P.G.' s sau ini!,ialn: aile1-n abrvialii dubleaze la plural litera linali .r l u s. s au m s . ( : m i tr,s fu j p t) { Pl) } { s S L= t , aqr ) h ' l ) rrp . /o ' \ i t r ol os r i I P d s ' s ' \lte doun alref ialii au un plural special: : \ li. t r r r 3 L l l \ l l " s s rs ' .: \1 . \ li lr " ' o l \L ' r ,m " ' .. .

$ 185

\l p l " rLi LIP!orl ,i rr , Ptu r x lul c llnr i p.l r!i d r v o rb i ro s u b .l a n l i \a l c ' f or n paz , d " .b i " .i p l u r0 l L l c o n to rm rpgul ri ganp' el o , sub.

s lE6

:' . - : i . d o r ( $ {11 1 0 6 ):
\rrs iem pf . . d t r Puhops * a. il pot s / r l {s t {A d ! ) il.ir. nslfcr ({d!.) i ,,,i ri..a voltr i/s'arrl ,rri (-conj.),oI you ilirs a;d ,'rl,/,m. (^dv) ll,s iil, I'{s"t till oi ar." and lr,'zs fh. dsiris .1 l,istorv. (Ad!.) -ir,c ad's anil z,es tin Pa.li{dentl. {-\dv.) Pr pr . ) a nd .oa " s,r ' \ r ' , gl' p, l ' d. . nr lr ar -:c r:o ( \ u m F r 'l 9 ', \ nt o,L 1 ".,\:n j l. - r r oom ot . ' : r " _|" t l ' r a' lvPrb ' i- d , ', / . id, / jr' s n ad la an inl"r m r nat l. " o_v oi "h ''Ihe llower is oDe ol the \rhal loi onllrnsn! -a Eorrgy, " Nlai-crP. thev aE "

t rele cuvinte primesc 's:


i l r $ a s leit ur oll t P rrj l i r " f,l l rro r" i -'. r p i\ ' - us " olr p n d t.l l s .n u s tl , l
fd r- r 1n p..hd1got I' o s d o .fo ' r d " ..

s 187
P " ;a _ d P n ," ssa. mo.l npl " a' 1nl

L nii -.criitori tntrebuinleazd 's ca semn al pluralului la orice cuvint ca.e - '.tc u n s ubs t ant iY c o mu n : 't. l tt- : " fd i r rro : l l r J o . r: Ll . ll" p ro ' i n u " o a ' ,Io u r rs r oJ,os ''. .ri; r J ', l P . J nd oi l l i s s o rl J " ies | l pul up { ilI r' r .v r' r' tn ,l ,h -&.a r .b i t" a s a tl th t* i o r 'e $: r ' l; ' , 1in6 o " r nrrial : naiuscxlti. !u ; s r u r lr . f s r s l a l . :,:u d anr ( ' ! . ' dum l r. ;,lfl.lraria cnliitlot.arc nu stil, dc lapl sxlrst{ntivenu s. conlordoazi regulilor _ i.rri. sftst{ltirfrof: rort,rlrr';i nu ro..riLli.:; .arefulu:. li n (reft.Ui:s ', :;i l,rorrli S i: 61.

s 188

62

s lil9
ll,rl l9l

\T. CAZUI, SUI]S'TANTIYNLOR


OHN (ASE OF NOUNI) unui l,l'rrr.itlrrrlii grtrrrslo,-(:," ra n,rm-sl- Irm" . r p^'ili .d,r j' . prirr ,:1 " '" rr'14 ,rn'rr0 i'jru:r',LrLLd.lr! !!ln . "i\,lF',rul-i I ' a , J r n n , n u pp li ln limbr cngtezne\isti loarte puline pnrli dc lorbifc care rlr aslezr pentru diflrfcrlierei cazurilor, si Ace:t('a smi: pron&'itu' forne (Leosebil.c o?'-.in l.l;ril J lr^nrlr'l r,ro .i ''rb nli l ,.t.'.t"t . p-.'tr"l"

i n rpn-r' Irrn hl r14' u\-r' rprrl '. . ' t t l t nl . ll! l i i l F .r/-J l a . ' r:ri " ' rr$ r , rr" ' , .r l, r . ln7; ! r " . p ' n l r' r n o ^ In , ;.. l - l r' r rr' pu?r.rr I' e1 '1 tru _S nr il' s i d rti v )j c er it e |1 )'l r bos c b i re d e l rra rn a ti c r rrrn ra n l . c| IIc 6rc .rnr' ) fazrrri - l romrni rl l \" r . , . , ,,j r. l i \.r \^ ,d :,\ ftl _a I, ir , i. I ' .' ,n.pr" .r," r f i J rr i r" ' fi i r" ' r ' ri . ' rn r i .. I i t " r, i r' ' " 'l m , r ior it ! 1{ ] a qr a m a ti (i c n i l o l c a o Io ti rn i rr n i:n| i nal i vul oi l i oumi l i n ci rnsl ! tnl i i noninal.irul Toc.ttil') ,\,rtri/ttlt irt) .)l Ad(Lr.ss ( nl r' 4 I ct l tti 1 .,.t . , 1 ;,r" l l llll , ,, d a " ,.r: f tn .: ta,.t l l tr" i ' pd' ' l l ,o .r' i \' ,,..' r , , , - r e, ' , 1. l r' -.r' r" ,rrr' l ' r.' rl ' -l ' rr.l "F ( ldru l n l e D L rz rti o l d l u e s te . p ri n url nare. rLn al ci rrri l ca crz carc::c n , , , ' ! oz t t ] , r . l ' 1,i r' ' 1" l r I ,. " i r' n ," /i ; , , ; - r | . . . , r' i ' iL , t , lil i r , ' l' . rrz u l p rr:p o z i l i Lunl si nl ades.ori re:ui i l c sun un lr \ d. .' rL r7 -i rn l u . i l rr -ri sirNur nunre cdeNrir: t:o.;t abiccli; (Oli.x:tire (:.ts.) Ca ,sicnzul prepoziliolll1l' r i. i , r ( f s la nu e s t u n (a z d i s ti n c t d e c e l e patru cnunerdto nl ai sus. cr ost' t (liroft. indirect sau piepozilionaldupi cum o arat'a (rrzul fotrr|hmentllui numclo s:'t culnrtul a/rjeciire. vcnind de la 0rj.d. eare tnseamnn inru,.i (Dic,:t Objai)' ind:trecr (Indit\1 Otae.r/ sau pfepozilio ii\\,r .,"'pt""1".t ( PrtposittonaL 0bica ). tJ pcntrD tn.te Lfl urj l e i rr afrfi ,l e S Lr bs L. an ti v e la ' i d -o s i n g u ; fn fl f e s(1 ,.1 ; r ' , ' r' u n " h J e " o : " on," t' (( onn' n .o: I ru" nFr n" l r' , r " , r ul r r nr f \iorare intrebuinlate, cr sau fnrd prcpozilic. si$ de,tumirea (le. nominatil (\' ezi !i 197) (l azul co un nu ! , LLir i! Df eD. ,ti o n a t..l a tn -.a u a r:u z a i i r .. :l i unIU r ,' l " s zrr IF rr si nl ni l i " i F' u' ,rz rrrp r r..,i I' l ,r.z i '

I lt)1;

2) Dccliuarea srlsttntir[lui

(oi rl,.l lirs


(to ' l h .) roy

I tl.h itdt nhn : |L: t 4^t ilnli. s lli Di loaio or i, iD . u\ i r l i l t r e l t n i r t r t r x $ n s h f t i v ll: r rr l,mn uri.. u adic c t iv s nls t ant i t . r n g. r on d i r . u n s u 'n i t i n l i t t r r b d n n i i n i l i t , o ldirriunr. r..c!'! si o lroporilie, o t)nrtr din {oeaslr sau o nfuti :vfzj s ll lit . r\i 7i S 2 r l3! . ! \'t,xi s :r s .

{l Obsetralie \.easti formi unici pentru toate cazurile - cr.r cnccplia ge jtivului Forn): :.\nn - se nume.ste fatma cam nd (Comtnon
' l h r" ' / \ . 4.) $"i '"9. " (Ddt.) I garc ilrc l,o! a p.n. Na.y seesa Drs in il,c ga..lcn. G.) 6an. ta .:.) Bo !,6 n e l re re l

S 197

Cu prepozitie:
He is a lriend of tLc bor ne\t doo!. 1 sa\e a pe1 tu nF boy. E x ( e p li e : gen i L i v u l s a x o n : TIc Dos'slci is in I'is pencil-hor /C.D.) (Dat.)

NOMINATIVUL
1TUD \OIIIN,\TM CASril)

s r9s

1) Defilli,tie.- Nominativul este cazul subicctuluil, al numelui predi- S ltt ,ti\' .,are deterninn "qubictul (rlunc prcdicativ mbiectir' -. Suliulitl ,,,,tl.n1.nt)$alapoziliiloracostora.Elrist)undelaintrebnrileutro.2(:cjnel'l .:iifr2 (: carel) sau (,ldt? (: cel).
'I' Iu nr lii. \. . i n " ti ru l h r i .r' ri d J p

'

\ 200
\ 2(ll

r) subicctsau partc din subiectul unui rcrb la un rlod personal:


7 . , r ". Tl. ' "Il o I I ' a' l\ ' m , ' h' J,1 , " .r t 11,"I1or nr ! join d I ool.r r \ p . ' \ll ihlt n.rl ol .drl, {$ i,heirs.

ii\

,, nurrlo prodicatir. care detcrnini SulJjutit,e CanpLcnent)| Shc is nr otl,.

subiectul (numc prcdicaliv suL;er

.s 2ll2

Thc nc\L ii,ctu is l,lrc iDLc.laLional radio nriir. Tlose Fho died jn the cause ol ihc p.otle ale l...es.

,:, apozilie sau parte din apozilia unui substantir (sau a unui echiralenl. il acestuia)care srn h nominativ': likcs my novcl. -{da, l,is dazgnr,/,
_ This is }cn's trtcl\Pr, Ired Pork.. Dr. U.,. Aaad oi Ure English Dptblnent jA urc Lnife$il) _ ol Ohann, is now in

S 203

d) subicct al unui ljnitiv care frce part din prcdicat in eonstruclia n\n\iti\ nonirltit, cu infini.tia3 :
o o o d .r."n.. . r / t r i s l p o ..J o D c " rl r I " r , , l. ," d " .r.. / En'3rr h ," ,a .i ,r,, t v. e, subiect al unui parLicipiu prezcni, care face pade din prdicat tn con slr'uc,tia numiti noninatie ctl larticipiua
c/. \d n o tn p ,t /d q n g , L o .- . a r d:$n. 1he .pacc roci.:t \ras s:rtched sodring jnto th. sl<J.

\ 20I

5 205

l lacc cxccptic sulic.trt h razul ncnzittiv al unui rob la o lorrnir in,t*sonrlr linli n?ti vzi n laf t ic ipiu) lS !5 0 rr). i \e sa { : 1t 39 b. I Y.zi 1ljt 5. ' a Yczi S 51i11.

04

$ 20(i

lorneazi subiect al unui verb la un nrod irnpersonal cu catc ttl1 | nom;nativ absal r\\tr1ilrd.
pl' r r 'd . 'r 'I o r 'l r " fur

fon-

s 207 -" *i" -

\ t . d' p ' i m o r ar io' $: -ih" , o,' tron,rr'i nr' rr 'rr' ;;;: ; . r J ," ' "* T'i;";ii on the $irerss. don'c" on tonisht ",1, I 'aizs &tirul-locattv 3) Nominetivul Yoeativ ( oninatire of A.dbess) - Noni sau un rucrlr r ura nir denunqte o liin,n ci ^;;Jl"bstantivului

Is lhat You,rdnd':
An". < ' ; P. . 4: ld" n

Nominativd 'rocatir'nu are rcl sinLactic' ii {Vozi S 1e2l'

ri,.y,i*nT r,o"o. ::, ");;t,i f",; ",X.H",,' :r " ;,,,iro

s l Ft " r P {o u '-

208
::Us 210 i1l

GENTTIVUI'
(THll GIiNIT{VE C'\Sn) Ic'rib'rlul'ri -\prirnJ in ori"'ur rirrdr'0''1r llclitririe. CeriiIul."z l'irrl ' /'n'" pr;rIip'llri' pnprira i"a 3r"F 'r r L .f '"'pund";rr 'pbxl't h 'ltot t rrrr' t"'uil's"r i,-i t "l ur.',.i e\prirrln dile2) fi c.tii.-- Genitivul are {le obicei tunclic de illrlx'rrEl rite r,rpL'rtur'i,dintre c:rre cele rllai curentet sinL urrndioarela: possesstue arata pos'rsrunea: GenitLte.'l a) lt)nitirul pos.sie ('the
.lr.h's t..is iliis ,rr""r""', rol."" ihe s'/@'l'lillrcr1s rcd ties ilie d4ts kitlcns erprclsi(e of dc|cnlloLr
'/'ar

r ,l'l
\ ll3

b) ! titittl aparlonrL.a i
UrP \lrtt

alrartenenlci (fhe

G'nitit'c

) attiii

, / lhe .drr

tltc k'J of mI

t) lenilir L i raditii (fhc Genitite lJ2rcssingf&nil! irrudirea: NLr's Urc tr"0's' .U5'r sor
the sldo{ o/ grcat ^ 'rir'.

ftlutianritip )

rtt\

"- *i,ljlil:li:{if"i'J,i,1X1"il;,,[,',H,;1ll#:i'::'
s,'DeLo.lv's adni.n[ion rha .lJrirg af the bdbll

fi'r#l#,"::il;:l: "' ,'","1;1.fi:i':"11s'i'f:ill?:,1{li,",;1'H"" r r r0r ho*e


3'[i:i;"r*'"'ifi:i,"," f:J};i']'ij"'t?''!dffi

rr''- r;:l r' i': ii ;#l;r' :ir"iiri'""'i'i'i i:l; r,, r ;'yl ;+l;:il:'l;,' i.:"iii"i;" r ni |,,,,irl
"i"t,..., :,:.iljlli,i,;,i.i/1li;:

CAZUBI 'N

CARE ANTICOLI']

LIPSE;T!

115

J,OCUI, ,\RTICOLUI,UI 1) \mbele aflicolelre.edd substantivulsau al,ribululacestuia:

$ ;6e s 570
S i7l

tnainteacurintului whole, dar dnpd all, bothl, 2) lmbcle articole Eta.u rrire. iust:
The |hile galden wils in bloon. I sdrked at )t lot a @hDl. eeek, .1ll rtu siudents were pPsent,l Ballt (the ) ptetts weft Eeated at ttte table.r T h" sl .dy o r 0 r'ilp. , ur p r s qd; t p t h" \ bps t lhin g l o f X o r . U " saN o d're n ,,um ldr or ShaL"DedF Dlr \ s . s Thjs is t;s, ,n, house I $as lookini ior. {: iocmai) li. is jlsi aa ordjnaly bcd'sittjrg'room. (: nirnail

3) Cufintelehall rsidoutule urmdlcde articol cind reprezintl mnsuri: S 572 slnt


holf a doze eggs ftaf d pint ol bc4 ldto rmnute's silence toit rie bottle was emply. dolble the srn daubte the d.ubb the ^nmbet si,ze lYo paid dourk ,n, vatue.

Sjnl Insa lr...ddr. de .rrticol atunci clnd lormeazd un sdrstdntie comlus u rd " cu "ub.lrn'i\ ul urmSlor: 'npwA ' ltu hLtt-ho ) a.l lturl '
\\. sp n t d t l"L an| 4' t t / D, f r F1oing. We heard ,}l d,&rr4 iecl. ol the postman. The word hns d d.Lblc nca\ing.

S 573

,\ se compara:
sdu \Jcdnrl) toll a 1 , , l, daaj r , m . 1ld' "d ' oo' r ibc dm il/ 1 "diu / i . a ialf-la lt diu i o J '' l,!r:piJ ni. r ' d |ber r . r , h;]J hoLda! 'h P rve"v \, par hp d lor i l huLl a hat t uo! I n l ' s p d " t r s . / ' dl/ I " / oir &y in s "or ld n d . Th ,t.p,D Thuadav is a ldl noltdd

iii' ii'i

i" ir"et;';i"-td"

. rhehalthotiday

VII. CAZURI IN CANE ARTICOLULIIPSU$TE


Rcguld ge erali Nu prjmcsc articol: lt s.rbstenriu"l.ir''rab"inl-lc .u inlFIF t rpfalf\\l 2) subFtantivelecare au url caracir de dn;cna,t [NN]

s s?i

gonoralnu primescarticol; au S 5?ti 1) S[bstantircll]numcr[l,ilecu in.tsles ,alegoriF i.'rc u rme t o a rP le . u b . . -q rrro Jrr a r t i .o lu lzpr o .- ln arpu.ta " ind sint lnirebuintate cu sensqeneric:
dl substantivele care denunesc dDslld.itt [NN] (S 35)l
-B.tu tlJ s t r ut h. nut h h bpout ! . ' s ill er r c r i / . . la,sd,r'u' r 5

s 5?7

l ldj{,0tirele d,l ii Dod nu se const.ni.sc co aru$]ul nehofi.it.

t!; p \n ri nrr ' n1l ' l pm^nrul t n ttiLr Lt ob: t ir I th O b i t' " G n i ti J " t F n ' r -rbr' r: L ,l ' a l 1 ' s u l" ,,';',i .,' 1, : ' ; ; ' ii '" ^ ,i !-i n " /O' e 216

x;,:t:i,t{,ir:'i " 0f I ri*IHll:jl ,,",, i" n{ f ! hlY ;1"*Ji",i";li;3:fii


l)ur is hm f it

f)

D60iptit'! Genittu') (les$ie sr$Ftrnlivut linlti.rnl rltsrriptic('Ihe

"'

S 917

uneisinrple \ tls roLni Genitit't)ayil1rl ':) lnitirrl alra:itt'('llt( t ppositit"' substantivuL detrrr"nar: proprii .p,,;il. l.,ri'i,r,,ilz"aznprin rririne
c{r:' l+'|rP' In l'r'rr'li' l' p'ttti!:r t lh'Pnrt;t't. .1;r;ttr l,) - rilt '11 ' rl i'r/rnrr" l"r ri: it Jp|iri\ ia l; rn'l ir'r'purrliH'r\i nr i"',-r'1.'.1,.. "'i'l'l

""' ll'i,;lr':'ri",,i"'" 1,,'liljlii":lJ:i,1,i,,,,, "f,iirJ' i;l'iii,ll"l'jiij,""-,,.rr,"';?1fi

lii: !i:'iiljil,ll"lj,lilJu'*,r illi,,il,i'";::ll;-

t llf'

i'i''iil,'l",ilil'i:f''* lll",'':i'i["li'Jl""li

(Tht: {;t/titir' i) y itiral itl]lttunll]tnal. sul'trlutbtllui! dP suferlatl\ : crprimn rroliunea


-

of Gt1tLalkn)

S 22u

se tratlr(e iI gc ere in ;l) l'r.rdu{10re. (}lrnitivul dio linba erqlezi liniba r orlAld pu'l: -" ",1 et!): i (ge itivul posesival apurteneDf at inrurtifii *'it" ""

'' ' |i, r"".. ''.,1 t t',':,;;,1'' ' . n '' ' " ' " '.', '"i l t . ' ^t',"';,-'' rlf

S s2l q 22t

i'l:'i,l,",il{"i''"'""1'ilfi l1''i.ii"":i'o-r i "l,i.'f,ili'i\i.,.,,r l!i"i.'il"ll^{.ii'lj1;ir

iti\. des$iftiY): .?f ,, (|(n,struc1,iR + substantrv(sc

I !13

o'0""'''"' n,",r i:'ii;1"!Y,"il""i1{ il'l;l',J"iii," i ll*rl.-;:',;i,,t,, I'j,l)ilii.1'";.T1".,"l' ;l"ilt", l),;il"tiili:i'5,",,.,l'rliiii,i f1"i1,i",li",ll',,,')il'J,#ii'lii,)':"lii,,'!"


lariiliv): ..1 fulintele ilinir', din (parliti{) (selrili.|-

\ 22{

'''',,1'"'" ;';,--"",,

'' li i]"i;' "'," , '','


5 cranratica ltmbli e'gteze

'l ': 1,,:: 'i "-" 'l' 'i"1 "'

i 1i'-'" ;-

,,s,niri*,ui i)l ,ij:*::pjf:,,:i?1i::r ,i'lli:,',i,{','3:1ti"l;,,'' r:1rirn,i "',.."

6 0M

S 225

dJ o apoziti (Fenitiv apoziriv):


the dt.v of RuctL at l= ol\ut Duclresi.i) 5i.. "rdlr4's Park (.- rJarcut Sr. Ja cs) cJ un adjectiv (geniti.!' dcscripr,iv): .,. r : , " . - l o , ,l tt,. | t :a.t. I ,
. . i rd e i r J.ir 1 to , tr,i _.

thc Isle o/ Md? (: hs'na ltanl thc monUi o/ Jondf, i:lnDa innudic)

S 228

S 9P7

4) trolllll. -

Genirivul are in linba erglezn d.a d fart .l ,\. !.nitiral s.oor (sau ft\ior.f)i B. gti;iti eul p-epa:i1ionut. s,rrxor\${rJ c,tZUL pos}istr -{. ctrrtlrtul (?riti stxos on\rfilu 0n posstrssr!}j (,tsE)

S 298 S 229

Forlrlli. - Cenirivul saxon. nrrnjjt. ,\i cozul posasi!. ceniri\ui flc\ioxrr F"L,gpni iirl .i'r" i . . . r, , rn : : r rr| ,.2 ,1 ..t.r.,iri,-t.r dir t:mL1 r0rm:1r fln ll-1,In,. - Fi. n r;mJ.itr r \,,hirlrii ,,F iri! .,.0 . -r:t,./a Ll , 1) $ingutar. La s;rgutar. r:azul posesiwsc tormeazn adilldndu se s $ SeO I"porllul \), la lormHuH nu'nirI ir .i,,:,u11' .,r1. , t,'jr,"" ;rd.l.t ,,. t, ,.1 , subslant[rulrespecti! s.: tontind sdn nn Ln -s..
tn.r .d ,p's m.mllN Si. ?r"Das'.c f{osriiel C/d,,rd.-. r Lr(rltoir.dia ,i.ldrs's atrd It'.rr's riol.cls ,ll.! s fransisto. radio

r,' .r's hools rlr .trn"nr.s herd otr. s,',se,seAss Btan he';' .t)i1\j th. Jel8.'r lerd4t .tu]/fr,,.r iim.latrlc tli. huEe/i.n s lail

s 231 s 2I!
23e

Er cep lii Primescn r, 6i ,rtu!trntul : linaln nrripc se teniinn .u suretul tti . _ ! iu substrrtilplp.r ,aror srlabn 't)
trj tz t: C..esls' lreasu.s ,J cjtel'a substantiye curintul s.lA.: lsir' tfrnjrla ;n s,'netut [s] ti
sake

comunc tornlinate

urnnte

.Ie

I'r .ozfdrt.r..'

ior ,", ornC salc,erc-

231

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ror.on'dn,4.. sak-A ior tL.lt Dffite sake, ell.

,f J " n ri \ l i -n , , d" J:r-: 1\ ' " . t rn , l. , 1T r r , et nt a o .d l c j ., d rs !.ru rr rn tfe l rm D r : T p" m r n, r ia r.r .t.i ' . .t,.1 -n \ 1 ,." ,,rt.i ._ d,rt . , l11' , r / p s . t,ru ,n n ri f!to n rl l .

., ..b.tJrt:...r

,,...

,.,r.o,n t" s r,J. t. ,,Jt ,

.i E 235 in 'ibilJn l .ulrrJt' da si// -..--,,- reguLu -,h\un,-1. proprit ' se supun dF sd'rr 'm in0lp rn nnrFrminaro sibilnnrali urm .' .',Li*i;;;;,;; "P s)]: 's (apostror irL,i.n" ladicd primclc

O b s e re a lie

srkc Ior ?/dnas's


Iot Ar;''s sake

l:""i#lf,'J3*

6n1i36 lcrminate-ro $ 236 nrmclor proprii striinc - moilcroesauenJl'z"rlir$ 2{r' zJrr: GonitlYul secon'porra ii 'alF .",ir.Jti.l- i"".i" i,r,"rariti" 'a
C'ilnDlst cgg house Il'rdtl'J's l'asks

iii r.l;i"i'";t"

art lor o"s sake

fn cu nql6za {ormala sorisi . oral -s. "--,- s( omiie arit tn scris. cit ti \tluJmente ins6! pantru P'nonr-? (c roru ' r n s 'r F : ci

s *t \e iiruarie,"lir":l': cr \fpsati l^.-':ir:li,T;.,TliJ,T.t:If!i^r".lii"l,'"'""1 hr/' ) si estolncntionLiarcrlAnlru


i tlii i'ii i " r ' ii i ''l 'otulmanri nrnJ u
Pn4ebrs'iame fler'L1's' flub

i:x*f*;s" i'*;*'"*::l'" t-,'t;;;;;'r"1"


-Eaaz'sr

iltf'[a:i:"HTi4'l d;ii:""qlilll!4:"-" kingdom


p;no;tnces'6 oratioN

'r;;r's'

i"'"'?"'iir'ii"*Pt'Y l, . t d' s' c o u ra g e

L''nk' blrth _ A/u rr1 J 'atti l Lrde

IJn i i a ULor i' P . ^f f s n d a l n L fe b u l n l a rF -l g F n ;l i \x l u i ' pfA pozi Li onal l nspeci Jl s2:| 3

r,

","lli.

pr "p ;' an r i'c lungi.'ila celprprnindt"in " : z l:


'h " $or lq o/ ?4 e7 L' , ' nr P"in r t ' ' Lt Ht PPa"' t "

239 dp cFniriv sa\orrepini'a Pi11 S L, ulrimplpdF.cnii s-a In.rrat'nrr iorFa dpo' s ; c s r d .r" ti zap ri ni n rrp b u '|n' ar ' 1 r r or ur ' r itii' i.,",- "Y1""' rd " , " 1 if i; ; i i ; r".;i""'" la'insulit ia \' r's"r : Pronu.trriIrnqrurlrrnLLZI .,,i.i.,"1i"'r. insdi nrn!inirdu-se thc ac'r'st' | ktrsrzl fa'r'
t'he rzi'rss' :, J a"

il otd

se formeaze h do'rd moduli: 2) Plursl. - La ptural, cazur poscsiv se adaugi apostroful firi sr a) ta pluralul terminaf in litera 's
na " her ft;r/ ; h i ,;j ' tuit' ' .i r" ' ii'* l) la pluralul care nu se termini tp h ' P 'e l -' Brnelr'- rouse

il''' |"1i:ri'o'r"r"'*''"lriil'" -" u

[ $ertr$tz] I 'rmrc JIL d 'rm/r/

S 2{0 S 911

s): in lilera -s se atlaugd 's (apostroful

$ 2{2

run'! hais

cliildTeD'! Eanes

gff::i i:iy*

ltr aceirst;lsrttra I In lrre'a pmnnnlat;l ca i mnnne$ sc rornl'rt'i -F&uztlrenlsl' '' lj.. c:r ti sibilantr :.

213 "s

{lox{tuzie

Cazulpov j! se fonifazn: 1t l,t Jdrx,,ii rlu ie ,s (apostrof iir io.rte subsianli\fle colllunt, s) "in:.rt.ltr. . u r'-oprrr..l,rJr1,,,"1, 'rmir ' - |r s. 244 Erctiplii "s lll substanl.ilale terminHto inrr o sihhn cnre in(,cpo ti se termini flr ,; ,./ cttcva substantilcteminare in sunFtuts, ulndte rle sirl.: 2) 1.0 ptutdl: d/ adiugtrdu,sc atostrolul fir:i s 1a pturatcleiel\rrinritI iI r: ,, a,liuqilldu-sc.- (aposrrof h pturiikte rerft'lntrrat{, .". r) ir

s 2Jt

$ 246 ia217
S !i8

: lt . nlie ! S pr e r le o s e b i l ' erl o l i mb a ro m6 rri , substa l ;\ul i n cazut r)oseri 1,!/.a,/n n,l ,rl .,r,. l , rrr:brr ,1, .,t-. l ,.s -,l J ' .," F ,.rtc p rn ,,,i . t.tJ ' , , . ' . laof i, , l' r r,i lr nl, r c pr F l r ' ' | | | i urti rrLl ,.,,\,,,r (.ub ' ,..J ..\.' l J ,F d .,i i r,-p :n d u-.,,' r stantivul determirat) Ei co tjnuindu-se cu cel sau cele {are il preccdi. in orrlidra apr ut , i" r ii l^' d - c l . SF \a ti r,F . b i n ^ i rrFl FS .." j L,a J" t,,r]tul ,.H cuL. .r,ri v" t,. J F l. ' m ; nA nr F s l , i l u i ... ru j ' l ri b u r.l e l ur un ;rr,p si .i ;rJi ,.d ;ndr,.,rh ,i . i se aplion in {cest .,az u subslanri\-ului deramjn;ni izotar. ci intregului grrp: nr"r clder sisre/'sl.lio trer lalc n,.\rnd,s D-d,..'s hoNf, r " " i. . ..f,,' b r' ro ri r.' l .,!l i r/r' i -d.b ?,r' .i (p.rrr,l ui ri .o ' h / , r r ," , ri .l o ' . 4 ,..,,...r' r,-r,h.r' I j' r ' ir i i h ro i a l !,l fi i l o rl ( nerdut nt\.sri ,i l i i ,t,,i tl i R ol ,) f4r.'s !d..nh' risilr (: fizit.a trirnrlild tui rinte) Subslanl.i|ul determinat nr esl. pr.1:.:dar tt.i articol: the tost,na,is ,ln,rn (nd fostmn\ ,nc knook,) thc flrildr.ns h.q t ls lt\t .hitdNr's ,t. .e* io-rs:i

Subsrantilulin.nzul pose.iv poate Ii hsn prcedatsa nLrde.rrtiroll in lun,lip rnr.l.s d,,r n; arun,i,ind i,"m" pror,rirr srnq,rl.r,: ta 'lp ".rn "n ( Puttlr inltcbui lafta a ircLuLuit:n nnmcle proprii, r,r.:t,si g 463).

s :Il
$ 9.',0

(l:rzuri speci:rle
. 1) Glltpurile de ruvirrte li titirlaturil conrtmscau semnut cazului poscsiv adnuqat Ia ultimul eu\-inj,:
Ih. ttd! Llforc\ pat'pt tt. lais and a hatf': ntlar in a n ilul e at e, s ii t : tt1. i.:tt Lraan Ankticatt ireokt nr, r&ri.r-t ldq,.r irords t.li rdnr Cltel Jr.-rnr,s {ddnss nRs i t I i d n t t ; t h M n e t u , . r o t h e f ua,{ tirehani: t)jrt \\orli .,lfg! (ta,LL.l lrrl |,s.

dc .Tot astfelnumele (de pcrsoane, tirnre erc.) :rloiilujtedin nl^i rjrrtre


i^ nt:nr! I III': L"jgn th,, td;roz Co.'.r r,$rds

09 .t) Cnrd doui subsiixtile lcgokr llrin 'axal" rprezinti pos$orii aceluiatj 1,. 1.'.r,!'dl crz,,l\rip.sp'i\ 'F a'l'rre" la ul imul 'u\rnr:
\\'lh 1.t., ri- arl 1 1 .. R.t' o to v ro i/o " . . " t t ! t , ",.d ,o tn l n t l.s l' r ^ ",r i . " n'dbor'l

S 2l'I

Cind insi obiclul nu aparlinn ami (lurora.se spLrne:


\1ith llltrv's rnd Jn"r's ,!mlliments. and lrihor\-$o|lts t-^';rr. J;ri'" iluriLri indiridual'i ' Ii

P l u 7 'r r r Par F inlr . b' r r nLor at t t ht t ' ,,/ ' ' lJ,u :en ili\ul I' rr1ljnlul ei cuvint: ,t; l' n\ " l r'r rl TJ,.a ,r h' F l - d ' / "r / e m ll H,,\'1n u rs'r I {lid t|is lo. JuPs ,z? amll,r. s salic |:n!lan'1': munr'' \ilfs llII l/k nins Il.r.I "f

'r ttlori!ia priip.l.

s'rr'rrl

*rv I t 'zului pu "' hl:

de obicei

s 25r

predi.tatio. sclnnul losc"qifitluj S i)i'3 bJ dacn genil,i{ulste inlrbuirr!,al determjnar: s,rude s,tbstantivul e.rc frhit rlc apozifie
ln ,'/.rs. san 'Ihcsc iro15 a.e Prt{ lhe .nrtft Trif$ bovs dre /.r.f'r sa u 'l he aPro; is mv sister ,mirsr's 'fhc almn is nrl sisl.t'J Emil.r*

cj Rareori, scrnnul posesivului se giseDtela ambele substallive:


Tlcsc hovs de P.t.t's the carter's She \vas goi,,A 1o Libbu's thc st t.t's

"s

2l'1

ln Iimba nncl'r" ' "nt'm aposlrollhrila razul po'c.il. 4r suDrimaren c.nili \ulrri 'axu' '" tiF 'uprinrrl' .rn.' s r' i'.,or',r.nir obic"rul,a aposlrotul n '\.--13 FslF in.pc.ial ,dzul 'ubslor,li!Flor,rr lnrni J" nlural.dr"n'r 'rnl n! rulrimare d lrpo'1"'l rlrrr'- inlll"rr.ra i,h".' de f^.e.iunts,,1.si "r-mIl J" In'i: r,. in , rnd .ur"r'r si l'.ir'g,rlar. lil-rd ' ''lerr!rrrind,'P
1sg) St. '1lro,'r (town) 1s(.) Sl- ,1rdld s (to$n) is a. l . / ' r s - ho u s es p i ,i i 1tl.l ih. ln'o lca.." Plat 1!l.l a ieN n,r's rest lil.) a 1w. miles dislaroc

$ !;1

,\nrbele lonno. cu snu iird aposl.rof.se intjlneso adseoriilr -acrlqi eon- S t50 iert. Urmiloarcle \emple sinl nume consacralede t'eRt'o li snli de concerL c .p;-;r," din p asina'specl,a olelor ziArului "?/l, Iirnrs". noienrbrie 18' "i".. 1978: Sl Cnar]|s, llaftnr'rirr Sl l{tttins Lanel Ilukr of lorras,Printr.
\lJnd l n,ir Q u. eir , f lc .

Raoa nin Lt'l; ll u 'uhurhi' I' rrnrl'rl Lurr'lrei' Tol .'.li'l c/ Jau'' q.r'1. 5, /,,,, r /lnal irr_-'r,rl .i j, ., .\/ Jrr', . Roodnt.. !o? ^ .,rburli, I' 'i, L, r',lFi. DF ta!1. :l .l,rn". .'p 'r' 'l^ "in.,-nr-/" uri d r,rrtnir' 'punrnrr'. .l r.. 1.,',dr' bi d- ii. arp | ,l , u urlni'r.Irr ,.r l,' 'rnl'J rl'' rlr'F 14 rrrur" la aposlrofului cazril poseriYd JLt. ln rll rriiuttd \(ripri'H :257 SuDriuiarea .,rb.r"r, ir"t":,',,ti\,,r sF,,rr;'-l . | -,' n.r,fului. ,iiv,l .i tolerlra d rrci .r,rir.i L', iri\.1 il s,lrrr"lului ' ,li\u' l,l'rr''lulurnhi"nui' rr r"n' li- d' J liaii\' ,prn'1,,. niurii 'u urn'd "4.1" "rFr'irrr- irr en4'/a f. cr" -uti\r in ',,' --'-.r1"* i:"""t *tr"t infertiturtine in p ririrlla locului apostroiului in inl'enfia i '58 qi rorbiforului. do.i amLisuiLate coniuzieln lcritul (omunicdrii:
r lczi ii idrirn \i.ol.sl. 7."dirjc in olgletn hrikrnin cant'ntPo nti'

i0M

2i9

6i J :i r,,,r',"1l'rot,riid i',"riruli,. tirn,",t,br; i. m.!a ; . r..r ,u-'n -. pilrluri , .) sirt d" rceul" , onsid.rateplurale tralatc ca atdre i privinla ii rcordrihri l,rr cu verbul rqi(,u pronumle eLc.r{xpcctire, rimine iotusi incerti tu.iin!,1 |rrnti ln pririnf,a nunirului - singular sau plural al.numelui propriu ti afensta in domenii tn care coa rnai mici eroaie poalc atca conse cinle dezaitrooa3e. donrniul afacerilor: in
1- t .,,l,,Jyllr I , l. i: r r . , d, . . di i r t t r ld, u L r . t-,rj, r - i, , . . . ,. r,t, t , it . ( lds , ll3l Ad, .' . |r or s lt ! .out . ta 1 r . N d l . t i o n n f J . L..1,rl

:lll0

.l tr.zerla unor subii,antive aparnt plurale .,u rol de adjeotiv in forJrLrftn sulJstantirelor rornpuse a prLrdusezitnri la plirdr.a regu)ii roDlorm ,."i',l.n,nul r'r r.,lnan Fd-.,r\il , n'r-.r, a,rl,.,; ti\ , trFLui^mru. nu ..:'1," iur" ,1, nl,[dl r::.1. 1f6,. S-, rd rn "pbuir.t ,rp.,din.air " ',jui " di|l"1 .ie rnri lrc(rcni,i a pluralulLri elcme telor secundlre ln substantiveleoompuse. uneori partr)el cu trceleaconstnrite dupn priicipiilc gramat;fale:
tllr iltr.. d,./,!- old rihild ih. th. t!tcnl,.\'.3/.ah'olds fhf.{r ,'?.}'6kl .lijld

261

d) a,lcsoorinr se mai lroatc deosebidacn un detrminant,ast,e considerat din pLr rt de .r-edere glamatical un simplu ptural cu rol de arliectir..un genitiv saxon silEular sau unul plural. -{cesta est,ccazul substantivelor ca:
tfn sli/lingr rrin Dione! llr. d'fe( Loute ol Wo.l}Ltth-.

Thc lnii|!d .l'aro,s OrgarizatioD a! oltl rU(sl.'s srle i.h! ont /a;rrr dela.irne!l cnt.ai.r

!, mri nlult lnrl accasti ercesir.nsirnplilicare a lost cauz.r int!buinldrji nejLtsiificate a unor substanLive cu h,ieles de singular.onsacfste nr englzr (ontemporani sub formir dc plrrall I're qot to so to n), ran,t.rs.
IIJ,l&r.fs ,rc Uli l(i. tlacc lof r0,, lo go 10. l \r j rs l h n d m X g l o ts scrl l o Lhc.l ,a/N . iar lirrDtl acst.i categorii dc niagaziue poarl,i nrrme|: B. Smith. dlr:azr:rs. :r) Sulrrimarca substaDtirului d.'tcrllrillal. - ln uncle cazuri, sLrbstlntilul dc l?r m in a t n u " q em a i e \p ri m i . d e oarcce cl sa i rl dago di r oonto\tt: \l ' ! s L a l l n c c i a l n r r( nr,s (hous.t. Lcl's go 1o LotLi. ,rrd'.1 hnaoet. 1 r,a l l T o .r' .' . l .! . , I Io " , r1 - o ' r ,r .\.r..,-. Ile weDt iolo Jinps,/'s l.cstan.ant,t. Iler ial|.f is il, J, ?,toz,as'r ltk3pit{t} "\1hov, roice $as that?,, ,.r_4'is'siroir,l ,' sirall re alsit I/ 1,orl':r lCatherlf!tl loriir? a'rr.idr.'s lEorelt .tr J,t,J tcotr.slt ltudnor 1lt\l,iLition) L,ri' "!!..rar,l's icri.k!t. chb). o"..,,s (Hrt|.

2(i2

s ,63

s 265
de u

I gril

Intrcbridtarer caznitri !o!$1r li Ro3 li Spupralt.. C. zLl tu-^i, s"ir'tr"l..i d/- ir'.,:. r't^,'rfl,: d/ uL nrr\":" pr. I'a i ,, i Jl : ^
r CnrniLel{' s r|njl,lrsc 1D e\.Drtrl. tfu!j!ie nrsi .\tj.irrrre it r.,ri rjinil s:nt Ifec14^1e rd jr'.li\. los es ir : "L. ls m er l. _r t &r nr r s .l , , . . S t i a l l $ e g o t , , y , t p l r . i , ,

zl ,l substa irele colciive ca: tlalian, .auhtrlJ, loJi l'ttion gaacrnn'] , Parlianent, mdiorrtl!' campanU' J ll erc: .,b1,it:is1ra1ian.
the thc the rhe @znt!'s slog'aPhY za,i,n'r relrfs.ntairlcs ,,oll's roi,cs lzrt's rc.dict

\ z&li

P, ,r,ic !ofl,ind. J"rori'. rc Jinrpi de ii" tlifi" n ,si de nivelare din uL.ter' :' ' hirr ' l" nrnunFpot rYeala gen!hv 1- ||' rr, rprosl'uri' .: care numesc sau sngereazit itdli de .l substantivelc ji::llti. greutat., raloare etc ): cUmensiune.
a three lo,ru' iaik \\" '''|:": )" l,.,f a r n, )i , rrr.- jo f l \ ' t .."o ,.k. t\ . . - q, il a 7ro,:.nas rro1i.r. a s/dn,'r thol' the ,drl.'s ltrrglh $a]h dirl ' ' l' . . / ' / | "r f . I.n4h \l .,/,,d I Pt,'rNorui three slill,ngtl \rolth \torth .nc's ,,n'r's I l.ro ,.il.s'

nsurl (tjnrp, S 26?

lvlzi ii S :99) sarion ale sul-'siantivclor care dcnunls(ruitnli de lor rele da Eeniti$ r,;r.rii p"t li lrilocuitc uneoti 9i prin forme edj'ctivale compu:' ale cnror flenrntc sini unite Prir cratinA:
a l,.ehab t l1tr a t4, r,tle NalL

$ 2ii8

de r.initilt-ilor tinp intrd qj:1ado4'lnt ottor'' l/ts'/'/n4 ""/i ln catceorie ,t""r. t|ntt n. olt n'or '\ n tt r'-n' Dn ur'r sr rru ' le ir' rrlo rJnl t, h \. ;i ario',inpuri: (cciis
,lays n .ws _ natr . !.tlnttl!.t

S 9{;9

rtcotnts IusI fte\! /anlr'.- liolnlrY -\ lli&r,mn,d ,\lsnts Dr.id The Ift'r./'r Trle .u'r.ddy's tiptl ltif s,n lrislit lalc le.n S?rrnD.r'sthe ,ar./ ac&.e's Paper. She wis r{ding

urrate d/ cit1'a substantirc ,-'ornd710


tor i n Ior lof

de cuviotul saA':

S S7o

s{lte lor l4d.tr4 sa:ke obe.li.encc' ,r td lof !"d r caalla. "Jk' ti ii. . . , , 1 / a . a k . . ior,.der's sake .o's.t;.., sako lor l'lY's sakc tr..!'s sako (Vezi ii ! 23il' !3{l

.J substantivele.nurnc d obicie jnaninate' care pot r\'ea gerui nlasculir, sau terninin t{ 70)l ;) i",li" insuect'i.,ni, abstfaclii.sentimente, l--'.*" ""d'i."i!i.,."" ani l\ 7l ) ctc :
'',/i'

S 2;l S 2?2 $ 97:l

,-"J unele obieete $i aspertc rLtnnaturi, sau clemente!i fiomene natu' etc i$72)l raie. unpo,i prsoniticdt.

'1o . 1

R- u' !

iL

t'

/a'

L"boui

Lo'

rslitlliDs-nl, noncdd lerinatri. toll\i

menlioDati oa ralod. nu nunni h tecul'

tl
t hc r ooln' s s iAil' hr 'nrr,'Js .nld ,l..fin,ss ?iz ' r nt h|s s n. s s {rr gnmrenl -1rr,,r'r . \ ' at , r . . - r iair \ o. d] s $iiil l h '{t 1 \ /-or,r-s liftl ,/.s ior tlrt sr,f,fs lilnrncf rt./.o/i\- door

i 27{

riuri etc. /'"./un',lcrrrne grogmii.e (de c{ntinente. !iri. regiuni,ora'sei ( )s7:j, rti ):
a.,,l,r's lrmous parks l/.nrrs lro|lf.rs /a rl i as l .rn r o l !o r.H rrl l t i l !' l rr,,r. s i otrN c g l ,' .i l d tL ' ' _ , o Ira PL i .l o s i i L o x (,/r,' al l s l ei rrl l ng i l .osl )hrr'

S 2 7 'i

, r ' " . ) iine l e l u b s l a n ti \o c (rl l frc l e . n u me de,)bi rcl e ir z r s r , nle f u o i a l d p ro p ri e (S 8 4 ): D ' r.a f r \fh i rl s l l l r.,3 i ,a s s ta n m fr tl ' e .,rs.r' r .r' w l l e si i /' s nrart

i n l i mnte far.

pi r

s 27ri

ca: t/ unele e,tpresiiconsacrat.


en'ls tLr o' s /r,s4' or l ol / . , r , t s $a) hrf /r,rr's dcsir! ,'C ihr J,u,ry'r

.( 9?7
l-u ,'l

.u ?ither.trcith.r, one ett..lolnrele comprrsr-' satne.anu, o, caery etrc.Ft a(iverDul


d/o/rds iitirr tun" Lad\'s tr.l))':r d,r,,c r olnrioD . , / n. f r oln. ,orody'r l dli r.irrcr'r nrni t {. r 4 , , . . " $ i s h lr ier ds ' , es bc s t \ \ ho r r . s I r r oir os il s ) 1a l l\ t f ( , o r s n l e r r o r ?

, lp LF ; r i\

. h. ' , '

J ' r r i Ln. l F

pfonulnc

nehoiiiriie,

ca.i o,notit.t,

27tt

2) htrrhuintnrs gcnitivuhi saxol ir loct gclitivdni prepozi,lionsl prIra genitnul sarongeniti\uluiprePoziliona ziarel l']rirt,uconcizie, rnai ltles1l tilturi:
? , r ,r iL 5 :o !' r r "xr lll

2i9

s,r roniempora!ig inlihre$cin mod curent Llerapt. in lirnbuca ;i in "nriL'dle ron, iziei tolna dc genitit s.{rioli tpebuinldli ii ponGu irlnim.,to dir Lrutzn ri. pro(nru.ondunat insn de prrilsti:
1|f ,,a J. "_ ir o n L lo o l

ln !,h. vtrrd s .litf,,lnrn


ffllt,.iion s slr iPf

llif zl./,r'.s in tlif till,(

0rc oi tl," ,zt

s jrrks

t80

:i) (;c itir'nl srron irlofnit (u Nulstrnti\'1' ( omtlusc. Sub;ixntitul ir (,u r':rzulpo:resi!. cirrl fosesoml rtrl{'slc o liiot:t. se irloruiette adesori un subsl rlil . ompus:
rilfr '(ritri ratrlt sn',bP.!, t:n!ti!h, tn l.ti/,rr!it: trn,nttt [o, FtftigL Strden|s,

nr \ lr. (rh.li. st,i/a

7A B, GXNTTIT PRXPOZITIONIL Ul,


Ir[I' PRI'JPOSIT'IOX,r.r, GENITTYD}

s 28r
$ 282

l) l'onni. -- Genil,ivul prepozjlional. nulnit dc unii aulori fi ..qcritivul {tanfez"sau..normand"(Nornan Getitiat), ori genili\ut analilic.estefo rat dirtr'un aruzatjr-preredarde prepozi{iaol:
tl,c lnlure ol ,,d,li,l lht lpa! o/ tlie a.!s

2) irtrcbnin,tflro. - Gerilirui prepozilionsl osle prin er( ekjnl:i geDitivul substadlj\'elor neutre ,sisc jntrabuinleaz'i a;adar (le prefe nle in cazul substantire.lor .,are nu numesc iii 1,c:
urc rool o/ ihe /F/r. 1lt " \ i t lir ! "f 1 ' t " n l L r , n . t

S 983

-\ se obseN'ah special intr{,l,unr1a'ca genitivului prepozi{iona1la,?41.. S 98+ (conin,ert, precun ti dut)nu,,{,1. den ,riri geogralice dupn culnrtul ',onll,r
1tu rrj\t.ti .[ D.t tir lhc \ illagc , / al.rllh

i r , c . on1ir d, t , / l s ta Irel,llb!i. .l h.rrt.1i lie So,,i{risr.

L r,. O U U , / .r/.,?i , tt\p ts)e al tlal thl rj {er \l ' rs.1 i ' l si \ 28l i

E r. ( c ! ! i. i. : nu,nele de duri th t fi \.r T h rmc s l ne r iv e. Danuj r.

an,ploare srilului: l'o.fi.,a] \\'o.ks a[ Itahal l] arnirg t'li1.lt1l Tl,f \rnts ,I lrd, iTill,,r 'Ihel ioiled lh. \c]lxrf,/lh. rc11.. iSrillivrrs.l lor Pentru a.rlRti rnoti\'. irrtr-o (onslrLtctie sorrtn este prelFrut gfn;1ivul i\ 247 ir sarionlsltllcr's Pa(tical I1'atks (titlu). l'].d r si:l.t. Kin! -I/.nra-.s(r,1ia.$1. h,ng cere.pertru echilibru.gonitirul Prfloziltunal deterrnjnanl, ( the sisl.r of Frctl and J ill. th. six n'ircs of Xint Hcnrt thc Eirhth.). ,/ .,hrd un adjectiv rste inhcbuirriai substtrnt-irill: S 9ES esteinsolit de un atuibutlunq s:rLde o profJ rind nunclc posesorului pozilie {tributiri:
lhe li.arrlr 4f t|f qirl in th. hau::. arF,slt lh. dothilr o/ th-" lhiltl 1 om !oi4 ta n. bnor\al ili. da rin: r , / t he 9, ! , 3 th. ?a?,.v/ th" esl^ic '/ t ht nlol l r / l l L . r , . r llie i nrlrrse .[ t\. J:t':tir,

\8\on. l l ) i n lr ebuint ar c a g e n i ti ru h ; p re p o z i ti o n a l i n l ocnl !rIi ti \l | l Ii j ,L r' ,' .r.l ' rr' ,,ri L'inlir L ,',,i ,i ', , 1 nnlnT : liln1 l p :i I' p,, ,r ' ,, " i r& , , aren u n e sf liini. c . inloo ri rl d g e n i ti ru l s a \o r i l l s Pcri i .rl rt ur rrtntoarFl e zuri : i " rm a l . g e n i ti rul p* ,l ri zi ti onal .l i i ai /r/ l .r t it lur r r g" r r , ra l . ' r l' F r-r -s i ,n ',,il ul lp r" r i n ' ri .1 ti .rr ' ' l :l ' ru.i rrr i rr' t" - , rl l .' ;n t lr r s nr o

i\

2lr9

saton f, li iortnli l/ tn qenerealun.ii cind inl,rebunrlarea senitivulLri (la parantete. shilimele etc.) 5i trebuie deci eritaln:
T lrc l.sson s,/ U'. l,,t / , id' . s oNt ir n. t ' aolr t s r r\ r t fr r f r l i n l , l . s l r r r i r . olltt obsliitu' '!o lh! lrJdi,rN Tlr. lrngurg. o/ Ihf "-c!orts nllrlh" rrl,"r1.. 's

! :1110

n,fniionati S 991 in gt'nitivutui subiectiv'(in afarnde situaiiile ,:) uneori cazut la $ 285-290,293 294):
T lrc nflrls,/ tlrc Io nngf r 3er . . dr i. , Nep r r r Ls at d l h r n t r o h t r i l | i - , r l \ a s introd,,cid in o nr sch ools . Tlie aeln,veDients o/ lhc socjalist resnr. sruk ror themselrts. o -J ' ln llmb .l \o rL,r.l :. . J - ,trlt popr al t. 'lh "n "b t. n " . m oth ' V czi 5:1 1, 18 5-2 !0. i \ ii s o\ ' ' ' t h"t tt l 71"DP. /d 1 4 E t '. ) t anPJ"" lrnifnrg

Niic."

in r.,zul g.nilivuhi obieoiirr:

I I ' ai "I ' r 'h ' i' ' llrc .t oit'llion af tl't: a pr sc o/ s@r'D'dv lor 1or1: of Atn

na'tt:

lrJ

'1" un adjecLiv Ini u: l ol'ir'rul ri .nosdir ''lp l-'"Jdr / ll r-lrr ' rLr ,1. 'r' 'rli oldl nFhot; "r'. ol itu si'/s \cF n!'rnl lor lh! sporl'scodllsi 'Ilose
i /ri'rd He i! 'l'tn''s a[ m! uhcL Darr) ' \nn und' l ,' 1 " n;/i r' ' l ol o' i l ^ rn ' : , / p' nr r l r^ u n a ' u s " o j i " l i oi l dr" " ' Lri ' rl P n!i o1 ' t \' * l , . . ' . i c r nupos o (!' 0 rp ' ' " " ' i " " ' ' -p t' ' ' d -' rrJ u ' I ri d rri ululr' ' \ o t u rt r' ' u rrrd l' ti

{: j l }! '

i,'r ,i " r.u,i" r'r-'Jrr '1F "l ti- un FIic"rit n 'J'iv . - l ,;' ,i" "i i i '" ',,1".-t. t coLFL" ui llis wiie's

' t rv

E 20; "

pentrLrinlitursrcaForrra do dublu gcoi!i\- esto in spelrialtntrebuinlati ,'numitol onfuzii '\sttel:


r n l 'I : '" n l \ I t] /" ' L J _ "il' iun P d i ' u^h nrL I ln "' J d . J ' ' , o, r nr 1, , . k , , j , . . t r u r , _ - a i kF' i l 'D ff (-o J ": a"t r"nitiL jr Pot ii o 5' ' e ' ' n' l l u p i i l d ' c : d n L u" por ' - ' l in" ' ' r d ' I d ! o"r r , r 4/ S/ "g" ' jd c b l 'r s " n i '\ l r nl u f or lr "l Pr ldr Ll" I

dlr llirY oi Ilrnrard shLss b r lurii r ber ", D- " , " \ uo ' i 1t I t h 1 s

s 2$6 ''""

do dublLr'genitiv Po0refi Precedatl de un adjeoti!- demonstretiv' forma l.t""tr,i'rtutl ui fdri a aveasensutdeunexemplardinmaimulta 'Irrnn-nrrmal Iaud cere' i t ic )'

',ili"'.""lJii?i"J;,i r idispr'l ncpro i' "i,pai"a,, """"-ti "oti' tntocmai ca ln limba ronene:
l'ut on drd' red 'aat al r'\-r natket s'

6 29; -

]lllrJone Prnis'dt'o' I tiind fiinta lr'inrrrl Cirrd un goni'iv d"'p'minb.un alrul amLii po '"ori i'" 'i aol'" ia'rre 'zr forms de g"t'itiv s'F Iorrd pr^po/rLr"n"'" -.ni'if
r qr I ir o' _"h { : t ut ogr ' ' lr i al t'1s " , '. " h "

l'fi"i'l'";lY;:' :,,i:"ill:ii :!.i!.h;' r:,, E: ",,;;, " d

destul de frecvente' de q 998 Dul,lul geniti! estc reconlandat in locul formei' ' la $ 21rli. S 299 pot c're nuDesc ulritili de misurd (S 267) Unelc dintre subsLalrttvele ut"u qi tn"*" de geniliY prcpozilional:
a Nalk o/ D;l's '''o ir delrY ol diY" 'ia

r,,,.rnr,r,t, I ;.;, : , . : . f " ; " , b * ; l" r rrrrt (- zi'r, r'Ntra onrr


'ul

N o|n

I "vezi

S 116.

lo! m a lilr . l) ! i41at n dc o b i o 'i

's t e

d u b l L t lg e n i t i ! 1 5 t ! r a ) r " H e i s I

in i\ l, l, e0it ir ul t roporiliotrdl l'nsl. ir'hrui gonii ul 'x \( r' iu r'r'nlt!ilr' !tii: ',ii.r"iri'"t"' 'rt';t tn'hr' )iotht tnt drort'' ,-,:","rrt -t tl profrii cird lru !ir'L pretc1\'ru,(q4651.asimilarc cr nuntel .. trtril. Cor'h. ?.i! dr ui adlectr{ posert;:
C,,l'r li!fIrtirLr sirr.Li

s 300 s 301

D./ in razul numelor proprji .lD L'calilili, s Sl. -'llbans 1- St ^'lrran loTLri '.rt ' . 14.t t : , , . " i' , t , , i '.

piele. clndiri. institu'tii. rl]alra' Ilotrs' '

S 302

Dr' 'r'l'otr\_ t lu

in s 3{r3 r) in cazul substantivclor gcnitil' l]rnale de un gerundir'l: ,o"r's |. lt,,./ F." I' lionrr' | " inermrnb"r'Ir '' s 30{ precum ,siln cazuile ncrlioDale la S 276. 'tJ utt $ 30; ti,rt.luzip. ln r--rnoce;eririr'r1 .,'on "r' " "r''r;rl d'.ti.r'i' n^d l" -\iil nL' utr nr';\Ll nr.p"/iri, n. la"'-l,rp'l,;'lFF1. ''"irr'rrll lflrIaIr''d . r"r\,rl J.;rmin,nl .0u,la " hrlrbfrr',mDloHrp.i" aH| 'rF i\ului '1\"rir'l^"1 i . \.e.t tff FxDli', r"r,l inL-r'1s 'plrr l'FDo7r',i I r' " arrrn i rn'l ,nal chi.r 4",; 16.".nrul rrrr ". n n lii l' . r ,. ,r" g;ii ;. ."'r'l; , S r;o. .l;r. 2qir ri ini"r. ir tr brri n lri' l'ri .e rr'rrrrr !r-rs ra :.,n,?i{io-11 lnli ul ."lui .1\un. t,rlru r 'lH Pnpl ',r' 'rr r-r irr ' '/Lrl i rrr ' i r .c"i,irer reremonio"sr.ru lo itluril' '1. I'r'rJri !. ;,' ii. D"n ru u d1 ,tor;rrr"-'i , hilibrrrhal"i ($285 2rJ) s 306 P; llnc ar'asls. g"nilar.l .F\'np n rrn:"rritit 'uh'' ir'i'r\r'rr" e r"ni i'rrl piepozitional , Lngenirit ^hiali\ ii nu"r''i ln m^l'\'rprrun: l' dp ir: denu'rririt"r liit ^ podr. li ;i ''rhir it "rzul se compara: -q. ri \
r' t i 1 iv cubi' l ' " r' r ' r 1 " 4n i\6 r' r '"J ol A des,iriDtjon mv s'll. lgetriliv olie.iivl (: o ,leacriPr. in ca.c .si.c inlaliiai'1 ncraslr rn.!l .ada'srear at sea (gcniliv slbicctirr (: icana Idei Pe dare) O ut t " dt a l t to E n i r\ u l ' i ,' i ) l= t c om r r' .a ' tri d ts l J a l .' G . t r ili\ ul pr oUo z i l i o n a li 0 l o (u i t (u !u L rl c rrl i \e coD rl ' u' e ' pr' i ri ' ul .i ' nprJ: ,,n sul ' r:,rri \ r , -r-zi l i o n s l ps r c odp" o 6 ri j n l n ,,,i r .u n to rm ,i r' ri ri r' L' p" -l i l l \i l o re l ' i i p ,,* .:n' ar os ub. t anli ru l l n g c n i ri \.' n " l u "ljdterminai: substantivul '..adir \ lr , ' , / .
t\e t)o\ct ol th. baok 1ne .quipment ,/ u iarn tl,e /d'" .qu'ptncrl

s 30?

DAf tYUI,
{THI DATIVE CASE) lr Dcfidilie. Dfllivul, d. obi.pi .azul "omll' mFnlul i indir'' l 'r-l; a,tiun"a p\primal; J' !prb 'o,r d"numir; 'l' Lbslarlrtul ,.i i se a.lre"nrza ro de 'rminar. El ri-punlle la inircbarcato th'n: lar tlanl "f tl't"):"'t (itr/ (: cuj?), ro;iricli? (: csrui?).
rPe nt n t F r n, pnul p n ,n ' l i r. !P z i S r:2 i . S

s 308

s 309

r {M S 310 S Bli 2) I'or r[. ln limba enqlezd dativul este expdmat tn douri nroduri: al printr un substautiv (sau prin echivalentul acestria) neinsotjt de prepozitie, cazul fiind indicat, in aceastd situatie, de locul substantivului a;ezat imediat dupl verb:
{iivc Jzue nl" bcst rcga.ds. Tell llie a6srngd to ooDc inl

i 31,

t) printr-un acuzativ precdatde prepoziiia,{,. rareo /ofr. ol sau ff{rmt:


(ii!c m.y L.sl, rcganls lD ,/dne'Illel wf-" tallting h lit: secrert.!/. (n,1 lhP brll tor the waiting Doyr. I ioqdir.d ./ ;1,c $hnt tl,c bjroi lo. dfbalc al lodar's s.minnr wrs. I snrichcd his handL.driel IDD ,tn to w.rve {t th. *inDing l..am.

S 31t

Cod-itru.iliafiri prepozilie este cea n]ai obiinuitn. Co struclia prepozilionali. ci d nu esteneapirat ceruLi in unolosiiualii (S 323).se intrbuinleaza pP||tru3rrenturr!r. J) Ir'rtir Si aruzatir'. ln Innba englezn modernd.daiivul este insolit .qBl+ 1n gnerede Lrnacuzativ. De pozilja dairirului fr,tn dc acLrzativdepinde intre, nuxlrarca sau suprnnafea prepoztler. Datirul ptepoxiti d pre.cdarAcuzativul: S 315 fdtd
S Jl 6 Lat ii, uI l i i rc rn J s i i t4 . (d { l l I s d l ac.l l s|ow mI rrirnds ld'rt) Xou sinnp (ou*tiD la..)l cu p rc p o z i ti e s - ri dupn acuzri i l .: rii\1 l.lje r.or (iu ) io mr ijctfr ldat )l !Io* Jou. stanif itt ctuh t,\: \ to mv ldords ldrt ). ( i .l l h e r.a (rc .) to r t.th e r l d a t.)l cer

S 317

Pulinele verbe cu care dativul se poate tntrebuir,ta fdrir acuzatir dativul prepozilional: "lht trtur. Del,/,sJto socirlisrl' is the slosan. Tali to 1'onr nudiotr(endwl Didd't t;e 4fne to John? I wanlld ro .ed,, to crlnnie,

$ sllJ

Spunenlnsn ca nrai sus(S 3i5 316):


D i &, t s l c w ri tc J o i D l d a t.l a ,rr.r l i c.l ? Didn'|. sle Frite a larle. {ae.)to Joh! (dal.l? I wanicd t0 rerd Gtann;e (da|.) th,A z.ps iac.). I \runtcd lo rcad lhe n.a,s (ic.) to cBnnie {dat.).

$ 319

4) intrebuirtar0a dntirului prpozitioMl.- Dativul prepozitionaleste lntrebuinlat: a/ cind daii.rul s1,a precedatde un acuzativ: $ 320
(a..1 to lhe sfcet dotesrto (drt.)l Serd ',.d \ \,. b o ...' ,r ...p . ,. tn r' rp rrbFr (.1,r.. ..." d 1 Trj j fr.o t. t ] o t tr .nul hor rl d.i .

!| 321

l)

c ind o p ro p o z i l i e i n c c fe c u d a ti vul : ?, h.r lasrdd {dat.l sheiiriles r lettr ev,)rXdtry,btrt nevcr ro n rl & ' l d a t.l r',. llabv (d{t ) she {l$'ays btr"yst|. lDst tr,c.c is.

'J

cu yerbele insolit de dativ lnrn acuzativ (i 317):


'lhev sDokc ,, Ule .road 1dat.). {l irlfi ocorrred ro d,? klat.).
Il "i-r i flr']'' Jpfq ' r ' l / ' I r r ir ' lJ l"pr ( , 1, t ) boonl ' r \lrite ro v ou , 4/ ' / c \\'e read ,; G'a;dt;,r{"f ldai.) cv.ry rlcnirs

.ir 329

datirui prepoziliod ) dupir anumitewerbe( $ 2614)carecer intobdeauna !rnl. .ihiar atunci cind acsta precedd acuzattvul:
I drsc.ibed b l.he .l4s (d{l.r the llow.r show ({ti.l I t'rd visite(1. io i d i l 'i " w r 'l i ^ ''l H rlun'.d r' |i".a l|"oA" r ld l ar r ' , 1r a l[ r' l^..^l 1orr Irlot]. \ \ ' , n' "ilion d to t|a no"o' , p' \ dd t / a, ' l"r ' J - \ ', IIe ir ./!l to lnn|'!lq. Be tirl io Lu. r ! Is h.r opinion nrrrtl so Intrch to l'rrtrci$? rFndit," t : n J y n t " . 'a t l lia r iv "l", 1- ' / / in .p ".i-l'lL ,t" ^n, 0dr ar : " Ftr.: . "t t " r . n t. su',;lL t t . 1' t nht t n' , n1. ; nlt ; a" t , r h t a 't l o n o ! . ' 1 u ' 1-,,1t ; J at ,, a ri. \url:. qnat lll o |o "t L. d/ . , r t o I -t \1 -1 ,11 ' t a" io ' ll r ' t nim r l3. Tht re$rlt Nas LoL rtutottiondte to l,he erlorl.

s r2r
s 31{ s 32;

.l dupe adjective 1n genete:

S, dupd substnrtive fi pro une:


to ny chtlilrn. I uannot lo|gft mI l,t/ Yotr havc bdrn like a.llrughla to th| poor somd.. $'liat is he. axnude to [rt? Trll ne, afc A.v fo Iont )roth.r? 'vh.l lv c z i i 5 t 61t - t 6lr "l

s 826

5) l'u (,lii. "

Lln substanliv (sau un echivalent al lui) io cazul dativ

a.) complemcnt.indirect pe lingn un verb:


l.nd lou. motltor a ltscnii Gir Ghily$ mr n.ssagcl bJ complemeni indirect prepozilional pc llngn un verb: I spoi. my mild to T,ohe. We se", an {rtid-" to Lho prpen.

$ 3r7 s 3P8

s 3s9
s 330

rr"complement indirect prepozilional'z pe linsi un slrbstantiv sau o iIlterjec-iie: 1r " ' , " t L ..i n ..,, g i l .i n ti l u a .l n rl r oni ,13,\6 1,I" , " ll" \ v d a. -r ,' h ' , i o I' i . n o -w o rk c .r. llc kcpt hia pronn; to his pnpils. darut lo. lhe holidsXs! d) complcment indireot pe tingl un adjectiv: Yotr de ltfr, you. mourer. Unllne lntl.cn-, he sts neve. shY. e) complement indirect prepozilionai pe lingi un adjectivi l{is house wis olporik to the echool. who helpedme n, my wo.h I cnnrol.bullecls.,k/al to the eomredm /) apozilia unui substantiv in cazul dativ (! 2589 b): I Srre m-{ ftt?n.l I}Nil Jou l.Lio 1o lerd. Ilave Jou rPoft.a ,o fi,gr, onr .'"s room-mttc?
'r _ ' di ..cl . i {S i l r:). ',1 . 4 n n rh 1 r 'l nL dnl,iv .tr fLrtr.lil '-:l 'i . D .11., dcurt' ti . {!i /., l r . \ .. r B

$ 331

s 332 s 333

tx,t,L po -inru ,l li" r ir i' " ! lr . o, r lr ' ' .L 1.n i , . ^ r,m'. i4 d - umt F r;. r in ir". I t4 r r o l . II; pp .8!,9 0).

i sn

s 33{
| 335

ACUZATIVT]L
(T U E -{ C C U SA T l \l ' l C A S Ij ) l rr\.d1pr\,' r7 1 i \u l . p ' j z u l ' ul ' ' -n i rxl ui { -' r :l ' lr O c li||ilic . dF ur) j ' ri rr' ' ' o r' n ' rri l o Ji re' ' r' 1run" " r-\par:ra H .,rl rrJ tLr l. i |p. l' r ' . J /r rl F l ,- p l ri n F \c -l -" i \p r h r . ' / ir it l l ' mp l ' r' ur 4rr4 r' \' ' r71 1 ' on \ul risDunde in Drilcipal lA irl.rbirilc:

5q33{i

s 337 .( 33t s 339 s 3r0 s 341

('= cel) ,rlnml l:De ci;,ei')ri ''. ''iar? i"rl'toi,U'n'r siri echi"ali:ntul lui, cind ste precedai de o prepozi,iie' su rrld in cazul acuzal,iv. 2i }'rlllclii. - Acuzarivul indeplirefle lunclia dt: l'inzitiv: direct al u ui a/ cornilemcnL 'rb in lhe sire'l
He saw n."* stsref

D, conlplentcnt !rePozjlionalr: At the m..tnig. lr. lu .d orer 1hcllo0' ro Smi$'


\ho js loo\iis al'l Brian?

.) nume preclicsliv care deternrin:run eoflplement direct (mlme pledi cariv ;biectiy l- ODlrcIift Canplcnent):

s 342 s 3{3

ThP nana{er aDpoinicd /1,n 8.oet$t' She erlls rva.s;.,r "consi " .l/ apozili{i a unui substantiv (sau a unui trihivalcnt al ace-rtuia) in cazu! a c uz at ir i$ 2; 8 l i ): I .alled nr t /rn\d fldJton. N. senl, lo. r. 11i'ls the ]ofil ssgco!' tl .l Jl, ro l/ rL r " Ioremn . e-,i complencnt diroct al adjactirutui "o,'lft'9: is qort a fo.tune, llis 'oi.c / / , o, , ple mc n i .rr.u r" ' r" n L i d l . o ' i l !r l e di nr' -urr ' o' r I' l " rn" nr ' .i " um ..r , ii. t . , t in" r \.rb . i n -a ' 7 r i \p a ' r c i r rl subrranl i \ul ' ' l F ' l ' l ' rmrnar de l o' ' rl r.i o ri o d .rb o . F \r,r;, 1 nd .a:i -e' t\crhel ' ,,; ; ; ; , i; . . ;;","i" ' pul ' o t' ottt' -t)1r ruot Ji. : . r , ls . \ " lu" r ' n . i rp l l l c . n o d u l . g radul ' l " l runtt (4' l rttt' 1t \' uttJl (. 1J , . ; biot t t ,s tti t" t " u u s ' tb ' ' .tn ttr a tl r' rLi oL lvnt lone. (Lotl Thcv l \- \q o { ,' ' .r /,. rrth . ' l ;_P l h e c .r' b rP l ro l o l I p s :" n ' r' 3 al l ' l " l " r a' d /o r' I' odra' I ml riic ohildtn go lo a pifttrrc a,./v nI' lTiml) 11. nn the nhale 1tir. iDistantill ' l L " j J ro r!,r.,,v m i l ... ' n i r' '. r\aroJr! r /rc s um f or lq n i 'o l f s l i r ' :
l 14 ' r ' 4d t h ^b n' . r m q" r . ' ; i, a, l &, . p o u t r r l 3 . r i r ' l o r r io T " nur ' s q' n / / l/ b! r . d ( \ I o , l I u _ | I 'p a r P Thc t , m r ' ' , ' " t t , ' nt r lllolooln{ 'r' . , ' . "a/ s br dr F r o o J r t Grddr 4. , J ""

TI. ALTE CEESTTIJII IIE}'ENITOTRE LA SUBST.{NTIY


A 314 l, Subslanliruladir(tirAt. ln l;n'br "ndl'zi 'ubs'anr.i!ulpoal' 3\pa l ur', lic dF adjF. if. cdi.a poJle cara'l"rila Lrn rl' 'uDFlanr\ lF nnsd '1rp std:
nylo, stocknrgs /ar .oat !Ve zi !a g. t t . ttarll.ng let\ Jrr,,s llsmons

r ot a I

?!t

ilu'intele nrlon. fur, morning. spri s, pdrttl, penn!, d.e1\substa tille. - :.t intrebuinlate aici ca adjective. (|rdincn curintclor. - Partea de vorbire care c acl,erizeazisubstani,irul .: raL,eare, prin ull]lare. valoare de adjectiv se puDe, ci:rii acesba, inainten . rL,rtAniil'|rlui.Se atrage in mod sPecialatenlia asupra acestuiiu u, deoarece :ielesuise modificddupd ordine:rcuvintolor..lstlell
n . { n ,\ fd., ftors, insamn! "un cal dc curse" irae .d.d iDscamDir squoro mar.e: I mi (o lf.rfrfn pirtrat;i N lalrua de 1 rrc^ oi 4 iqdfc ruh.s = o srtrllnl,li de 4 m: square nn coror dc 16 nl (axl) (un lirirrr larpet 4 rut; l cn latun dc r !!l

s 3{5

Cind un subsiantiv are mai muite atribute. celc mai apropiate de el ca irrs se pun imcdiai tnaintca lui. In limba rominn ordinea cuyintelor liind lilrita. doarece substaniivul prccde adjectivul, traducerea din limba 'rogleznva incepe cu ultimul atribut, din grupul de curintc do tradus rsiva .rtge tnapoi spre tncepuiul grupului, lutnd['se atdbutele pe drd in ordinea :propirTii lor dc s{rbstanLivul determinat:
a qii.Lst.p lolk'danc,, nNic i:o rnuziol pentru xi joc lrotul$ cn lat rclezi) ., lho r. n f,,'rr,r go u, 1 J FI nw I , r n". ' , 1! ' J r pl\ " rl"op .ur ' n o..r ' i ,l a n m, djn bf o, dt ( d "u. nr . . ) g' r b l - J , - F . . , r " J a o r t J t o n i

(vezi ri S 2aI) cdj"rli\ul nesvinJ plural. FUb anrivul sdje.rivrr nu rrc in prin"iria lorn de plural nr.i , hiar-"tun"i logica o d. .x.mplu dupa irn num. "ind ".r.. rrri cD sens de plural etc.:
a si{ noaD a ninc-r1du committre o1d cliild

s 3{6

(Vczi ti g 131 Obsdaati.,166-16i,26r-26r)

2) Funcliile srbstantiyului. Substantivulpoate indeplini funclia de: s 347 l', subiectlau parte din subiect,al unui verb la un mod personal sau s 348 impersonal:
Caoperatiar l,he sec.el,ol srccess. is I cane homc carly, i"a,n.. bcins out tonight.r A completeItsr ol candirhtesrv,rssubmitted to the dean.

D) nume predicativ sau parte dint.-un nume predioaiiv:


a nicc a@ur\. He $6 Sl^ F b.'im P 1n , a s s o' PPul". Hir F\p rl ons nlhp. J Uqpo lht popl"m r dF 'r : m a p o p . l 'f rp.o,

s 319 s 350 s 351 s 352

cJ complement direct: the Hnre you Ben ne{ plastts? {t) complement indirect: On'e DdDy diDnc.' ils I told the ,oy a storI. e,,l complement indireot, prepozifional:
Ure pnrel tr yort nith.t ! -qe.d l,ani is a g.cat asscl ,o tlc larsity /,orralrlr_ The rcleree was lair /a both ,eams. I Numit ii nominilliv absol,'t (! l72l).

$ 353 s 354

/) atfibut:

\ D.Jr;. lldrr lriLs disrjorcNd und{r Ihf delris' D.'n's rrpli.ution wls r1$cpnal jr her lainlings rarbe $is mtiniicsi ll,r loli'ol rr

l '+'s r " r '. r ''i n e ''r l i '' I hr : t t t "a"! ". L r - 1 ' . l"li "..r:or-n 'in. ,;, o n 'r r ' r '\ d d r " r '' a ndt t t r nr . r + . r i I :;, \,, ' 'r' i .,.1,.i ,,,.-, r o. . h t y r li, hi. . il\ r ' ', 'l " p ' . u"! l ; | , \ 1 rn'rrr

i.il""i',i.,1:; r"r"":.ir,

s 355
! 35ti

il

',"ir':iir',tr,conplenent Tnepozilional:

',"iplFr\r

' r'1r'r'irivrr"rir

ilLP l. ngPn i' , r c oo, l " r, |iln' \ ] r , is t o au jn "'.r/r r 'nir , . . . /

cnutnstanlial (S 2633) rl c(trnpleme,,l


$e stavftl al. lh. rcst_hous. liorl a foLtritl)t p' r ' r ' \ ''n d ot t ' ll \ ' ' l o" l"t t t s L. : l:r'ii t tt' \'bt \ ^ \'titrpl

s 457 s 3;8

1'!t. l'0RllIAnnA sljllsraNTrYill,0n {}0rd[lrlo\ of ]{olrNsi


t r nu ,:'r lu, lF 'ul" anlrl pr^\ir tat Ita' lin l;r"bil" r' r'uo'-l"r (hrF ,.rrr',i' li r' rurr-" r',l:-nii 'r':l /F "i''"';"'' -,,, ir ',nr" l. Ii"rr 'rl .r l"rrr\-l 'r sru Iurrrhl r' 'r"l'rrl lcd ln"^nrorn] cel.,r trei procerlo uurunie, adi('I prin: gramatjcal' B. schimbarea(,a1eg.rici C. totttpunere

s d5l) s 360

,L. Dltrur ,ttrDA


iDElil\"\'rIo\l r" ' Jurr'or It iub''rnli\-r' )r' l, .ttiratia ( lll",r;'n) 'r dF \ntbirr' nnr' "liucc''' . i'- dr.p-rli .1e.,.'ut rr'r"'rrrr"r,lin "l 'rb'"n r' rr urrr(ur r.: ur' rr\ '-.r i ur",i uli\ l , u ra l ' rrra P'-li\' lp i' 'rrIrr\-l' elP ,,ir 4! irr,'rrrurrrrJr'' Ll'/i' at,1r{ir,'rn ^rdin"d trr'\"r'r"r .;re ir I'11lrleaei' linrbi: a1 gcrrnini(e: r, rornalifci rnlrntoarc.lor './ (l;nrre Prtixele;i sufirielc llnn mai ios cjl;1i 'urerilc' Prcfir'' (Preli\cs) aJ Gernraille:
r lilnr ' rrild l Lr r ir ' r ll! l n i.J:' u d' J - i n 'r " '\ '' lnint"rt.L tr' i i l r'4 't 'lr ' rllL r r i' / lr r d"i /,,,/sh rt,,' k ' n, dlr r r r rnrjpj,. ot r . : r . \ . aa l l r s f . o t l l a \ L - l r l l o o k 'r q r a l i c n r ' on t-3:,//r!rsl.

s 36r s 36'

rorr: /,,.r,nhe,. /n,.nrr. ir',o.r, r,,,ilill,ilLj;,1'iililii,li;ri.i,,oon i,!.rnistrl. r'r' I'


\'

! na

r r ; ir idn L d. , l ,
a abt.!

" eoc G r , s inr ,

(;i l fdt' l l r' l (l n ' .n u d rP n ri i i n l : 1 a l )r! ntonEndtLcl i (1 . l a D l .rrv i rl P d c s i rrP l rl t i l tonrcrnr' !rri rtrL' ca l [' l i i c s

d('

81
or$J : rr..all. ...froar! ,r)./sho.si or./sighl,; ,r'l.ha.g., or./doso. ,tz{ullihnenl, . , , . i rp, ' r r'1 . ,nl'groNti, ud..8round, und.rorrrcnt. ,n&resliD.le, rndrJ I rnd.r,lolh.s. r n ) ? r 'l u ' u \ d ,-pl^t , t L otL ',rr, "\'. , , , , r ' . Er Fd' r al' . ", , / "' . 1 lr : a r d - 'l s l o o n P t t t r ra rrr\ n' crt.,n.1 .6trtFmPnr . r t u] P. or P. ' I r pfro\lr' /ll,"p / I l r J f 'l irlr s "miprti" : ,,r,"inr r n/ . , p ur r nl"] . r ' r ' r l r l' , / l ' 1,1. "r rr. ,/''i.,n c. "1 o, r . r p. h. l. , i5l 'rl

Subslanliec

dn

sens

negatial
el..: nlssi!in!r.

\ :lli;|

zrdr.ss. {ncmnlorme.l,. L,laxlul!e'cs. urrcst. ,rlrrlh. nn- : /,liclifl nislit. ,,,scondu+, n,so{riagc, ',ir.oiceriio,i, 'nisj: el. ',t.(lcmeanoLt. , n i J hap, , r/ . s lo.lrin c, mislrin i, m t s t it c . , r is ir us t ,

lJ Roma ire:
arcrre: dddress,dllusj r-. sil-, sl-. on-! a!'. *$: rdiirs'ln{nl.l,slfoi. ! , Pr' 1. dr nda cP. rl b' r ". o ' Aior ' , b . l 'n l i o ' { | ts. n- . nb * : n r'|.' : or ' ar s r r " r' : .r'l nrlr' . rrrrdli"n ,r,,J r r l. ' , , " b t rt,')" irf . -. dn li-: ,, prodtrct' l,rr bI-: relalt. t.liPl. b.qtrfsir rtl elc.lioD, i,y hN Dypts, ,,lal,l, b , \ n\. , 4r\ orJ, Fh .: " 4rlli r '. { . lr n1l o iornl,.ol-, "/ l' r ' , r ' l u n . , r 'n '" 'i o r ' - di-- de-. dis-: .liEre ssion. , llnPr s ion. d i s n i i s s {I . e t c : dim iNt ir e, , ir is ior . 2 . l . r m . n t , eionq.lion: ,rrcss .,aspc.alioni cr lr|sid.nti rv-, el. -eq c- : .zriision. .rttsion: 4 r L r sLon,. s0lie , .vasron . eI r . ; It rp rior' .: t - b' pt t ia r,lol'r. ini. r: of i r L u r r t u t ! t n n \ 6 ' , i. i 1a\ t \ . 1. |\' t' .ii-: p /d l. to:! \ . . . . .I p.i\ ., t p -l. r r , : . t .p \.,tt. t l r , lr ' ' ' pt un^' p4 r 'o o l l r i| i, ru-. r'trF : , " l a , ' r . / ^lo ' r ' o" l' : ' ' ' '' , -"' r'i,rrrr. / , a / , 11' " lr ' po' 'l , r' \ . lo r . , "pl_J or ' , l' ' v?calrdctd.. ; surch{tge! r?c.ioiily srper-; su.:- : .{lrii0irlitr, lrsns-: /.o,sl,il,i01. lrdn.rter, ,ortitio!, ,az.nali0n, .Liir 'r ''

S 361

Substuntir(
.

.Ir

senr

negatir:

S:165

dh-: di.-abilitr. lisl)rli,l. di.{,otrlcnt, Itslike, d;lasle, dijtfust, eto: irF . i l- , iB-, iF": , ' . 1- r J r ' d l, , p-.'r-iu rr, a .'.on 1 br r ll ". rniN -t : mirad \!ntu re,,r is c hanc c , , nhc hic l. ni. { r eur l. e t r i : l. r o?f on i ! a l a n t , f L e . ron- : ron ad lresloi. r,"ndr er t er . c , , onaNi

.l Crece$i:
amPhit iac)\, dtahit hcanc dnrrora, .cic ; snpl(i)- | dnpltbio. ,n-. d;'ir-: archorite, dre,risnr; analogj. onolJs's, dzutomJ, elr' !nt-, snli : anraltorisni, .lndrcli!r dtribioiic, d,,iolini.\, dztnacassar. anl,seplro, ,tc.t i. rtot h' ' "t r ' 1t ot 1' o . dPl' ^r inr ' : ap(or.: 1 orrit 'l . / r p l 'r o . ,^ l"r Fn, t . 1, . r . d, r ' r \ l. nrrl' -: o rll,.(., "-d, t u. hr o rr ! uto- : , ,/ub iocr.t. r, , , / hi . . '! , . lu! ' r . , d r h 'l d . ;ta lrar,. 'r l o n ! 'di!- : /lanetes. di,dcd. diagnosis. laagon.rl. dtdl)Buc, cte i slr-, 'sl-: p r r onj l; n \ ' L. "l rti-: d,""r ,'''.rrl-Irt a . d .. nr ' l. r ". r , ll' . ' - r -si, .,.l "5r J s m ; r ' , r r \ . r ' liF". , . 1. ' . . . . , l : , , \ -, m. : ",--"-F, l .. hdt 4t P - lr u l _ , ) hlt at n"! r ' blpeF : rgp ,l - t it r . / 4 P d n a '' : hup' ' t \ " l! lo' t t \ ' tvpo-: /"rrpo ,i,li r. l/ / o' lun4ad 'r ' mcttr-.mrr-.md !.:,r'ab uli. ' . p. , 4r nor r r hu. - . 44r p, n. r "r ' r n p - l " h o . r : . @ 4 o d .

S Ifit

""

I \' czi a 36 -. n oL L I. 2' t i,,,h'a r,uro n: 3Db' (lf.) lFlix

. , , , "plo- r ' - Li . p : : n r ' n . , l i t s p , b u l n p g d 'i ' "l - ub. al lubsi{riivelori acclaii (ens rr" ln nol. , . pr ' ii.

8!
!!rsa !tu- : ld.d|l ci laldsrapli, ld, alJsis i Po.dsitt i P/en ! h.sis. lid'oLiXi ldlo tl smi

P, ' pr if i. I'cri- r -, me . . - o n Ft ^p ! aa r \ l' Paar ' lrro iu-: l!r'o l .la"t .!n -,sttrF,.ll-..1- : i, o. 1 . . ' , l 9' , 1' i : , 1 ' t. frlc_:e ....rr - . t , . t 1. 1, o. , . t t . 36? h ol; t : Jttb.ta tt;r ?sligLodlisdi a4allihabclisnr. a4arch-{, dnfudoi.' d-, rn-: oblssi .ic

s 368
369
dan.

Suti\e (Srftirrs)
a) 0ornlaxice: { r ar r : handj(" -/ t., . -" t - t" .rl ' . - J ur : r " . a" r .. \ts r,,..r;&r' " .n .!i ' -. t
|$\'s-otJ.4 - ta d .a r' n t\d 4

s ,,1 . ./r..r, h. i n/.r' . l r' r' r' o- o a -b' 11 u i -rF. orl l ' P \' 1;' :l " '

i rl

i l ^ o o -. l r' i + r.,._ ,:r -o o t " , , . Lur , r , " : i, - .! "{ it . i4' j $ r' lennP.r nd rd? '.

,.: ,/. til.ti/..d/. i; t , r . "Di, -ho on : Lo \t,od . ; . : o/ - o, . "t . ./ i \rr a r ''J r 'o s r nuk , a s ollr - r ' r e 'i r l ; r -in s:'r'"'.r4p ''g i ' J aw' i r' : a -L"gs b" dd,, s,-4 u r,"a . ,iu , , a, I Lr , gr r t r , n?_ . oio r , . r L t b k ; s ddl . | ;1 , b 1 " '1 . : ri: L ao l;r b i, ll' , Lund&, lind/ , F a' r "n t : 4E s r nt : 4s lou -1itr8 : d Jrl.,g . 1/ r nj ,: 't \ " / r 6 ' o '1 ' " / 1 6 c -p hppr ' ' l"Pr ' r ooJ 45r ' . r J / -trc\s:.Jrd li!s,. . !

't '"'.l";'ii. ,ry...,p,.sd tu ,p . ,r..: ,..,,.. , i v.../,, r,rJ. o/,", rs.op". ibti: ,u uf"lir. :r-,l.lir. Litulir. o{lnriiIr h.'rdsr,'. oa, hrP: hotunmtn'
sn,p. l,"JJ"n;, p"ol "s u$/ "r p lour / 1lpr / , , t . ' "oldrF-strr: L -iv.e ", h. r r j. , p", "o' gr / ". , s pin' r ""r b '1 . " . r . l o u g '/ P . c a n t o r o _

"""'' l.li;,",u,

.rronsl", hcisht, e!0. weal/r,,. nft{dri, srow,n,heatD,rrdrn,warmd},

S 370

D] nomauioc:
oo' 49 I ns , 6 " t o u L d s " m r l " n g ' p o u n 4 n " '" 1 ^ i -rq c: J\ rd s.r r dnia8"r pc , s " Fr... -al: dn ,m,/, p"ono, , / r m . lol, r p' ] u5. l. r . m o. . r . l d / . I i r 'r D u d l j a 4 \ l J n . r n r o r '''r o n t r i Bon lnr da, lus i, niCi_l -la n.-s: ' bt idgr dr ' r p P r r r 'd ,i {n r n 'd n r t , i. o r;',. m rs,.i4 n, \ \ ' as n "r / n, J pFn5pr ' , , r b1_bd " i 'r . F q F r r r o . rclnblicru, etc.; ' u r f P n '. p r -u ! -.n r: 'u m m t nJ r a' . D"d4r . ly r d4r i r ofr r ' ' ''d 'n r . " l ': gm nd/ r . s r ld/ r t : -.ry: ad vrb ,r r , di"liold. y 'r ' ! r r lJ nk r J pl y . ' af ain. r . oLst i n a . V ' l . : -.ri : ad \o! , ; u p . " e l " E e i l 1 d o " '" P l F r ''r 4 . -"i : atrs"n -. addr "s " , bir c * , d- biu"F. | . . . ,,o Jy,F'vpn J.:.o m m i||"Pj. oJ 4r ( qlU|n' ' ll|Lpb|oL" J p h l f r he lr ugh' i ar 'd l h ' l J u g h a P + r r ': Lr-. 'd urio r" a nd hp PJ ' r . a"* auoiionet , engincd., mountajnc./, mnskptPPf. ptolrtPcr' -ee.: h.l lorlenra@c, dilig,u.., !roildnae, aPlea@Dce, assisiar?. nujs"'; ridddz.?, etc.; grocc', Nher; chllncello.. docLo., clect'/; accumulator, ele-e"i. -or,'-ier : bultl.. \ar o .. r.,", rp,f ,. , "i. hFf , f indt r , i"- . lur r i - _ "o u r , . . P c . : -' p :n.Ia l"* , Lo il. r ' ", Chin"r ' , Po"u s u . P r \ l r l n a P \ ''" r n " " r : i l J l '" ' ';st: l ': r "l"gr , p_' ". lr L " J d l i o F n ,1,1 1 6n ..", 1 6u ;nr f s r . o. ; iilq, . d. Fr s , Aond, s , hun' I Ps c. m d 1 J P p r " s s . u ' 'r

I Sdlirul a din limbr saxon{ provine ditr limba laLine f'al,d.r. : Dlblll srLi\ .../ bsttrriivlle dtuughttli,hcight,din suliaul 'r,1 a .inus numii litt"r _r' 'ln a S uLir l. r t ir .i !r(r. rr' ' n" v. I -1 ll- r J . , - r;n d rI F , n " l ' 1 ' . C rri ' ' n livol lormal cu oci d.-al doilen o lndcrlin.ilc I StrIi{ ooe lo.tncazl su}slantiv! de gfDnl lcmhiD ($ !1).
0 Sur'\pl !" lJ i : p a r ' .l ' r i dr.d ob:di I i "Ll nrt "^ 'd"

*rrl

dn_

-li. r:

llisfjllir.,

u .di.t,. j

n. t ur l.

( ; r Flir . ,

! jjlor i/ . .

gtsolh.. ni..Lt-,

qnintn.,

'ioD. -{inn. +ion. -\io.. -rti{}n. -itiotr, -son: t.girrr i$jri,,. va(l/t,n,. crt.nrior. 11 .?n, i r 1f |' r i. r / , ni . f lf l, r i, r ; r L r . r o nc l , . .i . -: ! r. ' ill: .o " b rl /. , . u. lr..rl: ,o ,.,rd...,..1 r, ' .. rr , . , o. . r r . bt '. : L rlken. slr.r,r.,, s|1,,,, adornr,.rlj lasor,nr, m $n.,1, i, . . t.- t : t . t t - i, , a' 9. 1 u i, , ! , . -onny : J. 'rr)" rr : d b. ta J. lo 1 . r. Ln. _"rr. :n .-,. ,o ,,r. , , t . t , J .. t 1, t , r j h. . .". . , , . / h. -rr : . " ' rr: l r, "liu Jr. -ilr. -lr:1".'ur,.t,,: a..'tit ' 1.. , r . r . . , -1 : assembly. d.li\ery.

t..e.

la.,-r.

t!t..1 -, .

. r ' . . , . : . , , "i. . . , , .: , t r : , " : . 'L j, . . r . lJ : a -- J.-, l 1 lr llo , ' : " ,lcUuty, dii!!, 1r0xly, clt. "

._./0recefti:
. {'.rcr,:
{ f , -c f . : . o

l3 7 r
|hrtoorr r/r {uolloqI (cttono./c.r, srobo.rn.r.
IF ..i\,8 ...r .u d ltr Lt.. t.,t. 1 ,, ,' .r ' .

luto..d.g/, lr!.rau.m.t;
./,

n ,l 1 r.zi S ; lt lr ) l

,... r,n :o .... n .." u , r.,,1.ti rt,tr,.. -i .rn : t a- i r , . " . . , oa .r.. r. or l 'Fr.,, m , r han. u. r r , _ . -irt! : ]Iaxis,, so.ialirr; plilorogtsr.fllsicnr. r,lani.d;dtis/, ],n 0risr,. antlEoDisr. \' p r' c ,' . P ' t p ' l .k r l ' . . .\r' .r' /,. -:l _ : l , lar " . l ob " r Drrr,. L ch ir r r hl, ' r l. . . l r,h i r .rr.r -iiis : rpperdi'itii, nloi'.1ri.". !oln^, sinrlstrtr, lorsiutir, cre.: ' l u,,r

dJ Sufixe dimhrutiynl0sru dopre0iativc (.Lit'..rs(. or*i,ni).


-ard! -o.t /g.rn.l : b$tzfd, coM/d, drunkar. hgsa.d, stuSga/1, wjzdfda, b.asgdrr, -a1ter (lal.tr crilicd.de., mcdi.as,c., Dusicds,c/. !octds,c,,. ol!asr".. elc.: n lulln q . il' aa i-',' . . , / . . , or jr . . t ut lc . ' nt . . t a, l".p o . i \ t " \,\it,:tti"tpt, tA" i tu)tpl, t|fun ,tp4 , mo l.ir t p{ , . r c . . i,n lijern.): ohjokcn, Lilten, nraiden, etc.i . -et il..): rorone,, isle,, lerer.4 nidsd,, osl,,; bill.r{,. bull./!, fitl,4, haich?/a, pultc4, 4. d
| -onn,{j i

.i 379

I _

widotr?,&j eonducrord,rar. drunn lr -ctt (rr.): ciga.cre. Iil.heMr,, maisonlnler,f. mijofer,. undqrrdure!, ustrdcrF.i uanncle'e, learho.rc, rlush.r&. erc.: _ . . -ier lo.igir-aobscui): Antrtr, ,\rohie, Jralie, Johnrl.. \!ttlc,- cool;,. deariz, doggt,, -kinG) {olatrde,amediel: oailt,, la,nbntn. maniitn, Pet.trtur sonnihns. Moui}ar,

-1 e 1-rl r { S e. m I I br am u d . k n d c k l c rk e ri .l . e to .; , vnre,, start 4 woodt,,. . ..ret iff ): trnkt.t, etel.t, llauer, lNiu.r, hafl.4 tigr.t br{ceierr, chnp?e,{, i,aole/i, w.islj,r{. en,.: o ' r:L /r,s . e o J i 6 . n .h b ,rk l r,j . -u.t/rrs. tord/,rg.l ri n" -l i n s s r ' . . : 1?r lr s tt ng. rn e rn \, ! ndc f lr na,wr a L rra j e t..i -ock (germ.l: bitt.ft {dialectal).bullo./r, hiuo./r, etc.; '(e).r.I (lr.): cock'rcI, Don8r.r. w$tru/. etc.; -st8 lgerm ): dah,e., do!c!rc.! gaDerr.f, gangs,e.. !usra., rh,vmesl..,lipsr,., trick, -r u ri /i n ob. . ur : E : |r , . fa l l /. J o n L . P, s j J . \\' h r rpJj Lobby..dbby. .ookv. , tu. r , . I,'3 ry / $r r gd. p t { . o n n y . u n m| h J n k y . n rd t '{ , F . r Suiix cde formcazl ii subnaniile de Ernul leminin. :I'ri n i n lef m t s diI liDbrl o rl d l i r' l l -i frU \rz .r I| . u $, r i\ ul d/ .. 'D l rl .Itrlelesul diminxlilal sau delr!(i.rlir {l snlirului s. tierdut cn vremea. 5vzi Fi sliirul .v mai ios.

84 J ;t

Mo . d,l P rr-

2) Dc r iv r r c n ftc rc .i rn I B 4 i tt.F o rn a ti on ). _ | o" tp j uhFtdnti !c l o r m ar I r i1 dr r ita rr rp g r" i i ' u . ,L p ri n s upri n,arc,, ur,Fi P i rLt.ronrl "di vitc ca un sufiri: plp - ptrply trilia < triri.rlr g.eed< greed, tat < Pelty typewrile < typcwriter dooste < donaiion

! 3?4

Acesl procedeu, 3) Iied ceroa (Redurtion, Shortcning. Clipping). , l o a r t e pr oduc t i! i n l i n b a o n g te z r), o n q ti i D sul r;nrdrcd urr-i Ii !!i (i l r.P put. . ul. . r," d i p r d i n rr-' r' r ' ,rtD rl . drn .sp .^ ob i n- n.' l pl o Iurn' i d l ir iil " H, r " noud. Uneori aceasti creaiie nu este d fapt decit o simph presrulLar .1 cuanrtului irtiiial, alleori inse capite un inleles oarecun dcosebit sau o intre

buin!,areproprie:
S 37; a) suprinarea 'engl r "t''l -ri'r: inceputuLui
< ioDd...
< m o ld . .a f < mol,of cod./l < bLlt:le -:: C,efence

tn(intului
lhone pranc slori squtre sror"r larsiry $.fl .- telrphnr!. -. A.\iPume < dtslo/t .-9ss",.c < n1stutll. < tD'r.ri1ry < pclrera

L{ereze -

b^coy (!op.l
.oa.h cXclc nroe

lla Pa

< l l .tm n o (fo p .) < Pi p a

376

b) s pr i apocopr:):

dre tr sftrsitul

ui cueintul

.i lapocopn (eng]) -

ad < a.lveriisement: brt < rrassiercioab <.drriolel; cabh <.arlegram: champ < rh a aP io. : l o. /, l or: 6 ' : . p : " u 5 r' . .l " 0 ,;n l a i Jn ,. " t /d ' i. Lrnro \i nJrRp - pa,A1' L i\ dr r n/ , l"l, 4ioit lind r\.
rine: nn , r /iisif", m oli , Dr t - r p '6 o . r t . r 9t ut t t , ' n",rjuc / poaa t o " e : ! T i b / t - & t r i . i p' r ; n, n i " d I 'o , p . ".u ud' prnp p\prtv' t o 'd n prozt-.f ., io f i: ur uT. 1' r ' , p. r J d 'a o p ' nr r lr l: ll' . a l r . < s o n J d l 'r m . tio': rrt r "n < / er ul. r ( iuni - r Fr lor r -,./e -"" p ti,hr;rr 6 dJ,riL rpllj vrr.vr al^: r . ; d! lln s p " u F r s r ''. i \ i t' ",.,"/ \:,io n, \ ' r ', l u r i d H d l l ; w l l k : F . l a l l : o < rr r dn, , Fr iidr \ , O ld \ ic Bol" railing ldl/i1 e r r J J io s "t { . ?oo < ?ooloc ' , J-g. r r J ; 1 " 'c , J cin q nd i' < r ; r r r lnd / , J ; J n t Pf m or h

377 jatEon colbesc:


,ol . "r/l g nAlhrJ< liJ . / r gg r g ! _ . \ am < "r dn i J l i o l : l d b - l 4 r o r a o t y : , , r hi, . ld ion: pr ' p \ p.pparLtion: pmt \ ptu^ sof : L",g < no'h nd n: n ,ar . t ,sotrometrri vac < racrtron etc.

s 3?8

cu addqatea unui suti.x: dinP' (Iam.) < dinirrg'c:r. sleelef (rrm.) < sle-alin8 car r-o " i a i c n fo o l bl . s o. " " ( ta ' ,' rugg# (ld,n.) < ,nu8iy lootbill s m ok a (l rm ) < s mo k i n g -.o tri dA e no. { m k r .rm .) / ,' o ' ,-" r,u n 8 .a r' dqp a ls o d" r \' 1 ., s1l I l $o dp Ls i"nr I < b u " . h rt l-wo-seat (fan.) < (ca. wrlh) hro seais '
_ r,ri'ial: nelnscmn{t, supi,llicirl,,z tri rl. ?/,riu: ltrc.d.i nfiBcnnrate, lleacdo, lilnt, lotoitrnlial,

s/ai: Jna.c {dmiraior (setr adni.atoaful, !,tsional(rli duti sport tito : lrra /dr, tun nr F,t, hdntbntt F,6 erN. ' lto 9e tq ' \ ' ' \ t r lr lll l nattti.-tntlie - atarat d. ra,tio e ililor fcccttof torlniir. : : 1!o loc{ir Lr loc uin! a.

cuot' ntul ui din i n te ri o ruL t r t t .J r s u n e te .) cd d , ?r c 0" isincold - (engl.) s?incotel: cu.tsl' < dzltesX bike < Dt.yclc mrko < rrt.rolhone tmcy < /antasy dormonse < do.mDt t0zse motorbike < tut .Di.Ycle cade motorcade < morotcavr

t379

.l) cd.d,.rea F.

unor

suntc

Ln

hqi

nuIt.

t o : it ii:

S 380

pran < pe.dmluhto. <,irningham au < in&enza

.u ftLdt\afta unui sufir: nabs< ,arDara .) comprim.Lrea nai


,n u l l o r

nim)- < inmccnl (: I,rostdnac) c L rri ntc.

s 381

Anc.ioaradian l: 4noican + Canadiat) lmerind (: ,an.ricar + l-did) Bakerloo : rakdrst|ecr and $raterloo Railw, r r l lUn d e rar odnd

\r,\rr,anr. o-'"""i:,r"'-"i"4si,i;'"' r,'iii"r.-.."" r -iibockeN) ,'-',"t. Ln;.1.t

electmctrtion l: elat,ic executian) chandclE.) cleeirolie. (: 'Ie.'ic Eufasia 1-- t,.ote +.lsu, ro.rnishr (: /o.,.;een zi,,n,sl

radd (:.adio detertiorand.anging) $ ]cz

ffi:: i' I; Nta' "fij;.:;"1',1il, motol 't "nsi"''

Unpl'subst0nlivP sa 4l Attsmaffle tonatift lCrddotrcn, Xlutatian ) vPrbc.r. ) prrn modili.ar"r unui ,1Fospb,.c alr; parli d" !nrbire (adjc"rive. de .Lnpl \o.nli. n"Jian tl at I GratJ,ttiorJ. insalita .ad nu d" lrodili.ari consonantice ale terminaliei ;i cu evenbualaadiugare a unui sufix:1

Substantie Verb
io lreathe brcath c.lotl - to clolhe

S bstantie Adjcctir breaitth depth length {idth young - broad - deep -long - wide }ouih

'(Vezi ti

s 22r'11

5) Abrovier0a ( Abbrceiation -l|[ult mai f.ecvent declt ln limba romend $ 383 ). se intrebuintoazn in limba engiezd abrevierea, adicd reducereaunor cuvinte la inilialele lor: Broailcaiing.orporarion, i,'on. n R C. { Bfirish !s'1" I pounJs T\', torol
nola b"n " ) , & P . i . l = p o s r d r i t 'l '. l h P { h i inc..;e n.e t- o c. r Doir . ar dt . r n N. B. , Dlc h"lor o A r . . ) , m l L S c . ( - \ r d s l r r o I Po :r Oir ir F. , d BA. I r, . P . Lr. ld .ncril \ , , ip" .i a c.l . Ccn crd l Pr ; c li ioon" r dof lor , npdr . "d r ^ p r a r U . . 1 m p J i . i . d g 'D ' f d n . Non. n a n : s s i o l " J O u i . " r '. a w q A F . d ,M.P . -u(;r,"r o l ldtl, anFr ' , , ao NCO I ( nro" of lhp So\i.l io idlnl , - rnen, b r o t rh " \\'o r"n s A r \ ' t iar \ . \ i. I or ", , U. S. r . H. Inilpd \aLi.n5 Oryuni/alionl, I rilq l 5ldl. s i f Am pr i. a, , l\ O I k ebunlicar . t5 \, q' i nlin l l ' r l O r g J n 'z J i o 1 ) p l ' . dr d I NE sco , Lr.rtL d N o : Edur s r ional, 't ' UNICEF iunitcd Nations International Child.etr's Xme.gency Fund), etc. I A " pisll mu lna _"FJ pnr ' ' l n: ll, ' !f s.J , e. I,,.,", ribf J . s nlr l, d4 ' dF. ' r f d1' h bJ n. Lo g l l i - . \ i r d l ', r d . t . i..hr 1u t- b Jn lo ". a,lo . d1; d r r l t , r t ' ' ,.r l J U1. ji .. m r t r r j. l : T. c . t n "dr l. "orosn 'Lrt

"r'

ZrD";n

MOR!OLOGIA _ SUBSTANTTiUL

.rr:lsj

u*,

0""',inl:'l,"1i1"'ll;" :'Jiiiil;T;";^ "*''' J 3 q(i ' ' ' ' .u . .,^, " i i ,.,, 1'lill:;,' lil'

dclc'I' rile rn,lcsubsla r:ll Il'ltl:,1:1"";"lii1ll'li];l.liililri''ir


, - . i: i- '

B. SCHl\lll-\Rli--\ c'\TllcoRlEl ico\vllRSlo\)

Gli.l\iATlcALE

:"'ii'i!4.,"''"' l*i?f;:-' T'"J;l'"'* *xi'ffi


#'1"'*'11" i';',.,,;1il"i.,,'#g '
ti
a blildtng handw.rung a !rrrltng A ldrmng ln] \tashing ihe {c.u-".tl t h. ir t r t s l. ! - L ine r lc ' t s a\ d ll, e Llc r ar t t L h, r Ln[ ' ni] + , 1 lhe unk no{ n . lir s t 3 s elonn ihe k'lost'g the lrvrns Jhe I rsornS tLr li irnrr l l t r u r t 'm p r o J c o l l 'c s t i r t h e n , ! l . i 'd .

1i', iix;"; ";;X",

Tii',;:::,(:1",tr"i1'J:i"l1x"'ill'i"lilLT* 1 \e 2 ; S ti o -t6 0 1

s 3s7

s 388
S e89 Pcrbtt

. 'turr

J o';n'{

: llFh'

" iI.l

i rorl lin t

. "'i:il"* i"'r'-., r,""

t' t tl"''"* 0". ^ ....-,. ,;;;:":.Jl,1 l'i'r,".,


Tn' r llL- s

,i'l " I rl ii "",l:ill ,iliil shot aL' a swu roat). a "l "t;"-e.: :iu-;Ji,i,Hill,'1.!:
';""f,:u',?:",inn,Xti'i; i; " , "/ i j''l "'
n c liL ' a rt L c o L "i "J::,

i'l'"*,,,

" "iitr t^'0""n

i"r::.|:'"

::ll:'"'#l.q:^iljxl'v"I' l''i{*; ' l' tonorro$'l tiivc me {: ring ne^w)


' r";'g m or r So ol P o a $v ' dJ o"l f is dn old nd ' ' er '

S 3'J0

ttl .t e tbt:, prtpozir'ii' .. ,t,. L",t !, Lpean.t . ..

coni

l'*:{lr i';t"lll,tli*"y'li.l'""i5ri."*,1'i 'il'11;'' !,""'Ji".'r'lti'e'"\'ilj $.: .;:'l::', ,=",;:,llll"t:.t1,fit l'i,f"l" ,'.,,,;:J:; ' l' ll':i:lli; ni' i};;'l' :r:i'-;'yij 'i;,;,';:j,,;iI ;:,;,; ""."'t't"t {,:',i,,1,," , .r .,, il , ,f,"i:T
"

'' i il " ,'''1, ', i,,l!i , ' i l ' " '

lil:*';"": :

o r' ' ' ' to ' ' " r" ' a "

$ 3e1
{ ,.E L oi g.aiihd! ihe Da.: ol l]ii,s ihe .ntt oi bids the clarg ol buses Lltt ble'rl

the ntss ot th. sf.D.Dt il,c n ,i or tr. cirrs { nzr, ol surp.ise the .u sre o1 silk the srtsl ol ihc b.oom i,he ,!rt.f ot swdlows tlie rrrf of coi$'hcfls oI thc Soviet ea.th satcllilc pluralului:

n) cu adnugarea lilerei s. mirca

s 392 s 393

(Ve!i ri $ 127)

fo

tra tn -iry
..omiqs and soinjjs gol4gs roogDSs sunclndhgs eamings emplyrnss sarrnSs takinAs $4nnrngs (Ve,i qi ! 1?6)
lilings

s :t94

$ 395
in lwo rMs to waur on all /or.s to lnle si@3 in eloves. the I'ghts to be at rt ! dd 64eas to dressup li! tle Dtnes{la!].) (\i e z i fi S 1 2 1 6 , !2 6 4 )

s 396
one's /ttdr and d6rik3 the slolls (sau s/'dlrsJ ol momlity

a.lNetbe,

conj unclit,

prepozilti

s 397

thc dyes and nocs (in Pa.liamenl.) the tns and o&& ol the case r 1p1r c " . r - d . o r u lh" /od. f, d rh u/,ys ot lh. nd' l f Ii" t r. a rd,rl" lr r . , r s ald d . , , s i n o n . s l i l p pots and tans there'd bc {o need fo. tinL-"N. II t/s and a6r were \lc didn'|. knorv \cr t&ereaboutt and couldn't loNard your lette.-

( s 2215).

c, cu modiiicarea accntului(insotiti uneori si de rnodificarea loneticd g 398 respdl.n'e), substa tivele fiind accentuitepe prima s abe,verbelepe a doua "

I Semnalsonor caracteristicprinului satclit sovielie. t l :t.t.. y a4ds - lt r o d \l p , n p rt,1 6 rr| a r' L r .,p, t \ r t r !r,t;dr .or . d ..a l i a li i r r r odr : r " r. = L ti th " A :Ah ts z i p l g .6 ' .noa2:,i ..pa" r (\ luat{ ourttd dupii or.t 11 a.m. 3aD este lorma r.he r conjurctiei il

.= arti .usttuo

E 8M

.{ 399

C. CONIPLINJ]REA icoMPOSITIO\)
rrn p ro " d -u d p In rr ' rF u tr\i rrl Fl { l u:' rr' frp' !Fr' l p'rri " ;J . i i ;"';'r, ,,,d,'i r " d 4 " u : ' .i ' r^r' Fl ' nr" r" l" i " ' u r r rtl r; 'ir P 'r n n ar" i r ' L r\i rr' "ll'lr rin iri' ' r' rej.r-

i , 'ir'',,i" ii i " ,r'" "


.^ ' r . i' , ai,

, , .;l ;i;;.;;1
singr r r f uI i" l, :

" .'"i.'.",-'i,'Fna,rr'

r' ri"

t" i;,1'';;.1' '" l"r,il:'l:l:'i,r,i' :;i:ll",'iii;:l -

rlir: ln a|cst nrod sc Pot fornra srbslarrl;ve .dr,*i. \trI'\r,:,,r 'r ,t. .,:r Lo ...rrl:'r'.'uL

rlur"_

rtoern' j rplarE'

" ",ili,llliiii'.,)"',lll'li;'":1il:"il1l:l:: 'il;-b, 'jIhou'i

:,;;l,l r,i".:, r.;, :iiiil,"''"i ;;;i'r; ::";l;;r llL;j!t"i, " ;'f 1'l',;i i;, ;t,, ;;.":q;i1;i'":r1,':;;;;'i:,;r;ii,ir,l'; rrpan"r:iro!L'boar'

""""iiiil;i*:r;,::ttllli,'titi',';ui lrltliil;i'"ll"ii';*Jli;":li lll'J,i,l;iii


''"u;;,1n,';;,,.',:,];1.' .i' ' ' i,,,n:l; ll"i;)oi.ii',1, lii,'i; ! .i::lii:,i1.,;l"i'r.
o no n'rrn l'o: o\ $n\ . loiniod. \rhizlbaDg, !lc i I t r p r l' . I ir ' g P0 'l

'""':ri:i;;:ll"l;;;'* i"h' iiillriliiii;l -i;':iliilir,")il!lfi?i!' ",'ill,.,,ft.

"'i*1' ;"iri,; ii i,"1. -' ii,; l',:,:, ]l;;,'i,,doiu:aro'outer' ". n;,t,,r'._ rearer'andliilii.iii";"i''il$"::":,il''iii:i;'i")"tii.""i;ii";.
i','rf, .'il:"1't' ;:l.l ;.:1\l;i:':''i'. l;ll;1;1, ,,',", -'.'"1, ;,1

litilfrlfii'i;L,r'*,ii; rlr' :'', .":"":i ..i;=i' "i,r::"' ;,


(uri iis\ii:,l.;,i;,i',r;-''iiliiiirl a" pit*"* trrntitodrere re sinte,.enpre ii
i t l - qpeli:

\ {00

(ionrpuseeite astizi tot at'ii de pr'rCreareasubslanti'elor derirate sru personal' (luctir:i ca !i in tr,:,:ut. cont"'o'rinrl i^ i"""i"'*a unui stil fdarlc

,,is,.durn.ss, lll:lij:iliillil:\,,u.".* riii'""'ii1,,"i,",iii"'i'"1'-'t"'" ;l"J,ii1'l-3,j11f.i1,,1'ir"l''"'u'


lr\,o' ^. , "-:,,,,, .,, . r,, o, ,. " r i, ".' , 4 . , ir,r | ,1i;"'rr,. ;,| t' ,' I i t.p| b\ ' /, '4 r 1,

liniliir ' '(irvin te inlf . r l. in ,ll.$_ , Iorl Pr . ar ' t n, "lY'

60 _ l l .-s0, k c wir h a S o o da mo u n t o t n e a .t fi a .l Mi t!.u ss.l o -.f'irow6 qrlh utr.p\s t}|at gpt lhF wolk donA. l 'tt.kt' O trp r mc n o o b j p .ri o n s ' f' "B{r o p no r ur s . . ' fhe pefisdns ol thc doiag-what prckad it.,t!t-ta!.I!..t e,ondpa-did-and.tpt:

Substantivo telescopato (po manteaa,Nords). TiDul de cur.tnt numit, 4Ol _ lnlinrba engleze Nord.eaxa blpnd.rord aporlnantpau 1un, u'inr ..tclcs.oDat-j? c.r" n.rFalip arrificiald. foarla sugective adpsaori, carecombinAin mod arbilrar pafte din sunetelegi sensurilea doud cuvinte tegatelntre ele prin lnleles: l,rurcl I. bFalta.l lun.hJ rus p lnmpr.l . rurh husrtcl I suurry 'hor'lp'chu.kli .snort) ! risrnundo Insrnua||onInnurndor .mog ( ._-s.urtpr+hrfrvr r-snokp : tos,
n g Pf ( - Lon r |lS F |) !n a .k { ' snake shartr motel (: motofisls' hotel) Nlirlicane {: whirhind + huricane) slithy (: lithe + Btimy)

De fapt, acest procedeu de formare a ouvintelor std la baza vocabularului iou..intrebuinrat, extensiv atit in reclame. cit Ei tntr-rn anumit, gen modern . 1, . li l "ra tu ra.

I \. Bert. Cadunt. I i. LFwis, ,ltotn iktrr. 3 Cuvinte intrate l. liob{. a N. Twair, op. .t. 5R. Aldinftoil Deoth ol a lterc. ' \ ' , oF da l dp LF$is C; r oll ' uv r nt ' lo. , . ir Adee wes in Wbnn?lbnd, ThnuFh the lnniLs.Ck$ . Hanap's Sttndad F.ench d^d Enst^h

r , , . ar t i iltp g i , r i p i r r r , p 1 . 1 . " ; n , 1 1 , . , , th" i;;;k ,.t T* Er;ji"s ;j1;;;;;c "f Ditiandr!, 1s31t_

ARTICOLI]I,
i::O\SI]JNR.{TII GI]\JJR.\Ltr '' "'r''i 'i ,.. . \Rl i (IOL UL S I S I ; B - q T A \_ T l \:l l l ,i\l j l l El l \L i L l t l \_ o l r r h' lJ r l j h .r.n r . t nlr " . ' bi. " - l l .' rl :. lr ....... S.\ti \I\Itt1E i t,!utr, ti .\_ 4at1 !11 .r1l 9i

ltII

,,, !t !t It !; !t ,t5 96 9t 9)9,1

t,t2

L)l
I n "i b" , oll \- i. il rl Z F r o . . . . . .

l' ,

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I. CO\SIDERATII

CE]{ER-.I,IJ

l) I)cfi ilie. - lrticolul este url instrumrl|. granatjcal care serve,ite. S 11)f ir lri,rcipul. la indiridrlalizalea.obiectelor'asupra cirora se oprcEie a1,cn1ia \,,r1)itol.r]lui scriitonrlui..obiccte rlonunrile, plan gramal.iral. a.ir salr cu Ire t rul substantiruluilnlolit sau ru d. artrfot. 2) Fon i, Grdnatica englezi are .toali arlicolel: !.10;i arti(olLrl hotArit the a.t;colulnPlotdrit a sau nn
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4) Fur{,tii. - .{ icolul ru stn sjngur; ci Insolelte tntotdeauna u. sub ilantiv -qu un eehivalent,al acestuie,fapL pontru care unii grarnaticieni il ItnFniera o partjculn. ,Obieclele cxiste le se imp8rt, in doun categorii: drlirrtt. (adici specifi .atc. in.livjdualizatc) tarl nuiefinit e. d.) Defini.r(a obieetelor. adicd indiaidaLl.izare /or. se lace cu ajutorul arti(,olufui hotdrit, the (the l)efinit. Arlnl?). erc sril pe lingi snbsl,antivele ,.c ]e ddrumesc ..i al cdrui rol ste de a scnrnala faptul ci obiectul in cauzn ,,.te snu ra fi cunoscut. Thc, care la origin tnsemna lhis, that. tht:se. t/os.. ai pistreazi tnci. rtenuat. acest lnlcles. lmpru'ri cu irrncliile corespunznt oareI the poate lnsoli iird .{rrslan I ir.l?. nunerabiie sau ncnunre.abile.ai.lt }a s; qular cit Ei1eplural. 1r, ir i,,n.,lie de conte\l: l)J r.slul substanlirelor. adic{ acelea care dc,runlesc ,obieitele, ndefini1.. ncnldirnlualjzale, sillt insotite de xrticohrl ncholl\tlt (thc In.lrfi it( -l//nt.,/. .\cest,Rrtjcli ri sau an, crre lnsemna la origine one, adici unitttca, nu poate deci insolri(le.iii,iorma de singrlar a unui subst&ntiwnedefidt.. ,\,ra, iiar p.n1r|rfoo.a (lc plural forespunzil,oue ncer;stiDd litoouil.orposibil, un . a dal .unrele de artieol zero :rriicolului r,are af trcbui s^ c\istc in acel loc. d&r care lips4r/r. Lipsa a(ieaslaesfc tot atit de ilnporl.anli ca si prezenla unlli arlicol. deoarece are functii distincie qi holiriloare. (Vezi S 429). cn -{rtifolul neh.rtniil nu i sottte ]l;r;o(latn substantivele nenunerabilc.
r l]rii 1: ri i ( ii lt grarnati.j.ni .onsnlri irindr I hol,'rril ca p. r^ anirit. itr articolut nchoun al;.7 rit nelnnntit lr.zi llF Can i.a ArfdnJ Didiaharr, a, sn, t\e).

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CONSDERATII

CENEE{LE

96

3) La pluml, substantieele mcrubilc n lNl nu p mcsc articol nehotirlt:


\r{tctres
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S 419 S 420

nou.s
idcajj

4) Substatilele nonnmcrabilo tf:ll iici articol nehotdrit,: li

nu au, in mod normal, nioi plural

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5) Concluzie. DiD cete erpuse pinil a;ci reies clteva reguti de bazd: dl dacd un substantiv este numertrbil, deci are plural el 1'a alea li sin gular. care poale ii preced.at (trt[.olnl tu)lntdrit. Arl,ico]ulu;rehotirii {asau an) d. ile la singutar ii c;rcspunde al)stnltr artical tnir la pl:UJa\.
, J o. g g"l I -J. ^\..I 1 1.r,l '0"-, hool I pr. Lizs \ere s$ arn '! r g our iir Fr r f r ( 6 , or i, '. our.

S 421 42P "s

Substantivele numerabile au ariicolul hoLdrit,the atlt la Bingular,cit $i la phral: I sj. 14' 1o ..3 ,irr \"- //l' .r'' ' o.'
all ; . { pr. Tn " L "1. s" Tabnanent Fitn s. I g r o ! \ io. Ll do. , r o $2,, , . / / , 1 . . ' - 4 r '. 4 T4t s

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,Ue@l1t,N Urc maiistar ol his diel,. The tuat yon sent ne was deliaious. c, Lnel{, substartive nenumerabile por de\eLi nune tbilc jn lurclie de j teni,.ia vorbitorului ca !i sint tra1,a1,c atare ( S 30). Jl Dq i unjj a, , t nr j i n d j r, a ' l j a c ti v u l n e h o tn rl t rorrc ca pl ural al arl i colului n a b o ,. r il lif . d d " s ru i a l s n l u fl ts n ,r a r, .{ d r o,pl J.i 1-rel p.,a " n/nr dp.i In l o r r ir . d l^ r p" i p ro ., n u s p p o rr. i d , p in oJt" si rnal i i l ., .hrd -"i r n r . lr.u l u i r dje, r ; \ Llui . o r,,. fi i rd m ri r..tr:n F d d p i i t 0ri F1 a cL,ntri sr.;ru lului .e h o ti rit : I s!. I . dN d b' bv t l J l i s r l h e p a rr.
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D) Substantivlenelrumerabile- adici abslraclii]e. uneie de matdi sj de nase, precum ii substartivele nsi]rlilale cu acestea nu au plural si deci nu pof avea decit,o si.nlurdfa nd. cen dc sirg&ldr"!. fdrii articol ichotdrii. Piirnesc insi articolul hotirli, liir tn iunotio de contefl: \o oDc could lire $iurout notr. linos'ledEe lis success sn.r^d bv the nress. ol was ' -

S '124

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r: a rl i . r olulZ E I T O t Ol . 1 :e z i 5 6 .9 . :1.rh .st. Cc talrLlotna conlund(S !t-irs), 3 : n ,.ri, r olul f r o 1i1, ,15 4 :!1 . z cuc sc comt)orli1ca nn singdar.

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AiTICOLUL

IIOTAR

97

trOTi.NIT IY. ARTICOLUL


(TEtr DXTINITD ANflCLE)

s .137
S 438

de 1) tr'ormi,.- Articolul hotdrit 6ste the' inva abil in sdis, indilerent gen' numar sau cazi tle boys ti9l '&
,,',2 aeach&'s address t/ia houses we vrsiled
r n P '$ o g i r l s f/r" p riz es wer e gi! . n o l& bny r nd IhPt saw r / P r o$n in r l4 dr r r dniF

2) ProDunlio. Arli' olul lft' 5o pronJnri: 36 it LoiN ti,onC /,f,]1 - forma rarprr ' ind rsLe o'fenrual sau clnd ' The delinite article rs "tle" Is he 'tnc" Sliaw?'
lEs lo Pl . Plebar l 5l, aw: ) is hF "dt , ' p". iar i: r i1 ! ln m d l o l 0 g J r

s 4e9 s 440

b) lbtti (;NanS farn - forma i,are) sNtl6r) (acak form ln.inta unei vocalesau a unur, mul':
,tu c{Ith ,tu jnn ,fte hour ,h? hei!

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cau a unui ft aspiraf .J fb,l, t6l. torm"'labe. lnainrpa uDAiconj'anF a'imihre cu consoanole5: se"ii"6"it"to|" t*t ri [i].

$ 442

FUNCTIII,E ARTICOLULUI IIOTiRIT GXNXX'AIX coNstDtrRATtr


demonsLraliv lr llomonslrBtiY.- Arli'o1ul tfre l& origine adjr'iv a u4ur demon_ t - tiLsthnt.th,s.,thnser,peslrazaqia'l6zivoloArFs,sLenu0li strati\', a'ind uneori .hiar :i fun'!i0 ocestuia: lr. is iusl what I unt sr rtu (- this aomoni.
Mnn v'h aDD v Flum ol r t u { = ihr s l ddy

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s 448

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$ 450

Zfu eslc tnsd articol cind precedi un superlativrclativ + substaniitul erprimat,sau subinleles, deoarece, acestcaz, el determin[ subst&ntitul. ln (Vezi S 724). $ 451 STUDIU CONTR,\STIV
AIiIICOLUL IIOT-iRIT SI SLTST,4,\?IINJ,I] ABSTIiATTI} SAU COIOIiNTD

s 452

Etemple:
o.:t "t h . d m " l , t.l" t t l h ,n a ' " r' ,1 " | ,5 .- r . r\D 5rri l di " I'o1\a") . a t e - \"a s t.kb r 1 - "p r tr ",o ,, a .onup

O sene de substantive pot fi uneori abstracte, alteori concrete - deir nu pot sau pot avea arLicol hornrii - tn {unclie d inten,tia 1.orbitorului. 1) Substantivele bed,, br.dl; (: rcc/catle), canp,'Change, church, callc:,,. S 463 coufL ha.rbaur:hotnc, lLaspital,jail, mass, marhet, parL prisan, schaoL, t(". shne, tdble, tcrm, taen, aork etc., nenumerabile,nu primesc articol (au ndic; articolul ZBRO) cind lnlelesul lor csLcabstract, deci atunci cind ne reterin la rnlian4 respectivi:

na Chanee lo have been to .ol&sd to }rine ini,o .orrt

lo leav s.l,oo, to lut to sra l0 sit doivn to rdDl,

to admit into norrn(l 10 s o lo bF d,ro J p , o 1 6 ., l o .o rl " g ' ,l o ,o r' .i u..3" l orr, o" . p o ri. , e. in o h^s pi ra l .l o mT L In ro to r. to p , so j i l . 10 to town. t o uni\ c r si ,y , to $ o rk , 1 1 ,,

(r' 11 t' -

1. ( A b, r . , at or r.) t' ;e h [.J,' i ]!o nd " i ' 6r' .i .:t . rro l rtr.' r ' )t x I n' aL. hanp. /o r.r,rn .1 ..,1 ) .,,.rr d i n r.ur .l ' i r n^ d" l d. rr,r,,r ' sublnlel{asl /o l'l. "Ee sEnt to theb \or^e".] ii ca atuc lac! t,]]t! din categori'r s'l de staltive care, lmlrl"url cn o lrcpozilic, au lalo.lle dc adftrbe.

TICOIVL

ttOTARlT

9C
c'' r 'o l i g n 'h o m " in los_

i - illhTn|n dlp roliuin b'l,i ' : i . t o J . i d l r . o , a 1. . ' lool "

qi\ "

mai l seamni $ 454 de To\vn,fira articoi, pe lingn selrsurile la S 453 S zr55 a]) rlrul (comercial ornl'.rlur: "i
' Shall Nc have ililn.r tr ,oa, todav (- Il ora!. la rcstaurnnt satl la chbl? Slo l o' ui l d i n n o ra i ' l p i ' r4pi ' r' r' . ,i ,i 1 "., i t . t o lr s l' on n ," x "iJ on! Inarn' ^,,(1 ,' ubu' h: i . r { d J J u ' l a " ad rl ttP) ' ta " ' ' pdr $ 455

: : r o r ca u edon a lr idal. Se intrebuirteazl insi ariicolul bolirlt atunci ctnd ne relarim la inlelesul .onrret al substa;tirrelor de mai sus dcvenite nurncrabile, la un anumit orag, , ) al u mi l i F c oali c t c . : TheY lookcd at ,ne ndd: it !'as nPtY. |the'coltele slood {t d oossroads. The lisiciiersin tne.o&r, lrcrc not interesled. 'l'he chcmisl.'s was rear t,l" /@3,Dt,2,. At Doltani,,nd P.tsn h4len turned into a museum. \Yc salv tne scn d, bciore tts. ! , , n . r.J h i b .rrl ,' di n h p s u n i l l d r. T hpA i r' ,n r" 5 i rri _ g d , fr. ta b l " u F " l i o Ll i r booLs. rle iN sriislicd with r/P eofr in !f.p SIc wcnt ior a $alk outside,ft4 t Wc were alProaching ,ne ,oaD. 'qa. Irticolul hotirit se lllttebuinleazi

S 456 !i in urrndLoarele construclii: /i ' l a b o rd l o ty ./rfi ,/ L n i \F E :'vr.go do!l " ^i nl o ' l P ' ounLrl :' I ns li l o so 'r'., ' o, io . r. l -u b i l rnr iv ' . r r A r Lm F s . ,o h i ,l ' .o n " r' l n i o q o io ll' " c ilpni. l h P i )s th ' ' o tr' e rl t/r' o D ' rd. l ,p nrl l r s. ft. Inertrper' ' d u ''r b sl Jn i i v o. 1r e nur n" s c d G mrl l c d l P g o rF a d F l r" l rr" ! {n/ sch o ol. \ da s ' r r t ad ,t,i a a rv s .n o o iw l p r s h " s R ' :.. S l r E pnl i o 4 p' i 4ufv . {o Dli n Jr s - y , . nd s penlfo u " )PP t. d Is " ,{ o tl T l ' Pns n p \ P nr 1oY 4n4or!^sta^t \N nen ro / . , ncr:n i rh edr " s - or l, . u s to o l , .h " w " n l u p l o ,,ru rs ' rd In uucnrfest. r 4? u4' ' ?nr.ru R u c h u P ' tu n i r' t' i ]! oir rn d Fsr{ ! u" P of , ' idl) ls r u l o rl h p ) ' drent l n l rmbT\or' ' ra

accca;iregnl{: (au deci S 458 date|,cselarzilei f: meakJurmeazn 2) Numete .lrticolul zro): o) nu sini articulalecind ne relerimla noliuneeabstrnoti:
,.dftlast is nY talourite nealCone to lrtul tomorow! ?!d h ai live todaY. lThe) dtaDe. is seNed \Yon L rou shv lor sll?ef , * g .y ' a n o rh a rl v d s u ' d i w l d ' : l he ndl ' rq $i rh hP f noa? i i a i .,l. in; "* ,) Cind ins{ noliunea esto concret5, substantivul poate alea ambele devine numerabil, adic:i ore li plural: articoie ""i S[e put rh" rrd^/nsl nn lhF t8blcd ri c ' t' a ' l ' roo: i i , i" , . , s r ' n j ' o ' J -.r" h ! 'elc h l / c " , ,. P l e J s.l kd Comc on. vou \iilj Pnlov rn dniM'. \\:c sold a" l, , r ndF J t' r* i to t, a n d Iv o I' u n d re tll e ," todaJ.
tastd! L\ t . . i d ,".rb inlr"r.lln: - d ar lr . : b La r , r r : r . r . : t : j \ L pr "l"r Tl1. m d J l l' lr oi , r "l . rr on, - ,1,,r .'r //i. dc " ' lt (\ ezi U.H. I{illils et alia or' .t , p. 68 J j \'e,i ii S i'rs.
ii

S 459

4t

rt.:tJ:

100 460 c/ In acceafi cateeorie f6, inlrn si urnitoarele substantive, care Doereu plurnl 5i ori,are dir ,"le doud rrri..lp. dr l "u o noditi,!r. sem"r,ti, alun"i "lrd se relerald o iDt rrr tir la n,sF".o p, rrFrarc.t... ./i"n". .parryr tait n sr-. Il:"y .g"u" " 0 arcarsurcess. Helen has iccn 10 r@ dtra,,s this we.k. W had d lovely lancl at a Sohorrestau.aDr. ,161 l) ItlijLoacele(le Lacomolie. Aceeaqi uzanli este urmai,e si ln cazul verbelor lo gor to camq to learej lo lrarcl. urmate de prepozilia ,y (: ron. cu), care precedi, fird artirol hotArit. noliunca fiind abstra;rn, numele mijloacetor de locomotie ca bicuclc, bike, boet, bus, &r, ptane, taxi, train, tubi, und.er. graund eLc. I
I se nt th o D dc el Dz dt . lp r J "! . I n. b o v s q o i n F r y n , / , . b i 6 . p t o . ThJgr.l f'IorL oDdnl; r r . , , / J ". an(l 1n o ,lr !d. nr h s om ! lr . nds Go by anderyNlnd to "Piccedilly Cittus I' joi . rh-m,

prepoziliitein, l,n + articotut hotirlt cind . Spuneminsa, htrebuin_ttnd nolrunea este conoet5:
Sh " l o o L ,1 " /,rp to O\1 ,' rI L:r rs I/." L o d l rr.ri ,r \ in We had lunch aL th. tnin. Thde was onty stn.ding room tD ,nd rd;n. 'fie.e \ras lo one we k.ew on ris ,ldae. I *as on tLe bus whcn you got in. 4) SubstantiTolo abshacle slnt articulato atunci cilrd, conform resulij de la ! 455, numesc ,obierte' anumitq cunoscutc, mentionate antrior"sau particularizate prin determinanti3: Hs prafa.pd pcansidpt:t; th" p.p,n. and tbF suqsestio! was ac.eoted. T l' nujh v o, n s . l J s i h . s rF d n m" rn o t.] s;i .. " S r r r dd lhD g o'o d s e n $ o l \..:.s l h t j trd i rF o/' o,...i ,ri " D . e ?he lile. oocurftd to t.im thdl ties night ldre dn ovtins_ AX,TICOLUL EOT-iN,II SI NO]INLB PROPRTI

169

s 1(i3
ldl

4 c s . m nr un b n u m rl n \p mD L t J ;h tr o .rt. or: . rV e?i S ,i JJ InF\i .r.nta articolului)Num ele p ro p ri i i ft t /J In s s ry -' , r ul d. t.t,i ,t,dt.. \i dp" i pri mp.. . t t t i' oJ ul hat 0t i l . a l d pl urrt. ..u ,e i uLsrarti L. " i n d s r' r i n trc b u i n :a c or unp. qiu , i n d ,l r I !d r i , u l f i z A e ,l a n dc," rmi n. n (d" i but ..pr ot oz i, i. . r r j b u ,i !r. .p , z i l i e q ,r t,o p o ,/rl i F apo/;ti var.

Rogul[ ge[erald Numele proprii cu formi de singulor,prin faprul cd reprezintn u n J n,pln r up,...0u prin,rs.arti,ol,.t o t a rr. . , " . . . " r! in J i" n f u a lt

166

..o m uno ?s im ilarp l o r' n a mb ri i fj l n ,i ti a i . p e rsoa' ptp apropi ate c ..t Fothpl Mathcr, Mummlt, D&dcl1J, Aunt, Uncle, Bab!, Cooh, N uise, Teacher erc.l.

1) Numeleproprii ile prrsoauesau animslc, lmpreundcu substanti\el.

Lrc:La s-p ,lrr.on $Jef d' ; , , n' , r ur I o. df i. r - r . r ' s , . . , . oI iald I n r , r n , t l i : u o f a t . n L


:olv' fb rra i m.r'" .|") z i: . s o_, d "1. o p, J b p, ' ar ; ". ,\ru at ?: t nl0lPnt s t r nt l. !ci. $ 4 44 -1"0, 45i- 1Ljr . i- 24. i! 6. , I dt"pt-.e.

r,ton : carticrd;n t.ond.a, c.tbru lcn1ru reslarrartete shnnri p;..ottiu!lprrJ',irtr'drr tp,L d..,s{lc cu tr!.nfiLrie Lir, . ..n,1, .rm" I ., !ia|;t!!t Ci,'.s
ua".\. I J.: Oiaa

AETICOLUL TTMARTT

IOI

ntr au articol la singular,nu au piurui sj so scriu cu inil,ialn rnaiusculx (VeziS 301):


Is ?,, on ihe Fa.iorY ConmiU.ee? Aucudus JohL'{ "$rasliq DiX" Iaigs in the Tate Galle.y r-i4.r. (Jolin) didn'l. !irg up yPsterddy. Tell Croft Urc .anteen hnoh is nt lhree todal. Diil ?ld.l.. call lhe .oU? s",ofty is a wise cat Aceeagi conrport,rre !i la yocdlitr

$ 46{;

I shun'l,Ire a ti\in\tl., IIunvL!/! Daggi:'. tet.n lhc bulll llar.'s a good boll

n;scut din recesiiater S 467 Numele tle faDilie este d.'fapt un .leternrinanl de e se particulariza prenumele lvrzi L,f:girea rumelor scolicne, irlandezP. scandinal-eetc.. care 4,, pfetir.rt lr prtruncle strnbunului flAnuldi. ir sco dl in liann ,4{d.sar,11d(= 1i,,1. irlande,r a)' (-,/) t(desr,erdent) lui.. l, ial in fl. lui...). Astlcl t"lacDanaLd:: . scandinavnsuti\ul .ttrr sau -s.,n (:liul descendenlul Ir11 Donakl: O'Do oea : dercerdenl,ll irli Danomn Chrislo' : prrersron sau Chri^'tophercen dscenden-tii lui Chrislopher. hot6rlt numele proprii care au pierdut caracterul de s 468 Primosc articolul unicitate: a) numele proprii cu formi de plural: $ 469 Concert ai the We me!, BroaasandilE Sttuhhs the Loldon PlildDonic Orchesira DJ numele proprii dc.renite substa tile comune ($ 7)i I was dnvins the ALslin: aulomolilul (cu marca Ansit').

s 470

Wc l o L t h? t ; lads t a1l,b .' r) o " 0 u " c l o l l ,p . ( c p a r dnl e .l l . ,,l o u l d p C ausui nj ^ Di d 'ro u s po r t u Ca, s l rr_ a l rh - r.' r" She ;as sitiins on- the chesleiictd (- canapca).

cJ numeleproprii particularizaiepdntr ur) atribut, sau pdntr'o propo- S 47r uilie atributir.i; dc substantivprecedaL un at but,:
tljt ..I.bNted John Gdls{orthy the /dtuB llrs. Sidilons

substantiv urmat, de un atribut:


I conld h.trdlv rDcosnize the Bd.ltarelt I didnf rike ile Opihelis ," the nad.rt o/ p.eaat ddys ier;ion of th; ptay.

substantiwurmat do o propozilie atribuiirn:


Tho r\m 1 nonirZ nds not tbe -{Dtr t had ntust in ny ch'ldhood Thc Tentrs /ou sd{ wus the (alll}Jsiin Ictu8.

Erceplii Substani.il'eleproprii praccdaie d adjective ou rua li afectjvi, srtu de cuvinte care constituie o poro.l:i sau e:rprimd o singurd idee nipreuni cu substaniivul. nu prinesc articolirl holnril (Vezi $ 433):
31' \i darl , j \Io n ' f. d '' !. "n. Eoo l ll J ^ . s . poof lr l l . \ n n r n u 'r '. . \ldy. bnv e liub, i llaod. por r f I ' rJ/ r lo,r. dry r rr n' " " i r s,lint Joa ,,, Yo ,,n" f'4 ' 1. oU 11^ B, oN ' \: , \t;d;1;o,F"r:. ,,ri. F,ns'dno:i""i r.;;;;. 5rd-d:sri.' I n .ij',q:'""ii;l _ **' " " R orna,,iJn li 4"4r..r , . o loq. ir l E, ' 11 . h. n, "dipldl S 'h i u . J "", I A -8..:, Ed " Jt ,l t.\, ," t a19_t ' , ; t , t i t , . r r i s r r r op o f l g r nu . r r . : J im i, , L ' . , ' d: \ f i 'p s

S 472

102 473 Cind nune.le propriu este ur at tto un adjeftiy sau de un substantiv apozitiv care constituieo ?ofccln. arli.olul precedi porecla:
Iolit n Creail (lhnrles lk /tdl.lr Fl.\a dtlFaor t . . . . i /" \,.-

s 1i4 s475

Erceplii: John Laclil.tnd6, Edward /,onXrr(rAr' 2) l{umele prop i lnsolite de tiUuris. - TjtlLrr;le (de politele. prolesiG nalc, aca{lemice.nobiliare etc.) urnate imediat de ur nune de persoan:, prln laptul ce au un caracter dc unicitate. nu sin,, artjculate (Vezi S53-54):
Niss smith

Colonel Brown Q,Er M.b loctor Rolinson tiin.c Cl,a.mila C,rnr, Gonzalool Lara 176 Etcepgii. lililurile striine (Empffor, En cst, SxltdD etc.) au articoL :
thc Arthdule Ftatz Ias.t //,e Ca.itto llan,. -rl R6hid ()zdr,1 Pcter ure Grenr f,te,

Canstr ctii perimt e: ,na ladv ]Iarion. tte ladv Roscna. 'Imarry,/irnrl"lail].,\nn;'flirl,ard111de$'.Shatespen.e)1';rlELordRisin ln Tl,. Bla'k Arow". fjlm 'r\ Titlurile pdmcs0 iI,sE arlicolul lofdrii atunci irind i.si pierd caracterul de $ 478 urricitate ssu ctnd stnt tnsotite de determinanti: o/ rnrur e rnra nDmp pronrrl

477

fie .,L",/ illlectcd the tloopsZle do.l,/ \rar s.nt l.r. The lt4i4eht .rddr.ssed thc neeling.

480 481

D) titlurile la plural sau urmate de mlme proprii cu formir do plural:


The Mbs Btoons (s a d,d r1t;ssesA.o.rtrl lived ncxl dcor.

c, titlurile prccedatede un adjertir sau urmat.odc prepozilia ot: ,n, ,/ar. ,{dmirnl Ncisotr r/'., X,,,srI D.nD{rk
rld s*e Kjng Solonon
7i. Pri(:! \\:rles '/ rne Prcsidcnl o/ lh4 riollcge to i]1c tlronr.

482

Cird tnsi Lii,lulurmat, de o/aro lurclir de apozili. articolul rln seexp md:
&lwad, P.ta., ,/ Il-a/cs. snllerdcd

r Iadn I ('ul llIdr.') 1135i-t433\. fpqe rl Porhiqrlil,i llrli l1]31. , CdtuI I I'ccl rlla,?;) (82:-sti). rcr1i Nt Friniei lr4rl 8;1. .ci.sub n!mete de C.trol Il. Imptuat al Shitul lmDerni Ro'nan isti-tt7:].
,tt t,otr,.'.

rd .d

'ttevic 5 AitL drd L lninil t t e 2. , irn .ird, r rr.i, Ir1 ll6'lao ttt.d. sf n,^ i

r"f. s ou' I 00i liaris(t rul, tiriti

o o o r d .ld

_ cd t cr a t- .

ln, i6. - r \ -li.i l1: de r,ortnlalia 11tj1i4-1i6it.

l 't , i,roNrlo.

al crrtori:dtor

( 115i- 119! 1. r eg e a l l n g l i r , i l t t s 9 lTlr j r, "l li i \'91,.lll ljlu.,

t1!!):nhatlrtc ^"..,mna. \ligno

lfd a I l: ^. t 110- r i. il A :. i '1 0 : . . . r , . r c ) i lll linsLnt rsrr t.r.r. 1 , , I r lr nJ r P lunc r . " \ sri @mlara cu S 4t6. .t.1 r' dI r . i q ir . v t . ' r.../ r ' ns ii L. t th st Na r . r i , , . o, ". , "not.l. ,,, ,. ;",, r r or r oq- r j ,i r!.. s.,u ,-. ,l Cilatul ale srroarcri ljnitii lli Siiik$po:or, dur rnj e nri !u roCll pfntN otito.ii . .

l 0B

3) Numirile geogreficc. pd ' r; ' / . r' n n ' irr' n ' Fl5 rr' r" a ) S ut.r ,' r i "l e " arc n'rn,'" ;n'nt !i !. mrrn l r :r In ' L ra) (\prr J e i : eiu n i . p rov ia" ii. lo. dlir' i ri d i ' l ri '
,,t . ir , a r u f or r n r L l " .i u e Il a r tttl rr \\' ' ' s lur oD"

$ 483

s 484

jii,:1"'

s frr.o r: R

i .i," i i ,,r,'" ii'r;1""#il;;!"


EtcepliL ,ne -{rgcntii.l ,le coDEo rne Ltvant r/r PalntrDaie

)'ro ' )'i,,


iiiil*.;,,,",.".

!"#:li,'.'"
southrari.nsington
$ 485

' ndP st

forni

de lhuat si t arlif,dste cu ariicolrrl hotirit:


r / "' I os , , r r .

"r
Obserra!LL

r- ,'

,i' riir'",

"" rr' H i rh l d t, ;i ;: j _ ;;' ;,r. it | llanJq

,. i -

r /, P \ l ! "

l/" Bil

t" L' JmP dr' r, . I norn," rlP R o' kres

l," L" vi' s

r' 8"

'

' ' FI btd l ,r orkn I

d'

dac[ au formd de siltNumele Sirurilor ile munli primesc srticolul chiar jhe-P nninp (hoin' euf*r rlr" -frir.. tbc fa" o'r" "--Nr."t.alrei rrunli:fhc Jdn.[]au'theS! B "rnod lit]de St Cathord 'in'

$ '186

articulate. mnri, estuare' S 487 , ) Substantivelecare numesc intinderi de dpii (oceane, riu )'p mescarticolul hotdrtt:
/ne (Elglish) Channer ,r, Nile

Notd ari'icolul nu este exprimat ina- S {88 in cazul suLsl,antirelor proprii corrTlrse, i j?l: ;nr""'run 'lo" cr qr.l- dF rru L '/i \ Newcas|e_otr_?,nd Strailord_on'{eo' Burroucn_r".,r '\ t de tnount|ad lLrmdte-imcdis un I'unrc S'189 rdl.. Iakelloth. c) Substartivele ' ' afllrol r\Flr S cltt': ptopr', un r " dpo/iliP ltu au ""u 'on

'

-''J;;

C apc Con averJl

rr'r.'..r

r ,r"r',n,t"".'r' ll;lill :,";'i' I oc h Lonr und

ll;:' l"'. '

Cind sint, lnsd insolite {te Un atrlbut, e\e slnt afii''nlate:

S 490 S agr

del'rminat de u3 nu11 a,/ tll genere, cirr{l uIL slll]slon1?ltomdn este rr' i\ul 'umu'' ntooriu ta{t; 'd\ ^F nr)J-t)t'1"r" ,'a":d/"r's'Fruid'qub (""i'ii""t"",,';t'i"r' , it ''," nu"'.rr 'ub;r'LalFb: u"
rne Rasqre Prolinc.s r,{. llirrhiz stepre rrP str;i ts D .t errrts

i:;i';i::*'[ii:"*'

i*ilf:ljfim"

I St slnne iNr

-lrsrl'rd'

?yDl, lrderai. tn -\ustria.

104
rr, Strait ol Gi!.alta. r/p town of GuildLord

,ttd tohemie Fo.csi I t / k ) US S R


tl, Saharlt (Des.ftl

$ 492

ErceplrL htrbnn hat"n' ,hill't ldnd' ball fitth hcaL fni'l'.'fs( Substantivele (rezr nu rle preie<tate n'rn]PpL 'prii sau c"rnurre' 3u rrtrcur rrrriiorg,clnd stnt

s 4 33) :

'on; c$dinatesi alr rctnLnilornsprtrite /tin'rc art'icolul punctetor N umele .) { 4$3 'hotnrit,:

liil;i",fl;il .;,1;i i;;:i

.: Fllr".l r'-'" t i'ro''

)ll"lil 'i"i''" r'dnd

''',,"""''' n,:n'u, vijro,u: ljll,;;:,tli;"1:t,,:.;':]lL'l; "h'i'"ll;,,'f"J"",1'l; :;t,h.,,,1,!:. r.d cs,i.n,, "1H:1',"-r"ll*lll'il * ;,l'i";,'i 'J,,T'',I";i,i; #ii*illj"stXli.;l;,,f 'f'""'",*k
Er ce Pt.i i idl ariltind dircefia' .1, numelepunctelorc'irdrn e i l'ebuinlate ddltf E 494 " nu au ortjc^l(\rcziS 49r)l
o. ' ' I h" wir d hlo\ . u' r ' \ ' \ ' P NPr ' dr ' \I)'

S 495
$ 496 I fol

de b, in expresiile t'iput $ 602:


We lcouleil the woo{t lrom io so"r 'or'i and l.nd e'Jt to 'ves''

4) Nllmele d0 strtrzi, parcuri, elidiri' vapod'rc etcnb'tdnttu rr'rrm-prnpriu"ru rom:^ I' i"t' iormaiedin (tot'.'r d, 0un,elF ' i ' rrru 'rrt Jrri'ulire p*' i"ii:'"'o1'6"1' '" .omu4 rd sr' "/. tq*' (Vezi S 433):

il;:. F;i iir,,l*i-" Rri;r;il;";1""* Er'"',:;F"'.y"''l iij;i;;i,.i;;,1 kl l,i,ll;''

lln*iili"
s 498 s 499

i: Y:rirr;r,r :i'i:r"f:
,d \ationdt oallerl

tnsi articolul hotifit: ,) Drimesc nn trntne cotnan: l,;.;'nu'r'"tc proprii formaie dintr-urr ridi"liir +
l/P Zoologic{l Cadns

^* :flll',;'l,;'fill.l'l'"*,i]l'"'l'i'',li""iii;"i?l'f,ii,l:llTi*;i[:'!"]"' lon(ronez. '"""1 fri,'i"'ii"f;,i!.",," .rerar|io,, rer

AFTICOIUT

EO1'AR1T

105

E a c e pyi t
nr oad S rre e i tsrondwaL Suburlan Pari! 6'.,1 nnele nume de cartiere, stdzi. cA $fi foorle ctnoscutel tne ndoiralty tnd CFnotapti -Arch rn" Cit.vr ,nd Mallr rn Mansion HousC li, l\Ionnrcni ne Str{nd lp l-owc' ol l.ondon rn. Tare tGrllefri tlk 7no clddiri, nanumente eIc., prin

faptul

S 600

,l@ Adelplv (Tlealrel ,n? -^ldttrch lTheafei frlP/ DnrI Lane iTheatre) /n . Ol d Vi e ! i Theadel rle Cccil (Hoidl) rne savov (Hotl)

dar ldrd arlicol, d.s; loartc cnnoscurc ezi $ 433): (\ $ 60I Pall Unrl?.Co\.entcardens.Soho,Irdgrarir!, Unyiair'. 5)d),I'unrel" d,./ilp.tuni.sfii.cnotimpuri.birbnloriau o situariesporrp. q S0, . AcFsrF rLt,strn r\o sint | proprii.dF,i IUn,., uni.Htp. na ar, in g.n"re _ - 9i articol (Vezi g 433):
t1 ,t n rd 1 y . On l^ ., r'r, r ' 4. t n. b tttd i ..) r;6 " d r.d .fi n p t,rt c U rrdl l i c. c,sIi \a' i n ,hF r S A . J u .. 4 r i s -rtr mo . i -,"* Y"1.''. r , . 2, ,a rrs r rkd r/ r la lr - r . . | \ r!r.r l tt.l J fto .t .i ,;roa fo r. ,t!, i th ,, To r u. i. , u c \ . . pr i F tF -H rti ,o ri . .ubsrsn,i v.tp dF n,ai s us q i n r n .n, r dLr t r [ r , r , ,l a .i r,r.,t:,.i D , ,l a i d \n i pl u,, L pra rL, si an;^l hot iri t sa u nehot iiiit . du p i c u m ' u r;;a z a : ctnd articolul t,tc are valoare de adjectiv ilenonsi,rativ. se spune: The (: tLdt ) artunni Nrs noautiiut. ll-c sha]l go io the s.asidein rt, ( . rib) sumniq. cind substantil'ul nu erprimn rirrlut jn rtjpori ru prezentul: On ,c X loiidal l, e wJ,i t0 w o rk a s l s L a l .

I'-'^L -il1"i'.p\i'l tr:, , r s ! r . un r

S 608

S 504

cind arLicolui eslI intr!hLrinlat .l,lrrasii\ |


Those werc his p,tstim.s in ttg witLtr; it th, s,r,na, :C . \ o! tj,'.d . , r..,.r nf used io .nI",r r m pr . , r , , . . . . r b. ", : ^. . . i, r : I.i ri .,.-;,r.,,'J.. h, ", \ d, . . r . , , r

$ 606
d,11 maj\,.hpa

. . * , ; ; ", ' .?rre M.l'.,t.o,,\:. r ..s a La dr L .' Lo nd .a.

., a

. t u, , t i r . 'd r u i

n , , \ i n g '. s m . r c e ,J . n l o

*"r.":'li ltJ;h';'"'i. "*"c :p,rJ'jl,t*lil*


3 .lS :

*redinla l'rjncitr) a ro(h']rni (rhr Lonr lljn'iarar Londrei

erl.#lrJ',;;J,''j1"ilfXi'Lk"^:t&::^:),:l!,ll,Xi""li'iiili""l,"i,,ifffi,' ,i ..r".r rr,;rFsp. r" f , mJ.r' 'po,' dp r . ar; ,r" afp. .rid
'5'. ".
stfarship. ttto :stftn J'o r.on / jc pt ! br apan r . . t r i" , , , loll u Fvrp lrd r I m b"ilor , lubur it ^- . t , ' \ \ . . . P 6 F] ' P F llm4. i.,,..5rr,iI,ror,uIr.d,rre^t4 Enr.,a-"Lro. ,, r..Lrl nrll

,i;,i;""ifi,:1 ,"Iijiii" !",r;":;iirj':,:d1t",,,J:r;''1;;;;i1,;ljj',t[r cii-d : .";; ,;


I Belsta,ia, .MalJfait :

i'"+

\:

;i:l' :ll; ,ir ;i,]l"ir'rl ";;:i:

rdnsnrm' imn", a '"

N{ijcre

trxodsc aristoc.ate.

100

MOE'OLOGIA _ AA,TICOLUL

506 cinil aceste substantive Elnt pdrticularizate printr un otribdt' lhp' "" ot l]F H' lPil s'm''shrroi'alty' lr th"u *.f tC4t.L,n:n;r; si'hsrnod
01 t helv " d,a s d a ua l l av i a s . h ' ,1 ,n I' o m.. l ; 0; pcn^fo1..\i sl d i l ri " l .usl i p In c , c i, r . l in. d a ,l s ta s u b s L rn l i f. ^ u l ntP l P . .u rn l o rb i r^ ru l p ri !F:l e anol i mnrrl ' r no:runP sau p rif i, ia ar li. nlul u i . d u p d lron Osloto AthcDs ln 19t9. rlD QtD,,. hail becnte.riblei sno{ }tad fal1cnin masscs par aliz P d dc h o t th e C o rti n n l . m aDd rhe suine sls stow to .ome. Sudd6nlr-srrtag ws there in ali its berDtv' pE Lel osoti t r 1. / A f li. olul n c h o l l ri l p ' l F i n l c e b u i n Lar ' i nJ. sub' l anLi \11 . , n ddj- ! ir . tl l i fi ta t;1 . c u e x ..p l rd tu Part! :t tat ,;" by Tlrafyear \te hail s lotdr! atr,linn, fol1ow_"d an iataaeiv @ruNinter' it-i; now kt. ptn,e'. About this liare last ,1-cdir rvasalrerdv da'! s!"'s deratc iz dasr.d.rL, jlo lt n' i" : {Consi-

sio b9 50
t

i'i-"i" luniior si ',rbslorilur tc s'riu "u ;ni!;ulu 1-ojus'rln dal 'ii"r"". au inilidl,' ul3. (\'czi c\.mplP mei su.). nun,rt" anotimDurilor 'ninu. \,rm.l" zihlor, luoilor. aDolimpL,rilor b.rbalorilorpol \'er inoa,4/rr_ Ei rot n hota l cind limpul p n"dofinil. dupi cum pol JrpA uoeorrEr p/drdl
*d O 1 a S , ! . . / d i D D e .p mb rf,I te l l ." u d d p n l Jt ' d up ar l h" i dra ol ' l l l } P del ' nroi a and aecidedto enjo': I Nci teor's Et in the nountai's bv ";;;,i-Gi"',, ';t;

611

limbilor vorbite alepoloarnu au xrticohl hotdrlt cu-exce-ptia 6) Numele lvezr exprimst sau subin!ls cind sint lnsolite de un substanti\_ cazurilor g 433):
M v naii\ e t o n a u ei s n o mn i n \ v hai is t ai f tl a y i n -F .e ,.l ' r r ; if dr . s la t.d l b ; b o o k l ro m c " n o " i ^to Lnsl i sh'

! 5r2
513

Se spuneinse:
Is t6e nnalashlanstdsp rerY difficultl lYhat js r'? nou a"-id,i arlm;., tof frir Irlav ? Itun the'Busion ltdncuds") t ii"i" iiia a noler l.rdn5rarPd

7) Iiumcto obic.ictorde 6iudiu.alF jocurilor r'i il' lporlurilor nu primcsc arlicold Lotirll dcci' alunfi cind brnt p"rli'ulariTdt' pnult-un alrrbut (vczr
I 14 ErcE .iigav*d ,e;nis,sheiiayed otussand t'olh walchcda some or il" *ii r6"i "i ,iu;o'd! when thcv had a oharce. "-*'ri"i,iijii"-*1r-iti; pubricrvoe /oor,ail'c.;cir't,hocte!,stvinminsetd st@lins Se spunctnsn: al n"b' lr" \a r.s d look on t lF. t , "nis ' . ! l.a nn o ro "S t t eht llt n llo: J l- hnlny : . rl qibi0 lunil'

s 28):

aPh!

len;sL 4

atdain'

rtr

511

8) NrIIIcle ziArclor au articol ltotirit: Ob*ret, Th' Dailv ToleTh. 'l'nnes.The Cua lidn, Ttv Ne*s Chtuai'L' TILe Nunele nagaziDelor 9i ate altor pcriodice nu au articc'l (: inexistenla ariicolului): Lif.' lunch, Tine, Language, Nees,eek'r%ue' etc'
araPh, eic,

ARTICOLUL

TTdARIT

10?

ALTX FUNCTn -{Ln ,{R"IC0LUIUI EOTilt lT


1. i ,.1 rl lr u l, r it i, , " or" .' ..i _ r ! : .: : 5 d pr e( ada:
the Bi? Fiset

s 515 s 516

i l rp p d tl i ,l p !o rb i rc tn afsrE dF.ubstA nti r.

I numeralulcaxdinal intrebuinlat cu valoarede substantiy:


tha Eboea'

: Dumemlulordinal (la date, capitole,leclii, nume alemonarhi etc.): S 6U


th? f4t \on \lr(h rl" /:rl lne 7,i ot November hp thnit chaotel th" !"nth teBsin Edward the nilh

), t r u

par t . to l tti ' .. a 4 . r.p n .. I;n e . p d ? c, numbq etr. grrcatr . 31". -d p t rE la- 'd -L u l . ' df p. in dc F s t , d z . F q t. n u mp ro h rl ra rd i n a l cu val oare dc ai ozi rre: T\i" is Aoat T@. ahaptr Sp'"n: L?ssanSu, ro OE-

-\ se obsen'alipsa articolului hotdrit atunci clnd substantivele AorA. 1' s ot t .

s 518

i,;i"' rg il:r,j"l:,i:: L' ::"i,:;.:!:". ::i' :!,:; i:,,ff:; La hotl: Floor 5, room 51.
{Vezisi S 1lie)

:\ ota

L ri udliil" din g i00. iOJ. i04. ',06. tbt,p,te o icotd.nrcwttuir. tr:i h .' A rom;ni l:,,1...a. ,ai..Flp. e.Fl(a).ace{e)a r-r etc.).Iapr car" "rat" arrqrnProltrcolulurhol;rif.

s 61$

*)L -

: un odjcetir, cnruia ti dd asrlcl caracterulrte subsLantivabstract: g 520 . .,a | .ulli lul'. /r, b ou!;[utl ttJr|o tt). th" ip ffobt. (: inefat .tbitrd ,t. tl,".or.t t ". t l, I . ht t r

*
-

pi'" r"tt,r . .' i..: ;'! .,,, ,,,,; ^t:" j ,t:; ,'",!!i ,';^.ui. i.T..,l/.-,:;,,,,'::,::::!,i 1o
,,,f .:;.i r ..i l l .j','",' :;, Ir,lliY ':'1''t"t " d r' . t , ' o ' h l. t h p , t " Ma d

u',adirctir. urr parliciliu, un gerundiv etc.l care capiti in aceasti \ 69l ,lF .uD.rsrtr\ ,.ote.tr\,.a,btruit .u plu"alul.rar un singular: '

lf t ! t !

pt r .

1:'.,,i'ii"":*,:f;ii':,.fi1,,1',1",l1j#'frr:#;,#,#:* ','eri dttarii S itn ! huticeh d\ubetic, ia cuyn(ul SUBSTANTI\.AT) "'ff"{,*{i.i:'1iJ,"."".


;. eomparatirul, cind acesta are yaloare do poziiiv sau de superlati!3i ptir]' tE youuter, Hc is /le utc.r al tlic two.

S d2g

iJ suporl&tiyulrclativ:
She is llr atcrs, of aL Lti.i is tte le6t totkal ae tutiridual I e\t r\et. Ee I 1|e Mst iatarestins man I L\ow. L r: ccle ciD.i ita -" i. Sr \ . \ ldFJ 0i, dnip. I r dn,a . t l t i a , i J a ! n n i . , rizboi nrondi.rlsi .lr la I rh " c1 .* n = - e, t , , br deCo nllf inla { e PaLc de la Pr f is , r ! 1 9 . lns!.ezccc jucltori (ta so..e/, ..ichet, hachai eLc.). : \ rzi E tr ' r .

s 523

E:1-l

108

,,24 7,1,:,: Iiterenaru''ltrro -5'- o """'- :l ;inif; ",., #"l.lil;;#l;i,l"ffi{;,?',',!fl"##ITj111 uneoricu i",i;":;":;i;
tu"''i*'.]u*'",,*r}.*i"oT'*'i*i;l"liihl"|'"*eH"'""i** r o iivar""i'idi"r"tl#fli:i':",i""'i'H e'rccrd' ) ^'eai"ar.

s bsb

$;zri
R it li

ew 11, ' :,";j::::;,.,"..p.,h",h.'bo"' ",:."1;lpl:,"I^"':,ll,l:1;:l; l": B:l",l'llfll '''#';"'i"i.i.l,i,'"1"11,"",,'u.-se anLedoariz o ra noli,.lne id fi e n n d e m o t


9 r \ ar r P oat "

i,,:"Ili'.:l:"*,;j.,1,;";l',1:l'

l;'i' ;;l; u,,,,,,,, l;,;;:; h;'lS "Xt;:";:l);";:r "1J'"1;'$' r i I'i'* r ro' vo" lll'ilrl:'0,1:;'"J'';l'fi o' u ,'' lt-i;:";l; -'"': "' "* j ::,1;1"';":"1'1"''l' u" -, *;r;1

j'; J:;'J "'''i';111 ur" "Y:;'"iiii:'l'liJ; i;;; .;. ilinl ii ;tll''r:i

"" 52s ,"','.", '1"';.; 'iirrr,li"j'"" "u.* i,ri$


:""" "' "" 'TT;'l*i^-

tt'r*' " {x zi- :,:,^:"','::"'':'%'

s6ss "alf'*;"f*H:lTgl'*"""T o.1 ll f^Ul"il;r""" s,ru- -. l:jli'"li"l'::llli,i:'*r,ffi;:lli.l'l:'; p*'Ill c""nru]"";',i;i";"'"""i;;"'";np [;rI cindcdP-",,]
iJi"'""l,r"t .a.'rnui .i tntrebuinl"rza "1":,.::l"i'::"i"' l r""i.it"t. cu'nnsodDerer: " "" a aspiraLaqi "rfl"' "'l"r""i''- ''" ::i;i""' I :li, ^ alrnsl:';:i" ilili",," "'"' se lntrd t'" nl nad 'antualr

rr" " :i r"r"fll#iliiil;i.i;"io'u ' il'i"'" ,l


An {ptonunla lsnl 'lnd
a 'nvelole ' ' ' rrrr--

c'r" t"'""i't

U'

ro nd ddo b a 'r'! dd ct'

*it$r,i-i

';i;; 'd "1 ' '!'iil.::i"i:i,lti .iq-r i;:;l;lllr

E\'Pzi P:rg 9: . noir r ' 6\'e r 5 !1 7, nor a d

*l

r ddv"rb I r;;r,'i: i',i";; ";i;"'r roar""'Jr'

"il " ll"'lli;*'"

' rhis 'n'irs14i'

109

Forma dn era freovedt inlrebuinlatn ;i inaintea unui i aspirai in silabn neaccentualiij astdzi mai rar. Istfeli
u r his t o ry d a .: a' habr L
a rhdo

$ i):J1

az hrs toricat picture ar ha,hihral dnrnkard aa hr.oic selgeanL dz hYs terical child u, he rediiary ilhess guilarist aa Ha *aiie

Tot asifel so auzea pin5 recent:


dD ho iel

aa hy ' P o i n e s B

lnhiL qi lero, prima siiabn fiind prea pulin ln subsrantivele 'hLstorlJ, accentuatd, sunetul[h] era atit de slab inclLnu se auzea. E x c ep 1i e : a Hun'gdridn. 2) Articolul nehotdritti plurilul. - Articolul nehotirii, neputiodinsoli $ 539 primsola plural ardcrtu, decit subsbantivele sensde singular,acestea cu :4ro, cu alte cuvinie ln aceastisitualie articolul lipsegtei
Hc is a ba!l..

3) Articotul nehotirit $i o oonshuotio cu lormi alo plurol. - Articolul nehotdrit exprimi unitate; poate tnsd tnsoti o constructie ou formd de llural re exDrime o misurd si este consideralil ca un tot unitar: A /o&. rudtu is sullicinlto eet this work ilono. \Te spent3 ?i!asaa, ,rde dass in the country. Thesh.v wa DostDoned tutuer r@ ,raks. for (cf. $ 2i5t) 4) Articolul nehotdril, nu se lntrbuinleaze declt ou subsiantivele numerabile, nu qi cu cele nenumerabile,care nu p mesc ariicol nehoi5rlt.

S 533

$ 534

I\TRER IiI\ fA RE \ \R I.ICOLULU : \ E HO T A RI . I I inarntea subsianiivuluipentru a r\rticolul nehotirit se tntrebuinleaze specie sau cat\oriel rn d,intr-o desemna erenpldr a.Lrecdre
\' lh"sljtl-m" PLr ls r oddv on/ , . , l rrie rs d rnr.ro $ooae .P.o.'/ M/s Stuill has called. -{ pr lddFm ll d " d t h " l l o o f .

s ;35

Caznri specialo, Articoh -

nehotdrlt este intrebdin at gi tn urmitosrele

$ 53? S 638

l) ilnaintea ti urilor, a numelo. de Troftsii, mcscrii, nalionalit,te sau a lllor subsLunlilre simillfF. .lnd a.ac ad ronrpzinti e\^mplnreoare.arcdiotr-o categode Si sini numo predicative cu formd de singular:
Sl\e b 4 student. She became @ ta.r./. (Este sla]entd.l lS a l[cut p,,/as,d.d.) 1l G o L o , t . I, r ' t r ' d H" .vs d t,r,. ( Xs ' " & i : / r . l t - :ctosra psa" ti. n. qFf ld. I an Easlislnnan.\ (Snrl ,nsl,: ) ^n

rospectiveDu aLr arlicol. A se observa ci, in limba romAni, subsijnnl,iveio (Vezi$ 60.414 41r)
"pu"" ".ri"oi.S" ln*{,1"Dnslish pt:ntn t'n tintltih csle trn adiecii! ii a{lFctiwl nu e

1IO

MOEIOLOGITI

_ ARTICOLUL

S 539

O bse r a a lie abslracl Areleaqjsubstantile,cir,d au caracterde uDicilatesau ln.teles D u r b i.i '11 "r i ula'. ({ ,"1.;84/:
af the 'Itude(s) Unian. lle Nas elecl.ed He had ben Headnastet ol trton lor seteml vea$. "rdident Dickjnson Nas ,razag,/ ol tht Norks. This book is nv John Soith, k.tei.. ta rnslislt. She sot . job as 'an.cas. He acted, as idetpteter. Hc held thc olTiceor sd..'ra.?. He $ns awarded the .ank ol .,roaar' Ile had l.dned soldte,r. lve Inet Uiss Shalv, !iargn,e.' ol the celenrated writr.

S 540

af' af' 2) dupi cuvintelethe l)usiness the p(ttlrcle of, the prafession the
He vas ncring the ?dtt of a judge. IIe had lbuos'ed the 1ra.tcaf a pouer' 3) inai tea numeralelor hund,red, thousan(l' millian, dozen, score: A hundred a tl@usanl.etc- Inen altended ihe shor. I 1 bonght a dazenhandke.chids. There-we.'" a s.oft ol leollc prese l al tho airport. 4) haintea cuvintelor l;lll, Ei /er, exprimindu-se in acest mod aproape

$ 641

S 542 "

(-$ pe cuvintecind slnt nearticulate 687) coniririul inlelesului careil au-aicste goodnan!1 greatmanA,lat afl 543 5) inaintalocuJiuniloradjectivalc S TU' r :
A rcatt no ru r ' hpLc { r " A;rc"t n dn T ' lD! f " iir "s n"l \;.o .ld,,ri.i,; d. r , , r. pJ r t in J '6 l . m o 1 s t J d l i o n . l. . a iuloFo b v l h l n P o r n . h 'i r p n b p n d . I n l l " r o a J . ' , q s , r "a/ or ,; l

s# 4

6) dupe adjctivele lrecedate dc sa, as, too, lnwl haoeaoi


Shc is nol so qxdlilted a rorlrd as l:on Thev moved ro as ni.e a ,,rse 3s yours. It is 1aoltiflicutt an .xuci,e. IIa, p.rfect a oi.$ ! Iloee;er ttutLfal a sil lsl\e mar be), this finc she told m a ]ic. (l\tp:dnan!, quite, ralher, urmate alc un substantiv cu folmx de singulari 7) Manu ax ttallb lds admired Ure Danube De]ta. Thel \rere nllotted quilc a aic. haue. Sne \s rath., a dcar.

S 546 S 547

Idionul rzanrr o se construiette cu verbul la singular.4 8) dupn oifi"at, sLtch Nhat (\clamativ), urmate de un subste.ntivcu li formi de singular (cu sau fnre adjeotil'), deci numrabl, carepaate tnsd at,et) plwali
He broughJi a senl eithtut d bult. me Such a bilrla\t pifatnarcc $as lo ]rc e$ected of a yaruiiy cha.opion. .t4.1 u scattFnrainedcandidatc! trhat an ided ! I;t .d, a magniliccnt a.hbftnenl t\e Danrbc Black Sea Caral isl

n lon Dlir d", o s r d p " J i F . f 4 r m d . d d l i 'o l lr'd rr ic ol d nn . t ho d.u lnkl./'.... .!, p o . , m pr d " I r m J l r ". l, , , , nu, , lu r i t . d i n D r , , i n " d . u s r | o r : , l o *o d t r F , lor m r r lr r t uli' nl p. l . s , n g l r " l l t e b u i ; l n L 1 . dpccse.lr.l, p prtru . on' , / F s-vo nu i o nud , i l , t . 1 1 r J ) i d . 3 , p " J p s r p l 1 l . u i 1 . l u stt s on. : \ ' r ' r , &' "- " r n on! - . s utldr r \ ?lDt r ! ' u \ "r ou t . I p l t t d . M o n ! N n @ " . . . slil. l "olo ri,l | \s4 ul,. rfaln s i. i r tp"n oa tips t.Bahet. or lnd: I dn! , 8( n) lhr t i 6 e 'p

r ClndcstcInsl hsoiit de un ahibntsesFne: in '.euent ekli.d, elliat ol fottune ^ (d. $ 45r J. ' l n r d n ', lForn r

111

:\r[ico]ul nhotiril nu cslc_insi expimat cind cuvirtele mai sus-menlio- g b48 nale (8) precedi pluralc sau substantive care nu au in rnod normal formi de ' plural. deci nenunerabile (nume de matcrii, substaniire colecLivcqi anumite substantiro abstracte): .rfar caDnoL lire qithnrt ft;ends.
\ li' ing .f.sanis', shP s J - u / / , o \ olnr't : f F . r inL c a no t tr st 't t"o tt fa o d . d r r r .q r n .lh a r t,n tt,6 .a m.

,Sz.ft loyelr Seplenbcr dals I o n d o ' t l, a I r ' r . p. " ,./i ,.\a L i l . ot,t " rt,c/. .u \ 'n- . uk th . c o l l L tl , L ,ri n Wc had szd, lunl It&ar interesl,ingl.]k danca ! What tinc rapet ! l vh a t g ood r ; s ; It hnt t,oLbl. !o\ loot : oind adjectil'ul snci este precedat, de ro,?c aau ro, ori ci4d {ridf ste adi F. li\ i n 'e ro gar i\ . s ub. ' J n r' !u l r,rn a .ti \ n u i rp a ,ti .ol n,hor" rtr 1n ni ci un I.h .\tl , ' a" $. |t , it t u, . - d i n n rJ mn J rv trn | ,tJ rt.J oa mJ pf 5n[l rj p.

$ b49 -

Whdt ald! ol the nonih is Uris?

,9)

lnaintcaunui $ubstantiv precedat conjuncliuas sau de loculiunea g bdo de


The chil,hen nscd lhe chair as d lacomotiee. H. .rr J c o t ot h?' aL t ^F t { p_is r r y O f i i c e . :aF d op ,dFd ar , ho bJ l dr ' s pd oJ o p o F p . TheI sert her a doll oli a ,rrs?D,. A d rh,tC, ttotJrL dtF ad! $as . H. $ a o / ps r a M 4 t ha1 \ p nr qii' f h i m s p t t :

10) in uneleexpresii curuntecarenu au adicol in limba romanx:


: la disiantl) : multE/scririli nencl : cu roco larerlc{zutl)
oD d larse/small scale

s 661

: Ie scari laqnhcdusa) : pe picior.d-"egditdk) : : : : : a a a a a Ii grnbit) li In situaiia) avca raspnns la toate) afta rolH de niacrc) avea cap de {liloiof eic.)l

iL is d pil| lla shttu ll to lo tn ro to l.o to have dz dnswd. lor eveNthinE ha\e an otpetiE ha ve a n/,d lo r hhilos ol} y . c r , . l nelc d Jdry Jor t\^\e at aDpo.tulitu have a rtil,:, to haYc d raLn, lor

: r d ri i ,Ll l tnt l r, penrru) : a inlLAiine corespondeniti) : a tx r.,c.rpni l a)

ro keep xp 4 c.rapndcnc.

l It

is a shd tue !de ii lnl. ) es r l: "E N, s inc l"

119
r. Jrnd an drslpr to takP a 8ar

MORFOLOCIA

_ AN,TICOLUL

d lf im i l p

r 'b n u ! " l

to 8o tor a aatkla saitla di'.la "it,;\c.'

: a s' dute ra.primba"'e/p9,19v9!,19Li"' automobihl ralonuiuu tuasuia/cu

Notd A ss observa construclia foarte asenrnAloare celei romenelti' din care S 552 lipse$te tnsd articolul nehotdrit:
Tlat rascal oI 4 brothef ol tlne' (itrensa.ul acela dc lrrie al meu ) She is ar aDgel ol a womrn (Este ud lnger de lcmeie ) A shrimp oI 4 man (O sii.pil.rrd d! om.l I i; : t ' u{i l e se fdce ddesea conl uzi e l r' rr' rr' s rp u o u i I I J _A , - o|lc . f aplul . . in Ii m b ' ro ' ,' j r' n , d rl i n l ri l n pl ' ^rrri l " i numerul ul rn sau o o ri n _au formi; din r.iensti eauzr trebuie s.i "p da multi atnlre deosebrrn a,-,eeaqi d i n tre eln: a este articol, ia! olle nutnoral: I have d dogI havc ,ne do8. un.cl i oc' T n pr in ul e: ' -rn p l ,r s n o r- rI v e d " r" /' rz 1 " ub' l snti !ul ui --,.am s ' i n ' i s l ; aquprJ n,tki r' l ,l r anrmal el or o u o pi. jc s ; r n r l d o i l e a ' r" mp l .r --a rn num ai |r n c li n F . n u h a i mu ' r" . '' i; " " or i s p inr rc b L i n rp d /j ' \n d ' i a rl i .o l u l a cu l n{pi esul numeral ul ui o' P : n i ci ndaln lns i num rrs l L l o ,rp n u a rp j n t' l F u l url rcol ul ur d: 1 r :' ,o u d b p l o n s " r b t a n l rP .
Th"

She .ou1d not saY a single wo.d


d JPP f. d G:5 Pr

oa-

sa

I' r a iPn h f d $

oh hpdd

ld "r b J H, F a l .l lJ jr m u " o f.o l- .

sau ln provcrbe ca:

.4 bi.d in th. lush is Forth iwo in lle hand' ,:1slitch in tiDre sdres n'nc'
i\ C.\TiT AIiTICOLUL NtrT{O1rt,i.RITLIPSN$TT

i 5; 1

ALTN C'IZUIII

Umriioarele subsiantive nu primesc articolul nehotdrlt - cu alte crrvinte aa drticolul zero: 1) ln generesubstantivelecare nu au plural, cr ad,'irc' .heakh'.furaitute, S ,I,5 " porlr t l,rciu rr,'rnJJ qlujbdrel' INNl: p rni'sioni prudu"P. r'rcJ"ss. '
t r uaL tle (a\' Td$ p aood, di, Th pih avpb od ghr - v . r y lr Pt u; nt ua' ot d r ', s h r b 'n - ' o4dl\ ' r " vP r y l r e l u r n ; t u r e .p mobli lodrr '

lrumoase") S ho; niov s r ad i l n t tu ' l ,fi .!u d ta d i a !l l ' ' l ' n : o ' J" rl i ' ^ l nfl or" oal " 1 I wm ' 8ii. n qi " l P n a rl o ri /rl i " s .ri s i " ). u i i tn opr m r s 5r o n -.,o @ wif ound v pt J i n r.ts s l ,n g m e d i c a l ., i n l h rountry{ a l erJ rnre| " sl rngaocr{' :,p m uoc J / , : lu: b i to u rl " i n l P re s a n l .r" ) (Vezi 9i S 115) 1p pf oounla ttp i :]| : p .n n ! s a u ? ? n c c , . V ez i r i 5 r l 5 .

2) substantil'ele cu funclie de s,tbiect precedaLcimediat, de ndverbele


Il er! authot Nas hader to translale! h(sbanll had a morc failhtul wile \eqr

)( 5s(i

exisl.riparolcl c:
It eftt dn autlbt l'as Lanler lo translate! I.'cf had d tirsband a morc laitlilul *ife

AIIBDI,OR AR'IICOLE YI. CO\SIDDIi.{TII SPNCIALEASUPR,,A.


d.numpr o blerie (au talcgorioprir.* lr \uLsrdnrilelp rrolul hol6rir siu nph^larll ,.i r'umirul si',gularsau plural fara deoieLir' nr:.1rp Jintrc r,ps,p tormp indidnJ s? ria:
T[o /;o. s 1u s l, on] h onp ol lhe s l r o g F s r a n i m a s Ttrr ltotrs ls a u Liotr3l ic" so1" ot tle sirong.st anrmdts.

: ;-'8

Toa1.ecele pAtru lornrc sint crtrente. cu preforinln penttu pluralul ne


Li.ls arc 60ni.r of th. sfrongcsl,rnimalt. ,l Sulrstrntivele farc denuntescp[4i &le txupului au arlicolul hotnrii' acsta rlesenuind utl remplar dinir-o categorie: the brain7n. tuad conl.ains

$ 569

Thr lta s ha\e live li.i8e.s each. The feet harc livc toes eaoh Substantivele din aceasti cfltegorie, {iind concrete !i numera}ile, av6a ambele numere !i articole, ln iunclic de context: That hoNe has a beautiiul tudd. and de.oa, a very rine colour' All lho hoNesin thb slud have wllgroomed long ndres and lutr!.

pot

3 ) N um elod0boliS i u n e l e s U ,ri d o s p i ri ts i n ts x b s t ani i vepl ni recent.sLtpuse uno r u za n le t r adir ionel p l o s rrp .o m p l i .d l c p .i v i n d l nLreburnl dre8arl rfol trl ur l " d puer m ina. ln li n h a tu l s ,' u ;1 . q .rF s a u v orbi l . In rare' i mpl i fi rsrpa "arc dicteazi regula. axticolul hoiltrit nu mai apare deoit, sporadic. o rimnEili ir

S ;fi o

curs de dilpflritiei nehttdrit: u) cu urLicaluL


l d . " 4 're ,l r' ,J" ' ' ro "J l' r ' l, od, o h d v " d n J p p .l i .d " ' ,' ni , 1 .-n . a -o r' Iro a r l n ." l o or., r' ,npr' r .r { rnecki l o a. uJ " k ir ' ' or _' /. rnr ' 15. o r au, h d r a a ' k o r :l :( ro
: 'l '! p, m 6l h l' s . I n' r qr ! . . . r ^ r ' Lo hdvr F:rrJch .. !a ,h"t t aot r ' I ' f , rh m ll:5 r, (tl9 t A o. I t h" h"_o: 1r r . , r , u- u" r h o l r ''' L p 'o '\ . . b. n' , . t 1"- r , , "1 r o"n ir I . r t : r o s . l \ n . bir-, 1-ro"tan c.rt"d horroN' rickcls, et'i l/F hlues: ,l' creera, tu dumrs, te lidBcb,,i'

i ;ri1
i' r '

b) cu saa fbd aricolut hotiLri/

/ / . ', rl l.rnliJ

S ;6t

4) \umelo ile mnsrui (LiimLnsruri, grcuiate, oa lilate. timp cl,c ) pot f" n' avc:, u ri . dr n din " " lp do u i s r i " o ' F , " u i n :.l F ' d i ,rr" i l ,u i v i i ' u pt' hri rl i tr11 lhr I 3; D a/,ne dosel ol beer. lu i ur r l h rm s a n d w i u h ,{ yr r" J l abpl . . t ! 2i, a(t o th " Io r' l o J u l a y !V.rr" t,$ tess a.e 50 D dlhe d.ozcn r - 6ir t o" su . tb r' d /,t" p o .t l . I Adici rrlualur cu attiaolul zetu tl o v c o 1 .d r' j bpP i . rrruti l p de h.cl " t" d i ,' r " . i a .,, i ' fp ro ' inur ul - 0 .4 J q k g m r' .ra ,l-n g F rrl d ' elrddi .i otr.l 1. i uL, o-s hrrnb' Ll lb. r "r{&,r ' r - ; .

S ;tiB

l14
Shocs l]e 5 45.!t !air' '1,i, onc-A a weck. t{irie d iorl,lighL tro worh I\' /n. da\r to bc laid'bl_ tP non!'h lr r L' J ' r ' o r r r l 1 I o' r lo hr " a l d' o. . / r h o r

5;61

6 56! "

5, -\pozilia'z. l, -pozirii 'pjnr'"LLinl'1rJ ori'drp Jin "lF do-d crli' , , or" .su r'i,i un,r1, onlorm rpgulrlorrnnerul' r\pusa rar sJ(: Thc Thanes.,ic ri!.r whiohitorvsthroughLoDdo!.is slannedbv Ditnv blidges' (q 44!l ' I sirr,, )".t . " in" tror.- $i1 'rp Dr-b!. J1 -3C \\'. H1,r,r. Lrri.h,r'.r, ".J165'J:i 'S i'lv.al $ 162' ri..",ys.bt 6l Atribuiul si articolelc' -\tributut estc o nodalitate gramaticali foade eficoce si subtili'Dentru Darticularizareau ui substanliY El loate preceda sau urma subst,aniivul pe carc il determini Ctnd urui substaniiY fira articol3,expdmind aladar genedcul,i se adruq; unul sau mai multe atrilute .& clil. fatnft.n un tut. o stnS rti ide' prczenra rrrlru nirnic id"ca de gerreralitate atributu\d (sau atribuiclor) nu nrflrLenlcsza exprimatn dc substantiv, acesta rlmintnd tol nearl'icuiat: ,ltaz is an jntelliSentbing. Antituniesaft no\t in the lorcfront of interest.
Cr e l: a n,n titres d"r in lhe r or Pl"onr ol inr ' r s

jtii",.i,;,

l l d n l d d or l. . r p in " rl i n ri rl ' l \' r:b u schimbl sensulscncric al Bubstantrluluil :5 5G6 '

t'i""ai;. t^itoji .'b"tt t ni, *t,t

4oi?d ri6

mrrl ' i ll u pl

nd."u/t;" .r 'r'l'tr'slrr,)
' r nnr)' rhsr' r" vi

l rdnn

Dar ou un atribut carc aducF o iilce in plus sulsrantiYului. ap$P artico s ub s ta n ti v u t c x p rj m a a c u n o j.l nc preci so, sau srLj col ul nchol ,l h o t i" it , l" " { tdrit daci subsliantivul e nedetinit: Thri Ga-Md|tunr ntD is belie!'dl.o liale belorycd to Llo same slccies as (fr' moden mun. antiquiticslornd jn the Balkan Peni6uh arc in lhe lorcl'onl oi 'nr'r's'' \rie Grcek

sau articolului.- Cind doue sarr mai multe substant'ii'e s 5G? 7) RrDetoroa " in slnt unite prrn and.numaiprimul p nc,ste mod obiinuit articol'rl: atlj"ctiwe
she rp ad s iD o : lo! at l dt : t : t t \ or " ,4 lilrh b ou Jnd . r . l "r c s s lhp r oad g1' n"t l} e l i t ) l ' 'rh" htb.: brathz; rd da / $ra ull In'lrPF He il.rced, E idn, nAat, so/i, sdsdr, rt., and /&er on the sticll' ro E filth and .,irtn Pages 'lrr'

.t 568 ''

Peri'rn accentuarciusd, sau atunci cind substantil'ele ori adjectivcle se referd la persoanesau lucruri dlfcrile, arlicolul ljc repetd tnaintea ficiruia: ) The Dcn lu.niiure I boughtis ,ndsndf,.s,tzd,ft' {lccentuare 'sr' A se compara:
TIE bt)fesor th e r"o feJer A n on ;r:on I Eo aa .ra nnd Doct l.rt.1f.s on lrlondav' l0 sirgurit a nd t t , " r ot l t u- ol \ l. ndu\ ' l l r o u - , I n. n. r r o L i t , . o. . "j a n4 lr aj. \ . obiql and. " Z, r / . J , r i, r iur ' ". . ilo. i u leNoan'i) p o 'o a n " ,I '

a,nr.shr rioi i ln r , 1b. , r . r nLt o llat nat o r t. + c , r ; . : r

r l nt J r ! tt .l.u c . l: ; t. l ' , r lir l1 r tfl, d .tinil id . ' t o;n. i, \ , ?, 5 r _r 8,.\vlnd adicl arfidur zcro.

a.ccn|!at, ii ins.amr,"t. uricnl ,:n ,, .. ,1" no" " I l , ,r ' " | rri l D r' l 'n D o ro o tn . l r(n ' . i l " -_ r dei ul e_l nrndl mol " " n l ' J t r:,' u r ' .1 i ' ., ' l ;i .,

CAZUEI TN CAIiE ANTICOLUL

LPSE$TE

lltt

I,OCI]L IRTICOLUT,UI substantivulsau atributut acestuia: 1 ) -\mbelearj,icole ?rdrzrld


4 boy lne Lov

s 589 s 570
S 571

dar pd al}, lrothl' 2) Ambetearticole slau inaintea cuf intului vhole, " quilc, just:
?l,e q liol $rden \is in -bloom I worle d 3t it for a liak Nc eK

1:t'';,0:','u;.i'5"i'f.":'i"'?li "',*,'"0," n3'1iuffi."u,lil

i,l:" ; : , : i , / , " h ^ u s 4I s a c ro n u s :tyi;;l;:;;,::;;:;,,i' " i.


'i i l . j; " i, ' ii ';

to f or ilii d rv h e ds i tti n sro o m (:i rr- d ro" mx

li;;g'".'""

57''l sini rmdtcde articol cind reprezintdmnsuri: S holf ii double 3) Cuaintele

iu

@rnptrs \ -t1z formeazi un sabstantfu de Slni lnsd pi"eccrlarc articol atuoci -clnd o s,nlurd ide" cu subslan'r\ul urmror:

kli:'":""i""i',1;' fri'l;!Y.;:L,, "^" ','lll*[*"1;,:t';"nr,tiu1^,!!'*ilui",n

* : ",,i"ill""n;.,._ i:: :;r:!,ii::;, :,J?


Thp LolfJ@v The wod hns a d'Lbte wddng' _r

had slnrl

,{ \e romparR: '

;;Yil/j1it";uui*, i:ijl:',";l;il * ; t"' .';: -{"",i t ^;"u;';;';;:ili::'I:"f:' "" LLda,i' l; T"Ji;1'"t i'i::{ifi.,'fJ ,k hotr'h
t"ott a t , ' t : loJ l

I r c ' pdp' nn4r :

s 'I t J c l n L

IJPSD$Tf, !'r. c{zt'nl l\ c,ulD.q.RTICOLT]I,


rESurd

{ 57{

Reguli gcnrraLi 1!!4w'!!

s 5?;

.u ,nlp,-.n'rdl,\\l I )l"l;ilil1,:Jii":l, "buinLa,p r/,/N' '; :;;:i:;ii,;i","* "i' *.,"'*,,. r,n, ",
cu nroulDcrihilc firiplc'ccncralIru prrmps' I r Sub.tantireto lo rr.a'ra ca egoriJintrrunnllosrele i,il""iLti,"|'o "*.r", .ind,"int tntrebuinlatecu sensgenerrc: (S 35)l {t) srbstantivelecare tlen mcsc a'sildcltt [NN]
'n 'nttu X 'rdut i" t - u' t " t - uh is t eout ! jor n' s lr h er Per Ft c

s 57?

nehotlrlt' all ti Dod nu sc conslNjesccu arlitolul

11t 5 ;78 D) nuncle de naturii. protitls.t ndttraLe' ?i dalort fNNl: -rnir is nsed lor * lrng' The coin wns dadf ol -itlt# Itttual is a ce.cal Rcd afi btue a.0 ihe colo!$ 01 our iean' 4 5;9 oman''z manhind, qamanki/td, ]i ature societ!, cl s[bstanlivele ntln2, \\l : .1 d l q rr" .L i i ons ida ro " ra s' . ; / / .
1lo

i' iii. ir i, *. . ; ' , , ,.' l i -to ,r;c o v l rr' i s c o d m u n L o h ol l nont' trJ' n' !td^Ii nd' ,\'dtutu nas neer lamesse.l lrr mdn. we nave dul.ics t( sd./.,v as i'ell as to 6x'sti s PoJrai,y apprccialed PurQell'smus'c,s 580 d, precum ti substantivcle numerabile cu forlnl sru inlclcs de Plrrdl lNl: Bo?s lolc foolbau Da"n?s' rl " ' l i k o o \' .' ," h a a h a r' t notnl 'I J I' J l o l " " " P r d ' i r i n l l ' 11 pl a' " jlu eu lftirol - ln aceastd 2) Sttbstartivele cu car ctcr dc utricitnie [NN] catgonc lnlra:

6aJ -an'"

Jr 4

' n r I i' e ' r

ne'

6 581

c, numeleproprii la singular ($ 6); S 582 l,l numelciilelor, lunilor, anotimpurilor,anilor. snlbitodlor, obiect'elor i ssr 120,123 124 502); " -- a" sporturilor aleb;lilor(S510,513, li "t.;i",j"*rilor, irr' u'cdrr r'polil.l . nroh rai liuldru'il 5\l
{ ./ '' '4" tudt,i (S i3 5i,4t;)rl .t) snbstantivele abstracte nnumerabile' & S 586 paradise.prcailence eta.; (vezi S 3;). 'lr'' 'nu"nit" hcaren' h'll' purydloA'

S n8 7

Erceplii'
desr au Dn Substantivele eotth, san' maon' sk!. Narld. uni'erse' costlrDs. se afld sint srrbstaniwc concreie cafacter de uniciiato tn ambian-tain care cunoscuteli ca atare primesc artioolul hotiirit': indeob.ste
?/,e s&D was hot s" We l4? tu,, .omin! n'rl ol 'r" l ihc r 'aw not l,i n g n ,1 " ." _ ;rdl ,e d p ri ? m o rel ran to ' JrrJ out hi 5s hcrnror' rrr& i is W e s as ' a t t rrb o p ro l h i s l i u P i n ,i , s i g . ln limbaj literar sau poelic. "'ubsiaolirele rA3 !i rtd ar Di plural: ..under $resrcm .r,t;r,, is the titte ot I nov'rt. Hc sailed ihe Sevon J.^tr De IaDt, in astronaul.i.Ji. toate substantivele substaniiv[lui cotr@s deocamdati) au 1i plurui de mai sus (ou exceptra

d 58,'r '""

s,r r r "l a' l or ' .1 p. n Il 'd L n u l r ', u n r i l - l 'r '" i " lil. ,.,',,r l | )ll:-l n ,r,t r,. l 'r o "J . n "d. , r.. \'\ ' r ., l r " / ur dr ir ' \ ' ' . a !CLi sensld d" tu1aki.n,L t'.!pcat.t\ n)natttitd : V.zi si \ 1 60. 1t . ii. a I s'minra u.r d S 476- it , . 6 :' 8.-:: ||' r'.,1 ' r ' J ; nr i' Ll d' l ;li ;".ud ,t \": in :ri,r . \ r 'l J r 'r " 'r ", ^i in r r ' " : r' n;nP l ) 'o , 1, r' \rl; ';"," " -n -. liiminLlltri (lig. pochcl. .r,,,,:, ' rdll

UL LPST,$TE

117

}Lseraali.e S 5fl8 de l lali, ce caructeruL E.neralil\te sau de unicilale dispate f]e prr]1 i,prul .dunple.ubetanri\F ;r' p r". laplural tsprootcmpl.rnumel"propr'it'. :r" nrin Jauqar""unui alribu' .du a un"i propo?i!iislribuli!P .srF la pertirulirizeazl - substanlivele primesc arlicolul hoLirlL sau nehotdrlil atunci clnd ne refedm la nl andmit emmpl.Lrconcre!, $ 539 a) hotiirit, 3partinlnd unei categorii: he Whcn,p lt,D sawthe llames. ran away.
She was nolishine lle sr,ee.t, Do rou ;ind t'i6sing the suLr? Th. ink nt n! inkstand is drY Th. bluc ol lhe skY was nlensc. He is ,n, tudDin chaq oI ihc !'all garette The aotuan nexl door is {n afi studnl

b) n e h oLdr it , nind unei catgorii:

at u n c i c i n d n e re fe .i m l a u n e :xenpl araarccve apat\j

S 590

sorla,"isau caliriili ale substa tivului nenumerabil:


b.cad velaei -heads - velYets earlh watd

/ lt,n ss roaring. I saw o mn al the door. A fuv noan was dsing otrt ol t|e sea. ge n e ra l d Ob se rg alie cind devine Cind un subsiantiv nenamenbil apare cu lorma de plural ! rdi. ; n u mc r s bil - qi nu i n tra l n \rp u q A d i n c a re g o ri i l c l rnrsj e pl nJ ai ' i . urm Arzr q a fi e f nlples c a r e te ri n d tr-F l d i ta ri L e " d l " Eofl i . l P tuti spcl .. tori P tdl i . - eartlis - waters3

5591

Exomplu SubstaDtivul cdrth. ca.e are un caraoterde uricitate', ilustreazd pregnani intrebuinlarea articolului : cind inlelesullui esie dlrfatt: articol &)nu primeqte
6au cind este \.ume de mdterie: It was rat {or heary) cdtth Thv filled the lit with ea.r,t.
H n Loe Fd h Fs\.n an d ?d- l io lind o, J oLr pFs pnr dd d r . s bJ . k t o . , . I h . T l"e. dti.'sm lsed on his " h m " s oon h"ougr | "r D

S 59S

S;)93

h o td rtt c i n d tn l el esul l ui este condret ,, p d m ef t e ar t ic olu l ' -i : aunosc tll san pf ecLzar ?tu ra.rn is rclnd. {: Tena-unioitate) T hr \ N " F l i l l ' rg ,n P d { ,L I- s o l ' rl l 6 l th" .arth. T ht lit $ 6 ru ' l o t \t l ' a t,.t (: Frlna - mrsi conoeta cunoscui.). n a i unci cl nd reprezi rl e n e h o td rtl c, p ri m eDt e 0, r t ic oI o ,I exemplar iLinLr-o catc1o'tei ,4Dea.rt on whioh the.e would be pe.ce amona pcoplff is an idealworth st.i ng for'
e trr' .;b" : arsintdna. 3t.r pt,",lt t1 . d ;ri.rp" m , 1 - ' t " s , . . r p { r iur : . t r . u" i . T t r j . o " r a n p p r . . . ' , , 'l r l ln num rorse fapresrr rrg!.4r.. . o44 p.n . ro n :.i,s. d inilial' m r lJ qJ ll. J s r ) z i 1 '1 u " . u 1 1 . t 1 'L r 'a - a i i l i d ' inairscrrli cind e ntrlle de llanetd (: Tcni).

$ 594

S 595

IlIJ

596

LIPSIIITE .\r,Tr1 c,|zlmr N cABx ARTTCOLLa lrLicolui hotirtt nu esteerprimat ln urmitoarelecazuri: (S 1) dupir un substantivin cazul posesiY 247):
Flf;rr's arotl,io! the \torke$' /a/d todaY's Dem

597

598

pososiresau alcdgtrminatede adjcotiYole 2) tnainta subsiantivetor m0nstnitiY6:


ntJ trnby t/r.t chjldrcn ,,a, mountain ,nes"lowns

599

ripricind acesl,ca 3) lnainteaadjectirelotlast Einoxt (+ un substant'iv) (: mi firtpul ln rapori cu prezentul articolulzero)i


H .a.6 L nme los t ) r ondau l- 1J np. t rh "j .lP l"dL ing t o" lh Deioiup , ( J t t . ' u' i) . ( s l l 'l m J n a '+i \ 'i t o T r P ) .

Notd, 600 prFzpndi" ri\'lp /!9lei t''Jl nusi l.or''i,l.rrlFinrcporl'u DdclrSnsi Itl, ,1" eiprimr ordin"a irr ro sFricsi su urmdrorulInlFlp.: /fls' .ulliriul: nerl: ur;ntorul. in acest caz sini piecedata de articol, atunci clnd insolesc un substantiv expdmat sau sublnleles, ;i earLicxlateclnrl sint singure san au raloare ale adv-erboti de prepoiilie laceasta din urm[ in cazr lui nert): ol The lastMand.au tl\is monthis a holidav.(+ sul'st)
r r e \ a! lL. ( o i -u ,s J r.. Iu l rl t th ' ,a tt Jtu " ul l l o b s e e r,rr, d o ro;.\.' .,1 \\,l" ) $Js/l ;r"aJ. . r . . . " " , . ir , " , . r r ,.i ;. qi r' " du .,o l h p l i 5 ro l f.o l i j " nl 6Jnna' ' : t h, \ " , t , t . t t aqtt\" " )t (\' l r' ' J,L" l ) :rbsr_

\l.hen I las, nel. Lenn. sle sas llourishins (-^dv ) $ n " ,, , r' rn u ;o ." I s houldlil" io - " - $ ) ;.u ll. \ . , F \ nar irC a L'd n .-l r,J , I' i , " . n . P.pa

S ti01 S 602

qi 1) pentru a se aIaconcizie rcli./ stilului: a.) in unele loculiuni adverbialesau lerbale ln care substaniirrulare / lrLFl' ./r./r'a ( J' ri.olul 7.ro) "

in {thc) lutuc

to deotare$'ar lrgnmst to fird emploJmen!

to hn plc utder foot

603

(: ,J in unele cuainte compuse


{lownhill in- s hom iidoors u p s ta i N

allicolul zero):
oul.siiic trpsidcdown do$n-at ltel u! io-daie

604

c) in unele etpr.rii cozs/ra;I,r/n.lr'tc, in oarc doue substanti{e sint' unite prin prepozilii sau coniunclii (: artieolul zero):
trom begirning io erd lrom hand 1o mouih dry _by day . lv hook 6r iy cmok oi.e. nountaiii and plain to linish ne.h and neck

lrom 1.opto lottom through thjck {Dd ihin

C^ZURI lN CAFE AEllCOLlD

LIPSE$TN

IIC

u'"' ..",1,'.1:-:ll:1"'liifili!;il,lli",tiffl;.1'11""",i"11 :"rinoril'e'' ( omiiunp\ ai"Lioni'e ;;;;:i;t;;i'i";i;.r'r:ri'',i'


""g1.
uea5e, lend rnone) s'lool rre (Tdeg'aml)

rt-m' lI'rt,-9:..".?til9l: ir r r 1,""j:;.,i'1".;"i'i.'*0"'il:"ri',rr'i,n:o n d Jr ' ir cr ;;;o ;;;r't;l rrar ill : i ; l t l ' ""# i ; l

.,:;L;i*l;u';:n :; - r iuu,d; t"ff:,lt",ft f i:l:"::i"r'i:i::ll .Jii: equ ri o r' 1 !l trtl l S." lio"
a;d steari de

0ndi"rlii b:"1';;;;;!i;;;;L 'br comianr'{^n!ir,l izid) ,) .i o ry o i u u ;. (u i n u ' ,4 r r ; s r nr r : ur ' pe r5 ton n l h ;u ss ' (Dv Ioo n o iiir: i""r"* n"o ol rlonth (rrtlu arri ol ?irrr lnuiests l'ai on I etrol' bel

num r 'fprlpr,o* I br isr",Ii'ksupr'"iv'' dilrs o" "tg ;;;iJrl " t 115,",1i;.1:i Rsic)

I f ,i:,l,if if';'JAi11,

de {anteziste' Foarte adeseori titturile din ziare' ericesiv ile concise ;i etnt inintetigilite inainie de citirea artioolului' [In exemPlu: da'pre cunhrinll l' ni{d l SwimbuiiSuo!mit. - Tillul urrui reportaj ';;{il-;;; Par"ur'lrri P'r'Fri tinu - nui'r'osrumd/ tlp' i;';'..lor {""1 (-\eqs'\Fek Janu0rt 15' I9;') ;;; ;''";g";" rirlul. 'i lo uuadFlups

* ii[***r* tvl r'ffi t**il;'*;""':ri"'ri""s: "'":1:i :" i;'"T: :; i-giir' ;;fi''i;lil'i"il$ "''

AI}Jf,{]TIYUL
C ONSID E RA T I I G E NE R { L E
ji3

rlD JICTIINI,tr

CALIFICATIYtr
113

{.

co\SIDER{l II (iiiNxtl-{1,8
D cliriiLie,.
f i" tj Fu n'.orri i s i.i

......
. ..... .. ........ .. .. ....... .. ....-.-. . .......... .. .. .. .

610 6ri 622


.. ..... ..... 6|ii (itg o/tir 641 052 D6 liltl 'l : 8 '1 1 8

{1. couP\RATI_{ ADJECTIYELOTi.


Com!*r&lir dc * rllfrio.itr t li. . . . . . . . . . . . . a:antrar dtiaa dje ctie elos . t .. r ldicctiv .lc d c o sin su ri s ilab|. . . . . . Adjeciivr df do u! silab c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\ ltf t l.ii de rorb irr rdj{ c t ir at c . . . . . .

65' 6i t 6i 6 6i t 659 661


IttJ..lite .u f.ine lc.:onrntatie n:t.gurti.

t:9 l :19 l t9 1l ! I i tn r:1" 1a:l r jr:l li3 135 136 133 139

Ol sl fva l ii as lpr a adj. c l i \rl o r .u g .a d ed e c o n u tu ti e ri ,rcsul ai i .. . . . . ... .. .. l tt .. . . L ;tl " 41 t , 1, t . | fu l r".h lhr e lt r . \ t..' .. FI.lPr Fldc"r. OD"" 4t'1.1...
I o-h" . thrth". --la tt".a . F ta h ,.i ......

6t: 6tri 690 69t t06 ,0) tt0 717

Later.L at.st, -

Iiue r.I ^

...'...',''.'.''.''.'''''','''''''.'.

.............. " a oI' r. ( o mP8 B t iNil. . gdibn. ... (omp3r.,tlA dF interlorihl. ODso.rs9ii 3$rp.3 tonp&ntii ndJe.tircloritt snerel a :o n stnIr 'a pr nno' it iei'o m p a ra L i \' .a 1 ,, , | , i I - . | , t oit " r t-rm p . rt ,u . r,.,, ti , i .. r ,.,i r,,r,." , \ F t p l t in" . . ,... .u ,Fl 1 r' r : d pr " L, " . ir . i s rp " rl d l . rl r.l l :\ r S t,+l 1 l i\ ' l 1" i. ol''rl l n . .. .. .. " ' rl l r'fo t4 i l i . om p. ' . ' ir . i -l :p i " . ... .. , , t o, . 1 lhi " ^ mrff,li1 .o rn p i rdlid dinlr un ob d ," i rn e .J p I I'.b -.1 'om par r l: \ . Dub l u rs rp i c ri v .-,r.l "r,1 a . . ^m F . a \ ' r t' rj i i .' rr.rL 0"rst .t ii idiom at i. ec r d o u .l c o ml a ra ti v e a u s u p c rl ati ve.... ..... ..... .. .. s I'ro ..d fc lc nt r u c - \ pr id a rc a u p o l a ti ru l u i a b s o l ,rt.. .. -. -.... .. .. ....... s -..

(a n p o "o' r na, t J " " t ,lov,

71a 141 i2n /r'+2


1/r:1 J2l 1i-)

,22 J23
i !4

r43 143
l 1,r

:34

L1;

1?2 II I . AI,TII CI I ] ' S T I I - NI R D I' I' IIIT O A R O L A AD J E C T IIN ' ' ' ' . ' '

-|
ia,o ,' 01 t03
ilD iil i))

ryqr48
148 1,1 1i l 1r3 7i] 1i t 't5r l 5i 15ir \54 1i 5

,74

t\. fcHl\.\l t\'[ll.\DJtcTIvAl.I


..... Su }srant lt . . . -.. . Ge r(rl dit . . . . -... Pn rri i j iniu r . n\ t t . . . . . . . -...... r P, i .i ; iir P miiripjrL t r c dL . In l i n i tiv , , . . . . . . -

)J3

7ia
17i 719

r; 5

15t

/-sL
t8:l

Locnliun. prelrozilio ali. ... .. -{p o rl ' rehtivl t'iotozi!ie

1t5 760 7bJ

1i.', 15r> 155 155 15i liii 150

v.

FoR\I-\nI^

ADJECTIVELOR -

..

Ite ri rer c s . . . . A'|j..tir. cu t t Lc. esntir ". Sxi i x o. . . . . ... -,... .

7S 9 ,-90
t9l

lrt
156 li6 Ji i 157 i 57 137 1i 9 l 5t l a8 li9
li!) ,l6tf

li Du l l rtr ea c ons oanoi n a l o -.. -e - ntut lilral

Schndbiredcrtsoricigrrmatlcal Pdticipii adFciivate .. adjcctiralt. adJccurarr. . ,. -qubstantile -substantile . . adjeclivate . \trle \,tte rbr nr i ' \rl r.o lu' r " nF r ' l' r ' ' u !b l o J r" d . ' l j ' l ' ! ( o Dp rn. r c n . . . . . . ADJECTITELN DIINR]TINATIYE sAU PRO\OUL\-q.I,X ,\diecli{clc losostve r\dieclircle ilcmofslratire rldjecti!ele rntoogau!e Adicctirele rcl'rtivc Adjf.ii!lc neiloLArile-

t9t i 94 ,94 t96 t97 793 ,99 800

30ri 80t s08 809


814
818 819 3!1i

'l 6 l

'10: 16t
164 1Cl

szt

A D J D C T I Y UL
(lHFi,\DJE CTM)

CONSIDDRATII GDNDTi-{LD ,\djecti.rul estc partea de vorbire care calilicdl sau deier1) Dotidtic. al r,,ini: rn substantivsau un echivalcnl,3 acestura: 29 leloved a .rcqrwomar $de clinlk /i,e rerdins
t.ot me a s@,ng man ud the sam, idcas a 4.58 one

S 6(Xi

se lmpalt in doad categorii: 2) Clasificare. ^djctivele ,{. adjective calificatilc (r 608) B. adjedn'e determinalive, r,umltc 9i adjective prononinale (S tt4).

S {n)7

CALI}'ICATIVE rT. ADJECTtrVELE


(D!]SCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES) I. COISII)I]N\TII GDNDBNLE 1) Detinitio. Adrecti\ul ualiticati\',care esle de fapb adjectivul pror o p rl r - 2 i . .er eL .i ln .uqir:e unui obi".la ,l- i rl , alili" r6 :
anes o r btutrn elts
renDl. .io[.do\

s 608

S 609

2) Caraeteristici, I n I i mb a e n g l e z n , a d j e tl i v u l a re, cu ci tel r exc' pl i i , ' a ) Itor m d. . n l i mJ r s a u ' a z . El , u .o pndl p dp.i s ofdd sina ,a l fa m d, ir . dilar p n r J " -F r.. .u b .t'an' i\ ul L. J u . u o .h i \;l ' - l ,rl r.p s l u i s I p e ' at. rl .l i l i rd: . u \o t mri sS l l .n s l ' n P \,o ,,c Doa s , ' k n rk i n F \\'e '" r $: ll, ; ' / o. , . . r " / . r ' ' " " -r , g ,l c * (\ " lam pI l Ei - ll^ l h " I dr " s o lt o u n r t+ \e t' " ' rl C n ra u l .l r pl | . , " 1 r " r - t \ o l l tn J .u n 8 . D a l g n n ' o mu 1 p i . adl rub(rJtn\a "Jo r

s 610
S 611

$ 612 Ex c ep lii formeadjecscurtesint singrrele qi Comparativul superlatiruladjeclivelor tirrle {lexionarc:


' \o n g J (.u! tl J i vl \ o nc \ o .n i p r ' o m n ' . i \ o 5 r ' u p r- l al i rr bl ." r 1 o m1 rr. ' r ! o*(Cl. ii unele adjcctive prononinale S 817-81e) t \,rt; t ; . 4 - r d. ri " . / a ru a e ri i .n d ndi ' ' n i l rl ns " ' ri . ' 1" r" ' " d Dr nlir u r . l, r lp n a i l J 6 J b a n l ' p " " l d 1 S.drJ ! Intdesui untrl curirt. a pr.ciza, a lluri ",4 ietirmim: 3 ve z i S t ! 0. nola 1 ! sels sr{matilal ($ !i. 4 unui

o! .'t

114 (Adj'ctinl Phrcse) Loou't'uDea adie.tiaald LocuIiuned ."{ 013 impreun; " ua i"Ji"uriii'"ons t l dinlr-un grup de crroli"teteie p""aic"t coreiuatc au'\.aloare de adictil': T. r-a i's , rto, 6,'dPntr" rl P: L s l d 'n r ' a1
. t h" aPa in{ o"; n L "v 'n i n ; " 'l s s T,i r,.l r'Ar,\l'h-"r:e is Ure io\el lent to Martdn? lli'.:nt vou folnil arvole glad la h?:]P !ou?

ddjettrvulni b)La.uL { 614 " rnoiutca-ub.l.,olivului pp rere ll

esie pus in genere Adiectieul 'lrribatiP 5: "lifi'


houses - thc nlce o&.1

615 616

(Pcntn detalii vczi S 2668 '683) 1, t j t i, ut L, r' c l t.a ti r " ' t' p u s .d u p d -\-rb 'au ddp" ' ofl pl ern" ntul (v ' rr F re mp re S /o / /oJr' .1 rd I c\i ; ",". Adjectivul are Itei funcl;ii sintactice: 3) l'urc-tii. a) pot\re li d.tributl Madse' a /iae girl. wa!-comi g to lcaI bo'urht sorne ioallen He is-a man /drd 10 ':lo!es !l'ase' ,) poate face Pade din P,'edt:"r: Conplementf: l)'')'cd nnme pre(licatie l(hedicate) The sLY is Dnr'' It sre; ddlnAD old shoe ieels eas,' 7 got readll i^ a lerY shorl trme'

Ji r" ' t

I $17

618

inteLesul.unui,':il"^:i-:i'1".Ye:T*,,',""#t::i; ,') pentu campkta su'o*,r'",? .a.:3?#"f'ii'xlj""i'i'#ii,'ii"li"ii'?i""i-""iii" J.i,i'i'l'f "'i(


( Pred.icate ' Re.sultt | Prtdlcak of Resuh'!)l ) \' P" i n r d l l r { l ' " " l / ' l h ' g ' " u F ' _ o l " l L - 1" 1 sru' l ' r' s'l'' I boiied m 'ge cl poate fi complement circtmstunllal de mod: Thov came hom' 'ied' Tre'$ind llew coli''

S 620 -

{ 621 s ii22
S 6f3 "-"

($ Adieclivul substani,i'rat 750 760) are luncliile substanlilului ( s 347-358). Ir. c0llPAnAlrr .lDJECTrrEl'oB
OF ICOII"ATTSON ADJECANDS)

"

ot,i- i.,"1, .:,.i.i I'i".r "u, ;, /;,,p. pri\in,l""


' ,rk.,, dmr -i-^," I l f 1

it.do.ud tno'J-r': it'tr 'l eomfa,alia adje'ivFlor p^"le Ii r'alizsti laeiobie'rr


He sas nn ollef workman ilrm his brol'her' iie w6 the aatas,workma^ in thc laclory dd balrd'" [ler health lad been growing tJelr?/ it $as Des,l6t lundav

consii tle lart dintFo pmruzi!ierelaiira t'iri lmnnd' t-,t,"" r; e tttvt" ' ..) tk ti t" " " " . . "diectivah i ...;" ' .,t:.' * r, , . . i . , ' i. ; : : : i ;" p ::;,:. ' pr' rrl : un' ' ' d l ' " 1 i Ino' \i 7 lt on. r r ' r " n : ' ma ri " a ro rn a n r' d d i ' .A2t 3f l, 3 Sens granaticat.

COMPANATh

ADJECTIVXI]OR

l!6

2) O compara_tie poateli fdcutndin rrri punctcde vedero: a, pentru a se aftLa egalitateai


lle b 6 lizl ds Jane.

{ 624 s ii:15 s 62G s tig?

0.,)pentru a se

^rdLa

saperioritatc&i

T I" i 3 i i ,d ./ t,,d i J .n e lle is Ure fttud,r, ol all

c/ pentru a se ari|a

inferLorihtea.. He js less nt4 than Janc. lle is nDr g,,/os lia.l as Jue. He is,,,,p i.ds, Ilad oI alr.

3) Pe plan gramaticalse deosebesc gradode comparatio: trei a) gddul pozitie,clnd adjectivulnu a suferit nici o comparalie:
cold n ) o rc dul . onpat t t ir . rior .d u i nlF r ior ar aluiJ bcautiful " i n d a d j F .' i \u l a -ra ri o i n (u,ci retntr-un 1T" d sun" \ffl m c ' tri n g ra d u t p o zi ti v. sau egsl ;u arebi J: ' coldaf n,fe beatrtitnl tsnrerio.iratet lcsr cold /ss ieanriiut linfu.iorjtarct as cold n! ds beauliiui as (csatitare) not solos cotd as noi ro/as biniiliil as i r.riortrab) o tnsrl i re tn gradul cel

i 628

s 69$
q ,::i rl

g rd dul s npLr lot i! ..j n d a d j e c ti v u l e x p m i . t.) m ar tl )8 tt sx u c el m ar srd z u l :

S ft

most beantjlnl lsuDerioriiate) lctBt Ieauliiul (inlerlorilale) SLrperlativul poate fi: , c') .s.up" t lo. t ir . r . , t o,,r.i n d a \p ri m i e rd d u l .a l m a i tnal t sau , pl msi s .rzu' , . a r rn e u :i n r I nur ot , t F . l i1 i n mp s rr' tp c ' l a t' F o b i F c to sau l r. ti mpl Hc is ou. @sr .'italr. tracto. driver. , r" I" ^ t s rc ." ..l u to t ,t,p , rl d i d arp.. ! , i" r q r , I h. r v " b . n r. ry .tl 0 l t $ rp I b u t I I.rt " ,/j l roday,

.: r,:tJ

c" ).superlatte absolut, clnd arati o tnsusire tntr-un gradinalr ldri stabili lea urei comparaliidirecte:
,ca,.sr Fathol Tldnt y "u lof ) ^. r r d. , / jnJ ll, y { r n aor r ", L r ^ I ' im . Shp ; , . o"t ar , d. a. " I, pr.

S (i:t:i

Superldtivulabsolut, aneliticl se deoseheste cet relativ.sip n acfert: Je sup'rla i! ul rbsolul. liind d".nripLiv. ar",, "pnrul p" adierrir. tnsr."irea exofl mcri dp ar..ta allinJu-." pp I,rimut ptan st inLpr".utuilsup"r.Lerivul relitn ar",..rn,ul p" sdr"rbIl /rrr,. ri rqta Ajp'imt, d..,Fl.tL- tn ,:arF and obic,. s. 'IrrF i5 rl," 4osri,h,athc ot rh. boohs th" librrj. tSuD""t. 1 in ret \ lle I
h thn 4o :l H . r" Trk! tq ,, \"p. t ir x lar p. l< 0"a. r bs . r no s t t nler t : . s . ( s up"r l olr r ,

. tj:]1

rve zi

5 638 ii 6i3

120 DE St l Pli Rl o ll lTr\TE collPAltATL\ icolljl-\illSoN oI sLrllr'IoRl lY) formeazl ln doxli uo'ltrrj' Corilarati{ul .sjsupcrlatil'ul do superioritale -se G3{i (tupi curn adjeciivcle sint scufie sau lungr' _'r i"nF' 'u i\"1- - r ' "n ^u 'on'frr'''i".:i ti:l; -\. trli$rlitolo sr'lrl. n rrr 'r lto/r"vrr' "J ,n"' r,r.ut,"rlu'i'raJ'u! la ll ,JjF' i\ul | ^'1rsI sau flerionard satoli): 6];
VioleL is a rdl, girl lPoTitir) \ \ .1. is r/,. lr ' I nlJ r r " 'n "r l s uip" | r I r ". ir . \ro . L rt" r" . 1. r ul I r f r

li:Js

(lenlru oonfnratil-) -:l LJ. Adiectileto lu gi primesc adveit)cle '?'rc (metoda ,nsl (pentru superlaiirJirare lrrecediiadjecti\ul in gridul fozitiv r:): n;ll"\ionJr. hJr' 1alitiia 'au (Po7ltirl
M\. sor is iut?lliaezl r",;o '", h' 1 1\ l"r L r "" N;:,1 ' / 1,buiBt t uo\ ' n r,' 16' r' ' 'lr -.n -/', p"r' l' i!orrrt

!lnt in]poFihildf Lrrlicatii cxacte in rrrN.mtaronrlrarli!; iLLjecrivelor rual l lrrr' l " nrar!uio'rz rI .l1l i,,.t1diul:n crr-,n rtis lirnla in! r-ld i' " { rrl .,' t" oio-t,"'-".r0'. l^rm"lor ' L'/'lr '- ' ^n r '/i" "r r'-"r:i' hiir.irI on" p"nr.u crpli.ilri. ^" '' d-rrn'i o lru'rualre rntpns":r lol" -s, l",.;";l crescindi in uzanla curent,a. ''-in cvr I ii .tl' Lion."n,'spi'ul'rl '""rnd11liFiidjt''i\"lor " l- (,caI -l rel pFntflr p\pmplornd"roni" t'le 1"lu'' '..'nrri' .1u exocdiftl!uma..u '!en sarl aDruF sir aibi'trasate unele reperc, ahiar instabile, ' ontradr'torri onErhrcc erpu.e mai jo.. i rrorii vor inlrlni Llertsur'ull",1,. finthl 5eamrd" drirpl" nrprimori drt"rile, ol'i.ii 'onlrJri: dsr rLr \of ri"a 5J.rru Irc,inL4rp:l 'iur. pentlLr int'rLocutnn'tnt tn'! $ttL sau sn lie acuzatide lipsi de con.iderslic he on thc safesidc. ri 639 a. colrP,rRrTll -LDJltfrrvrloR, sorr-rirrl o[ lcolrlAHr'sor sH0tr'\D'lljcrlvul) ,{cessLdcategorie cuprindc: z I adiccti']e monosilabice :

i l a b a: .i l -Ld' , d: ' rr' -,' r,,1 p " n ri rr' i! . . u b /s //d i ' " ' u ' ' ' pnl ul l n Ll r n I srrl D J: , 7 nim - r oa" " a d j t' ri \p di adjectirelc trisilabicc ct preii\ negati\. l\Iai{fitatea acesLor adjcctive au ambclc forn]' tl conparalie: [ot" ' o Fl ,t0]' i : ' tr ' rr- F" ' i o11, , *or o i ' .r s u l i r" l o -' ' ;i t ' ono ru b) h l

;i ili;;ii";i;

ai";i,ai.,t"'-i".t" ir\'a' 'L!, ''r, r' -o", -ro'rcsi srle

Dxemllc UrnlLoarele adjecl,ive fofireazii irr tnod norma] conrparati{ul iIL -cr ii suDerlativul ln -esl: ' 1) Adicctilele ile o si guri lil^bti ( nnosilabtte)l lnrc olear thitr, otc ga.r llrctuplel .iear -.l e u e r lat - htter garcr ga),
-.Ic a r$l - lattcsr - g.xesl

! 610

127

2) Adjectirclode aloui sital,cfD8ildrfu, terminatetn -y _ay: fi


bu: . . Dr l elrsy !,l !p j likely i \.h m. ]t\ sicktl:, etc. _busiest _eastcsf. t.i 6 n d ri p . " | ' L t .t _I0rclesr

s 641

E x e m p le :
Dus y -h u s i e r easy - e8ie. ! : " , 1J' .v . tr n d t," r ..i ,.\t r loncly -ton,"lier Ob se rv alie

prefc s 64! cu ;i superra'if, ,,,,f;:ii#ix::,,fr::fi:;::l::;':!:';i:,i:,:'nparaLi,


r',/ ml j ili bleJ i' r j- . ri \' t' r
glad

tn a r,s ;td b ;,..

$ 8,rs.
sii|I

llji

i,'iIfi n"r,,,ul

adjectil'cre ,Islrd'ir' tcrninate in


arg_ry
risk-\'

-y s&u J3l, acirentuate pe '

6t+

iliifr'!Y
'x.tx

"1,""v

l.id r

locc.i
.J adjcctivele r/J;1aDi.c.t.orminatein -er, -Ie, -ow, -sotne -urc: gi biticr teebl. hollo* g.L,esome 'i"l i"n :i ..'
sol4

i 6{l-r

tend.r

h u m t.t" noble

srD[e

lo$ stall,,w

vc]ror,

wholcsomo

",". dl alte cltcra adjec1,i1.e bisilabicecn acccntulpe prinm tabd: qlier ..r!r" nile ,rretr rcal s siupid,.tc. lteasui 'ppie ,/ nuneroase adjeotivo r;rlturri, .jn act:t:ntul pc Ltitna si.tabd:
ibsurd dF.reet Irrolound .oDcjsr minute: totitc .cmdte sinccre, ctc.

;illlli:.

s 616. s 617

. .n,,,j1orri, ,a u.r_-o .j/ . /l .'a;",,;, .la +..:tol,. .t, ! r.t: n d4t .1..t bt.tlai.t.,,t r .1rr ru ro.t ior. Et, trin ,rti\rr.:
nnkindly

( r:tr

l lormelc llcxionaresilt ori..grariatctr tiaba..ng1ezl: nue .t. oa.Zesr.iar nr Srr\ rri d t.l r x t r J , r . t l{ : m i i !s .u l l e 5 rpaioi a(ljectiv (cu .lrononlia dilrtr.le roc.n

t9t
urt.rD, unl.;i,nv fr.: $ h rr\u inpoini lt.Pleasant rniidlJ u n h o | t; - i'npol'tinsrxfd insi"..r,. er,. trnhary "s imPatitEsl

'

lilg

lor' nono' si.bisilubiucu gradede compara,lio adjeclive llrceplii: rnate analitic (lumai cu more fi most):
4 o.d L mun osilabld i ,.' n 'r d r " r c " n r u . ;;;:; ia"r . t , " t . . t - s it . t "o! \ ' I l;:i;;. .oanl r ' ". r . o nth ",. b i,o-., b 1 r a do. , r \ ' laL' r ' 4 1 r r r r ):01 1"t' (-' Itr r m ' id r ' ) r or I d " r " ' i '" ( a ' p' l - lur n .1 r.n;r t a"' t ' l ': t r ' l 'r , r ' ' ' ' 1d :'l u t otat n' . ' t ,xlj"cfirpl.p rnJna"! 'r' oDir r r ilr . upr er i\ ul lirer ^ 'l n ' .lahilir' r" irr' n l]Jn nJ du t o ' adiF"' : \ , 1^\n rf.Fr",o-rp rrlli"i

tl'r,rezi.'..r .lur,aan'rmi -,rirorii . r t ur .,l n . . j u' l i . i o c" Tr mud r'^ rnrl '^- m,i nbi:rruit"'e ir,' 'u 3 l'rrrl iu-r''nlorll nJrat;" d'li,clii"lor hi..ilobi"p l:"ni* ri'i- " qi -Fv,,,np.lnd "Jj..riv"l" bi"ilibi" mir pu{i'r ohi-'ruir"f' d" ""miirair" u dj,rrurulf^t'n"lur I 'rlp)iiorr"r'" unirnri ' 'u "'n' 'rr.'d"1. cu adjectivele ambelelorme de comperatil'li super' lt;l ln'ceea ce pri.!.c,ste lativ. aleqereaiirt.e icestea esle in D:trc mnsurn dictate de eulonie, riLn:exrres;''iiite. Pe linsi aceasta.in lir a votbiid si l preferato fornele llcrii(naie. pe cind in ldba Lterard se lotosescnrai mult fomele oonstNite 'tnarL nost.un.l. adiFci\p.u nusn!n"\clu'rv lilprlrd - 'J onl;qa" b;:a"l si hd sir7u".t". avin,i.aEr, um .-a aru ' i649r.' mJr torm'la nFrl'\ion1' "r sc conformeazi acelorasiuzanle rl Li;2 . 3) ,{.lto pn4i de vorbiro ailjedirrte
loor ' \lho li\r on tlc r pp' . lld r r'.vn "5 r $ 6 lf . . lir lp. , Lr nuLr ' . Ou tlfu inchdcs ihc proauction oi lhc cl,i.,r, \1'eren't l.he littlc bov's {ords the

,ii,[

witfs

4) Concluzie.- In englezaconternporani au sparl tiparele in comparat:flcxionat, lotme ca nlore!lat1' n1't' rdieciivelor, pe lingi mon;- ;i l0isilabele .oi|t. n"r, obt". niro prau!, not sutl 'au n1r" hat. n 'lauda - rulrt" i l" BllC -,bior kn"" bud n'o'" o"'1. t"ore ' uulplin". 'nplcorul^si;o,le tinaar. no.t w'tr-al,'t*d. na\t tr ll'ihlar d. n,oJ 'r'tl dt'ss d - plra iormFlein i/{ si -pd ru gradr dp ,.rnparali' lln\io rHr'z ro0l- 'rpbrrr' r,irr,rri im. dov' dindu-seuiranti lrdi leri'iL ;r''pi"1r" li irlpr"idr)l' elocvente !i lraparrte cind se abat dt la ltorn{ decit conlornindu-se, curnni: acesteia.Iiete de fapt, era noului. a ruper;i iuturor ldnludlor, a incercini : oelor nlai indrezn!; fi ,,trnsnite". din care izbucnesc adesea idei genirl Excnple:
1 " t , ''J h4t L t r ' r l " r ' \ 1 1 1 " \' \ o nc ot th c aood , a/ 't h " C n ; t ' o \ b 'c ''l r o i Itth . lo"t 't'- 'nns lb' ! t nr t ol 11"' t t "t '. ll l\ r ll r . lt , . , P t 1 " , ! ) DorF b c"f-tno sn lo n- t hP. L - , , i44 'th"thrt t r J 5 'r p p l " r r ' r l{ m n"' j"' l. r Th l r '. . 1 r .-r''lu/ 'a " 1968) . '1...) LMdon nn:: an th. ,.t!J ro ,.,,,3 ll't lciilinscs{ ll"a I lJohn os|onf. ''"""!l; ,f tt Inn,tah tLnr. i' itt Pnti i'aftt ,*t"r,"*"., ' 1906) . (Pcni trltimele l. c i . iiat ! , . i. S 6t 8r ' llhc tLLrcv comcl' t I

r lii'i
*7.\dall

r" ?1 .* ", r1.^4li,anno,at


t \ l . o l "- .r , t"n d r ' " in c,- l

apa -at , e t . n . a
a ab

,n L .ta "t

t-rnu.

1!:-.

l a:

COMPARATIA

1!0

..Iar pe cotorutcirlii Guinncss Bookof Reco s 1971,printre alte superla:i|e este dat mostestr." E\.ident ce aoeste citaie nrl constituiemodelede urmat. Ele alrartin . nuid o mFniu l lu r u r o rli.pnlplor- dom.niul . a srrii' o ru lu i,a rc 1 na . c . t . a z !u poatedaclLsd ne edifice,pe unii locindu-ne, a4ii tnctntindu-ne. pe
B. CO}I?AEATIA
{COMfAIUSO\

ADJECTIYXIOB

I,TNGI

OT I]ONC -{DJEqIIYES)

s 663

liv Urm;roarplF d.ie, p,.i larli"ipii formeazrcompdrativul superlativul | 65,1 Si prA pdind adjectiYele participiileln ' L djurorul adrerbplnrnorpr .:i ,l?ovz ;i sradul pozitiv: 1) adjoctirele mai lrugi ds doud silabe: $ 666
atiractiye }eautifut (rcativc cu.ious despoidcnt imporl,ant

Ete mp l ul rtlr!(iive nore atiractive nost attractire dependable -more depndnble -nict dpendanlc

2) numoro:rse adjective bisilabice aceentul prima silabd: pe eu


lSill. d o,il. tdr ' , t e rraglre hostilc acid . , n ,,i d t i \:d .onstant ,.a s r tr.re " t lrddent ; dd. t1.:o..,.. ..

S ri".,6

advcNc t.opcf In special adjeclivcle bisilabice termir.rte ln ,t.'. -tsl, -tlc, Jcss Fi -o"s: r.ri r. L r ,i ., Ioolish tnilhlcss .toJous.ctc E te mp l e: r{ti* more fttivf .omic rnorc comic nrosl lonrn loolish - mor loolish - nDsl toolish (Vzi ,!i S 611 61,61 3) parficitiile adjoetivate ,si adjcctivele cu sufi)ic p&ticipidle: s k rl te d I h a .m i rg u!!rt lrdncd .rnvnicilg. el,r.

E r e m V Ie:
m.st. slrn - morc skilled - nost skiled -mo.e cliar.i.g -nost cha.ning L x c c p ! i i : crooked,Ei tritAc.l. care pot aiea lsi formele fleriionare. skill.d charming

h stilul tatnilidr, pentru a se accentua si mai mutt irieea de superlaiiv, 'L n er^dFF ddj,,li\F. tn .pe"iat.cl" in -obt. -.t. -[,]t. -;J :i -;ng. ,oru:i 'FrmiIdre .upFrtai!uL ir -...t. 4.{ nu au .o^ pdrativulln -rr. formear,J la'dFt .J lo.ma netlolrorArn l
Jq ktrd rd -1 . biflp n,. I I ,r"rr'p s, .h, p r'.rp. . dnd d. s ' o. j, nlr ir fr J gLl, r s ' im pid. . r p ic id. . d nm lab, ps t .n"ible. r t im idpr ' toyalest tircdest Do yo.Df damnedat I He was the .asgrd6r clild. . 'r n n 'n q p c sinn,ni.sr ss.nsinsN doAs"d.l dninlenest. etc

S 658

I CoDptuatjvul adverbului nr.r. s iJuptrlatirul idrp rn!l'r' ni, / l I - c..natica nmbii cnehze

130

659

4) ntte ptuli do rorbire a.dieotirate:


The v dall' ^m P:

" liis lle loted-o* nelheNso mu than uncleio him


660 """

Yo; d,

,, i'"'

bd !r 'r';,,",P:

1,J1"1,', p,n., -.

Notd douir comparattl e Un substantiv sau chivalentul si\r poate ti lnsolit de unul terminat tn -cr ;et ali cotsiruii cu adverbul tn're * fo'"t"" aii".ite. .i.teiice (h -,. sau'e'r) prccedd pe cea a'alitica {coni; ;;;";;;i;;; struifi cu mo,'e sau mosl,):
She looked ,.ot" ot ti; ?!tarc' and rhe hoft cteeet r\e Lwn ie iii-lr'" "ia;", Pentru simpljlicareins6, pntru rpdareaidpii de.progresje "ssu,pentru jn lnod, obj\nuit' trrfixul -l la adjdctivele scurte'care pnm'sc *"".t"""", mote: comparalivpoi avea si forma ' on'lrrrilS ' 'r d!Frbul a'd m"' e't"/ftsins llian erer'

'

ilffJl"' ll"i*Ti."*;:1ff?ii''i,,:T'#iix rnot"t' tP dnt ' P at o ' om" dd' ' r f o r" t ; . fi o ;'
" r' a m' s,:;" ' o ' r!R if axve r. R;a'"i"'""ii; thaD;'i\i,"i"ii'^!:o "'," He te)\ tu e deld

S 661
S 662 """

oRroGRArIrl
!o'al; dF o siDgurd a, Adjcclilele rPrmina'"ln r o 'un'oana'zprF"pdar! -Ps/: onro"nJ i4ainrpa'uli\plor -pr $r sl ".rr'l'qi "i.."trr0ra 'ldblpa/i bigg"r - biSg' t,,c - th nnesr rrin - hinnFr prcedatd de ln celelalte cazu (adicd atunci ctnd consoanalinale este o alti consoand,sau clnd vocala precedenti nu est'eaccen_ doua vocale ori de iuatl), consoanafinalE nu se dubleazi:
sweet deal solt qniet -sweele. - dcate. -s o l i e r -quteler

663

,J Adjectivle ternjnale sulixelor -.I sau -sl:


nice lrue lree

jn 'e mut sau in 'ee pierd pe 'e linal lnaintea


- nicer - t.!er

ri01

jerminrra in _/ pre''dsL dF o \o'aln neac'entust; , LJ adlc.li!Flc (nr In / fin-l eslts,l,rblsr limba pnglFTn sr in.ca amprrcsnaJ: -ca'elullest -ra'etul]er -cheedullest -cheerlull'r o ellest "r'-""ii"t ordcl -cruello tivele lernrinst" l n -y p re cedat de o consoa i dJ '\dji srrlixelor in -i inainrea '/ :L - dricst'r drie.r drJ -lazrest tazY - l3zi|r
r Uniis.dirori nr|.rpreiear. h a|sr cazconpuati{ulnde r\ d" ' i n ,.i d !,' , d ." i 1 1 ' o n ' p;' J r . le- r , t , : , r ; - " . p ar nl, iv ulli! ' l J n g l $ rl a trr trru l /d rl F " t Cu t r c ep tra(o n s o a rP ro,, ! tr _ ' r dtYest. "Uncori aaris n't dtyet schi nbn p-:l

666

0afiind sinonimo adsf,ral : orrrnJ )' r' Lrroi '

COMPA&TIA

t81

Ctnd ins[ -3, fina] este precedaLd o vocali. el se meo.tin: gay - galest -gaJe. cov Eacepl iil shy sly

itl,{ wry1
ADJOCIIYECU FOnlIn Dr colrPAB,\TId )l-0riDour, aT-tr Urmdtoareleadjctive ar fornre neregulatepentru gradelede comparatie:
Pozitie

s c66

Canl.lratir

Superlalir

l
ilt lilile

I
{

\1o.st

I litl.lesi

t t
{ J I

J oldcsi I l.lihesl. iarth.rnost n I l ,rrl h c s tr. ' .th emrost

rarc
hind

I iitst hindmosl, hindcmost

de Urmdtoarele cuvinte, cind sint la gradul pozitiv,au tunc,tie ad1erb, iar la gradele comparaiiv Ei superlativ ar tunclie de adjeotiv: (beneath)
{'D )

s 667

(our) (upl
l compdaiivul

I uLmosi. ultcrmosl upm0sri uupernosL


adjectivelor ,r.v 9i,,y si t adeseo.i ortogfatiale ti

qi.sute.lativul

r Icn ru ,.1 1 si ,l/. ru va oar e dp adi"c liv . v "ui s i { : 64 a , - 6 q b 3t d4hc" r Ia -t r,rob dL : 1,la or ieine, . onplr ali\ ui ddv " " l , u l u i / o 'e . s d . d J p l 'r n i i !L o ri. a l" i /o rtr /u";t .I f!|. un s r n: r lJ Liv ior m dt dupd . , r l* . npd. ri:n d la oris n . .o m of f J liiul aJ v Fr b- lui , , jn; , "d"" . e r '! u n d 'r b l u r o m p " r a l i v i dverbulu jatsn. ncr, a losi sunolatiiul fo,l d or ' s r Dor n"t l, iv F t or ' nar . d r , I d l . i n l d d s " " L 'n u i / , r , i " rcrcn^t:tr;''an - d . pl 1d\ "t n ) t D 'n o r t t n l 'r , b " n g f r l , -p ? , cslp ul i.omp ,mtiv ror nr ' la n". ' '

132 668 pu'otele cardinal au urmitoarele grade de -{djactirele rele toare la comparalie:
easlmostl. casternmost no hmostl. northernnost souihm.str. southernmost westmostl,w.sterndost 6t i0 ru l orma nprcln s r ar i da a' F ' l e l o rm" m a i ' \i ' ; o -c ri ' .' l ' sunprl sl i ve l a unpre t?' s/ . p ri r' .d ' u !' a rF s .u p F rl l i !L l u i ' r ' prmrne!r' !u l a j e. . ons lr ui adjectire sau adrrbel
n p

i.d

n c .a .o rn o " ' i J o r l h "I r't\csouth{nnan leak ol ihe range \ " old. f i; 0 r, fo' .t' P a .n , n " l p i d l -' l i \F C. s i ' n lin, b ' r ' o' 1" d .o" ' puo' ; nt l ^rat' o.tP quu' apt' ^n4t pc t . . " i r r ' " ' r ' rf' a , rp ri ' ri ' rrr D ' s l ' ' u b t i iie i ip l ' ' nl ru i di l l n' l r\el ' si nr ,' rF p n rn t. i rc n " . n t;t d ^ j-ri . . - . , b.,.''"l".r F . ; J i .i r.-1 , , r , L n ' o rIo l rd r \ ' cu ' " l .rIj ' r i r' r' ' l ' i m, p ri nt r e ac es t ens e a fl i i o i e ri e d e c i l .c rr L rrj n t. Iro\.nrtP tal e qui re urn nmra ,l r^ l ' i , F .h l u rn ;:i i r' l l " ' Joru\i nrul rpo-ra' ' : l d ,i n ' i. ar l' J r "

r cr n o r ,

b@1. of

r .p

P\ nJ or

opt i LUnl

671

(F quD'l n I n,ili 'r "n""'/ 'dra'ler:7 'r pri- praT' E a numpro i ,in,l '-.I tnrrln,., oruti in -od "ul"r'r',r sjr'"ial tnrraiul lerni in laLi,; "L.otu -..e masculin - lorme ca: - adeseorisi in ccl ihe mosr P.r/4" lit e lat
ine 9t,,a'des' jnzz brnd a rcr!/ tnique clild p"*"r poise in anvonc lor hcatd a nDa ?aled musical)' I harc neac. seer ".ou ler olporllnity. she sill do eelg '.DrlaDle York Giren
\t ( d t itu t" . s\

neregulati obse alii asupraadiectirelorcu gratle ile comp&rafie

$ 8i2 ! 6?t

Itt
1) Adjectilul tll (: bolnav) are formle de comparalie neregulate ttors'
Sh " (d. -,s" She \Y.rs tu.. \ t h, l I c a\ hF"lis r : s hr h J J c d l l e d u p l a r d o ' o r ' ak n to noop|ar' s h n s h" \ "' f adiJ tZ /@ree, ihan rYc thougnt"

674 "''

si'ft ln SLiA' ill estechiill arlie(Livului si'e 2) lll si siek. Sinonirnul avindacela;iinlels: i;;;al ai atlieciivuluisi(A'anbeleadjective ""}".t"i;ii
t Fo.nc r.r. intrebuinlate. : '3 afietu^t : hr1dn61 los.rmost lae.st.
in the e,s n dle 'tui.lmost: 6 tapmost.: al lhc aerg tap. r tn l.tna st la! , s l I\'?r ri r'.h-'la\ t . ll \ l: l ir j r 111 oP. r r ' ' p r a

5l

co@aRATu

183

l,ohar,. In Angtia. tll (: bolnav) este iDtrebuinlat numai prdical,iv.r\tribuliv ti ca adjectiv substanlivatr, este lnlocuii prin st./r (: bolnav):
t l. a, lt c oti ! ) t ot t ibbu! )

(substdntie) The si.l musi be caredlor. Cind lnsi sic& estelntrebuintat predicatir. lo &dsi.A are in ,{nglia nuanla de: a avea greatri (la propriu), (iar la tigurat) a ii sAtul pestemisurd de cineva
(ptdicatio ) "You look livid. af. you 3i.l?"

_ ,, r.s,rd'\ - l l.tsl t , | ..,1 6 \ o u l o Jk,// L,1 ' nJ H F F 1 .r ,l n ' "n . 1 p i\ n n ,, /,.1 i\p on n" . ", ".1l l o.\:

"As st./. as a.atl I am alwavs sdst.l *hen I cross the Chinnel! - it's alw.rls ronsh. and I nm such a bad sailor."3 I'n si.ft la;d lire-,i) ol felliig her fo do her job t.opcrry.

3) Ani,oninrul adjertil'ului ill esle {r.ll sau in good ltahlt. In bad heaLth S 6i5 este sinonim or ill. Heahhlt nu este antonimul adjecti!'ului til. tnsnmnd ,,sdnitos" ln sensul de a fi iniotdauna sdndtos.rezistent la holi. robust. 4) IlL ri trotst, norst poi ii !i subsi,antii'e9i adverle:
I woD't hale Jou think ill ol Jour felioF. lSlbst.) l' ll t binl @roe ot l,im il he doc s r ' l c om e. { Subs i. ) Let him d o h is !o rr. t s ! is r . ) Ii wiil 80 il, $iti Xon il ]ou don'l oneX Iour doclor. (Idv.) I'o.J plaJcd Dadly. fiona piar.d,orra dd Elsie played ao.-"l. (,,\dv.)

Little. A littlea,- fcw. A I$a


1) Lit e- - LittLc are cinci lnlelesuri principale: O lAlhs \lntn substanliv plural) (contrar: narn) : , pu,tin(i)" (: insuficiont). se rclere la cantitate sdu duratd, are comparati'ul lr.rs ti supeflativul /.asl _sieste intrebujniat cu substantive nenumerabile (nullle do Inalcrii, d abstraclii etc.):
lirl? donfl. htne \\ite. Utne timc. li,ri intelesl. She has lri& (: trea pltille) knowledgeol DnglisJi,so she .a.'t rad inis boo[. 1..$ joy, lcsr air. i.ss wo.k. lcis tngl'sn. les.s noisc Hc look the line ol lcas, resistarcand accelteii to be pui on a diet. , b) a liulA intrebuin,tat, cu substantive nenumerabile (deci fnre substant iy plu ra l -si gr ade de c om p a ra l i r) :.,p u l i n (e )" (: .rceva" .,,ni qte" :si noni nr: son1. este lntrebuinlaL cu Eubsianlivele care nu au plurfll: a til1|emone\, a tiltL winc,.r little wliile. o lnre jnicrest She has d hirL (: cevar krowledgc or Xnglish. so shc ran reid thjs )ook. p rl nj , t L " n . l ' .v ' r : I' a n d b /s b p .d u .dI l J\d /,,,r J m oiP v . ].1 n .J n ,s 1 l i v ., ) | 4d n h ' ,j ' n i - h l n d b .s b F .d u s . I h \d o 1." t" ,- c" \al I m on r! \.a n a ,' ,ri i v r' l v e ,i i i S 6 8 7 ) cJ lilll (+ subst. p1.) : ,,mic(n)"6 se referd la f.irsta copiilor nici ;i a animalelor tinere (: pui); are comparativul yourger ti suprlarivul Soangesl (iD stilul familiar,lirer qi hlles4: Ji m i s r l, t r , boJ hp k m! t,o o k sF ll ilt F r ' 1onr / i rd o ;ts l \l C a n a l L t l a p ,i i ,l " .D r" ,4 r sl i d d" Iranl a. 'Tl F i InA I is h) r har " 4 s p L. a bal siilat .r rotdcaum de .,lu de m re: !r//,ti /./bint dJ " . t j\ p, , "uieri ri rrri v " s d u n ,h o ' a rt" d e r" rm:nari v.r.ol i utesi of,! s lD ' ad j .ri vp npholr ' p ( dp rp rm i n d ri \., 7 i S 8 2 t . 6;\d j cct , v delf , r ninaliv 1 S 8 2 1 ). t\p 6 -{djectjv calilicaliv ($ 609J.

s 676
S $77 S 6;8

g 67$

g 660

134 Tnp sn arrca {a s lr J ine I ' r / ; r r L o' P' Th" /;,/P' kjd ' 5r r r pk ' d r n or nqnr ' He is our /t',6'| (onc) (Ian l ' o i;

S 6!1 "' '

1 p tLinr'1rlor'dnrrai plrL ' mi46' .r,liah(r:ibubFl 'l'F';il:':. gra4Fd' compat' l; d;m'r'siun' i-do1"r'LJ"i r^re'd ..rn* ;t,u, lPast "'r"hri asrazrr 'ru I s''13 si superldri!ul f1L;r.ompstr'rt'lp'.s'pu1rnu'i:ar (j!i stilul tamiiiar' lil'61)r
i r' ti 1 " m' nd " u1 I ' ' . llr l. r oo d i ' 1 l P n. r n- , no t , " a n J n h l l h ' n d n rs ' L
'h tlrc t?ss2' tead h rr l.ssrr \o'L j, ll' r l' iet loc r q
tr 6 s' J(

ri c

, i : r r ": g n ri rr,. q r,,.." ,.,fi ." 1 '6 ':,;i.,' . \D,,r p5 ,.r ,r " -,oe u" lhP r ' r d Lown |t
oi i,i;
I bt

,:.. .hon+ ," /-.... P o\".1


o' /"' r /

' lF a "" i" , . , ' " , t , . r" a ' ' o " i J U " u r ' l tn e /td e s -t L ' j c r nLlPlla lt r i l r T lt lir , . 5l lh ' n A' o l d a rrYIn e J o nrrrnl d afecri { 6 v rrs l s :' r d rr' " run" ' ' f" ( C\i J t nJ t t t 1 1 " - IF l " ' l u ' Lu t 13' I LLLt s u r d x n rn u trv : lls dulins lt'rle girll (|'.tila tur dragi Il Iliess rour li'l' lrei'L l ((le ntimioal1 bun{l) . . s hc hadillc l n o s td c l S n l l u l n l ,i .v o i c e ' th cgal estl i l tl l uugh,tl l eni osti N oi l ati t' g lirlc vars s c ' ' F i rl o' ' ri ' pri r' st" d// " u.grr' l el e de ln li r Lr " i l ry d mo d e rn a /J // e GD:i mar rFt' rn l " si mpl d drrnFn5rurre ! t l. r tt rq i s n ttt" \t' o tu n ri ' i ' l ' ' ""' ,"- " . i, 1i" i, i ' olp' r' u n ' u b s rd r l i \' o n ' re l : ', "i " " " I s aF aS we tl l ,l l c h o u s c .m n c n s n a /l ? /| h { nJox.si i ,l l csnd]/' s,hoIB eIl l ' Lveeve

j'"

$ riAl

i./.CuvintullirrlePoateli '"i:
ll'he /tl, (adj) (subsll I caa gile votr is, l'n atraid' loo lirdc

dome r,/,r. f;:'i liJ;"li$"'."'$c l ,Fve lr ,.o g lPr ^v er


\ ll,r g uis d lor l; r' lL_F

S 085

|drerbI
'lr"rt

it.j,, liiTo ;;",;;;; "ii::1,i,i"i'',i,";i "


r

lt lc I r . l. I n

|'

oLsr

sri\6| (. ) sp'.'l"':hir",":' nm s rl '::"J'.4"'1"1:',''i';'",:il'rli";"" ' - /. I LrctulnI' dupn * n

A tenlLe

" lj:i l:il F.:'l;::"ll !l i - t' ""if,' ub' ' pl r ' pulr r r *r rr,;"1' r" *l n '" -'t'i '*r.*:,:' v iii;l r""'." . "':,', ' / * , , . t " ""' i . ' . . ' i s''':f;1;::r,,,ti.llijj:::,ll::ijii;;;1,:l::,,,i,1',"1
r r lr r f r Lit r s f oql ': ,\Lj(r lrv l\:!rrn ri plr r r al. l" r s l' eLr r t e

:t:f.':;l i
'til' O(.',

rl,;.1; 'j " Id't ,ti :, l', ,:1, ,,',1;,rl Dredrd'iv :,;:1
LJ o d' 1Dt hll

coMP-AnATb

135

nF!".j).]:i 1l i'l1l"l: arr I' nuanla puzrtrir:


tI. Lal nid "

,r'J
.

,-or oo,'ul 'oncr,., r:il^rlr t,,tt .i o [e'.'.,tc


., "r ii nt- , t ".r \ lf r

ll-',q rp

n.,q"

/,"

I . u, in. , - i, . d.

nrd mJd

't,, ,/1 4

.,iifd

.' / , r

lr i"nds

o I n, r ' l: m

.;

l,,nelL

de p r i , " n i

ILi.r,

1l ft{rcr. Leasl.i tc$c.t. Drt tiind .r t1l/p( cub.,..(./ n, pri. { fbb . I:\ :i n,c i ar'rrrapa. r,!r/:r i- -ub-'. pl.rn,n ar.t. /"* ri /",./,iin. rn" n"t",," ";^r rFntrta',. lptFr Fi /Fs"o' p-n,ru ru n if. I o,Uti, , umF0ro tivul /as'.,rFir:a raondndi l 6 ti" Flirdt ppn-rut..t", irFn f^rm"i /r r. .i, rr. i in1,'in rrmba pnsrpri ronr.mpo,a,'ap",|'ru i p\p"i_d I un,..rur, l'1::l: ,rr .ompJrirr\ Ft pozrl.\ op.r ri !l"gl' ut,r' /. r :
ks.s r.oots Lls clorhes lprs leopte There ]rcre Lsr thsn ten p-.opleir ihe wa,uns-rood. 4) Little ,ci much sint antonime. ca ;si pluralele respectire te\r si rrany.

ti^m..

S {i89

llnrb. lli

Ir. -

urh. Long

s 690
q ri rt

l ' ]l u r b. llant . l tl .,,s s .rc .tp rn rrFb,ri r,,a,,,r.ub.." nti \p n num ta b t t ps t F \ pr i' 1li. d n i tr..a :" rb si t.rp ^ rrj v i . n o n,t d " 1 -rbrt. nt r. i nrl e. D y! n l a (u s ubs t anli\ . nu d p td h i l .. i ma n L ,rd r rt . D eo.Fbi rasdtnrr_ rco.te "\

:: l i " i , , : i " . 1:.",.t,.,.h r cp4'i,d.i,r!^ c'bi,.adinrrp rd i. , r; \ F r,

/ r, . . i

/.,\.

.,mu{:h', ,,mnny', prin sinonimele lor. . 2) Intoeuirer cuyintelor !i Cu_ vintele r?rci Fi r?anl sint, adescorjinl;cuite p"";'"inon;,"t" tn", ,-"*rl fi*, a La..t)dpdl tott. pt.pntt t t,,! tat) ttam.\.ta6 (of) a[. \tarr.). se d . t?.)|u t,ton1, tl d.Fstp.rnonime a.langd tvud qara:r.tttt tnanu o yod) nunbq (o[)l sr d /nr:p {sAl,o "t,al Tlr I h a d J i . n , ' h h " d In In F .o o o F r .,' v,
a

{ 699 '

..d !.4 t b""'1,"ri1""1!ii.:""f | 1 soot) d.dt ot thc n,t\rF o rd' oa +H,:'IJ':'il";i ;"rl!.:'"""' ''""" ' " 'vp .t ot i np^.1'

" r,.

T ha'

i l; '" rl ' ; , : , 1 j ": ; ' , ,i 1 i ," i 1 .,,,,, 1


\ "F.

lot a t too . l . , t . oi- " ". d, lv t o L. . 6r t ot t , , t h , . j r , t F n s n m . . . d, I n- r na . , t : 0 r I , n d _ , n U , . d s " r s . B,"ot o e. . d ) t , nt b4 ot t h . r r in, or n,, h .i ,,,"t,,t ".te mai t i. , Lr j , r t t ^ r n . t d I s , r i - . . i t

" 'd

Jd' iol' ,

mdr i{ .

lll "chr ln r"Fdi.p .rrr - inoni , , ; nt out .. l o l ^ . r Jll,; \..F\it.,.u.,'rlo lat of . t ot s olt n

lil,llurb. T.or-9. lLu,:h ,t lun! -jnL uneo sinonime si se traduo jn Umba .a 69J roIar., pfln r.nur(;) . , i ,[ "ta1r.r ,],o-pbi,^l n f, exprim.l cantitatca. numirrrl, morc sugerl t jdeea de ,,. ,,artiijona1,., lrzs e\pinlA !durai.d,, i r.inlp:
'l'ip r is . ' t ioo d. n r 0r !) ro nos. Ilt tilf s 0' ie, , r . c ak e. . . " 4o, . qu. . r o i o, , d ll." .- ' p tri n r I o in" Ar . I ne s o, , p -,r.-

" " t i pli:,i,i,r: t,'rl'" ;-: r1"r.1 :iLjl lr,,Jtitr'i*l]. ll;,ii';iir,i " " " " '" " n e n !""r ' r ' ""oud L Jnlp":,i rr\" .. 1 .rn r r r. ,r" ," rn:Iarj \( ,6 82r.

:1 !..!, s i , t , J

,.ii."1 . . . il J , l : ' . ; ; ' , ,l' ' : "" '';';.l rr'

r30

""11;'1,i,l;;,, *"'t li";: "1;,"1i-: i),l',T,, """':l'1".'"i'l:;': ".


S ti9.1 poate aveati funclra der de 4) Schimbare furclie' - 'l4arh a) subslantLe '

i inT;;.::''';;"""

':'l''"i"'t

"**' y,' ti','fi'1" i"i;l"4#"T'i'if :iii


He js ha'l belter toilaY

b) adterh:

s rig; t "-'

lrrelor pozir'i!Pr}Jx"l s' E'r' forrd dP sulPrlarit al P'lj' quoqran 5r llocl. /r'x"" ) :r 'u ,,,,,i.':;';,.Fhu,ni esz;.u."r,-;"i'ri'.t',",""o4tl

r.r"a*o )'1il,rrl'i'ii'" .l'Tj"'.1"""i #-:"i''"Tf

'

*a" r , " c,b s i, ; '; 11n" , ! , i , " i l ' , 0 , " . ,d,".r u b . 'n r .a ud " r ' r r<r ' :.u r ' . i, ' i \.
h at" r hd 44 r ' on \ ' ' " Tho ;"n^ r-{il rt"., n{'nle lik' lnlstr r ' ol a l ^ '\ ' l i r d I 'd p l r )

-''. i: .sr;" iiir:,.l.ri;;ii;;"til"i:n; "b""r"' i';Ti''''


less' more lqr ca;i comparativele ti) llost;i lcrst rint antonime, Elder' Dldest 0ldcr' 0ldostl

.,i,;1. ;'I :l"i:',1"1";;: i!'id?:'' i:ll"

( 691; { 697

s (i98
""

Erdosr. r, ildts,.P - q":;",r:,1,ill,:l :"0.;i1"""' 1'. lf t nr r x pr r o nt em lr ilor a pli"; io qe rr'r ".il;'iil.j'liXi,i


I i'as an ,lda son' {h",. m! rt . \ r \ r s lr .

i ; i ; ' i i ' "' ; . :


L, . nr i. o c

,j .li ,; " 1 ';;" " .'mr'" ' ' /p ) """

H' s"" r no*lr Pd Ii"h


" l ' ri at' rrl ui l ;i l ' hm

:'':i':';'" Ti: .t],i';,':' 1"":": ::*:i'if ;l;;ii',i;*:tii';lr""''t,;;.';


""r' Iir:;i,,; llli..'.1f".''i:i """ l''ll, .,1.'';;: l.'l;:ll, ":l;1'" l'" ,""'
n iaLa { - n; 1i t" " ''

ro rn p ' " rp l i c a l i p ' r' o a .ral ol l i rr 'p

i1 .;.. ," "li::;^i1..;lj.;'Iml ;rj:"' rrd'a' r'rras ' '' ''' p i",;"{i li l:l ri'i,"I.1.,.::'":;"-li;* ^ 'h"
: v i 'i 'c e l o f c r \ o f u r m d l i n 1 'e cn L., c,ou, ". ' ,

;,1';,li*;,.:d.liiii*ll*-* a 1 t' llil-.,,," 'Hlii'"i'ii.,-.. iilr;rrN" Etda.t *illi:: "*llir n') !h? ;;'.;{,:;1,i;'i;,,-ii nu,n,' r-oB.

*'i*lj"illit,,i;i';;,:j:r';;:,l.rtt,''"*i ]'::",,.,"..,r,u,,s r \u dit /,ie nld' ; lr nt ' u J I i deos ebI o

COIIPARATA

13?

tTdel poato fi ,ri sub,(tantiv cu acelaqinrleles lnrgil: Uv b.o!he. Da ,lnr nv th.e rea6. is Yi,n sb"dld onslnpr louri Fa?r's She rcsistedurc adrice ol he. .Id,./s.

s 699

Comparatkr .ld.r u poate fi urmat de coniuDctial/rd,. este nu',L.ri i 700 . riburi! .i n'r p Intrpb i ar tF,lrru a',ir,,Hl- tu.r,rri. F.tF sub.ri,1i\'. .ou si lnsorclle intoideauna un substanliv. ij este ln genoreprecdar de articol ori de un adictiv poBesivsau demorstrativ al,unai cind-calificd un substani,iv la singxlar.Cu un sub-rlanliv plural poate lj ljpsil, de determinanli(\ezj la exemplele cilale mai sus). 2) Older. Oldest.- Fornrele oldd,'!i ,ld.sl sint, intrebuiniate atit pentru { ?01 fiinl, clt Fi pentru lucrurj, ,ldf,'fiind folosii atunci cind este. sau poate f;. rrmat de ,ran: ]iis .llr sistcr is ten yeds oldc. ll.hanhe/hjml.1
I y d o g k o/ dpr t hi, ' r o u 6 of \ lilr " n. ko rk s i .,o n s i d m b l y q J u _ I o ..n p , She is llre ,idrr, woman I cso mel. ln vrenre ce c?derEi rldsr sugreazi in eenere o comparatrre inrre tralj sau r uror i . Ii i sa u f iic " . t or n, el" o i .i ,r a i n 1 dri s i n i tn rre b u i nl oi " , j rrJ , ump,,-runri ralia nu se face tntre membdi lamiliei restrtnse, atunci ;hd comparatia nu cirnstituie obieclivul prjneipal sau alunci clnd mentionarea rirstei_mai-are o alt6 implicalie decit, cea comparai,ivi,. Astfel: she had an dd./ sister. (Avea o sorl mai mare decli. ea.) Slre }ad aD ou,r sister. llrea o sold mai ln vl6tl1 deott accca despr care est.erorba.) ls there no ol&. son? lDi 1Nu exisH t]r nlt iiu mai competntp n vtusl.a dectl accsra?) (s MA eLd.er ar .ldtst) cotLsinin mod obiFuit nu tnsea'nni ,,un vtu ai mare (respociil' cel mai mare) al mu", ci,,cel mai in vt$ti dintre doi (sau mai rnulli) frali, veri ai mei". MA alder cousin este 1n genere preferar pentru intelesurite ,,vbrul meu mai mare decii mine" sau ,,.e1 mai tn vjrsii dintre doi veri ai mi care nu sint fra!i.'3. Formel r/dn (cind nu este urmat de ,rolJ $ olddst indici rirsri tnaintatd sau durati de tinrp lndelungatd: She is an orlp, woman f: o lcmeie (mai) tn !lrst{. tn etat]. Tlje ,ldar hilding jn this to{'n js the Gui)dlall. Shc is rny o?d.srfriend ( = c.a nai vcctre pieten{)a. \ 702 " n ..l' j o/,,. rtJr th" tl u' rm

S ?03

I'arther. Fart'hest.-

T'urthcr,Furthest !i ?0{

1) Farther, torthcst si further, lurthest sint adeseori intrebuinlate fdrh pentru dislarl.i (: n1ai dcpirtat, cel mai depdrtat): deosebire.
I s\rari 10 l.he fatlhrt b^rL ot th. rivcr. lDistantel \1rr .onld $! lli. /orlkr cnd oi th-" strcct. (Disi:inlii)
I V ezi S 698 . 3 H.W. Fow]er. ,p .n. clder, -est. 3 H.W.Io\rlcr,ot..n . cld0.r -cst, C,rrtr liidl trn s[]rsi{ni.i! saD...v.I|i"), interlr'rtara date ai.l lentru glDul nasfllir.stc

tle s.nxt comun i ..!arr,. rlalrni Fi UItrr .el

4 p. nt1, sp-,i , L r., r ' r La dr n , pJ - t i n"op, ii", . , , r t o d , d \ p . . r v . . r t n r e l + r ,, . . ^"a ma r!'n. r--rF , ' b/ . . pt i. r' !. r.or dr,r.i o.!e .fill'r'.,c', , r nd n,- . |,tt. ,o lnJ, i. , . , LA". | \1i1"t Ac.lntnt.t - , i. lt t . r1o J . r t ' l ."iA" t] t , . r o. uo ' , 145' " lt

13E

al., ,',i" ..,r,'i"''i i" t dc djstanln lipse-ste:' ""|.".,i

l r L lin Li c l s l, r; .o n l c m r^ ro

i"t"*i"'t to;n'"t"['/rth"t'//i/'ai 'ind ineea

fo a h r E i fd h t ' r' l

l cgarF de i dcea do

..rn ..rupl,mcn,-r-. plus rrrdus ,,,^'";-ii,l,i .1,,.;i;; ia""" a. ,,"aitio',"r.


uoeriri prin ,,alti, ,,mai" etc.):
TIi.r d is r o nded f o- / ' , t / , . "' dTpl L u o / 1/ ' " . on idPr dr ion h" d r id' d t o I .m told there is no /u,ftr nevs' r ' ds on inr m y d ' i 'i u r ' t ll u v " lor r r / , / ' "" T _ ! I i' k r ' oul / , ' r l"" dplll' s r \ n o n 'n s lo br dv } er p ' o" I $:. /,/r" 'I :. , s I p / r "i/ F' pnil h' In l rs nn rusrons' ' ou- d r p a 'i [urthq li futthest

at 'lhere was a st.rhLe the lt1hzt end oI ihe room' we headcdior l,he/drtn"/ sho'e ft ii"it*r lo^; rion the sohoolis nine grad' I''l thersilu t, / sa rplpra in mod oLiinuil ld rimp crnlitala ssu

ln li-b a pn rlP/ a . onr am por s nd s F r - inde l n F a ' a l f f 'n a l " lot r ' ale t a h||ifo t 'l 'a t in lo a' . ' r z "r ih . , inlulJiri.. ' Th town is ier kilometrcs a$aX at the /uttust

$ 705

2) SuperloLivele larthermost,l ffffienmit

enprnnd un grad mult mai

l n d l l d" . ir t or m oln " o i F p u n ? d l o a rF /d ./rP v Si /rrl l P sl l

are Solitt expcditions siudvins the Idfth{t46t ls^\\furlhettusr)ends

3) Pentru /ar cu valoare de adverb vezi $ 2283 c S ?06 Nearest. Next

1) Nearest(: cel mai apropiat) se referd la sldliu sau.rudnia. e'' comla la timp siau ordinea in 'are se rfl6 obicrteler (: ""i""e "";;;"-.O.;
\1:e rane np the nrd.?s, doctor. urc f.oi lrrs zzarasC road. r TheY are mY adr.s' par ' n s r in' p v o . s ed J o r r'elahons r r F m L 'r m p l o t h " d \'.f, L 'r ' 'tn be c onLi ir r nL" / r l n - pJ ''l'\ I n I P r t u Pdi. nl lle t : m \ EJ ' al + ; " 11i ' s lP I Ud l 'r'li 1 t ; n, y , ' J ' , / r ir ' r u d p l i l F m a r s D r o p r a r pI lm i il

ni a arli'oluluihoL iririn a rrrros u p F rla riv u luP ' ! l i p "n i." inr*t "i"lntea vozi S 600. Fole. Formor' - foremost'First 1) tr'ore,cu vdloarede adjecti.!"esteinircbuintat mai mult in formelo
lorelcg 6 ?oR 2t lormer, toremM deli cumpar{ti1 fo'$to ca formi, nu e\primi lorc'urnr intotdeauna o compa_

2 l Pe ntru r'ir . , u

! r los f e

dF adt "r b

vPzi $ 228J "

S ?0?

iost{ p'olesoar{ a nea) a /o.tu' i.acher o{ nine (: un lost proiesoral meu,/o


:,,.a.a rl : cp l m ir s c ur L,

COMPARAT6

189

3) SuDerlativele lilsi fi loremost sini aproape sinonime, amindoua tnspnL- ! 709 nind ..p ri r;r ul . F ar " nn' t i . rp fp ' b i o j ; l a p o ri l i F . 'l i t01F. i mporrH nl .;.' u r" r .nc .i .ti rui" a. npr , iJ pi i d c i n I i i a t a l F . s v i n ,l n u rn l a da: d) ...c1n ' ai s t d nFa : pl ' .rr:..pri mul di nr' ' D / , , pri n "i p alul' . . . F l m ai i m D o r' s n t d i ' ' i n F . b u n m a rc , +i di n l i i : pF . in l / , / s r A r' ,' ; o rd r^ p . i n r' o s p rr.: TIe /or.,ro-.rlroons had reachedtlie riter. th " l l .r o r s -., p l a J q i s h . F o. na" ^n gh O nins horro t to r4 tu tn n g ]1 " i l i ' l p . n " r" ui The /rr nns pa-ssts live o'clock I $iil lale ll,c /tst lrain Thev sere tl,. /t(r to comeN'n; is the /^, placeon rou riglt ]t rva! a /,st nigj,t lFrromance)lntrebui ,tarea anrbelor suprlative ir expresia firsr nnd faretuast acten lneazi ideea de inriiet,al,e: The t{o hothers $erc [iN ann forcnastin thc stNggte ior bctter qna]il] Soods' 4) Pentru /orr cu \.aloare do adverb vezi $ 2283 c

Lster. L:riest.- Latter. Last 1) Lster. Latcst.Latter,Last. - Formelelolr (: mai thziu. mai recent) S 710 ln qi ldlrit (: ultirnul pina acum,cel mai recent)slnLconsiderate funclie da timp:
Idrd. rnmours tirat he is dead saY Iashio! This is lhe l@,es, (,lin doi,. doiledlopu'lui lormer): l'l r"lerindu'" ulrimul Latlerla/ "l mod,rn, a.rual. prP/"nrl: la'l I u]ri' d" la llirsitul ;n"i Dprioadc rirnpt "./ mul rdin mai In'it!ir tnpu" lui firsll; ulrimul dFfiniri\l se rplcri la lo ul pc ' "r' dclFrmint: rl ocupain lll,p ,au iitr'o s"rip "o1r516n1ivrrl {erc hnd benovdhanld;ine later l: Ih conbine6l an.l tombitres nl The tlactors
bt ' 't alr.adv Norkrns. T \ r l;2,, hd tt;t Jdn dv $as \ r r J "o' d. lashio ns a .p h. r dlv b. om r ' g lautdar ' rhp lak; p oa l- an rlL ing pair r n lh" iiJ hr lor I ' bpJ v d n d p n J l p 'fhcsc were his l6t No.ds. He caDe ierc i,st FridaY three Nceks r ' gr I F I o, r lt j"ndt T 1p , asr h ou "p on " 1r r lhom . on. I h" L l g u".t

2J Former. Lttter. - l)upe enunFrarea a doud obiectel,comparalivele trebuinlate pentru a ardta: former prinw], corelaiivo forrrrr ti lallfl snri ultimul obict rreilionat: obiect. ldll,lr
l' p m n u n r a i n s o r _ i n " s p a - : d . : s F Ih" r" sp . tso .,.;.s. - r : o, - f o- t h, u"pLp r ' ' r ip lh! sea5r4 | t o t h t a" p tolo . t p t " latat ' rto rtd ' "E lo ,a't ( Vf z i ii S 965 9e6)

S 711

cuprinde md; mull dP do 'i obieeter' $ ilz 3) First. LaFt. Cnr(l enurncrarea li\pl! .^r,l.,li\p /rrs, :r /dr/ "rn irr tpbuinlale n"ntru a aratj': /r'ri suDprl, primut obiecl. ldsl ull.inul obiect menlionat:
,,c. li\,^1 Ilt . Hdrll i'"* o nlit'"' L : r' o\ pli,l. ir "l cD r l. ' $. r . i 1"/ r "' ' r" ' r"rnriish$ri r '' 't ' r '" r

Oricare dintre adiectivelo /o n.r, lattet, firtt i lasl pot {i inrrebuinl'ate s.i singuro, |nri corelati\.ul respcctiv.
I Sens Cfamatical (v!zi S !r'

S 713

140 ;ll l , Lr lo. l. I a' |. r.rA.r . el ' ,rr ' i' nut d / ' r ' ; ' ' l i -pri n l Jpl ul r' i trp e l d i \ e ' ' d' d' br' ' o rr \" -r.' rrnr' ta:r ' ta tatad l a ' d/ pc t L l ' rm rrr /rr" 'a ' ttn I l 1 s t' o rd i n " a i rtr' " rtta

tiitrd atrtorur in viuie)r ,"1""::'#,1llit.t;i"iii"'*:i"lL'll;ii ultina' s'is nu a Itrai o artir] aotorur, P'i'f'3'i[:l*"",'1",1i";5.e 'nu'jno'
i.ezi S 2283 c 5) Pentru lald cu valoate de adverb'
'rll. ldresr buscs aft tcry 1t6r' I cNsht the lds' bu$ holle

Uut

s;lb

P\rre m ) 3u r nielP! e b s trrd :

"L.ljl":ll:"::';I";#;,1-iJ:ii';;',:',i,i,'":"oi:'.;,:":
rh..,,".rna, ou./ cloll\es
nn &ll" stlanger

llil:;:t::l#:i;r.11,1,',,
ttt liltili"

&lrd.onrrsron

mai inalt decli '*iii un grad muli Forna de superlativ dle''mos' exprimi forma utrmost:

oI c''lrih il"'i"* .:1".,:i"J?:"""'i"";'";;$:i"l'l:; the

s ?16 "'"

$71?

2) Contparaiivul o ldr este antonimul -comparativului-;nner' in(F t)tnott our("'1nos' 0nronimul 'up"rlari!ul|l ''ul-

iarsuperla'

fo mp rra i h J\" r h. lof inr 1/ ; o ra c r' rF a F ' P.l ' i l :' -:i :l .i :::

lrr'" il]Ji'l :iktrul,* $:;;;ll";",i';:;"on;'i$;;ii"fl ;r;?j:ir """"xj


-i :-" " t. ar,,n.i ci nd e l om enn:

t) .A.djectivere :1*x:1""il;tT, "i";tii'":*i'tL :1Tl'::'

'?ffi*t*i iJil"lx#1"3i3"1'J"ii" sau adiectiv un

r;'1";o'1"1'"-' o ;:';;:;riY:' ;"1;i1" i',*ll,li f##;-.Tri;"i';;i-;:))"'"1 l"''"' e"'''|'rri.'a''ookins 'j::,i o,"l'li'';'-,n'' 3".'i%r;;:13 l,'; '" o-' :"lii;'

'ninn 'Pd foF Tost atunci oind primul elerneni lJ./ 0u ajutorul adYcrbelor mold ii ru ,-.nns un ro' indiBolubil rl doilea: -pn7"'

rj;g';11i1; ;;i1,"1i,"",ii:3,.!f3ll -''",,' i" I \"' " ri" ,/'" ri;'i;

#';ii'i,1:;';iilif #;: fi;,1;iil"li' li:;Tlillt "....-'.,,,., ,,,r".,.,i i 1"r,), i.;,,1,.::,ii"lT"111"d.",. ",r,r., -. fi ;1,1'l: :',ijil:J"*""i srLoct ll:,i;;;r;:,,:1" _, srgrr ./,,rr srshlfil, rurr "_, n i rh ra o ' r ;;' 'E;i ' " p r' s r' l
":;

i:tii:i",1H lJ:{i*;Tr**-1ff [*;i'*'i:t$:'lll##dil"aq,"'1:irjltfr

COMPAFAFA

141

fh d ! adopr r u a no* h i s h ' n i rd t l t' n v It \i .s r h; m . r ou, a[ th " -rt4 /" i ,.r.L o .,o .rd rr,n k o. i n l l ' r' ' o nrrv' /o / i ': n :oir t , ' t t ! nli P .' J -" i ,n ' .r H rl :' ' ,a' 4d' e p 2 ) ,^'ri" . r it " la " om pu s F ..l " rro r l ri m F l a .1 p n rF' un ' uvi nl ' drP n' r arc r :rad.d c.d -pr r o1ic . t or ' m c a z aro rn p o i a ti v u l i i ,!r,p " 1 1 ' ri \ ul u 0j u orul sJL" tbPlar mo te l r ' r qpec t r v m r \ l : darbtelaced,.mote dol1llc'Iaoed, uos, dottl_laced n tu t h e .Itb t ol, " n. u. p hpartb ro t" n , ., .F ,l rrL ro k .fthnni, moP oittdd, nos' olr and M * . o" l .l i ,rq s , @ r ' o u -.l i rri g ';u -stiit \ r c 4ol" r 4d -o l r-_ ,ru s ' s ' a n do i l ' h s,al "do llLh. , " todav ihm vesir.tav I loud hin marc doenhe@ted Shc is the morr selfrateious girl I cver .ahe aoos-

COMPARATI.\ DE EGALITATE {co\[P-\RlsoN oF DQUALITY) 1) Comparolir de cgalitate. - Egalitatea 6e exprime prinir-un adjectiv 1n gradul pozi'iv lncadrsl dp conq'rufrrd:
David k 6 lleased as l/ne!.

S 718

Construc.tiads .. .tJ se menline io propoziliile interogative, negative ;i interogativ-ngative:


ls D a \i J o " p l PA ,d e I/mP ? I/m" ' I D a v ' d ' ' n rt d s n ' e a s e ' l ' 1 David is not ro nleased ds r I/me. _ Isn't Dalid as Pleaseddr I/mc? in n rr s, d" c so estF di n 2 ) Co mDar alia oc qa ti r5 . - l n ' o n ' l ru ' \i s 'e l n dpa.i al i madi al ' l upd o .. ma i d .s inloc uir c u a s to p ro p o z i l i i l p n F g a l i v a . l ormS.o o l r s s d r a is , " / , t .L tn t' M rPn t.d ;d n -t ' l c i n vrFmccpsocdl pmaLmul l lntrebuin,tat dup[ adverbe ca reall!, qnite eIc.. He is n o s o k i n d 6 t" i " i HP isn r o s L ' n d c Er;' a Our task eos zo, so had/rdsu 1 as ndrd ar we ealectcd T h" n Ps m L s i rl s u ,P, r d i p o p u l d o s l h" o' d nn' s ' lh" e d i d a r a o o s fd _ ri i l r' ) d s (l h " v d ' i r JA sterddv
HP;anaot

$ 719

so ara The sardens zo, qtrne Inst at I thonght' .on.lru' liai ds. dr a .onlribuiL n'r numsr Probabit .d lr ra,!pindtrFo tpndintoilF.implificarp'atitdp a' ri!a aclualmanl c 'i9i inllu' nl3 sononl6Lrl lo"uiiuni idiomri.. 'lP lsrqacir"ulslip mult aprPfidlcde Fprrlul niLore-"iilor anglo-"axon, ,onsllnd din jocuri dp.u\in'P (puns 'r-ont 'alr'nbururrr ti respF'6Jje.livclor. naslru$r'i'' ombinale'u sullqlsnlrvFlc asuprasensurilor precum: tive,
(do.')D at. os t l; hl a . o b a t , a < . l osp o s o i o ' J tp - . o s d . a d o n u ttar- ns 4.ol o' 4 4s snatP tl aLhha"' lP.n o "n L r d ,l d sn adrso d s g a o d ose a ll.o o sd l n bo a l.t.. d, e needle, etN. ela. .rc

Pa L lu b P s

b d d d ' 1 ll

hdl

lAdelco.i adverbd ds, care pecedi adjlclivul, nu se exp.imn: The child is shop 6 a reedle Th e b aa tt,' d -u ns J ' . 1. Hp : " , \ ' n a! o t uk . ros I ' o r m 't l : "rp ,o"."r xrim lr i. "t inlFb. i^lar I n - i". i limbajrl colocrial scrG sau vorbit (\rezi ii $ 87i)

14! ca ins Anchela ,,ltiii (op.r't.. p.24- 25) ajungela con lu-zia ambclptofmF dp Ji'culdrP.sint a"+pjabrlp pnrna in snrul nrl so...arr8i noi 3b..4, alll jn srilul t1'nlliar'da fnpl o Frpi ln l*rn"i, .;" i"-, a.r" in limba \orhil; l; lenta disparilie fina16 a forl'rei not so...dr'

DD COTIPARATI,A. INFERIOITITATE
OF (CO\IPARISON INIERIORIl'Y) I ?20 adjecqi sF Inferioritatea se e\p mn prin a'lrerb'le 1rss'? .i'asls p.u inaintco adl'rrr!urur: ar Ii Iungimea li\ului ln gradul poTil;r' ori'srp

r ohn rs t.i p /4 ' sd l h a n I m F (C omP r.ari t J ohn i ' rl P i d ;r ri " 6 ' d o r ' s a ll (5!p" rl al rv' as.) F or m a nF s at rv A a .o m p a ra ri ru l u i d F e g al i tal e l not o' e ns nat 50' sj esl c prel crsl a arebrr' rs co re s ound" c a int p l p s " o m p a ra ti ' u l u i d e i n l F ri ori tatF de compa'ali\ul je'rivclor.curtc ,"'"t ad

ii" iiHl"i;"-i";;i"i. r; "pl'"i"tr" i n fe r ior ilal. l; ind s o fo l i r m s i p F d a n l .

AD OBSERVATII,\SCPRACOTIPARATIEI JECTITELOR IN GENERAL G ?21 o'-'

Cazulrclui dc'al doilea,teJmen ici ruclia nropozil romparstite' 1J Cotrsl l doileA rare con!incun al eomoaratiei li'irlo piopozi!ii 'omparativ decrtJ rfttn r9r' Psr;lPgalde pnimulprin conjur'1r3 term.nal ci,mparaliei dc ;etlciPt orai"lanoti"dl. se sfld ln a"elaqr cu Lprmenur din Dun"i ''r 'az care esteeomparat(Yezi 5 881' 882):
?,Fygr\. n,r b"llari ecor. lhansir,ldidl Nonina.i\) /obiprtrvr b"r'.t rsond rhan Th.i'Ea\" Ilhevdid '. ', nu ins;' 'pcslaregulA cslFrespe'tat6'ln urmaIn enelcz,contomporana ex;mple tntilniir &o,i lorm" p.ono-inale, ambele curentp dupa tntn: toarele I{e is kinder rhnn sh'lh'r' kind lhan stultu'' He is leEs He js not so kind as ttuln"r'

in Cazul nom;notttts"?r/al pronumFluiobligaroriu arpaslt situalredupt \ntrchtinterza ln s'ilul formal !i.ln.lrmbdjul rhan.f{'t, promattcot "arPit'i "" insriiit. tnnrom" cc cazulobiPti! (r'./ estefolosil 'urpnl in lrmblur'oro'-

i;iii'ii1"itii,i

^;gi,:;i aDropiate -"'"i"i."lri"r"'"" obie"'ivinlo'ul nomineli\ului'repsza ln'aamhipor l6muri'itunlis -,ului ,".r" rlp'"" ronulsi 0ncenlul gri,Jfi. 'arp -"i "i;i - "*i". ln conl'ersatie Spr. prl,l '. ev.l'Plul .lasi : th.tl ntz'
fal I lilie hcr morc i. e ll "' d r r"' n t d l 'i llb ' lrtll ir, dP_ d

en ca' el mitiar scrisorirorrc priFi i Faur"dc oriin""r ra

tert, completat cu po4iunea omisd !i interyrtat corect gramattcal ,q.cest lnseamnde!'ident:


/ D, | ' {r' r '

I llr \ t "' "n "" 6 't 'n n " ; d or ' r apir ' lr Co."l"L li--'. o i "r ili ' r "' o ' lar ' li d r o r d ' lFp' a A "(I'm.iri o L 'p-. - r CodrarntiLtl jrd\rrhbr i,rrre 3 Supdrtatirnl adverbului ltde

r l i 'o r " ' a'

dlnmatr"dpiF

143

Totuli, tendinla actuald de inlocuire h cazului nominativ cu cel obiectivl. addugatd la omisiuneaudei pn4i din coniaxt, face ca acelagitext fa,i de mai tfd, I like tier morerhan nm.l 6d lie folosit ln mod curcnt 9i cu inlelesul nccorespunzitor gramatical astfel: I like her more thatr ne iliLes trerl. f.) (: Ini llacc nie ea mai dult declll"t./ .caa.F aqle.u to',rl Eltcpv,t.liind o,nbiguu. A. S. II ornby, scrie: ,,ln stilul colocvial. yorbitorii nu isi dau intotlleanna 4t'n old so ol ogn pppla,t ,4r 't .ind nu a\i.ri ri..ul ambisuitnlii. Is "h os tsll is mel Cor^.t gramati.sl .5.o a\ | aml. Gr $"oto-oiti nu est"erotd.Cl. Inlr^huinlafpalui lt's mp'. 'Tbat'q bim her', dpdut d? .uta td in stildl colocaial." Dar ce se lnilmpli cu linba englezi in cazurile cele mai numeroase.in .Jrc vo'bilori; ..ntriti dau orlpneala sd lic rrFnli la.rps.c spun {sau!ma mult lnnaj au uita' sau n au vrut .d rrip niciodard ,lcosFbirFa lnLre un rext corect gramatical si aitut incorect)l A.Fla.i pro.ps s pFtrp.Fsi da"_a. dup" rl,oa.pronumclc sinL inlocuitc.u numF proprlr. Propozttt0. la) vu li 0 uI. r: /4, I likc Agatha nore than .Erdd. unde interpretarea ambigul poate fi: (a'):ln:, place Agatha mai nlult decit Fred. (4") : Agatha tmi place mie mai mult dectt lui Fred.

Clarificarea intenliei vorbitorului in aceslicaz se poate face numai complpllndus" omisiunilF din ."n,-*1 u. t", fa'l I like Asatha niorethatr (I like) Fred.
fa") I likc -{galha no.." tl,aD lired tlikes her). (A se ledca hse nertilrat qi 5 s81)

.umpcrarive provcDite din . . 2'. Comldraiivclc l ati||e. Lrup.; ,lr.\s junior. p"st..ry. yihr. s,niar, sup.rior etr.), linbi lalind, (unt,riur..in[,r;at. Fsrpttuo.u r cu pr!p0/r\tr lr: ronlunclrJ r/?an
Their sooils $ere infqiar ta o11ts. Oxr team wcrc rlrs.ior ,o ou oppr'nents. IIis clajm {as J,'t. ,a auu!. He is th jarD, padnir iD the lirm. 3 l C oos t r uc ! ia pr op o z i l i c i .u s u p o rl a ti v u l rcl sti e. l nLr-o propozi Li c . aic .o n l i n F un s upF r lr li v re l a ri v . s l d o i l " a ' p rm p n l .onrpai al i ei est; de obi .pi

I 722

$ ?2t

precedatde o prepozilielol (: dintre), in, rn, under elc.l:


Lilies are the nost lmsant ol fXnaos. These are thc f,E;t ;ppld ia out ochatut. Ile is the Ds, an ;\' tutlL Shc was the dp;s, @naa undcr the Nn.

^ A se conpala cu $ 87t. IA.S- Homby, Gat.rd I'd ans d l asasein Engtisn,pag. t24. to

144

i:11"i":iii"""?'illi s;2,r 4,supcrra,i,ur ll'o;rj;,,;,':i':l;:lJ,l ?i "'*:l:'il':.,i'il:iil '1ut""-llr


"*'lll"l" "#*r
*t"*"t clnd substantivul eriprimat: colul nu este

Hf']"'f;"ff:ti 'ro'"'"
*iTil""n"

i:f;:]fjil o.if.".i"",i', or prcp'e oauser'!!-" in the

art! de un adjectiv dctermitlatiY'

"--'lll"",ll:"1;,.,:;l"l'i::'"ili"Jl;:":""t:, :i,;if l''"'l'il"T"ii'lllii'i;" i "".'"'"'" i u p e ' l s ri \u l ui ds rrl puri u nLrdnLs l o' ' i
LioqA 0r li' ulLrl rri //" i rrd rn l " r

" t , r ,r iii'"*

FmoriP : p .i .i"a o prorundd


t ol i1"nd 'l rr ' na l' ; t ht t t A' - Fns , t r Pl' '

esle precedat de articolul hotidr' De objoi' superlativul-ansollrt nu

'*';ffI:'15i;"'i"":*li"'

C ,n t a i u n ' I"' rrrd '1 $726 u se r ndi 'uh''.n'iv :"1;.,':::ll"ll;";'iiii;:':;r:ili$i'^"11 c epet n

Jsid"i'Il, '..- 'm^ ''' ' r'ul^" 'ld .

"""

5J fonrlaral ia rrr trnsrogur E 726 r' cel al 'up"rt'tttut'n: " para!ii poa " lil'r dtr' In "azur 'ornpdto'i\ulLri'c1lsi

1.'"**'"' xij!,tl;"1;::;'o:"":,:::;,,T:^T[:-:lF;i't";::i'# "ln'"'f'lix; sl l'loilcd lPrman ur'pi'nTlrrmeo - LclJ'


:":l'r"] ll; :'f".; ::,;'"" :; F no., .,h",,'re_ra""l,,lTi " " '' "'a'v
fi i;'i:""itf#:' .x"T; "nii' is*iu*';'
-h" .",- ,"*,,,...

' lec

' ro l

{ ?2?

un'l:r; eliplicn'- \ trbul din ptofuzilrs 'bJ Propozili .romparirlrli lirrrei omp''1ii adF eorrlro'F'la(I r/z/caro'onclrlur.dl dorlcarartirts

2? 2 8 . 8 E2 - E8 3 ) -'o rnpr r aLiplnr ,r d i t f o r n p a r a lri a o u lo h i o (re 'z'-'o rro"ur iur *r r r tirPdoY:l,"lil' "";lbi S'" 8 au"r p^z' ' r ' n i2 Jr ' r i i : : T ""i : .i ;:;i ,;;..;.p " ;" ri ri rr i ;:,irf

\ ?2 9 '

"'i"'"'J'i'1""' llili::i ll"'g"li*,'i; )n;j';,] .;' i;:',i":1"f l,a'i::"";T-:,i'.,;i:":r''li'iillii' ,,"" " ''' " '" '' A s compara: i]': i"ll'i\ iffi:";iiil"'""'""'" ;',tru *: I i,,,'; :l lll",'li:;,,1;,[1 Jil':lio-' J" rump' re' r\' L
"
' '' Cor r , p, r r r ir trl ' u In -l a ' d F trr' " rl ' rr' ' ' t' 1 n -' tt' t d o rtt' w tul hatnri t ' u:t n r ' nl, u / i' pr , n l J l ' rrl ' " rul P ttdttt' u

1,'"' I i".;,-il -i' l,;;, *,ji;. ""^i ::" ;i'[;:;]:,,;"ffi . "ri.;"lll" t or - Lnti',.::;";.il'j:',,"j l;;f:;l:' ir""-"11"" pnr^:".,r -"'"v *i i::i;;: I sn pn t tl'e 8 f P' r ef 'r'1-

]" ii';i"ici,,i"Ii"iill;1,1,,,'') ll i: t:j[,i;J \i ; lt"iill, ilrr,


I l' , nt r ! dur i n i ti atrd j "' r li, ',r"',",. ' ", ' "
|' pl r r nr ' ' /r"8i

ili,'.:ili:1ii. ffiiLn"#'\'" tii?i :liiii4il::;',ti;;ill: ii"',","';iii'i"",1l """'

COXPARATIA

145

douii obiecle superlaTotusi. se lntilneqlc unoori ti irr ronrparalia dinire lilul i locul conlparal,rruluri
\ ,e.i-1., Ln n.lru .l

",,'ii'","iu* ih 8l',,i: ?i:*""1':i:;'ii '",- ""


p F ' 1. . In gr r or P ' J r ' ' i' lp"r ' i la\i

n F ! l i i 'n l d

sril

Engti'b"' i. n iir.r. runsrijit: 'tipstrod ( ;ll(l url dirrlro ohicrl:i trtr.crrrn rlrn'lun uLi"'r ''rp otnpdral I oDrpam!in '. i nd ' r/r" rl i n !' up el ' rn' .i . r r-p u l Jr " ' ' r ' lJ ' ' nd rrF " ' ' " ' ' rp ,r'tr" i1 s't" t' " i "'nd 'nrr" t " ' in rH"rt ' rt llt t t u t , .' : '"' , ; i : l ; ; i " ; ",,r "i i i " '' 'i unor cuvinte ca: /Derrsr S 73r ." ,t'i,rg"..,p iace prin inlrodur:erea ;;;i;;;'"" ariv CornptLr ul :
:\

/;J;"^';,," ;ii" t alrccre ct)

J oan is ?t u fe d i l i g n ttn a n ttu r4 ' o l tl e cl ass

** J,i?#"fi"$:1i"l,ll |:li'r.,';;;ft " "t,, "ll:,'ilfi;f

Dinlporli!4. lntr'o propozrlre!'u in gtupul "u .1ra FsrF 'o'np 'r'rr: 'r, h,I- ';,//r ,\up'rlalirul:

li : :: ;:;'3',lll;"",::,':"-ilti1f."1il,#i:"1ilJ"iJ"'li:l* il? ::'/-"1',""iit'ii, f;,ff|,',#::itr" ii:::: ;i'4,,JJ'1,;:: un saP'rlaiit' obicctul supusiiiii. comparaliei $ 7:12
is u,., n.ff:i".1""i, ,t n"a.c,,r J^6n i,Jo1*":"i,1 ';"'1"1,:,r;lii: 1,r"..",",;,r"1""fr 'La oir ,",1.Jfl;";i;::.","iI ,,,,ji,L .nh"r.ra... ' ttn. o,p ,t,. r qr/ $ ,r.r ,,r"."":"l i ,,l l oJ" ' ; : 5 . f i: ' l
iLa"""L) Th ,! $ erP t h' / t ' es r oL r (CarecI) 'lt\e v lver t hc nt ' s r t hildt un in t llc pa r k

"i1lf

" "'|/;-.,",,',

pr race ca Hi nii'Kil,.",lo ;;il:L:; parre neriini,rria ,(J;"x;;; il":l,; ':1.11; .r.r..ar uraD her sisrs'
srre is (Cotect) \ 733

sistcrs is the.lt"'sr ol the lJodesl -\t\e t tle dublu-conparativ 9j Dublul comparativ'Dublul sulcrlativ - Formele e'nnstb'r't'st)1'F InotPobt dubru.'irp"rrarir | -.;:';:i:;.";;:'i;;:;rri DFsi .u'pnr inrrpbuinrdlcIn \r' n Fa lrri ShaL"pFdr" ti "it\a :i;;;;',;; "',i" "ri1",.. d.rualrrFnrprr;d"dz lip'i 'lc 'ulrurs " """.
-

' '"' ";il.::".'Bii:'i::: .ll.t,i;".nli':li'?;"1,?:lliillli:ii'i,''fl'Ll,".,ll'ii; '", i" ' : i i i i : ' i ; ".,", p tp i i ma' " d' d' ; "" . ; ," " -" '" ,. r'r'i i
sau/dr'. ori urmat de 1)Y etc : lar
;,.l .., ' " ^' ; " unp r' ri \u l F s r' n r-' F d rr
i'orse lodaJ

"

d e aJvqb" l "

tr" r' Jl

na h

'|r,. Feather is (aeu) nr'L lr ar l \n1 '/r' " l

al l "'l il" i i',' : :',.:;,.'.n:'0""," :l :"-'' - , \ ' n r r \ r r ramriJ" n, /,,.. t'".


i i: .';i"
!.rm,ti

7,

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"'

l. : i

o" t, . "ll I , d . r\ ai, )

'-

ra l I I'ra r ' ",r ' r .i

li

" ; ' . u ' l lor rr

li :

l' r

"_ ' lo

lp "4

' ' rl r'r lr'n / 'rri si rrin lattrl ci1 .ste nar

r ' :.n id l

de la S t3i. In gramrii.i.

140

llli'll ':: :;";:r;;";" :li:; :::l.,i{r't;\ i':r:rr::: 'r,'. i] [ji ;""i'il'r ",,,.,,
sru Prtnrep( i*,oic, P"""'al"Pto'

rindu ll:: : ;: lil: P 'J ,i\,",u, .unprr. 'r-'|J r: uLr c^n,parili,

*" i i : , , . , 1n" ..] i" 1 ,,.r;.r ;"ltlll:i"'l:'""'-'",' i "'1"'' \ : "0.',:i:,

*"' lrlii:1,i";riii {""4;;;il:";"::::.;::,";,. : s


i\ compxralo-6itu" o""i':ll':; idiornAlr'o. dorrir l: lI, construclii 'tt '' 'li

rr lilx.i:i;;,i;':t :'{i:');:l'rr:'

"' ' dnf'"" "o "'".:',;lit,l?llil'';";';':i': "" "," -l,l"t"'l*;lw$,r'i"":"'ilf ri"-';;iiH;


'la pozilii dihri'P drsnarrna mar"- : cu at:li.. rh? sta4., tn, dJB "r,4fte ;3:; ;;,.:,j"'i .

r : rt
'

A " rn p r" " J'l c d "'F llnJLr' prrn::ii;::.' ll' " "l:"lYI' ]' l' l' ' cu i r"" b / ' l "d c o m p a 'l \" l "p"" rii'g"t"
;,il: :J'i 1:'i' ;'t:,^ i":;',r";'."; * * r c ]'l;, f^:n: "":i ""

;:iir,l jr]#Jlii;1i l; s,,,," ilL ii.,l $il'iliTt't o 1 i "".,,"1, i,",:ii


RcFsi n .n " t t i. Un" L" { r i Z e ' i z i. 5' u rl : ;d ev ar dr p th b k rp .

"; ifif;n"i;;l'#i:i,jlr"I;"!'i:rl;:''
'f;'ii;f ':L:t; i'io'-' '
,e h ,trtr.

s' ?re r ""

,-,,*,1?a!iiii*iii'i"'*ffi ::":i: ii;*$i$i",11


S ?41 a) intrebuinlarea adverDe restrlNd, loo':

"^o ,rr u " ,ii ., .",,,:-:;,:,;1,,1.:,;,-,. . , . . . ' r , , , , , " . , " "0,

u" * 1":ltl,.l;""*l:ll" li i:i:'i';"J",i'"' i:'J:', superrllri\p. Dour

l't\:'*tj';*tl{'#'; "
-,"., ,n ri'-,
sLrperltrl,rv LLsnl'rt drn

t'i'; ))a""a ;;1 '"-:;;"r;'!)t''

;i1:tlil',"";':L1r;';.;l:ll '""' trmotr -'Lr ci

''"' s"- n,rnJ i:'....'.?'o

a"La r'II'! 'p - q'r'nrn

COMPAEAT1A

147

unui Dumer foarte mare de adverbe echivalntecu adverbele S ?42 _ Dl lolosirea tare oau stilului mai multi exPresivitate: .le mar sus.
dp_ao\ .

l l l :!' 9-l ' r" t px rJoror \i P J\dr\' i i sr' l v h^r,i b' r.h' real J rl ' ,' l i r fu h j r.s ., , : t , l c,r.,\.,r " nit f . " \ r ' . ndr ' m..5 ' d Lrngi 5rng!rrrrv. . i n n, i,,h r'.r-tr, - , r , , , . 1r . i' n " d i n ,.r' 1 .1t" r' p ^ l l J . ,p m d ,L a L.\' 'i ho j h n-ommol rj fl i b l j .rra r- r\orn hn, . s r , , L' 1s l .f " o n d o i ' J . ' ':;;i \' ,"" t 'l; r l, : t \i 5 rl r ra m \" n d ' ru rl f - , dl lL 'i'. - : i ,t,r. lntrobuinlarea arlcerbelor eragerat tle erpresive este una dinlre oaract eri"li rl " . ilului t , m r liar i n l i rrb s " n s l " rd l > h p u a - o u /,/r" r,l p a ' ' d t \,,- /.rR 4 ,/,//JL i l d o r" I im drea.lfutlg sorrYn r' lr \a ! ,a ra J a ' f n d l . ,: .i D l ,/-1 'i r ' n l Yo u " S 7{3 cl ui,ilizarea unor adverbe cu nuanld de superlatiY absolut, ca: irut. .ruitc.' pasili(,elq, reallq. s;mplu eLc.l It was ius, snlendid. I q d a u rk d i s d D Po i n t' J ;s i n di'E d l I ll " A P^ n ,,4 , She was rimFit aslul ' a l /J , S 7r+ dJ lolosirca unor anu ile prelixe sau a altor cuvinte la formarea adjective-lor: ."'rlelalnuaid ngPelsensitive s'rra dry JuP erttnr o r,.b l .r' ' "-o .st ion, l o .a " i z e d ipnr iods rJp p r o ns , l l i ;:.;11" .,.
, lF ir'rlli L.*hti" lJ P) im d h r l\' o vPn o r ' rl r'

ad mi .d blf . J l4" mn8. y . d .p .rn s h .

i \\ru rl r

rd

ro o$Jl !

c I folosirea superlatjlului relativ tntr'o propozil,ie in care al doileatermen esle l6arte general sau lipEe'qt cu totDl: ) U has Ure ,o/sr ol temlers. {: IIc is e:l.ao.dinarilv bad_1empe'd I saN the s,er&s, batY 1: nosl. s$.et) !\1 " m " l J l u n n y r Sh p i d , " / ar . , ip" , ' n ,l d H" sa. n l . p , nt , s , b rr mu \p d

$ 745

Je1 come aorossl.

T ha'

,l'

"kl

l,rd s oi n\

si\tp r i

n o ct a r n ^ !

n 3 : h ps l l p

ro

'Fst

ict $ 633.itl) tdri interjec!'ii: S ?46 /J intrebuintarea unor constructii exclamative, cu sAu t|'rd, a /,r' sFechl Oh. Father.Iou are so &tndto mel "Ha| GrceaW8 UY ValleYl"r actressl' mos,e..?aisitc Isn't she 1.he ! I intrebuintarea unui bubstantjv sau superlativ urmat de prpozi,tia r ?47 i\ u/ tni' ^ (on.r tu, !ic spnir sla .l' 'ipul urml ror (S 220):
Thc landowner was a lnrae .f knaoes riluP t as d' t hp \ nt uP Hc Dr o! ''^ oih : ne"im "d ' o m n on r his 'Js i^ l o / r t S t I ' - 5 ii r { o' , ld ' ur pit o k nAr hp $a 5 r i g h lr tt t h?a\ ol h"o" s ' np Ile Nas thc l,(c.'r o/ ilie lod'

r o tt"4 ! - e dnr 1 I , r.n u n l :ri tr ' -n ,l i " ,1 4l n l d " .: I r:tlr] clnd Inseamni Fi 'rl f 'rJu l ,1 ci n r l lns eam ni, , . , rr{ z. h "p tu br c t obt ut n i i l 3 T,u ui x nui r om an d e tl . L l ' N e l l J n p rp rra .l rn s rd d m' : Inalt dectt simplul snperlativ . i o ",t i" , ; " ' , t . ' l' " x' l d rJ ' \ 6 O B. sha{, Coaot onn CkoPbo

148

rloRFolocrA

- atrEcrrvuL

S 718

ir, lungirca li accentuareavocalelor: r{llow IIc's thc r("sr I ILt:trrdtstl


I halcn't gol th! l'dsr I lj:i:stl

idfa

S 7{9

cu D.d ; 'n tu "i t') ' . "n 5 n' s ao ad d!!a od' t

unei aile'dolc: proceileu pe care il rcg;sim li ir rona ctte la auz-Lrea 'odrdl iJ repetarea unui adjectiv ssu adverb: sisl'rnul. rump;rde 'lh. ncocrnewsXsten: dl thc hi" PUrh{sesJstem' '1r ri' l tmorun I al '
I r " a 1u t d' r r ui lr ) - - m o' il od i i a

'*:,!1,'JXi|.0,,

du'Ic'a li;lJli",iii;"ff:' ilii"i?!u*" '" "." 'Nnosu'j X:'""#t?fi' +T;""


ciddintirneitio tate !" srumalr , (: ,,N,,p-ij cuminto E{cramaiie
dd t inir ' l

pljmb lnilu se d

L]l' ADJDCTM III. ALTE 0SDSTIUNI REI]'DRIT0AITD (luscnr,r,arDous BllllArixs) $ 750


faz F"l" in dI AdiF' li\ul poale li rnlrFbuinlst'''uhstantiv'ii irr..am' gener6rnu'.t.lusiv] pr'"ed1 d" u'li'olul Lnr;rrl Aslial ulrlr/al dpsemnFrzA ( 'io:iindi'izii crrc Io'cJa in'u+irraexprimur; i"""]"".;i".;,;*';;le,ti' rnloruprnnA he nai*,i'1. D"'i lorma lL,i romrnFnps birnl'arn a'P dn'orpa j" or"*t si se ronstruiFtrp arun.i cu rprbul ia plucnl: i"i"i"J
the s'ise (: lnlcletlii) nra' r hP liv ir ' g ( : v i i i ) r h. ac edr ( : i a i rl n rr) th p nobl e[: noLi l i i ] r c r iim inal i: c ri mi n a l (i i rl th e l ess enl husi astrf ' er mdt t' i rrrn 1: (: t hc unpm plo y d ro t.0 ? trr) e nl uzi astj l rhe wo.klcss t: sone.!) i h e hF6i i nfordP .l{ :.er r dr ci rl r s a u thc iotrlc$ L: sometii) t he inil' t r r y (: mi l i ta ri i ) The Daoersnublished lisis ol ,n, ddd and 4d nif'ng' i h e j ndi .i ary (: mi ai \i rdi l i r th c E ncl i sh (: enC l ezrrr tlLe moie intcrestins (: p'6oinel'

substantivate' de 1) Sohimbare lunclie. Adioct:ivolo

oba,, ?ii#',fft?;;'":1;;:"i.j ll: ;'{lr:",h.,'-i v h., .'qm .The" n ttr stto.*


b"ru. {6 not

*n'"** Tl",e;#;i!, i'fli",'?ii;'',)l'-.,i',il ":i*'f;","."'/,"i'i"lii "

hT b'loid t',ai "i;i""i, intended the .lerarted. -i "'"iii"r"- his"i"s't^i'', erc" ";i;j;; i"ar"ia "su rJ Ln nu'r.ir.'F'rins d' indt'lizi ;;"i*l;li
"i".,. prin insulireaardleld da adjp'ti! adjeclivulrrFbuic insnliLJP "".".i""i"r1' un substantii': 'l\\e Lnclishmdn s'as ialking to the rwo 'ttotcirutr bv I saN i nilt,a.3' ryaDstanding thc gale'
dsr'r' ,,dn, She t's i Ling f ulL bo r " /4 .J,'rr^ , "4 $. r ' p l^ b : . o; a' ll 3 o t n\ l i". '" on, . Pt '0

i nl rpbui i ' l al P Cit s v , . ii. c i i v p , d P \a r,i ti s u b ' L " n r;v e de gcn ' o' run si nl th'd PosLd hisbPtroth'd,

r 5e pr o, ' unl e| .l -rd . p .i rl ' i r.tq ' rr l Frl d:rIP a s" d pt bt ll- it n. n y .ta L e t' \" o e " dL d rd l r' ' " : G . I a. bhaw . .p . .n 3 ['erdrrd]

nod dscd: nnbrltrinise;

149 bl ,{dicctivul lntrebuin[et ca substantiT cu tnt']les numai de tnryuldr J. b"m ,'F,i r I n g. " , 1" 6 a b .i rd , l ;..J U l i rn b 0 u ' u i p oporl Sroa and skddy Fins th'" ra.x. lProrerbl IIc has io stu'sent rrght dtr etD'g . 'lhe uLln&sn holds no lenors for ]Im Iiindlv nddD, is Lindlr/ tnkcn ll'rolerb) \Ye k"no\t litlle lnsltsn but spcak goo'I French b" r : i .1 . rh " a l ,i o n l b h i n 0 rr' F l " t. rhd Frr. ne. rh" r" rri bP 1r,;'",'r', iii. , 'r' tin lilms, ctc.). thc . dtmrnal; t u n ,l c s uur lot it ) pt iti "n ,r-sr, io. t ar " s r , r ' . \ d .r r,.- $ o ..' . rh mu r l h ri l li ng. . No td E 751

intrebuinrateln constructiiidiosubstantivate A se observaadjectil'ele


1t) lo tlL ttal. Trr"j w'r. soBc' Thiri6 $rrc "t(oine /'on ba'l E,pn ls , ' r p , ; / , f { o r t ' t ot 'o h bet t e r . I'll do nrl b6t to holp T "t .a r at derd o/ ntL,/ .^ HJ\p rou s aP, m 4 i' t s / . ' Cooo: , o / r , qui k b\ 1l, "ir $or d . U. rc ailr I fo 'rnJ ' rn{ q' ll , r / h" lblc } ol lr ing" s hol+ ll. $ c , lu, t ' lea"4 o, l,.t lrim ri. its wo$t. ", "

S 7ir2

tt i qt^" th" LP rt i a \n th " o l ' s t t dt . t o E o t o th j b o l l -ro rBk F -' A ? ,a d $ i l hth egaod atl ot o suddPnelr'l c"a.ot.itt ttu nain'in tfu oP"\' in sho't'

idionatLce constr tlclii AIte cu un adjectiv substantivat:

cu forme de Irdrol: -si 6h@ts, tuins. aces, goo.Is,

etc.

culori au atlt singular,cit .) Adjeciivelsubslantivaiecare denumesc ti plural:

S 753

t/iolpr happPnsto Ie tle colout I liLP s Sh p Dat n; d r ' r c a. ans P 8 d b N " n ' o r a u mn l .i \d b . 5 t' " s i fl rr rn o i l r1 ," ' . ' rh d n ,o" F rhp pi rl [" i ,'. i t , . ' . . i, ir " ' Lieht Blu*z Th. D@k Blue;', \he06' d, L n i l c adip' liv F A u d p \e n i t a d c v a ra tF " u b s l a ni i ve si pot av' a formd d c pl j ra l . ar t ic oie. s enili v ' i d F l e rn i n c n l i ' r l i s u bstanl i ral a propri u-zrse:
a catital a daily

S 7i r

m gqral

a lrcleta.ian
Rath er a d ed ., is n i s lr P: y af t s u h dPar yr r ^ o rnr hp rp, p v , lor t t , B, : I L.t mc look at Yon, ,tv ?.ell'"s l \\^ d..rl i. tib : . . 1 ar y r ods - nadPs . she Llo ps n ot d ; r r d r ln judg' o"nl ol h"r ? 4 " 4 . - onold. t u"'"',tiliil ;i."i:I^l/,i,lX"l ,tu tii"i; 'l,l;,#""'fl"t:,fi.lgiiili oxrordi ziBld i r ni!"trir,tii dp la C.,.bf:dsp. r' rl, p spo riv.u r"j.d r { s au a jur t t o s r D l 'P - l n r P p r z " q i P r i \ a

ar,*.

,:,p.i,-"lir'i,

150 ?i6 F . / | nF lF s 4j p c i re . p ri n a J -u s 0 re d r" r r,' i naLi Fi { i n trFbui' , ! at c numa i l a p l u ra l : rrl' bellers ' l pti n ' ub' ranri rL

'256

E r c e p tiii substantivulnrs. .are! deli cu forma de plur'dl' esle no c6re are singularulio (: singularfdra ilural; a Dlues un cint'c melancolic)' iilp!rlic cu pluralul. -s (Pentru ditalii vezi 9i S l2?) /./ Ntrmele de nrtionaliti,ti f't AdiF'iivele .s;o aratii nalionalitaleassu pro!pnicnla r-sionalu !r por fi Inrrcbuinlatpca'ubstanLive sirr j;rminirF rn ., Ir[]. -s/i. -(s./s. 'PsP cu tnleles colectiv de piural (toli locuitorii din acea !ard, regune sau ota!):
&e f'renclr (: lrarteziil t he S c ot c l ( : s c o l i e !i i l the \ltlsh 1: locuitorii dln \l:alcs) tne lrish (: irlardezii) $e r'lemjsh (: tlamanzii) thc SR'iss(= elaelin'i) (-' thc Chinese (l'inezii) the Geroese{ = geno\'zii) (: ihe \Iielnamese lietnamezii] ihe Viennese(: tienezii)

1i8hls necessa.ies movalles lla\" \o. Drl on v our r o, 1/ , s - s oollFn lol I i r 'i JPl.' lle .l-,in t ie a' , lie / idls r . ' d. l aam "- in 'r l , l r i 5 ) . lir . l ' ls 5 s d i r i a s P q , Tre r $crc n o / ir s , s nn ihdr l, ain i H. dl{)r- pld J a r l' r t a' i"c \ - \ ilI J ' ns pom n o r ' i m p o r 'a r " h a r u 'l 'r :

{ ?57 '

?58

Cind esteinse i.orba d unul sinqur sau de mai mulli iocuitori, adjeclirel jn lcrmjnalA -a, l t fl "nu -r, slnl urmite d. .ubslsDlivilF man t pl. npn t. so an .'om ).ru !,opt r"61eq1;'. bsrbali \i fcmpir: \pl.
scveral lrish0,,@. lwo Scorch,rn many Dtrt.li tcolle

E:x c eplLL Danish - a Dane Finnish a Fint Polish a Pole


Je$ish a Jcw'

Spn ard -sDanish -a a SirPd. siredistr Turkish - a Turk

[ ?59 "

rdmin insil neschimbat$i tn aoestcaz: Adjectjl ele terminate in - frrr, -esd a Japanesc a SFiss -some Japatrcse -selcml Swis a Pekiness many Pliincsc an IroqDois -rvo Iroqlojs /") Adiective]e Lu alt trninaiii decit cele arelate pin6 aici sini intrebuiniar'".a'subslsnlive' u totm.r dF "ingularli primesr un -'la plural:
ir ' . \ m " r r an \m p ri ra n \ ,n Asrd -\s:Jn. a Czechoslovak Czechosloraks a Dane- Dmcs a Fjnn -IiuDs a Greek- oreks a Je\r - Jews i \l a l a! \l dl Jrs r PoI lolp' a Scrb - Serbs a Slat - Slals a Spariard Spa iards Sweaes a S;ede Turlis .r Tuk

E ?60

0bs er v alie Spre deosebire de liuba rorrAnn, tn limba englezd atit adjecLivele care rdr r ; r lr ondt it a l " r s " u I' u \c n i p n !a re g i o ral s.,i t :i ' ub' rd' rl i vpl - rp' p' cri \e r,p s . r i' r lnlolJ ea ' r' r, rr tn ;ti o ta n o j u s l i (Vc z i ti S 6 1 . 1 5 ' ) I J.0 nasc., Jc'cas fem.

l 5l

2) Adjectiyele !i advcrbclo idontice ca formi. eaii fornre ca !i adverbele corespunzetoare: we look a /art l.nin. (Adj ) TIe lrair runs tasr. (.q.dv.)
{ Pen|I u dc t alii r ez i S ! : 5t l

Unele adjective au ace-

$ 761

Acelasi cuvinL poale avea v:lloare de adjectiy clDd determinn un substantiv, sau raloare de adverb cind determini unvorb, un adjectiv sau un alt adverb: Ad j e c t ieL ..Littl ,Udr" qnile contrrrv...", lsubst.) Titian's Nomer hale rcildiah llatl. (Subst.)

S 762

A i L r e rbr

I se?her verv littlo norvadsys.{Ve.bl It doesn'tmuth m,t. $hctder h is youns or old. lvobl l v z i i i S ? 6 t) I like the roddislrrmo4 colour ot her hair. (Adj.) She was wea.in8 a light ,l4d lrock. lAdj.) The sky wa5 hlue-s.cain the distane. {Adj.) We drovc l,omc lasr. {Ad!.} 'rs Tl!.y raD s/.dt!lr home- (Snbstantivcu raloire de adt.)

prediertive.- Adjectiveleatribu- $ ?63 3) Adjeetivele atrihutivefi dtljectivelc tive3 preceddsubstantil,uldctrmiirat; adjectivelepredicativea sint legate p de Bubstantiv ntrun verb, fdci l astfelparte din predical,:
th " b ".l,lr r n. r d nt - ! it g a , "d r la g . , A d j . a l b u l , v pi, r r r . ia. p" di.Jtiv) uc |" - d {A d i .

d,) I-lnel adjctive stnt tntrebuintate \nll'ai predicatie. Printre ele se afld urmdloarele cuvinte: d') adjeotivele compuse cu pretixul a-:

S 764

alight

a") citeYa adjective ca:


drdk ill well

grup (aJ au qi un sinonin cu valoare atributivd: Unele adjectire din acest, Adj. pedintio Adj. dtributir Adj. ptd,icalie Adj. atibativ liShted blazins alighi
bur Dr n A , '"j bur nj, ' g ,n' rmi ,' " t lodlin" walkrn8 s dpr r e. glosirS
at<in

S 705

tl L p a l i tp a l o tro Bskew 3 s r" p P

l i .p, . n' i l dr l i ri n; l on" l t. l on" .rmF o}liq-" -r .p' ns


$i (rng

k iiidf d, :i 1 ,1 1 r

L l ,L i k r1l

conscious,ktoFing 'rooL"d nka 'sick, etc, 1,


determinat meniio-

l Aldinele reprezini{ adjectivul sau adr*bul, 'A Nureetu Rhune. '3Adjectvfri cu iunciie de atribut. .AdJe'[\4lp u t|ntlia dp nuM ppdidti, r i c a pnshzal. VFzi $ 25 20 .

cu$ivele culhtul

L1unit ( Prdtat"

.ohpl"np",)

In Sramd-

152 ! ?66 " ,.) ,\ite adjctive nu pot li intrebuint'aLe decit olri'driri de materii: b1 adjectivele terminate in -dn prol'enite de la nuldele )
.r 'utk,a \as ' "| lto t l trr a leot l' * P k "d"nol: o/kare^ llour B" adPn,6no' l r o 'r r P ' l r m p Pr

Nas 'noes i.t"r"s'iiq""rt X" * poul" 'p"n"' lltr FSr"prop lu rr: , ind .., 1\o'{1"' '" "ood,n'. i'#;"fi:;i;;;i;-;i "ensul .*;'''.;'.' 'rhe Jrue'\\eren'adeor senslrgurai: Se spunc insi, cu In the sun his hat had t ned soid'a'
Thc skY was le4dtn uis s6lennls wcre e'oden' Her trssesshonrilfta'

predirrtjs q:"11,llli:i""l1t * nu adjecr.ile pot li lntrehrinlatF .{ceste ' su I Dc Noollen : jumlei

,')
the

adjectivle derivate de la nunlele Punctelor cardinale: counties ilre Pes'ern iolrtulz }eniislhere

Nu se poate spuDe:
The hemisPlrre Nas r'trncrn Tne connlricsN"e 'res'an Une]e verbe intranzilive predicative' \ erl,elc esre eer ailiectir d l v F rl p : lo" o djc " r i' e pr ed i ' d ri L " i n 'l' 'h' $" ' " i rl i re 3i l eD t' \ ou lonl s p l p trd i d . llrla^ ttcn'd rd rl lh" I /,4 wotrderlul. nsppl Th" -\ l P t ror l h' rard' 'nBs ' ." * r. ir l. , - , . . ir

[ 7ti? '

cer

perr.rr. r,.F\r,orp 'r,np.a,,.'.


The milk lastes Sood.

l]"f"iil"'l;

,an" auttit1t.

E t68 "

sus ru arat; Cu!'intele scrise eu alctine'.iD cr'emplele de I'rai "rr ''r/r stt subi"ct.ut alre 'uvrnr" ii F\prin,rra d- r"rb ',a' iir';ltii ',u 'r"' unur ""tni, ua'".t'. i a',oai-'i' ,i. in '^nsP'inr6 rnrr'bu'nLdrpa ;; J;-r;;,;;'J; \'trbFre in acc-csbla:ltYi: cazun rreuui" Aitdi; cu grjj; a.lyrbin asemenea prdicatrv (\ezr + cu l"p.i-ti"" (sinonime ln b'.,/'iar djectivulest'P ii" "r.t s 251?-2518). ind'eplin'-tt verbe put' fi insolite de adverbe carc si arate cum Aclea.st Jp lcrh: sub, "tL,td.{irr' .r "rpriqatd
:F loal"d nr ut dnd d o s n m i 'd i l i l i r e l t ' Tlf n' r a" k l' nt dnl' lp n a r e t u l l r ' . . . , laJ delrgnrF(rI' TnFv { - _a / ! l/ r aa' llP HP -soua{./PdhP eong luiousll' qlo$ l i . > np as , ad lr P loo4 _\ ". t dos r ' ' 3r Ft hur I o' r s r u! ll' n d l l \\' /l .,. ' ' 1\ d dPidlY' E /t/'6 m t id. r 'tr ' LrF "oom q x r f B r r . H" . lhF " . ) scnzori le delirr tl?nzili!' c ii v er bele legr t nF p' r t P l t i i l e -\ s ob se r v a l^' ul J 'l l 'r r \ u l u r ' In .in d" , r r ' u l|n, ' " 'J\-rh slnt urnilloarere:

S 761)

.ilu ""-

i;;"1;;"re

cer adiective in loc de advobe

ctc nu inseann *"r,, clnil se rehn la ur miros s{u la un lrarlunr ' 'ari""l*.tr mo q : v ,' tt s - l a rru ml r. i -. t du] t r ' . ", , .? ^ " p In o r' r rts - old. , ; l i " " " g - b F

1;B d) verbele copulatilc aritate la S 2i15: to bc. to see continireimpreuni cu sinonimelelot; spre e{empluli ta became t') i

h -

rl:l;;i,..'l iP,, l;il'i,ll;ri l;t;i. ;;JJ:";J,|', iffJ1 "l",ifilv;i precun qi:


cJ
\d i F/ri r ul pnir c f ilt

: b t at t aloo An^J ' a t 41 r 1 n n ro bc oui l. ro.._ s, ot 'l 'i l ' " 1 ' p i / r ' ) 1. r . . dt t o - , it : t o t oat ' t t \ | -i i iui r t _\ ' lr P pi: D I r o l d l i r J so r d \hi l, u ' t \ ' t!)tt,a ;{ b btov "t"": ' .lc la f,z, son r' -;n " dt \ : . ro.\dl: to ltou tr)" Pir . ir - n : r o , / "1 ' nd J;,:;,; 'i'n ': - aor ' ' ' "n' Fnz or ialFl Fxlt;m " p"t . eplii 6 / v"rb"l".u r" r o u g h : o l : ! " t a a i . '. \ t 'i ,"r*r, o1,. ILn q',..;.r l, lhiFr \ : ' . / "PllJ r d. painlul

| -: , n ha n tJ D /d /l d d d . i l l : ' o s u P F ti el t s" orea' D /; trb-ri d i ,, , . " *r . :F 'i ' l u' npatl :,o p o i ntgr an $ ; ' . . ri ' p ,o ." ,o ' .t " _ o rs to t;" bi rgl ' '

"". , L j " " i i " ;.'r i . t;,-aonr,l.nent)3.li..orIl"m-rl,rl


till. - Obiectiee Comqlemrnt : )a
H " I , a." /Jd ln u li.'d ! . r ub:

.uL ia r,,l ri-,1 e.rpru,, . prFdi, ri! s u b ia rrv . d


' : t " Com r l F n

r" h u i i ' i a r i n l o u r a d re rh u l ri nu ' rai dd " l ' " rmi n;

rL dir..l lind c'lp nump nrP4rce onrp '

s ri' '

ii" i'"t^s i ""tli 'lt i:..,"t np !'!' i;" i;; ::'" 'r'r "irh: ljt t t l | \ . i_ so',r,d tn' t
T hd idkr 1,,.t /. ...' I n^u-d 1 5 .j'.-. /,lr ' n 'r' ol \ \ ; -. * hrr. " so .\ r r lp. '

nr ',r'.' sub-' \" cornpr""nl


( : o ll { r ' . r om p"1' r l

1r) Adieclivrl caro ciliti,rf mei rulte subsfirntiYo'- Adjcctiv-ul cAre ub r''r'i\- rLr rr t'pe d tnain'pd liF'; ri ."u n. rr ult ., lifi:. ,fi 'i ''

S 770

.,a,h.! lvotu rhei, itiii" il$ Jiilf';$'li',:T,lT:iJ #11'.,i1'll'{'"',iiike snar,$t


df el: Repetarca adjc.tillrlui ie face pentru accentuarcaideii eriprimate :') .tdir.li\ul )i Pr.p"zilit trrornl"nr'. r:1 ': !"tr'-l" 1di' ir"oor r. urnirtr dF.rr d. Lr',,rni" tr' l^/ilii rl'r'to/rrrr r "rrrr^nsLJi:
dclioienl. in $il diil-"rent /mn nnvonc 'fh; coll-"ctivc iantrfN liad llanDfd to hive 'eo trrlioN a'rd nc'' conbines

ru

i i7l

r"", r , l r ' n ' o


im tlrr1 "

learnins keen liabi. 'D a [a{ p 'rL 'o

pentrrra 6) 0n0 (pl ones]. .\cstproluloe Fe pun dupn un adjectiv r,rb'ldr'li\ rlrri o'lar; F\l'rin -l?: s" "rira r"p, tar.a l oo i o
Il sGa ldk, ll l i,, p r-J io "ll li $ (liczi :r ' . ' ' liL ' lo { 1 6 4 !e n lN e o r tl Ic \h r " d orP d e la lii)

"'l

lr r

'," " '/ ""' lP' r )


S 772

l Ailjeciiveleoilalc nu linL ilecit exe plc: ele nu eluizcazl lista adjeclivelorde cme Dot ti d rmn t eler belp r P s l p .trv e .. . , nt al s u rrs ta n L r\u tu r 'sa u uo er hi\ a| 3 Vezi S ,5t4. I \'czi S t i2u sau ' ol o' J ti - s" si mt" i ti t,i' o" a . s - im " r1 u T l n J n " rf" .i o IL s rn rrdH r.q re ie ls t J r ede s P i ri t). D r o si . ' t\'l !zi { : 64 a' . 769 b e "n rr ir, , " pr on' r m "\./i G . C rfm' . o P i r' S l 0 J \' I04 A

( ?73 '

7) VerI. Much. - -\drerbul rPl, pre'edr adj'r ii\ul pr'prju'?is (tn u'po't"rru1;ln'inra; unui parr:'ipru ir"rrr ire "rlrcrhrrl l;i n-i'i""u "'- F.lp lnlo Li' print'u h.tu t"ra nu h: ,.7
I I i.. r-L 't. pl' r n "N '. ,j); r "4 Pr er ' l- - l' ' adj c " l n / i 'i \ l u. . v pr s ; b t . r t . . ( 0 J i . g r , s u p p r ) a l i t " . , . . . ' h" ) i[ d D , , o l l r g 'd p l r ' I p a r | r 'p n l n 'r',fv,

)iumeroase participii trcul,e, dvenite aderirate adjective' sint prece,laie de adYerbul ,rg: tired, tc r..?.oBpli.aitd. t.9 dislinpished,efls pleased' 'cry Proredul ac.sta s a exiins ln engleza contemporani chiar qi la simple Darl,iciDii trecute ' Cdmpa"ativele slnt precedate de adverbele much' ecry much san tar: It is scitine n!.t colder'
I I P r " f PI ng , ' - 4 n"' 1' \ \'t n '" li t s / , r bplr i. ' o ; it lor lhp r h o l a r 'h i ! n o w ( Yc z i ii S 1377 )

t 77{ "---

qj li'o.!rurlii ad.ierli\alc sa|r crbitrlenle cu unelcron'lrurlii impcrlonalo I-'rale''nsr''u'riiinp*ru"nol"sauadv'rbiAl" ti;br iomAni. a,lt"rrriot" 'lio adjel..tiv'ul djn limba romani sinl,redate in limba pnglezaprin -propozilji Jn.car-e rc'0a liv inlrpb!inrdl rrrcdi'sliv lmprFuna'u Frbrn ld D" cdlilici un "ubre't pcriorral.C'a moi frcrvpnte 'onFlru'liF ilp a F" lin 'clp forrnal' drnlr un idiectiv urmat de un inlinitiv: Shet ccrtainr" Dein. Isi(xf c] (ea)P nsJ l lltisn t lili./'/ ^'
pr obi6 i a p l ) 5 l !' n a a ra i u ' l n J l l\ u. ' ' na polm j- d ;l' l ; l ra rr' ' 1 1to l " o tn b J ' \ , " ds l, i p. / i - P s l p tr.u d , ' n v b l a ' Il p d r n Jrt, ) Tl,.Y're ru ro ,e away - r . r | , , J nr n ]p ,d (i d i n o rd i ) \ ' . is a, , . i i n d F s i n g ? \d f LDr " , . lm b ta .a t re l rPd e l l Don. i b" t , nx a to u t i t! 1r ' r m r n. ' r ep. o ts r
\od u' ft ha o*" 'r ta Pko'e l; n l!L m e ,."a ,ir a r i E li uF'r

d'

Iur'i l

lT. ECErY-{LD\Trr,4.DJUCTr'[lLr
FontLia adiectivului poate fi indepliniti rsi de urDlntoareie pi4j de \ oroirF '-J .o sr' u't;i "djF'ri\ Jo ir u; 'rrl'cl anlivsau o'' onsrru li' sub r'tnr:vAl"'u \eloarP'le. adjP'r.ie S ?76 e cDrnrclnd sensur atrjbulir sauprcdicatjv- ln generp,rr i',rm; de singul0r. de plural (v. $ 1uu):
-.t. - bt n .

| ;:::.:L;::: ': ,'i;:";i':.::";i":.i';i,;1" ,b".".1,:;",.':,T.:! ot d . ',;"',:":'".:,'2' ^: . ,...,-.,.t rtit , h. , . n! ". t:


tndinla lntrebuin,ttuii plLlraDin rc iD ce mai mult ins, !e acceni,ueazii chiar cu ro1 dc adjecin' (v. $ 167): lului substantivelor
'llf- ho"E affa,s cornmittee. ile r'l ti'ts ' t . n r.it ,t'l;tt t-'otiong tlr r ti nual Stotes cu ditltion, "ikd lr ik p a l h p L 'l l o n s " h n o o l I o n o n '':

\ t t r n t at L i n " r' l i 0 /,,o J l i / r" . b " v . - os a r . ' . na - ru b r:' .,1 ,rtl ,rro r p p \n n,l "

\l i "

'

p' rl l rr ra dn /r fe (\rrr

2) un gerundiv:
n' ,,rIo ol..' ' ., lc"t..,; I I nj n . n o, A ..1 r - \ int . . t ". o1. d. t , , J "l i^t or '"r r odnr dd : , |)d ,n.a rS1:to. l:.tuoh'

S ?7? $ 7i8
ra4nt,g wrter. the t@nhg irrnr. the

3) un pa icilirl

trezcntl

Ihe accampdnyiig n.te. ltu . nirq slom. au t s ains t lne. e t.r. 1 v si S l; 0! r :

4) un pa iciliu trecut:
-L.t dnupdn . l\rtp d r.t 1o . r " p1lLpi" at . \ "t ' n. . . "$i' h t a' , b ) lr l. t "' ; . aa t 'a l . r k i t r \ \ " n l. - r ' i Jir. -. \

$ 7?e $ 780

5) un infidtir':
an int)r1sc b sir{r thc last lo Lar, ni.v rvisl\ L ga to the pictxrcs;

6) un adverb:
) r'" n. . lh , . r l r / "" n/ . . th .t t L iL-:J.i -r..',b " r r , l v ' tsi. v" . '-, S 1ri9 2 56 1. S 2l_ | lP datn :bi.'. ' ' " ' lhd '/ . ? h d l n 'r " r ' . t l ' 1 o '/ - t ' ' - r b, l" t .

.,t?81

7) u

genitir:

| 782

lne lno\rc .f tle rlot!; nlt ftin.ls sot: hdtf a,ti tt.'s silen e: Itjjt: Lan,lat tarins's n o th Y eaf r l' t ' . ?n , a tu | ttu n rn E mo t| 0 r n a s .a ucd tp Ct'hatu GreeLe's' ic " Quie i ,{me r an"nas s et 1n \i e L n a ' n .L v .ti S :.8 , l s l ).

8) un :rticol:
e tsn ): one: T o hr * l \v o c h i l .l ri : a b o y a l d a Si rl i a hrnd(di r thousardi a nill i o n ; l v. s i S ial. l3; r tlt/c (denlo^ttattr ). rIe D uf..l l .{" is t " ? ftewools nc k r as ain s s tmrs m e a s s " ./" 7 n . ? tn a" ) -" Il .ri Ir ' II r Du u e l l ? A r c t ou t p f i l i rl p o e l l " ' (v . i ti S 5 r4 l :

s 7t3

9) un rlumeral:
fabteen sqnat\cts': thc thi..l door o n the lett i fttTn lverue6; ,nd.te.ri.l World \\'af l

$ 731 !?85
"l.T l L Jr ' l.

t o ) o l o cuti ue p r e p ozilionali:
' f hp I 'ol r l r :

r u . t . r -.u b n "- n. ,

t or n ot tl c to p l $ i

JL .l

q rts i

.'

.),

fi m

$d

d rd\i ga

o_

t dD ,fa sj carc circulii spre Londfa sau sprc un oras mare: dorn,.atns: cnr. rin de h Lo;dra sau de la !n orai i)ri!.ipal (atlail l,ilelessi r&tru up ptatlotmri doen plat'fDit

nlafrm : aefunt. ' , o. ' , r i 3! r ' d , , ' , ". 1 ' " . ro"r C"hhim ii;,,, r '/ . n L . . . I n l 9 0 i 5d. . u ,, n {u '. i o t c l t i i l d , u r m 't - rF rto ot'd .L: /d./ a ro s . i. ' uf idin". u ! im ll . J / lo' of i' iall l L o r d u l , , C , , 'c P l a r f - I n . d u l u i d , \ . , ndLou .1l 'uDo r in,:JT"r.' l^v i. or . ' r nd J : r s' , nr r . . :d d : i '1 1 1 i / r b l r p F n t r u d : o , H i e h. ho, / eit'^ t r t t k r ' t opl" r . oJ i , r J : '1 a r l i 4 o l u l . d r c - l d I i a m i l l ti n" . D lu u foPilo r idu r ul 6|r h }aza coircil ui brjtnnici /r./ dcn!nirea de lt'ddlsdci simbolizenz{ iii ttnclia dc Lod Catr_ Iar. a.fstl .eprezentind |ocea Canw.i Latzitot ('Iht raice of ttu Halse of b.ds) n\ p\ pr "iii, . / , r . I l 'o o l . & rrv,rfua".i" t i mo ll j " l .ti op ll@1. "l,l- ' r ndp. i d i or.t Ldn. la i. Lo nl-r ,a, . . t dr I no, Dlii"s r F, . 1, J , - I u, l, i"l " . r " r n i r : b\rl.d rd il u" ' unr " di Lur ' d e A p e j . P d s r r b o r u , . . r i l i ei. r^cr b ru rn l-1 Li. '. pr ' . J r ' "l : . e i _ u c. . k li sr ra o ut , . . , " u. d p, . , r , r d. J , . j t o . l i n , f . o . J t . n U J . e r J L o r - , , , r lrb .i Jlliuntesd,l \; d r, flde!jr;o n - \ or b. a- . b i, J dr u ar t il l ', l o r . 'l I/ r, r ,!n1fl, J r.d,"d lapl L p r o p 1, ..1u i,mo.d p ir .-,n lppt r r . d, ' " ' . l' r . , t d. id , i J n " ln i rp r rb .l I n r ". nr lt r dpr F/ r n r r 'l d 'r o p i n d s d p I rJ r.lrs : . n. J r ' r ' i, ". n r o r , ' p i,"d.il r PFr p' l"o e i J lC a Ap.l.r , o, m bo, , l l. r , li iJ'p' ou. ii"r 'lio. l i . d .p L " l i : S u p r 'r d . \ t I ; " . . ' 1 ". t"r rh "u .a , n rr, t , u nrdt cr rt.u " rn Dr,J J ir d i J l14 public : ' $- hal L ll " o p n i o n o l r ' Ilnor,o-l , n rj r, l T , a, . rar "ri rol o. it p"r . . - d il' s pr nd J n gr 1r r . t L n ' l i d d " j u l . ' u t t . ont . ' . p G oE" bu r- u pr onunla F, 3i. dr r d' . r n". . U i . , d ! " l l n '. . 1 1 , ' l 1 l t . p o l ! i rohax(i.r cnslpT to .lrle apr Fc r at . : ier.0 inb .Jr ; or J r r . iAc r d. lp d. p"opl. r ar o o r ; J " " ! . u r i . t . m r 'l o '1 1u cas;i ,j1:rtl libere. Buleva.d din NfN \-ork, unde numele prlnoip&lelor bulevade sintnulndalc ordlnale-

1,56

s 786

1l) o apoz il i c : ._. Sir Nrriil lIoLL,qn,,t

.f the19i7 l;ol,el t'i.e, N,rs Lnightedin 1961 1or his scien-

s rt?
s ?68

c i. r " . . . n. / . . . A1 .,,...' r.p o i l - . ,,h ,.ro" /,1. /t \.ar" d.t,rm1d tl .tt, , r n ' o .th I:. o t 0 r" 0 ' l !ro p o ,i l " r,J' \.i ,.tr." rg_ri l " l ami r,l /h" l r 'n

12) o pmp0zilie relatiri:


Lord Rnfhcrionl. (ho eat a,va llt Lh. 1908-\-oLel Prite. \ras ihe liNt soienlistto sr,l i t t he at om ( in M .rr. (v . i i 5 1 7 !0 ) 0I t s t : r t at t e UajoritatFa erhiralenlilor adjectivali sint, de Iapt propozilii relatire

or . . t t . " p. - r 1. : p : $ ' ,L i d d .,rp " m h 1 p .:..It ro p ,. o ,"um. i ,, ' h. o-o,npor ti na-ra. /,r./d,r ' . , , oF pi .:oti -sti ,aar;s.l u.o: "j ta, lcaec: l\e l.st srpst Fho blt, ri..

s 789

I. l.0nnl-{nEA lD.ltscTlt'Er,0R
(!'oIirI1ITIoN oF ADJD|_]TrYES) l,inba englczil.ra ti limba romdrln. cunonft rele trei procedeee obi5nuite de l0rrnftrc a adieciil"elorI al derivarea l/ schimbarea categoriai granaiical ./ compuno.n (ct. s 35t, !:011

s 79n

DERI\i.\REA IDNRIV-\TION) Prin Llerivarese iormeazd adjecl,iye din alte adjectile sau pdrli de vorbire. la carc s0 adaugi un prelix sau un surir. Printre prefi:iele 9i sulirele adjertivale rele mai obifnuit ln limba englczrl se alld urmdLoarclr:

s 7tt
(;ermanice:

Prefixe
4r ' l5puk 1. r , / s r r 'd n g . , l . . : u ul-: or lr oir c . , ", lJ ins . tre.b ca o rr": "''lon ,. nngr , r c . . as l: o. "f r onliLlpr t . t . .r r i i l , i l , . t p f d n F , o u , f l 'r l l , o u p r . ! o l r t e . ,re.polulai.d, d!rsnbscribed. oerloight. ot{seais), etc.

Lo anic e: r-. rlr-, rDF: aclirotnauc.adanantr arnormal, arsent. or.dpnions. etc.i arl.- : anraredent.dzkdilnrian, anr.mernlian. dnr.-Far. el.c.;

/ lr i1r F. , r g! m ol. . hi-:,r"n:".. Dl s a. . D . i o n l h l \ . - i , ci.cn m-: ..r.&nr t ex i c r r c am lac eit - , r r , a, r poa r , , , ^ r , , s o r a . j ! 'f t , D r s p P , r . . 'r ! e & sianlial, el,c.: col-, .om-, eon-, cor-: .ollaierali .,r,lassionatc. ..nponent, .,ncaie, .ohspjc!o!sl .r.rcct, .o/Npt, etc.: ro ofrr-: ..r,"dir lor v o. "ot nt n . aan- : . orl,stJ. pt.. !\-..I-...:,J|Fn s i\ F' P' , p' ' - : "h|' "[ |nien|: extn-: cz,.arnuial, c.taneons. d.rrao.dirary, rrr.{tcrcstrial, .r//o{agani. elt... o' !ot

I O r r c iijili la E BC f' o r o u ' o ri ; ' o. i o- J C \ l t O"A4nqhh llFrn limpmeridiamhi Grcenwich). : Ntrnai rfel'xele Fi snlixele au o.jginea indicaia, c!rjnlele citate ca cxentl!

16?
intcr-: ntrallied. i,rcrclanscable, ;/,rcollcgiatc. inrdlnational, lc.i el ' lnr.. ,P;a nnt . . Pt p. t . r l: l, / lu' id I ' . F , pel: tpfn l p t r-r r-li o'\. P-'^ 't r' /Feous P Pt or r ' o"\ ' / + s Pnr '

l '. _ $ a r '

rctuflca. /.t,grade. .er.ogrtssive, re,/ospecl,ire, etc i rotro-: ..tuacti'e, , inr. l' : ru t r -. sur-r . ,ru 'din d . .,bs"qu"nl. , D5idar Y. . , ll' " J ned n ' ; Pr it t nr r . . dr ' l' ir il o: 5"4p a l i l . r 'P d i n a . F l . : F U t c F . $r-: s/,qib un din t. Fr t , La' : t Fr'. l ru s -: ran,rthn li". zll}amun' nltla': L/r.acodv.ntional, zrfa fashionable, anlznarine, ,ltdmontan., alra-slrort, zl,rasonic, rlr.dvi.lct. ctc dane, dltdllanetarJ,

sufile
Qermlrnice:
_d uo di"Fd , m o pJ , r . lI pd. s r Fl. h r ' . Fl. . , \ 'o , r S P r l . 8 0 5 . 8 'l l -F d : ,. I b-J,J, : . 6h a. p ,dllFr, g old ,,, pad"r , $ood, . , $ooll r . F' . . ; -. n etc nardd, outr (slacel, nlp'. -er llomea,a com!ffaiivul): {'rn: easlc.,. north.rz. souihe.z. $'este'n. elc.: pr,.: -tu l : l, e" / i/. "..t.lut, a hi t t dt , g"r "l' t , p"1t "l . ll, dk &/ . lre rl r4 . r i' 1 , ! . lo' ir ! , ollia, ' ! . r l. : -in c : axru.,n p. . Dps l. $l' l; 3h. pl . . : -kt -: lrhr, r. u1 ],./': roo l, , { . ; lJ ; . n. b.illl.. licl/,. id/, rimbl., etc.: -le: etc.; -tike: bell'ltne. clild,t^?, hol!.lifr, lilrt^?, rnrlii,, q!.1/, d.r"1u t o t ! . , i. \ ""1! . i- "1! . t anl! . ; 'l t t . "1.. -l ! : : r. odi,/. ,1 ,.i/a. .t.rrtJ ^i. . tsontP). rtt: t t A: a4p. \ \ ' at ln. +o m ( A ): ' nl'o 4".|^ A r l . S '2 '1 r ' , tr',d. )r.o i r aa, -n s f l ij | 11"',d . ,. r lr . bd, , i' , od 'l J $ r . " r ' ' rl. l'r'ny. "i J ! 'l : . r , ' at ' . J . ' , ' t'i b l c , I r ^ : b b '1 4 ttt i itnot ' . t ) / r b|" - m t r c ll, -! b f r . -il, lc: /ll .,, n nt: . ! t / . g- os t lr hr t ot J . t ^: ' r l ) . l ''o t ; . / o l t . 't ' -i . f u lt: , ^m.r.//, u' J dr . , ln. r l. lid '/ " r ' -s l : !n- 1. 1 - m n l. o n. lr u ior . / Elizabil,dn. Dnroped4, amplibi?n. GeorgiaD, .rnslaolar, -&n. -jon | \meri.,n, G.fcian. rerubiifa,. Itusslon. Shaliaz3. etc.r - a D t : u" id, / , o is,o J,.i. d,. r a, / . , alj! n- ", . I 1, , , , . " c . : innou, , . ! "r m aD4, , pFr o r 5 l , , , , 4 l ' - e o l : d D nJ,l. uilL .,.ridF, / , : "F sl d /. lh li-n ,;1, f l1". d/ , iu li. m l, adr r ond/ , . li. i -,al la ..;.. li lor , . t . bI , . , . ' r lphuli, T' ulonr " e n : - n : Rvron;, .1,.i - i r" : ,i, t i.,, ,o "r,,.", ,o n.r uFr , / . il' , . r ' p. ilgr , ' p. ! r "; , p. r p s r ; 'p . ' 1 " : " Ul. r'"iltl", A"n /p, hr r m bl", nim b/ ". Fl, jr . m F n d o , s p r ' - o u ! : ' ourd s o ,s. lo ro"i"h . gr or io, s . jo) oas . I , r ", io, .

s 792

Romaniee:

AIIJtrCTIINCU fiTELXS NIGATIY Pretixo Germarioe:


unwise, elc unpleasa!!, uDtrne, u-: zzcrt, znhspty! enintelligenl, Iiomnnicc:
dh - : di,asree ab lc. d ;armin s . d6hon"! ' . d6lonour r blP. di n l . a s P d , l . i it r -, lg-, ii-, im-, iF: ,a.jp ti; ilp. ; s nobl; . I 4p8s l. , m m o\ dbi. . m a r i o n a l . p l . : nis dar pd, n; s l a i d . P l r . m i i - : /traDplFJ, no n -: iDn-t s rilish , ro ,d'$ fi pl, @ 4m or al. nor pr r dil. i. t s etr s 4 . t u n '. m o ) . i n g n a n ' s1op, no4(eJsucl. etc.

s 79:|
791 "s

Sulixo Gcrmanice:
pitills, tireLss, etc. cease/trs, counu,ss,lolcldsr, pennildss, -toc$: carelcss, 1 Sulixul -tu&are ln gnereo nuanla depreciatir{. , Su l i \L l Jy , s r " . ar dc t pr F ti cp p n l ru a d v p rb (8 2 2 5 0 t. 3 R cl e ri l n r13 G . B . S la$.

$ 795

s ?96
N ;C;

ORI OGIi,ATIE

;";,' ''T"i';i'1"".''o;';'' l:":l;:i:;"""": '''-'' ;;;'' " "1""; ,:"ll: '"':"rl;f"


-:l:;l ::;-1'ri;.. "' '-'
Er cePl i i :

o) LacuvinLFrp il';i:J:"t""i::"11"i".:u'i l:i:r)'i"';; 1"." '"r'i"'"

1r UuLt rrr ronsoauoilirralc'

i,lif?''"

in fe.able tr'rls lerabtc azuriio fud'"'r:'l::':;:td In finali nLrse duLlcdzn ' cl'laite ' D) Consoana a sau rLeaccentLrol cind actcrinl i" t de de o alti conloand' d"rla ""*'i' ' "t"i" silabil: nu se nnnline Pe aceea-si

""":lF. '3;;-x3ili:" iili."-li:#:u til**. . :" 1,"T"f t;;;i";:"j"';li'"1:i;)::'. ' /'rr ',": li i;,1": ,l ;"J r" "::l'1""';:"':; r:,t'r'''"u'"': i i". i:""" ;l:;;1'l::.ii :;Il; t:; "'; -'il'r'r'i'l'1il'i.. "i',"Jf"' - !:"l,ilil'f, -,,",,,,,,1*'i'ii1"' ",
Eat:':!ltr:
Peri/ou!, trn larill'/r'd

'?"i ;:' ;;l ';

:1, ,f:;

,;sb

, u,ui .u r ir" " , " in ' " r ' " u ' - 1 : 1 i' : l i ': i 'l il 'j ; ,,,r- i n.i ,'FH

:"i" -,".,,,

Ll:,:::,r1,"

1t: -;1;:li'

ErcePlic: igrcous gllt'I, uucJ' suliri ca'e incepecu o conli""r * rrrelrlininsi indriea unui Aj -" ''"t

E:r ce p lie:

ii'ii:li"::'t'! lt,l't*,i#il.'l:,:r:",'11"'i'i:""IJlt'lli? .",,l't,eil


b l;;r:;ir;" l; J,"i
m dr gt r bLu

lliijj .

s i'rli

seschimbn de Ln-t preledat ronsoa'n-1 li!al ," r'r'| tirr:rt* ;)ri.1'lll;, ' " rr' : .''r'"' | -rr'le''arrl 'lul' -lp " r' 1 " ,1 ]"l i :'

'' ';': l ; .''-

l:.i

:',"'

, rr",- i:'";'-'

lorlnei lalire g/d'i'sLs litl ln acestcaz _mrt s a hltrslormai 'n -L strb iDlluenlr

169 ttrtt b l ' rl a -l " aut?oJb' rn r-D.nl p' t ous' prs d u ./ - I' d 1 0 ' p ' tr' i tt """ D/ 7 ljnal s c m enf ire i n s d a tn n c i c i n d e s l e p recedaL de rocal i : . njo/ . ' b l e p ' d ,a u l ro,,l p.buo. / a' . oroxr c/ I t inal s e s c hjr n b d j n to td e a u n a tn i l n a i n tea sui i rul ui -l y: bodY datlX - bodilY day d) -? final se mnline lntotdeauna inaintea sufixelor -tsft Si ItAe: c o ' r1 trY bt e - bdbJish ' ounl " ,l :k" ho! - borl i l - g rl " n c"i e) La cuvintele trmin at in -y se int rodu ce un e mut ln ainta sufixului g:

SCHIITIBARE.A CATEGORIEI GRAMATICALE'


{CON1llNSION) p. r !" r" , l e r;' i p .n r ru l i -b a p ngl pz; pr i n trc" Fnl a l ui Are -r r r r oc pdp, r pr i. " s r " tn rms r" J a J ;e .ri \d o r. p i r l i l p. d' torbi rc ' F]p m" i ln """a " obisnuit adictil'ate siltt: participiile, substantiYul fi adverbul. l l Pa flir ipii A djpr li\ a te . - V d l rF p a ri i ' rP i i l rp .ul e sj pfpzP nl F si otl nl rP buinl 'rp a djF . r r \ al. r r ne l e l -v " r.i n rl a d p \5 ra l F a d j F crrrp .unsrdpratc ' a sl arc ln di cl i o n a r e:

s 80o

s 801

ple$eg _
0harn,ing
Lakng

Cn.ori Darticipiile au fost aiit de mutt' identiiicate cu adjectiveie Inctt' $ 802 ca ."i acestei, lonireazd adverbe prin addngarea sufixului J3: ,mur.d1u. hrrmou.dlg"ic sood 'pJrnpdl!, "urpri""d/v, el!. l0Lingly. lovinglyrvilling/v Jd,ns1{:AnosiDglt. (Vezi9i ! 791.1rr1) trcule. ln maioriLatea lor forme verbale mai vechi, sint S 303 Unele DartiLiDii contemporand. deosFbindu-Fp rntrebuintaie nuniai adi"' lival ln limba enql"za lvezi $ 1756 J" forn',le cor".punralbar.ele parricipiuluitrecul propriu-zis 1?58. 1760):
11! bound.endnt! a .a4,rz Blaiue lpoetrc) jr a d.urfteD ioryor

sl,e hrd ,.nr her knePs.readv to laU i T h !v (o rp D o u p d l du' \ ro o\Frl u i i l l l hp ! an He iad .arued a head iir tle marble ' ' On H i r " r. t,o u -a l /el mv h' Jrl i n l $ai n l I had d.!nl rnv sla$ cheprlullY H e n a d Po rh i s d i s re e l v l rrd $ork. The lam-p has noa hffn iir {sEUli8her'l Thc heat has melted Ihe \nrter. It trad prc'4d my sood lairh H e h rd s i ,' d i n l h e morni ng.

nohea Slass an rnt.oqr accusaton

l lnaintea sulixuhi -o&r, trecdat de consoan{sc ofiogaliaza uneori-_'pronrnlia -I cazn.r' remlnlnd aceearioa si In celela,lte )-i5. '\etizi i D.hirdledii adj@ti',li 5 0 4 '\e Com p l n P | F c 8 si c aDit olul S .
. \\' c n , . - ; f e . , F . H o r .ta r . t .tr . ,it D.t 4 .4

lG0 The mate.ial 1,as ri.znk i! the wash,g the conl,was sr./dez iriih rnin. The conNc ol events \Ynsslagrd. TLcy were vr".l Nith paric, \l:ho has s,rrLs n)r violin? The storm had sz;n thc shilShe had o,n'orid. (v e z i $ i S 1 8 a !l

!/rr"8e d rn stru m Fnr s szzftez wrcoligarden

80.1

2) Substnutiveadjcotivatc. buinlate ca adjeciive:

Numele de nrtedi

pot fi in genereintre

Celelalte substantive pot, fi ti ele adesea adjeciiral,e: l.le Bz.nd-4, streets a f1otbdu ream /a.u eqnitmenl a sree, \rorks the re,ur4lar-" 805 ,{li,cori substantivul devine adjectiv prin adiuga.ea Fu{ir.ului -rd a participiului LrccLrtregulat:
&o.scd .ad,iag.s tlie Doa,r.d interesls fl .&h{rcd \lonan ,/o-!p d r'rn l'rlr^. a t b, o n"r r : t l o t | 'l " t y Po"\ ' t dtu: d ;:/ / !,rfi t "' n "..:tta in 1lrt6. Thc \\rorld Ilorlins clampionship wd bsle,/' D1- SorLlh {li.a had sal lh. di.r bcio.c. Thc homf a{lairs ronmittd, r/,ataP br the Eome J..r!la.r H, lo ok-t 1 1" . r ' . i ?1 , . ld "we adnrir.d ttis ftann.kn ind r',r?rr...l p.$on " "\n1 Lttctt. a*t.adletL and nLfre.ed, nood .\brl " 1\ ' ez i ii S 8l L i

E06

3) Ycrbo adjcotirato.

Unele ,ierbe pol avca raloare de adje.ti':

S h e i a l k e d $ i l h m,.t s o l .dni tX . lle \ras only a sidn captain. Ther sa$ in lr th. acircss e 0.. Onipnpil, iho so"ld Deorator, hns r bent ro. toelrr. 807 4) Adftrbc adjectiyatc. Cite\.a adverbe sinL tnrrebuinlate tive. unele arind chiar grade de comparrlie:
thc o//-side !laj

fi ca adje.-

.\.lon t lsin up) hie/lutt these /,tncrl, results

?ur, mme. o&r.r space

l1'r oz.r proviNf ol lril.ain the ar&f,r,sr delence linPS.

This is otrr g,De,z, [cacli{. Is tnis a ,.r,sl, irain? Slre told nt i.he rpri.,rl torsc.se 1 \' e 7 i i i 9 .3 1 9 b , 6 i 1,1)

806

5) Articolul !\i umeralul ru \'alorile ile ndjt(tiv. - tlele doud adesori numeralle 1'aloarede adjective: au
tne fridsP thcle a pounua wee k
?n oterativ.s the st.onl steike. iYc z i ii S 520, 12t il I : g[zduit

iicole !i

161

COMPUNEREA
{CONPOSITION) ln limba enslez[ se formeazd adjective compnse(CompoundAdiectioes) atlt din adjeciiv;, clt qi din alte pn4i de vorbire: a subst.i subsr.: f,ont-xh"4df|v?, \ ? l";r-pu\hds" s.\srpm. /D4..i"sr m0jo'i'] tu

$ 809

rtla'. ct' si.lPm, * - -; ;rtn .-"t;; 1. , st;Pom'litu shrpP lIFt sat "auad.o,? k 1 " e d " rD l rJN hi rP s" J* orl l rt b; F ndnev. c d " k .u -.4 o ;.:-d ctu. sotrnrlprool, i fb o rn o t ' ondi l i onpJ rgg sh0pP d i u b sl .+ Ds r t . : t " ar l- r " n d i n g .l " a .r Io \ In g heartlelt.. ithoushtworn, erc i ' ' "ii i . J i ii .i '

li"lt;i'", rcn.n",

h 'inj ldJ,, ""

irrF s rk a L t E \ ' e : lt ' t

h: ' \ ' . oln r ' d pl" 6 d n l s D o l '" n e l ': d +p .lon "d . har J bo"d ;dj. -psf.: dt' : r dv. 8d l.: d own ri;h', . epr . ' hd"p our bJ nJ . pr ' c r ' idv. -r nsit.: ra'\-c"in s. hs r d \ t or } s oul "ndr n. l o \ '_ b a r r n ; \ ! F r l m d a n n g ir i ndr lnr n Jo s n "d l. l,;sl,sh J\Pi, ha iv r _la' l' ve.b + snbst.: l.hc ral, taL blush. elc : \ p d' n t . \ n 'L l d b " ! l " s 6 4 t ' : a dl r rrrr + re tl: n ok? b't:p " s at ai ' J o. r o dr J lr i. d ' u 0 " o ! va u t o' eerb i !dr.: a h :J.4 ' g6 l , nr ' r . o,', D , r g a m " s . t h " o P F P '( s ) / n..; b"l.:a1 lfr,../i,, ". \ i ", l t ll -s roa d, it. tf t d e . ai,,rh, /l - batl ar\ h rondu"t. "\c Adi. (,;Dme t . a inl.: a 1 ut i\ : a' ' 1. . ' m; i mu riF rre"f'..ti!sdu sPAq'drJ"4oJ olrr"m 1r h: llr d odL | o t n t o . ^ - I '1 " o n d 'd 4 o t h . ' .t . u Q elc. Jno, 'o n,o L,|:)a ''JIu 'ho, d. r \ d! ' ho\ : ado! b! . |] o' t po Ps an o tt ol th" qoJ Ptarp atr :l,o ,: ihp nol/-rl"/ "rAl,/ D-tut' dn" . ."t al-d ' " I \ \ l- h' n. t r n Joyothona oonstruc lii rrrrrs:lc: :t+ . t 1ui E""o, dhl ^h ltv . y\.o n '. n t 'r rh! srorl ; n. o b" 4n' t - l \. \ " . d . / , utd; t hu a ^ 11 ! tp o l' anuh "rt ign. lnb il \ ' s r dr . h, 4do' . - i, Unt \ t t o l S p ) l a 'n s s -,,ds 'pa nn ^'

Elementelc care inLrn in compunereaunui adjectiv stnt in general sau scrise intr'rn singur cuvlnt, sau unitc prin oratimn:
| $ "r,. , "r F ", . _J d. r . \'\ Eoeryd.nll (adj ) nnslisli Col|sc Il is a lans disl4ne aw0! (adj ) cau. Ii lrad a lo,s'd,rd,'. Th !. u", p linl bt , - o' , i. aplt ; ! lo \ r '. T p lo - , h" t t a* - and t F: anal . , r t ? o d t a b l "

S Sl{l

Liniula de unire $i locul unde se alld er prczinti loart mare impoltanlA pentru intelesul cuvintelor respective ,\ se compara:
(: 1: (: i: l: (: o camer{ dc hotel nicl o camri dc hotel nrice) retala unui t'Iandaiir strivit) ; pchu de trandalir stdfita) calrl vcchii diligenlc) leirlDul c d diligenl{)

a cndpled

/otr ledl

plefgdlt de !l adjectj\. i Sll un in Foarte adcsea linba englzn. substantiY al !du dF un FfbivclpnL a.p.ruie prim".l" !uti\ul prrli.ipiel -'d1cbi3t aluo' I un ,ind nu exista un !erb .o'..pun/d nr 1n limbdr' forml d asLtel sdiA ri\

(cf. S 805): compus


qilfedsed a ane'kgge.l rr,an bdtu ed 8\L a double
Thc chair had dn upenr)ed\o\ tor one l e g . 'rh. restalrant \eas ;rcrnaDledL shoestring : ll - cran.lre t\\..

linbji encreze

812

Ailiectire telescopate(Partmankalt ll'ords ) cerea termenului):


gald nr " inr I u r'i m Jn i' r n! l d r';r lr"

(Yezi S401 peniru eaplithine

bl:l

l-roarcdadierli\cl,'r rrrodorrrc. Cr' dr^ ' al' ' lja'i\" noi r' rli/'ar.arr pru'F'l'u.qrrlr'I .lild .r:Jf.nl0 in limbd - el.zi a '''o'r'p "l' lolo''l; a 'accentuarea subtiliid-tii. o\presiritilrii tn scris qi in p entru lldsi,icitnlii fi la'J.|l.rJ e\en p|" '|- ",nFn darjp'li\F In'r':rrrrd" I lrmb6 rlrFl' ,r+alii li "ra." i,olH-;. "i -'d,\lnil ,r'i"r -'r"d" 'l' 'omn,r-Li' 'onlurFr l'-cedelor ourente:
an daclurrsbtel nnn dblel l]hces u n_ge,_al d r n \ , i 'E 8 n d , 'd g L . s t s ] , at ano ; n f / r \ t r . l d z zl E n d lhc !r.r ", r ,,,x1 -,1?i.,ish: {ir Il \r.rs a n.(r"-r' lntE., l' ; l I i' ) l/ * r ^ r ii nd /t a lidli. dr ' I L, . , - nh. . bo.t 'J

lle $a5 rod- St*'r ' ''_ \' ,o ull lx q |d L '.IlL rllplh . u. ' 1. a. "r "i tarian and Eu,lar-Dor0lrilh."r a frin ro z.v '/,,a l,' "Here'!

Iatn rqiadjectivc tormato dintr o lo.ullrne snu diitr o frazii tutrearn:


1l\is h.k'a|ain'Co&a!(ilr

:i ;

'',1: n:t" ! .

,a ' "i " ti".

;.

: r,

'

oDt " l'

t.:.

lriend oi lis

t-.l/,

r' , i :
'| l r '

l on

i { ar d Adjeciivul trbuie studiat ptralel cu adtcrbul

NALII S 814 B. ADJECTMLE DETERI'II\A1'IVE Sr\tl PIi{JNO\'II


(PRONOITIIN'\L AD JECTI\lilS) lirrbA proprirrzis', P\i\1i in ljr bx enql-/;. (a qi-in In afari de adjectivcle plonunle rare nu rrruilirr lo'rn iirbFrrrni"lor' 'i lc dc romeni. o cateqorie i.""i"* .; t" ditermini ca $i adielli\tle. Ille lu nti dtr. r: Llrr' firr '1ie (le udidit' 1"" derin adcvirati adjecti\e ii de aceeasint "; poarln Einr,nflr ""o'iuln": Sprea se deosbi adjectivele n1ai trliiitati\ e ele':rtr\it.. d iominalc. de a4iedLw .lettmlnatLrc:
Tlls lot lf ail is r f o. c ir r t er ' s l l n s t l ] l n

i ?i. al es t e n p ro n u me d e o a r' e i ' e rk ,t ui el tc u ' t ul . in. d a lt c l i ! p p r,rl r " ,l rts rmi n i -. l' h l . P ru n u r l " . \ P r ' bt , c n r onunelui int e ro s a l i l ' s n u rc l a l i l n /t' r' ' pLrf ur a u 5 i u n c o l e s l o ndent p r onune nehot i ri te

subsl rnti trtl ?t' tml t: p" ' ' " t ' 11' rLrFl ' Jr\ /ri rl !r01' r' rri arl j | tl i Y al '

''d r '

thts

-i;'fa#,ll:Xi:"1'l,i'll'"1*;,*'

d. L,\\,. i,, Ad,anu,e! 11',,nnqhtui din.7ti.,s


(}'hatosrut 't

trR. -\ldinstor. or. .n. { iala o iarLi iDiuz.tni.d ca& ra lnraiil .Im 5n lotosraliali" 1 i" w r ' i601. " ' P u \\ \a" "tl :ng Fry:\ ',J' ou.P. i 1r ' l \ ' 6! n i\ ' . /o . l o d l r I i n ' r' b -: l

163

Adjectivale pronominale so tmparti ca lsi pro umele respcti1-el in .tncl S 815 .ategorii: 1) adjectivc posesil-e 2) ad ierin e demonstratiYe 3) adjectirc inrcrogalivc 14 adjective relative ;) adjecLivc nehoterite prononilale sint inl.nriabile, cu erceplia adjccti\.e]or posc- ,s Slti -{djectivrtc sive. demonstrati\.e ,si a cito a adjocLive neholnrite. (Peniru studiercn comperal,ivi rrsi amnn nlitn a adjectivelor prorrlS9'n 'll |,inil", \"/i proru,'l.r'.p'rr\p '012. 1049,IIjl]l. lj tdic;ritolo p,'sc.i\; I Po.-s,J" AIJJ T;r's.t : nt s 617 I ou' {.- trostN, nonsha..

"s. { ,a . {

il ffi"l=ii,:.i',t.;'i,:ili"l"'r lw*
{= (1'cnL.u dcialii

{: rosrru, voastra
roifr! !oaslrel

$ e00i 2/ .\diorlirclc dcmoDslralit0(D"nonstrat;" .ldjcctitcs) stllL. tho (: acel, acea, acei. acele) Orzi $ 444)
vczi

li: l-lii'(,f[;;,1]'"' ,. lui, ri) ln PUt r ul

(: l-"ninii, rt 1,t,","lor) (nascnliD,conu.l nculrn ir

S tl8

I d i d n ' t k n o F l .h e ma i ,/E Ii m e . ls he rndrCronin'1 ac s t . ac eas tn ) (s g -) ?its bol goes 1o e dax-nu.sery. these (: acesli, aceste) (p1.) Arc ,tusd cigarctn's yonrs? t h i s (: that (: acel, acea) (sg.) I'ndr rcst l,omc h6 jt6t been bnilt. acei, acele) (pl.) Don't put ,lD.? things on the tablel

those (:

the other (: celdlalt, cealalti. ceilalli, celelalte) Givc me ,ld ,rrdr Dhoto: this one is no cood. l'll havc ,1, od.f apdesi I don'l like these, ihey're g.ecn. thc lormer [: prinul (din .jouli obiecte' sau din dodlUgrupud de obiecle'?)] Doesn't he p.eler th. latwr ?f,Letn.\tite the laiier? to tho latter (: ullimul din lo d obiocte'sau din dou.t grupuri de obiecte?) Aren'l rne lo,rd !.oposals do.c atl.active lhan ihe forncr? the fi$t [: primul. primele (din mai multe obiecre')l rvas lhe best ol the thrc.. ?r. ftr, tiile he s'rggcsLcd the last [: ultimul, u]timele (din rzal nulie obiecte'9)l Ol all ihc plaJs you mcntioled, oniX fta 16, onc soundsUfilllngSuch (: a.est, aceastn. acestj, aceste; asemenea, astfel de) \there did 1on lind st., a perfcct pieceol old ohinn? ,ta.n rvre his wo.ds. .lL.n goodncss is.a.e. .larl, liorsps ,.e Aood lor field sorlt.

':Pronu,l t [0iJ rezi ! Ir1 Srnsgfrmatic.l(S tl.

1|]4

acelaii, aceea;i etc.) The sdtu dav I went on a irip to uie seside 'l ory (: chiar ao1/acea/aceilace'le) We arcstandirgoi l'hcterl ryot Ftrcretlc baltlc\rxslouglil rc"i a""t-'' u.rdretbp \on. rt'url ,i !oniitsrrur li rdi''ir"r ' 'rel r'"a JialF' cl .J n jr'lul loprr': o olol"ii irt -'rr,'i n^u"r". n -"b rrnL"l \ 'l j Soms (:
ln r n | " l' \" o r \ o' " " h4 ' r n J L '^ d 'i / \ d \ lnr ' ' \ ' 1, p"- . '' i; b l"' 'v d l\iczi tnrtN detalji s 93r) '

S i. l) '

/i' "s./ sir. : J, .\dicr!i\elp irrlprogrli\e I tn' rr' -at"1di rrn'-1" I-'lrins 'Frp'rrrl Whi.lii 1p"7 ure Jin -Ln rru"'
.1 oj , !" " 1 1 / , . f r \ ' d- o " b .." o r' : ! 1 y t, , r ' . ; , o ! ' ,:J " " o " n nr" \r t'trl I\'hosc? (: al cuil n cui? ai cui'l ale cui!) lfr,se sor \tas h.1 rnos' roice did l hcaf? ' lT bat ? : r : e? c a re l p c ra re ? (i n fc l e s l n rg ge cral ) lr'ial rclatives ln!. Jou got in Buchrcst? ltla, lciter .ue lrrstT iry'd, cha.act0r did lie inrpersotrate? Ho\ l m r loh? ( : c i t] c i tn ? ) ,'1,n,,,rc]' llnslish do You kno{? H,0 nr./, iJiFrest did he show' r onY l (: c i ti ? c i te ? ) llo\ t
lh. 1 o lhp nnnor ' ' 1 5 - ! m 'r d 1to ' rto d o "!u - \ p, Ha r " aa -t \r,:s , . : d . \ o' r pl nLl {vezi Penl'u detalii S 101!l

S sJO

inirodnced me lo heo oI ihe rcadD's' ltcnt The li|rrim lfo ntra nkPr' nan a fo l u $ d r d\ r D W to'l h'mlo ' nr obd ' r lil

ri]|,tl 14 ,{djectirelo&lttire ffielrtti'e Adiecttues) : (pe) care Which

rld

Jones' oni'l'

hll'r

lvhoso (: Wh$t l:

al rafui. a irerci, ai ciror, ale cnrei etc)


"n s

Thp mln Lfta i;:' ,s ll|o!l

idrili ls b- dn m r : o1p| i o " d o o I r - r " 'l p r J 1' . r ib m v $o k

ce, (Pe) carel

poi tl pronume orr Cuvintele compusedin *'har l\ Qhich +erer sau soer'J' .Ldjectivc: 'o
. h m u l l o 'l n' dJ l- . ll h dt rro f.,. r c llls . ' p r' t om ds f ir lr m or n h : he ". p\i "i delalii S 103j) lvezi lenlN ' r"l

te rd ir ^ o . . nt i' ( 1 tYl,, Fl li\r n 4r r ' I do _ troL { "hdr s o. ( Wnal liitle tobacco rmains is at Iou dispos'tl

i 5::1 "

il tdiertitelo rrebolnrile//ndPl'l/P A.di 'la)'i",t: cnur' rr' o inJnrrlJr a ccrtitin ( un/o


d.rrdtz Dan Rlrrt with him Hc broL.lehi,4 iii" *;;i i'* to @.c.'dia exrent sadsractorv cedsin (: unii' unele; oarecare) h t f r din oP oD l p a l e ro b rp to r i d /z mL s' He I ' a" , - ; or ' , b o u l s h a m rg h l ' n l " n 5 r ) vu

somel (: pul,ine atc.)

cil,ira, cilcl'a; unii, unele; ni-ste,ceva, pulin, pulind, pulini,

Wc sarv so/re teasets at worL Shc will buX srru rrce. llhe ernibiLion c.nlaired somd

sorrre... or other (:1'reun,

vreo .., oarecere)

Hc is alnays sure fo make sol.e eti\1se or ot'tet. $'o mnst liird satue reas(n o. athct lof our absence ltom the party

reEpeotiv)

d, (in propoziliile S.terogaliv-e,negalive sau ipotetice):i'run, vreo: ( negaiie)nici un, nici o; sau nu se traduce; Ha\. rod dra rare books? 'fhe\-\ion'i lti ni or9 clild urder seren any plcde. It Jon trale any llorr, bring me some, &l : orice. oricare ,1,v ohilrl conld do lhis Toli niav tale du, nro magazines like. lon mai mulli, mai multe; dilerili, difrite; several(: citiva. rjtevn:
Jarrii lircfs 01 iewelr n..c missirA. I rn re 'b ee, , lo \ - enic ; re /e /a i ti r,ra \te oalled iberc or tlircc .v,t.ral da\-s. 'l-h-"sresis said sood |yc and $rit tl,, ir .\.r.rol \tays su dfy (: diierifi. diterite) \Ve liaY m.t on s,nd'! occarions. Tlroc wrrr sdn.lfr reaaoi( lor his alliludc o n o (: un, o) Orz dat l.hc cosros \rill hold no secrek ror nim Thcre i\as onc }Qter ln pafllcul{r Nliose rngs were Folks of lnrc a alrother (: un alt, o ali:i; rrdi, hcn) 0!c ol ile mcn lud bougl,l or. ho$e, on.lner one anolhef. Uav I lralc rn,r(. ro ol ica. trlease? Stir LnaLhe, th! rinulcs. Fill XoD? (5 133) other (: all, nltn, alli, oh,e) x lid! orllr peoplc callcd he. altfnt'on lo it, slie r.alized lier nisiakc c'rEl da]s, ,rll \tnys. rh m o .n i n l . . Tl f " $ d : " . , 1 us : You lnov l,o\L na.n Norh l djd yestudtty-

uch (: mutt, multii) (rezi $ 690 694)

mary (: n1ull;, nn te) (vezi S 690 694)


_

inlo orttr -lIa,y \rtsr tlie resnlls iolloring !!0n lhc:launchingol tlie carth srtellites I halc mdr.! radio h rs: auons mI lrinds I savc him ./ lrtL adri.. on his $ork. H ,; L n n \ s r r , L, ludn J n ( ' ., l a l i u .

(a) littrc (: pu1in, pu-tine)(vczi S 677-686) (a) re\v (: ciliye. citel'a; pulini, putine) (vezi S 687)
. . 1 / t u {o ds a,. o rl.n o, p plol, \ \ p kno! /.- rFop le i, ' t "t r hur "s t lhJ n a long s p 'h

1 as le d ! o bicdi n d. AT lorm' s "nl . al ln, onr . * L- |P de. i lo r m a , l d b l l p r n p o ? i -on! ro ipi v"/i r T' t - rml Jnde so a '.nlu il nr od r ' "ials uuda! 65eallblJ b l r r i i l ! l !i Q ll: 8, lt 8i. r fdd,o lan J : rJdlo am at or i { c olo( \ idll.

186 enough (: desLul, destuii, destui. destule) We have iood cn4rsn fo. our oul.ing. Thoc arer't ,mLrn caks to go ronnd each [: fiecare in parte (accntuindu-se padea. nu intregul)] We should see a tuture Dromisein adr ohiid is $vil..hed or' -Eaci applianceshould b-; ovefhauied belo.c it eycry [: Iiecare (inteles colectiv); io!i, todt] /, './ L ' , , 1 v ll' ov J " 4 \p n u r i ro t' .n , rrt d .i .n ro a r" d " m i , ri ; d, . i" " r , I'i i i * E e.e Jaok had ltis Jiil. all (: tot, toatd, to!i, toate; liecare) He worked l,afd all dar ai the lorttiit ol an acadoni.ian. .1lI peo!]es stru3gle ior Peace. cither (: amindoi, amindoui; oricare din doi sau do n) ,1 .1 .1 " F o {",j s l r v o, ' t la" -rd r o r 1 P rn d d / 5 h " I ral l. r \ p . t i, . . r o o m . s h ' ;.h r r s h " p - ' .: noither (: nici unul, nici una din doi sau doui) ,{.id.. I.ontranke. was over bvenly_Iive years oI age fi,nnd. scheme was accepied. both (: amlndoi. amiddoui) to,n mv cliild.en are at school. Lct m have totn testtlbes ior the etperrment no (: nici un. nici o) ,Vo ma n k np( r Lourqd d e n i n s a s m " ' 1 . 6 \n Tn p p o - m d ! - or ula@ h rr.rs .v e s t,rd d j nolle (: nici un, nici o, deloc)l P"d .ri .al , \ p" r : ar r p h" h a d .o r b " i n S ) ' o o J o ' rD c Bd "k,rdt ur ij lur a. r hn rew e re to 4 p i n l \" o " p h a n d Cr' Genius he is naE. (Ve z i i i S l l e 7 l

Nard determinatitetrebuie studiateparallcu proounelerespec,A.djectirete (Vezi $ 1152) tive.

I zond, despe.liI de subslantivulle cn.eil determint cind cslc adjectiv,sti iI gcnere literaf). {stil

PRO\U}ItrLE
coNsIDtH{T1t GE\ER_\L}l
322 824 8r5 427 828 838 ii39 839 L PFO\I \ LE r ll I t F s U\ -{ L Delini!ie Fuclii
N.mn l Iratut"ElIi pprsanol

pts
til

trt 111 171 t1r \t! 17' 1r_2 1/-3

Persoanaa 2-a sinsnlar PeNoanaa 3-a siniular Phalul antorjlalii ti al


fa: ul lonun .lot t.,.o nt le

8t!0 1i4 841 1 7 t , 842 1 'L 3/r4 |,.t, 845 t74 846 lt4 849 I r-4 85ll 1,-5
869

870 873 887 888 890 8-46 900 901 !07 !09 910 911 918 IJD I^"TiRIRE. 919 920 grt 92t 923 92i 928 929 930 931 934 9t5 936 939

1r' 8 t79 181 11J1 181 182 183 183 r33 184 184 184 1l t5 1l l 5 15 186 186 186 laJ 187 18rl 188 188 189 189 189 189
189 189 190

IL

PR ON|IE I , E ! t : \ D, J E C T IV L L T O S ES IV.

III.

PNONU]IELE IIE}'J,}III\T

-qI

FlI']\U]IEI-E

P rn r.l u rJ - r r or idr ii i. , . o r r;.,i ..... ...... ...... ......... rl n ru ar dr er n' ll f r" r' .n l ' r' ,,1 1 ,\i f i l p l ro ,,,In!tu d. n,1ri rp. ,. rn n tn /.- pr onr m - 1" .. .. .... .... I"o u n " r n r l" \ | , ' r ..' n r ' 1 . ! n " l ronLn frn n 'rn r pb r o|F \ r v .,I,, .u t ,," ,,o ," ,,,... , /fu J l t r nr r eDnr r lx I r Lo ml p ronnnr hi ; eit . r ir .i a l t,l r.u n i i rri ri e J n i ;l ;.;... ........ Ft ,,\r \ t F Lf . t \ 1, . L L ,I:\tO.-T | | \' t,\ ' :T .\t

... ........

I\ .

t6 8 945
{r48 !4! 961 gil,

't HLS (THtiSL), THA'1 ('tHOSE) lu n cl i i ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... ... .. ... . lo rma . Gc D.Nu: lr . Ca Z . In|rcnninlarc 'Tl ,L r,- lhx r ' ' .. l, onu ,n l _ l r\ \Jr. rb " , . or . l ' r . ": l. r 1 -l h t ..... i -r."' TIlD T'ARJ]IEN.THE ],!'T TL A lu ,rj i i .. . . . . Fo rml .. . . . . . . . . . . . hhelxinla.c ' )H1 .: I.I A S T , ' , t HE L AS ' | ..........-.... I H f Oflt l n. l111, utt1 l 1 :. .....

190
{90 1)1 19rl i9J

!66

191

96t 1161, 1 9 4
1!5

s A l r E ... . ...

,i 1 9i )

195 rl9i

v.

PTIo NUI E LE $I - \ DJ E C T IIL i . l Y l l i L l .ra j -l T I\' ........ Dcl i n i l i . . . . . . . . . . .

i!l:r

ll .

101t 1n l8
Siualkt ..tut\ ....,. ,.. In te ro q aiiadir c . li s i n i d n e d i -' Ixxili;ril DO ln irti,rcsatii . . . .. L o "r pr . ' o/ li i.
'o co n struoliim ionilic e . .. ..: .. .. ... .... Proa , l o i , iF ' r .... ....

' rrr r?-

. . . . . . . ...... . . . . . .. .
.

1011 : 102b lotll 'ln_ n' 10:10


l nl :'

1035 : 1057

'_

\.I

PRO\UI { F I LE lI

A D J IIC T IVU L R E L -\T IV.... .... ......

189
4i

wHo
IYEICH Inteles Funclie

1053 1059 1060 1061 106, 1063

205 t05 205 206 206 206 206 207 201 208 ,08 ,08

210 210 2ll 211 211 2t! 211 A3 .. .. , . 2t2 212 212 BUT 2t2 lnr.l"s . .. . .. ..... . ... ... lnsn 212 mrPrlrnl,rr .. .. .. .. .. ... . .. ... tO99 212 2\2 Ake clkstnrli. ft f.t itaate ta p.a numete atljtti, eleretatiee... .. .. .. . . . . . . . . 9i 212 -.. Su b sl d li\ , , ol " liv . - l J ,.o -n u m, rp tJ t' r h .... ......... .. ..,... rrul 272 urrp sap o' uad. r r r J . v ,P " o . ,j , r" l u l i \ /..o to l . ....... .... rro2 213 Lo cD rp rlnur n ....,, 2t3 ' r,,6 214 c u r r n .{ rF d P s u b s ta n tr\' .,. 2t5 ra t6;i; ; i; ; iii'; iit i r ; i . r i p . l . i i i i i i i . ' " i i i i i"!.................1 1 1 2 ....' ... 215 1120 216 \t21 216 1t25 216 7124 2ti 7129 21) 1130 2t1 1133 21i 1134 21i r\t' 2t) 1136 !l r. 1137 at?. Ca z
I'tadutrh \:II. retalio II .. . .. Pll']NU]IELE D ' irili

WHAT

1083 1084 t0a7 1088 1u91 7192 1093 1091 1495 1096 7091

I DJ D C T IYIT L -!-EH O T A R IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._........ .


.. .. . .. , d. it \ q r . dt r ot J lt ....-. .. o r rr J r dlr " r f . t or Lr hot J r "t n , u alt p p r o n , r m . , ,." f."u.t

ri l t
t t(2 It11 lt41 I t4u

21!
. 1. :t. l. :.jl

170
j

protrumeri sdierlieo oetot6rite . EYE RI . . . - .

t1r")
'I l5t tt37 7116 Llii 1t5i

,22
:l2rl 222 l.!.! 22) 122

I ri 9 223 tl6a 1161 123 1163 "l 224 116i ' )2L l16i 116,1 { 170 ))1 tl14

Inleles.. . -.

.
' ' .. . .. ..

Acordul cu alte Proaune . F un o i i i . ,,' consfruoiii idiomatice SOME, ANY..tIO, -i\?NE S o,tl f lnlpj e . .. . t nhe b u i n l a P Pro n u n l i e Funcli . .

1r)'5 :15

1 1 r - 6 " 221 1 1 1 8 22i

... .. .. ... ....

. l nte r e b . .. ...
lnhebuinta'e
^f ^rnN/i

ANv

... .. . . . . . . . . . .
,' -

l-la l t74 22ii Irl t' l l 8< 1186 2), )t1 iii* :tl . . . . ris a 1),119t 924 .. .. 1205 !t8

F o rmeco m lus r

P N ,O N U IIE I,E
(TIllI PRONOUN)

OONSIDERATII GT]NEBALI] l) Drtinitic..


dt

rn Ut pc nr \ dt enli

PronrrnFlecsr" _parrea vorbire care ljne jocul unni de


dl ac es t Ur e.

S 8gz

iub.'-,,ri\ut ,.ru c.hivalanrutluir rnto.uit de pronum".e numeqlejn g 821 llnti .rlrl-z; .nlprpdcnt pronumplui (lnn.pd" tl sau Prinrr'parl.Desi nu r..'r', rotul .3ri.15.d'odf..a,pa.tn dFnumirpfa fi tnrrpbuijr!n; pon,ru sim_ plilirar" in 1rr. r*r'a <1" l;,; in lo, ul ppriha,,Fi fnlo.irFin a.c.t "az dp gramati"a 2) Clasificarcr proDumelor.
d/ l"o1r4d r o"":o na , " I

Se disting d obici rsdprecategorii de


r a s l '4 i | . $ \o l h 'J nr m . , . . . ... \o" th,q I I nin! J o. r s . l, is \ F r ' i l " o \ n I onr ( r o r r ' r hqr r ! o r r ' ols . l" lour s l' . ||: m r i . I . r p l l . i , s d , o u r e p h , " lonr s . l\ es , lnPn\ el\ P s i o n c s c l l ntciptace: eat:h othe., one doitrer r i. . i! . hdr . ih o . " , r h - t o r m a " . t h " d " r , ' i. . - 'lh. ' hp las t . I n o o t l , . r t s , . s ? m p , s u . l Ir $ljo? Nhose? whom? $l,i.h? Fhat? sho, Nliose, \rhom, which, $lEr, rtrat, as, bur r nor nl l oo r u \'r' ) o! .

g 894

/ / t , o..,m-'r Do.,c,i\ c ' ., Pmnuml relle\i{c

d, ProDn fl.

(lenro,,stratirc

e.) Prorrmel-. intcrogal.ire ll P.o.um.le lelal.ive ti I I I I I

d. h. J l. on. . , r ' , or h . r . n.r.r r. r , ^thrr bo . . r . s e. J od. t h . ) . s r r p r jrr.l!, s" i nru , - ,. , a j I . k , u rr s or F. t uv . , , on4 . om " b o d J . s o n . , 1 D . , "o r " o D , nnJ DodJ . anJ on4. a n J l I n g . n o b o d y . tn io t h i n ;q . p! . r ! bodv . . \ e. ) o.. r . 4 \ d r v r r i . a

3) Acordulprorumelui. cu antecedentul siu:

Pronumele acordeinge/\ nutnb Eipersoand g BZb se

i rnl ,rm, i. : .a. snc m.\ d1.gt,.pr. Th, n,,.- Jd aL n //",r,I.imo"b,,or-30,.Sd"\n,'r"r,at-. ln privinta ca.ulai ins6, pronumcle este ildependent, de antecedant. q 826 cazul pronumeluj liind determinat de ro1ul acestuii tn propozilia alin care \ j 4lio 1 .l , a, ' r ' 1; l n' $ r , " , , , . , al. o ! o _ . T p . t1,n t.. N\ , $pr ( ur k ing d n t dr t /r,,, rddt.l. .o 0(p to th/r . . . 1, . . , ? ( . jat . , , e, ( "nT , . . .-i i.\roa r r v . o . n | Srrc mel lhe rolrd, (ac.t. rrnose lgcn. ob.t in I kne{

. . Pronum-tep"rsonalp. 4) F po.".i\. ,, rt,.\i\" -i d- jn iriri au, { 822 iu il. \., 'rDlri. ts\.pprii Inrn- ddcritF pFnl|u pFrloa16. runnr tl" p,r.oalla a3-a sg.) .r ^pn. .-",,lp parsondl.si ppn.ru Pfa.unFt, in,"rore,i\ r_td.iv "Hz.
1v. zi p a8 . 62 rlta L

r?9 dpmun lrnlivp //lr ' rftdl' rr4 dre lorn, ditprirelpnlru '1r. P"lru nronumF on, th ,t!'t.):i unrl nehotrrit (n'14,arr plurllulditFrirdcsrnguLar'LcroraIe Pronume sini inlariabile. genere valo{rc de 5) l'u 8!ii. - Formele cu valoare de pronume au ln 'si adjectiv. EacepliL pprsonrle pro rmelp \ u au lorm.1Jj"' li\ al. ' orplpun/droJrr: "irpllptivp' int'erogativ-relfltiv t'lo' cu cazul Dronumele demonsirati{ s(]: pronumele *a-t; pronumele relaiive that, dr li D&t; pronunele nehot'dritecom' iii""ii' puse cu some,dny, n0 | erera. formi de Adiecrivele corespunzitoare pronumlor poscsive difere ca 830 maso' cu acesl,ea. ercepl,ia pcrsoa ei a 3-a sg lrma o.rel" ru\inr. Pot lr fi: $ b3l 829

8r8

s832
s 833

s834
i 8?t

illl"l'1"1;',1" i3il."ffi,ii#]"ii,fig: ".,,,i11:*i,'"1,:'1"'lh,''hfi?''iiti}",''J; Dzneldlr: oDe, lirst


alc-re: all, any, 43, both1, but, eilh(ri neithef, little much no' sone. sonelhing, (the) sanc @aiLtulii: 4. botli' bul, ilhor' neither pepa.iliet brlt.

s 8:r0
$ 837

lunoliile sintrcticeale pronumelui stnt accleaqica !i aceleaale tivului ($ 347-35{l). pronunelui' - Substantivul (sau echivalentul 6) Locul tDtccedontului 838 de pronune precedii aelemai multe ori Pronumele. ln rare lui) tnlocuit de cazu inse. il fi urmeazn:
" \\l'cn lh. 4 r l, sl,rr ; r -/ ! - - at nt . Iylo lo ron , i s r hr , , dr 1 puo. o i:l;".;' d l o n 'e r "1 '\ f t / r 't r 'n ' por . ( ! _or ' l ' v "t J o n e F a o E n " r " iant e' ) at t h' ' loo '1 / i . r 'r ' l a '. 4itre t hat uau Bpt la'' l"1". t ! r

strbsian-

s 83e

posesivo 7) PronumclePorsonale, PososileDi rellexir0 ti ailioct:ivele


(Ndtudt) (Pds.) (cel )

ss.

l1 toate j r { I masc. | 31hm. t neutru t


I

it

i[

"l'osAtre (]'totu ) (Adj.) rni r. yours Jour his nis hers her ils its oslr Jour their lours tlieirs

F.flerit (l'ton ) trrsel f You.seu himseu herseu itseu Yort!$tves llcmBervE

Pl

tl i

toat e

ioaie
PentN

on.'s o1$r onrsell lo.mrlA a.lraroe alc lfonumelo. vzi S r5l

1idverb sau coljunctic

CONS1DERATfl CEN'RALE

I?3

8) Pronumele li adjectirelepronominrle Pronunlie.l,'ornLe ti forne sldbe tati


he her htm /hir/ / ha: / /hm/
/Dt:l

S 819a

t) Forma leticald /;rn.r tale(accelluali) Farna slabil.(neaccentuarn)

n,s
lry she

lhtll

ln.\tl fomd nutudrd lli:l /s"rn/ IlAl /ttun. rclatio)t l6P.Unr th ci r J i 6 ..i + rc n e a n d I la..rl + eacatii !!em /irem/ r.her l6etl us /^s/ rre /wri yov (adj.) l1t:*, p.*, n@l 11dne

rIdIjl/

tl lqhd

ttabd frc.eenld

ij.:zl 2) Pronun.l" nFntiondrd mai jo.


,\tt st .Pd normald,

yon.s

fu a tm d L e )

"u osirs.ri

tatn.n: funnd tar,,.dt.

* fil{ al pronumetuiesire pronunlat [r] inairtea unei vocale si este mur Irnarnieauner consoane. prcnutLe Fi a,ljectia denat6tntic

ttutzt

?ranum. inte.asatb2
hd' ", . t t , ": s-, J.. / ll

3) Pronumcloreflexirc
1. ". lr' rt\rl | J |. n xf.rt\ hc , t r / r t s . li/ m'r'' ! / a ." rF I / J',. rt|

r ^,.'"r
No ta i

you-.dr\ ds

,.l

. . lf . | , u . / o: r "lt / q: . "1\ /

.,,-.r,",, . . jJU.- h /. ,.d". :r:

In r ,r . " t \. "

n " ,n rt\7

l l y. . olc gi; . F un ;\F r.i ra F i i t" L ro n C o l t" g. qe ot i snri ptrF .j ca "T n " , r oo( . a s'a ronna . l3bi I m rl p .r.l ' u ,// 1 n rrrl !utor\ ri tua d d?'?... o a F r r p. \ F nr i F rte i n .5 ,r p ro n u n l -\p r^ .i ;l p .p nri al - i n u nptp e\ preFi l r H rp r tu i l /,/ Lfr rl !i .om u n c !F:,J F r . r / r ng t t /i . rta t n u l n a l tc o .rT i i . l .s .Fn!. i . pi erel e seri oase p \ r s'i o .ra d r t i. . r a! pbi t n td i n .J d . m u l l i a . o ri . d . s prol unl a fml | ori do , p n tr.,},, . s t a nF lc . en ru a r. rD i n ,E ,6 ti " h p ro n oun,i ng D i .rt" narr.t, Daniel Jones.) r !.q i :i l, r . pr n. :i d i ,,ri v J " m o .ra r,\. ., l \ r,:8.

,1rn o".,, m. : t - e:illt;rt,"T,J*,i'il:'df;tl;i':"il;il,j: ;,i:ii:l"., t:iJ",,.;?,,#i s"nfupr .dQ \


toa rp la 6d! o. ier d. s ' , r dpnlit of J in in r i i . . . t , A i u t u i .

l'i4

$ 840

I. PRO,\.LTIELE PEITSON,TL Paorl)tN) (TUE P-0risoNAr, 1) Detinitie. -- Pfonurnele personftl inlocuietie un subslantit. sau chl valeniul acesiuia. desemnind ln acelaEitimp fr persoana 2) Formi. - ProtrumeleporsoDalesini urmitoarele:

s 841 s 842

(:

Pc nbe. I 'rie, 'nrr (- tie, tii d-talc. dr.; pc iinc. te: Pe d-ia, l: hi, i: pc el. il) 1: ci, i; !c ea, o) ei. i; Pe el, f:hi. (: roui,- ne. tj; ]re ror. nel ('- roui, rii l)e Io,, tn. vi: d!,. Ire d\'.1 {: l o r , l e i l e e i , i i , ! e ele lei !c dnnncalorJ

( - ei ele,

then

S81 3

tormJ p"rrlru,Iip'nr' Cu .\' Fpli" pcr'ua ' i a I " rl'ul 'r' ' r..'n, r'nr,u 4i p r'p' :'"'tirp dih'inl o;,;";.i-"" "-.,'i ".".;;";;:; ium"i dupa p;r'^aru, r"rrnir :i '"/ /' / por I' sr pronunP 3) Fui'rlii. - P'o 'rn ' l' p"rorrrl' it ! ' !')') tt 8 844 ' (\azi S lra4) nehotdrite. p"orr^'"t" p"i'!"'"t,i pot aYrja Si frrncfia d adjective. "u \ulfi.R(ll, PRo\ulrrlltr rilrisoNAr' s 84b

O bse tea lie

$ 846

s 84? s 848

4l Persoana I singular' lntotd'Ftrnascrjs tn litern nare chiar irl r'; p"".r"i"]" j i:: "'l "'t" m locut llr'Irozrlrer: I Ln { l to_so' n "nlro1 i r'' ll in .ril'rl ,u^,\i"1. rdFt"n i lt^rr,m"l^ / r'r r" nrprirr'" torbul peotiv Jipsind uncori li el:

l'" : , ''i T ' ' ,- , r l l. r ' r , r r . Tl' ,,


to. llc

k , , ' ' ::C "_ .,rl 'o dr{oa ,i s s I q; H )'

J or r r om or f ow

s 849 s 850

l' .' '.re urri pr^r,rrm' dF l"Forrr ''-l s ' , r1,' trt',' '1- ' l1r'l^r:-Snrr\ ro\c t r' pl*-;:,'ia; sL,rts. r'ortut,i " vou lvaitins' .. (l an1) sorr-v... ' 5r Perioanr u 9-n lingrlrr. mele de peNoanaa 2 a llural:
.. ''u u' ^, I 1 I I

d/ i';;;;'-r"i"n-

" ,n '

: ' :n :u r 'r

'''i

n"J

sL .l Ynr df . I r r , laugi' r ' l r o , dr . i t r r r t il' lr n tt l I la* aot r luur r ar lsc \ \ " - J $ d", l . I r l ' in r

nnrh I

176 ,, loun.le arhaice ale prouuntoior de persome a 2'a sint: r,z l:tu) (!ron pers l { \.n
| ^ ';.i !{r'I:" I o ,,
|

$ til

h. t I

-l t

ta u . td tJ r. t..l Pl ,,J. r!' . ,d " i J. - ,ro... no" ., ' a " r.-n p r ri n ) (p ro n . r" r' .' ,i ' a
' a. r "l, r i .o ri,.p \ndr(prol. p^.t

t N oo. I\t" { . 't

r,' I ''
]

"" "."" I a,,"

t ,.

' o ::J ..
- pl .o r

Prorlnd. fcltc\ir I ss. thlflf l. (rcll.): iDstrli, insat,i (le inti.i.e) I d. !o4'scl'cs : lli lreit.); in!i!i. inscri (dc ltrierifcl ;i-de Intirrirc -{cesle lorne nu sc mai gdsesc iD limba moderni decit in "(tilul literarJ i,1r 1[e., ,e ;i in sii]ul dialectnl sru in cel colocYial. c) Pnnnnele de palitele l-, dumnaloastrn. dumnrata) este pronunele p e r so n a l d e per s oloa a 2' a : Io& a.. a mcmbcf ol thc Union of Artists:? . ' DunnrJ \o tu | ro s l n l ' n .ml ru d l II ni \rri l l ' r P l d-ri r Drn n "i n lo & ,., m m ler . o lh e U n o n o l A.L tt,' (Dumn.deaastnj. Pl$iio;?l .tnr.li .rcabri ai Lniunii lrl\lilor

l oh '

It ! _ "'1i ,I

'"'",

p fo,. (rp df. !"^ . r r.

S 869

6) Porsoanr a 3-tr singular neutru. - Pronumcle tl erte tntrebuinlat: S 8;3 d, pentru a lnlocui numele .rbiecielorsinaninaie, pe acel al iiinlelor $ 85'1 al cdror-sex nu este speciticat sau nu intereseazia. precum ,si subst,antivele colective privite ca un tot, uneori chiar qi numele de persoaneconsiderateca abstrac,tii:
t rJn g i hF l. ll, )ou hcar n^ ' bdD " r i / w 6 a s l p rt. Sl e l o nk edat t h.lid Hc caued the d,s. and t came at once. The n?ru addresed tset/ to ihc ia-sk bclorc ,,. i; him would sseli tbef wlcn i/ had an opt ortunity. She iinc; the 'tsnnaD( Ve z i ti $ 6 7 -6 9 , 8 5 , 1 0 6 0 c ) D/ casubiect aiverbelor unipersonale' refe toarcIa timp, orcme Ei distaal.i: t de{$. lr driztes, i, r.eezcs, haib, n lightens.t rains, n sleeb, n snows, t, thars, n ,r i s !rr iUv hool/ s dr m /h o t/fi ,,e rd ,l l n !s coneI o f loc k i , , i s p a rl v ' l a tp ,r i s Si ! , dnr . , r i. ' r ' : d o i J u .y . rr." s p ri r. -\l n a t t ide is n. " a / h b s t' -c k b r. 1t is three miles to the nexl to'vn. Ir i s a lons wav io m v o l l i c c . // i s th r p- weeis inc e ' l o u \1 o l p 1 6 i . s S 8i5

A se compara: 1, ,s [: este(impenonal- pentru timp, vreme Di distan!e)]:


t is dark, ir ts laie, t 6 Uonday, t;

S 8;6

2 o'clocL, it is lar. t, is a lollg way

Thercis (thercarrJ l: esreGtnt) (: se afln. se giseqte,existd)+ su(tntrebuinlat biectul (: il y a in limba franceze;esgir, ln linba garmand)l cind subiectulvine dupd predicat):
?iald is a saden round tle house, Th* be peipre i the ga.den. (v e z i ti I2 5 0 5 ) t y, esle prorultrt lji:1, nneod ljil. svezi a/,i-d pas. al!. rota r. ( 'Scn s s r am , iiianl r ezi $ 2 ). rV.zi S 67- 6! . 6 \e ri S 1196.

1?6 S 8 57 t d J ( c u v aloar e d e p ro u m n e h o te ril ) c a s u b i eo al unorvrbe i mpersonal e: , l hJ I ppn \ l : s c i n i l m p l ; ) n appears(: se la.e) , / r han, . s l : s e i t r t l m p l s ) x seens 1: se pa.cl (stil lanilinr) t says, n tclh iin d pla), a book' elc ), tl is said (:6e spune) 1, aplears ilai sle Is woried in ihe "litsi ol llav" fa'torv belore /r seemslie wants to be a nDsrcran.
. // lb o a pp pr"J lhbl lhpv \ L r ' r \ : r ig in ll' s J F l r ' i' . m ' J [ L\ d Ln N r r , ' , 1 o, -1r l$ r claxcp d /r.,a vs in h rs !.l ool r po, r r \ ' ( r ' p : . ( n lnL l i n r l l i n r 'l ,p r lr oni. l" no\ . 1, . d, t J l , l ll, . r ' r n \ . .// t- tr :n

Ne putem da seana cd verbele de n]ai sus sint impersonale.in caznl de si cu consiruclre il poateli Lleplasrt' pusah mijlocul fald din iaptul cn aceastd fdr[ ca ir sa ']j'f.'i, l?rbul nepuiirrd fi ljpsit dc sair uneori'la sfirr.itul frazei. subiectul seu: nr Shehas \'orkcd, ;t app.ars, the "first oI IaI" laotorXb'lorc' l rr' n J in ll'" dr'' slr -l Th,v r"r'lr\"q, 'o i rl P l i g'l 1and li r ' js l' : ool In : - " .
-pnrl ' ld ^o

\ s58 "

Mult construelii tnlpersolaie din hnba ronanir se traduc prin verbul r IjH-i'ifiu. J\in lcubi p'rul i/r limbs "ngl"zi: to l', r unddiarir '
j p 'r n i , i' ad a ,J( i, F "\r. "lu- oaJ ' ' . . ' u p p o i - 4- 'd r l, l' , 1 ,l is Flp' "l-d ' r/ 6 lhoudlr Fs r F i los bf ,/ i' tr,; po 's:b l h n "n s'Frr I r pb. l ,/ It. is impasible not io lPel erl.Iusiastic or.r ihc last constnction ]fogralnnc socialist countrtes. I. i. r.... a -J It . '' d bd' Lr n- ' lot s r ldnm br " A lew'o:.1 ago, ir 0ds luratl the.c $as lile on thc ]rlanet Nds Icos 'a@o!cd

in

in limba englezi, de ceie arixate ln De lapt tnsn. aceste construciii -lin, (h) (S 864). punctul g us$ dJ jn Fopozil;i impersonaleln care il are ln!lesul general de: ,,impre' jurerjle". ..starea lucrun erc de I a sure ;, shall lc weU$rih l'oul i is wel/ill sith... llo$' lares Li t iares un nume aii\, in spe.ial ca subiectal verbului,,,c+ S 8ti0 _p/ ci donorbtr predlcatll lrr nomrnauv: 1, iB ten miles lo lhc nett lown' "$ho is nr'1 'Jr is l/nc."r "1rs a long way io Tip!era.y." \\:har is n. (JonRani)? /l ca subiect al verbului ltr r. + uD nune predicativ in nolninatj' i')so' 5 8$t pentru a sc accerlu{ rclative, construclieintfebujnl,atn 1it de o propozi!,ie un subiectsau un co rpleme.t:
/r h I/m. who havc! ron lhe lrizc. lt .ra! orerc l.ial Lidioe6 uscd lo be. \Lho di*olcrrd thal. llrc earlli Llrns round ils aris i; .;; C"p""ri;. I ir: rnd ! lnro r r n, e dc uons lr ' . t i1l. tIn rm I r.,--nr l . . , " l 'I r '1r ' r r n J . dJ - li t;rrl/rid l""ap i I nl df t u r " r i I r r ' ''u / a r r \ r b1r.: pro nu n' l" l r on, i , r : . "l " i 'r " 3 il : rhis s& Aat. ou antcc'dentul prorL: Fopozili.i rdrtive se acordi ln nunrir;i ltAodri 'Vob!] i /,i.fur, sat cehoslovao disl.rls d. armalu g.tuanii, c{ r.ptesalii' JI' 194''

tradusi

cu consiruc,tia romeneascd: Eu sini acela carc'' A c o to -s tr to . rt u rd ....


C oPPr n i' P"" d e la

(V e z i i i S 2 5 5 " ,

'd'

precedenrd sau urmdtoare: S 862 g, pentru a inlocui o intreagd propozil,ie


ir do, s n l m lllp' rhz \lep ha . bp pn pd t . t t , ! ) l1P ds ,li and had a lFrI bad tin. ot , It l/ i"n l b .k:l'A lno m ' r , h. , odld : t au I Pad n" ludr r n L P l k , :

Nati. 1 1, este in senere omis dupd {,s !i t,tan in propoziliile comparati{e In caro it, subict; inlocuieqte o tntreagA propozilie:
As lil) hB becn nentianed, dl the candidatcs x're accelied. I sill he lp vo u 4 Ir. t s r , / , / lt r ' v it hin ns L' ! ' r ' ue did a; l,r) s.en.d Des' H . erprL "'i -im"Pl n ot " t hon I : t ) ' os Aoat [ a" h: : I '" o l h Orr team weren't in tlainins long.r thaa (i. teds) necessaty.

$ 863

il introductiv) ca subiectgramaiical S 864 "I/': D) {numit, Fj prpparotor42 al unel pr.poririi ;l c;rFi subi.c lugi" a'ra un infinitirr tsuu o 'onslru {ia.u infinitivul); un serundiv (sau o constructie cu gerundil'u1),ori o propozilie in apozi.tia lui t:
lPh ./l is good oI Jou 'o -4, tikes me rr hoor t. !.t her. $:hen will ll be lossille /o. us to t2atn thc .esltlt? 1ts tro ute 5u?/rtza. /r $6 .u ulth !o ;. p nb"' ng 1] " . an Put : a4 \ 1r ' ' . \ ^. u h r o r o l " d i n i n g 1r nd n.. ssd rv thot it s @ e l p; ' t h" J ag t o \ p t o t i t P t // orcur"ed lo i'-n r " l; , P an nF "at n. t f t a o t htEh"- tP , l, imDal..ia l to t.ah- hjt "t Does , mattcr ahb speths firsl?

tCurintel" .i propoziLiila ri.e cu .arar'rpr.' ursive.in .ubie' rplF)ugr." ala vprbFlor al c;roi subi."L grdmrli.al P' P n./ il introductiv) ou lunclie de complement direct S 865 i) (preparalata "ia': p;Doziiional p;ntnu3 anunla un 'omplPmplr dirpcL{un infioiri!. un gF"au predicu rundiv. o consLruCLie iofiniljvul sau .u g"rur,Ji vulrori o prop^zitie directn in apozi,tialui il: cativd sau compleiivi
I lound n hatd ln slzPP \ ra "ou gh l , \r"t ,a t pt t k , ' a , , , v t V J . b; . , . - 1 1 . H p ha sn r tol :t 1 ltin t o . pDr - t oL t ' . . ., d ^ i lJL" /o" trnu .ot 'o a .p t, 1,.1! \\', , o,..id,.-. She ihinks n'j danscrous ?rotr. saLmmutg tL (g eat.r. t o na P' Poal I lrkp i, ,4 rr h"i r aat "e* I but ir to vou qhllh.r h? da\ ttBht Iric. -; no ll"irs ,", ; b r ' , b"Rt at t a, t d\ ' n t e t 4". t 1 I P a " 1 'r ' lll od. o lr ll' l 'h" t "Lt " ' * r ' t ! r ' t t..' P\ blt at oat J n '\, rplr o 1 :ttlr t )o

Notd A sc observaordinea carinlclrr in acest paLlern : tl introductiv, preoedat direct sau nu de prepozilie.este prs inediat dupn Yerb. iar eoRrplementul
, \umii.i i,,,tud ,. t 5. t o , t t - r ! - ; . ""v r p, , i, ' ii1ir '\ o p r 4 ! o z 'r ' u. ,,"n* r" ' Ci (l su6 i".lu l lo;i" d \ "r b, lui, . "JU introdrclit su conjurclia tru, n.narn de un snbjoncrit, eiLc prfteratf' consiruolir cn 'l

S 866

l7,J

a$;

apozitnrall vinc la ifirsitul froloziiiei: in ri:rznl uriFicompletiredirecte, tocul acst.i se alli la stirsitul ira;e;. j/,,.\il,,,e,1-trnn,,,.,,.r Luto.ti,,tr,...,,n.ri",,4 L nrJrlempnt , r, In..pf,;l il n nor 1-cr rare au nceea,li dn, b{, tornrnca ti substan, Ir r-.nF r\. .. ,u dr.t; : trppu,,rt,, ^ '1
lo niakf ,/ lti

Y ou' ll c alt J r , r / Notr lor trt


To r"d (p. r," t n . 'I-" h ,r, d.,,!J o J r . i Sri\ rJ r, || !a .,rp ilul .,ln \;d r p 'n r t , t , "" i. .

Ito \t l tl fs i ., H..s i; ior ir.


t . , 1" ,,,.1

I . r i6 r : , r , ' i u . ro u " 5 : t\h " rp o i d ,o u ri c k ur D i .furL I . dn t s ' 1nd ' ' - a ' p i s s D d rteI -,t" -$ ri u " rc ki - . r t , i, r . r, a L .o ' .' p ty .' ;1 " \,trn i .J l : ;... l n n ru /i tu m ^' r , . s , it . : t he , o t You musi mccL himr he's the ..t,,, oi rh. ih.atrB rlortd. irmlo.rantir No Nonder she's a success: shc's goi ..tr,'. iIarn..)1
S t6! : l

d" . , h. r ar . r r . \ r J , r,rbi,td 4la. rrJi - rn ^ t.runun -j i \ nr i1, " . ' l or pt . . . . , n t i . / t i - . , JiTpotri!i..a.t.,i. 'r . .

., r,,r int,.t,..utJ F ..i rnL r r a l .

.,f ,r ,. -r:

;. P lur alul au l o ri ti ti i :i rl u o d p .l i p i . pronurn" tn Ja r,.rro" nJ I f " .i p l u '., 1 in li' nDA r nl l , n J . i . to , r" 1 !., i ,, ti muJ ngtnz. r.,l " t-. d" .i n,.ut,,r . l u l i ' ' . ir d s o r " l" r i l .' u $ i n trrd p o r.4 d n a s i pq a "(nLrebui nrar de l urori r" ri . .u \Frr ni. . ^ni" r pnr r. ri . a u ro i i .n i ro rr , . 1 , , ., , ,u ;i i n Ii rnoe crgt" " " " " .' verbul are formd de plural: "\e are tut aa,sdd..." (Rcsina Vjctofjnt. ' t d, . , a. 1, , a . _ .p , b u r rh :.k . s .d } l r ,-. a oLpFn. _ j1 . ,I t ' o " - D- r ' r dd . l l h ,l r" . .ta rtg i . n r r, ,. $i .t -" ' .utL ur i l i ," .u." " ... ([l '

S 870

c-{zur, pnoltutrllon

pnRsorALD

granaiica actuati lace ,I" c.e,r .c pri\este cdzul pronuinelorperson&te, o dcmarcatrenetS intre: o) stilul fornot. i:ntrobu intat ai,ft tn scris (: Boal' rngl;sD * sritut livresr : 8?1 si apisrol. rj. r' :i in v^rh;r"r .u1,,'. iolr ald. rrti rlta. granrdrirlt6: $r b) stiLLn infornal. colodridl.intrebuintat tn vorbirea curntn si rn scrisoS E72 rile sctise in stil familiar sau negliient. _ Totu;i, aceste doud stiluri se suprapun in unele conpartimente, sl,jh: .,olocviatindcpnrtind chiar forme gramal,icate ( esen,tiale cfolom inlocuit cr: nrr.. sau nominativul pronumelor personale1, D, ;re, {rc, rr.g, tnlocuit,cu tor mele de acuzativ Drejnn. ner. us,in, n 1. lrstlel, formlc coto;viate au crstisi si ,i.lir' rapiJ rcrFn.c; insrilul lornot rorbir. n oara,dr- na.uri si 1nqtitL scris. chiar in cl olicial.
l Conpl-emntnl direct erlus ]a accst !urct esle considerat tn linbR engtezn tn a!0?i. ' pronumehi it. : ld.scori s.fis c! iDifiaE mniuscula: He txtier.s hitullf t. be.'11.. 2 A se obserla ir a,iest crz Dnirz. far. intfrline nr rorb;e inainrca nfonunFtli .i ,,a ' L .n, ' u rl d o . . hn r i . ' . i o, . d D r o n - , e l u : . al hi\ lp rur Jin ". , t "1 1 t r . ' n. / . - Llt " a , r ' r , . , i , . n lim t . L nosiml roL, rJJ \ nuani, aclsrcr cxpres!. r\L Shakespcafc, 'Ihe Lilb ol Eins Uenr! |IIL fia

tr0
ri r J' ' rr' \' rl' I -, u l r'r pn^/ ir ipr ' l, r pa -r" 'i 'u l " :n ' rr'i rF r ri r -i ,l l r ' rJ Jrr' L-rr' l i H' r' ' .,Ii .,| . . ,1 ruarl r, a .l1, n ulu: ' ' ' , ' ' I , ,; / I . , r n n e si - hi b , r r l" ' lp t, " r" " 1 " - 5 i ' l: \i J-;r ^ r' -I' d t , i" - r " , r ",n e\p r , ele u s I rra r s L ts l n -!tl .i l i rl us e d efi terl Ltl l ri sl i l u]col 01] s o v a li n e sea il de r ;al co re sp ur z elor " i n s l i l l rl g | a $ a l i (' rl l o D rdl l fonLrni el e personal l) l a zu l nor nint t ir . sllii i n ca zul nor ninr l. ir i r u rtn n l o a re l e -s rl u a l l : "c . ,/ ci n d es t e s aDt f f l: / rm xo r s on.
!L i, . inr. hNr.

s 87;l s 871

{r

rir lrrera't of Hamret' i't thr rla.v,/it r)tiilg '{sr -" 8;;' 1,] cinci esle ttrne pt.tlicatir (dupn 1.)l'', acordai h caz flt "\rbiettrrl S ( rt ): } ut lt ' 1t \ t 'rLpt n' 'u ore crr\ u , d e pre' lr .r1 r! irir.i l;i",, i'iii
ll is 1 \ iho aJ nl lot r r nic nd' I u m le { ] lo t x t , : s f lr ar g. { ll. r s pok ' w$ r l' \ h' Th i Jou 3

prErt;faiir al 1-erbului/o , se acor(lii in caz cu subiectul verbului ropulati\.:


/,,5/i\

S ETlt

-.-\' 1' nol ''l l :\ '" I \o fl ' I \\ ,i rer t i\. r ' l l_ n I \, r r 1 ,, t. n ,/ \\L btlj,.\,t '1 lo h " 1' l o.i -l "

1\ 1. _. , :

.,

/:!o

o "r h

l :,,

o:

{".

r' ,n .' "tJ


I \"

\' ,n

h'r'

\'

. n p . e : ori

o lorm'rlrr" l' r "l' -* r "' nr u r": iL " r r ' i' ' ' ' ^ r ' ' i' ' " i ;, ; , ; ' ; i;";,; ;" ;;' " i', , " ".t r "'r' ' r ' r'"c ri "., nu"'| p r ' ' " ' r'i' i\ ' r ! " r I " r " i i; " . 1 "i;,;i" ;;iri.; 'u rr .r'r'.r ia Iolrr:i icuzatirului i; lo'ltl norrinarivduis i,?. sc "i'bintri,x. Itri rerb.sautind rronunere artl rn i""t" iii'i",;p;,trlii., iiii""ii"l*i"J-'-," '*' ifirtitul propozitici:

rcspeflali in stiln) fornrLl sL:ris' -{fcastii reguh trebuic r lur"r r''r r'j'rl" '1" r, 'r In lrnld t)orl)tto. "rl: r '- lpl i r r 'e \ i r D A r ! rl H U i r 'l l' r i
''

s ll7?

, Whols rtroer' (f/r:s) nie.-'

"Insleo tor Kr ox l" ": I ht t r m ' r ' _lt l' o "1,'s-on lr I' n s o r ' r ! o! s " htn ' "see iI ddts r" "iare wants vo" on lhc rhon' " "1)h 'rl "l m rhaiil n tvael't thtnl " 'ill Fish ir t ( d , . . , r r " '1-ou'rc alNa.ts liglitirg hiBr'" -/ls 's or /'t'
r 10 1o'l

"

posesiv: un siu prccclirtl gerundi!. in lo.Ltl unui adjc(:tir


r. ;r" , \ l' 1r
{ //

r i;$

o p P i \'

"

"'

' rr

/" _

ci su i teatril . \{. Shakcspcare, ,!z Lil' . lt r:s . ! r . 1r " . '\ \ . n' l '"n l ru , , nur nt s r ' 1r _ a u t* . , z ' i i" P d c . ) uLi 'i r 'r l t 1 nt ^td n n a .l \ t , { dnt nt \ ' |ebo tn6 , nr ii ' o1. ol "

""{iilti,i,}Wlqi*id*j*:}l''il$*:i
! / '' r 'r l ' I 'i d F i r s n i n n o r n _ '-

18C 8?9 "'" "

MoRFoLdca - ?RoNUltEr;E

Y p' hLLll ' r b' i n-p\pre{ a Cind ins i num e te p re d i c a ti r u a re s ta p P l rr' grr ds i ' ' z ro n u , ) l -,' .' " i ' " J " ,,' ,' i .";;;;" i" ' ri r ' F-n " \' " 1 ' r " n to rml l ' r In mo J n " r1 " l : cu Jco' - i- ' ilLl 1) llt n ^, / lll i. l v t' o orra l l''l" ) lon j t' r' : ). ' I r ' - s me " ro a It was ru rc gi':a thc ea'ftikcf lritt' the kels l/"r''lal)

,r ,p ,l r "
I

.DL L )

t dL,

*1";"1
lt hot I

E k n a ' |' o l- it )

S 880
'.

, az ul nor ninit r \: l : | t alt . t - t ilt .n / " ' r! I . " rl h n ," ' n i'l r" ; ; ; , i" , l ' n ro " - l l $pl p, C r' :l i " i. ; , '

*'lo"rz //tlil sau 03 apariilr \lnui stil mai ingriiit' Iersiunile cu pronumele st; t; .j a"p., ,- !iir,,, ii, prup"zrliileconparatirre cnreprimul termcn
' oo\' : eor' ' ' ^ , , ri oro' rrrLL ' Jr' l r'

:: iTr;;j: {,,::;
al the pl{l

fc.loc'n,l

S 88 1 '

"ut,.

H .!nld pcr:onalestin acela;icaz ou Jupi ar .'i lia' pronumele l" F "o,"rr*ra!ir. .n'i.'ri s.'r pr"rrln"l' rr ' 'oFl 'i'
Sc ra spunc deci li: "p

,{i.\ sugLtslnrn1tr! Ltr nfur' inteffstifg ihrr }tint rs gold as 4r'r' ?lkt ltno$lcdse .l ltrglilir tim i ratrre rne,r ;;tff tlan II 's 'ah! . . ! . . t: , r ; " . , n,l . ; .r i \' ' r' h" rD rL ' rp ' , o i ;. \",,." "ii A s o . , om P |lr a : ! 882 t kn.\t htr rcttef Ur,tn n' fkrr'ws herl I k no\ t n. / be tl .. tl a n l l k tro (J /' L ' cl & ri Lateda' :d ln c az ul c e\ t i c l e n l d o i l ' a c re m p l u , fro p ozi l i a ar ci ;ti ga i n hlocurior: verbul onis ar li enfrinat', lic chirr !i Finir un /, I' i n I l. ! o, \ ' . b- | . 1 d i\iczi r'i S 1918) i'iotilea na exp nrat atunci rlod ditrn de primxt .U doiler vcrb trbuie { 8SJ s ru c i n d i n s u ti a p rb rrl P ' l c a l tul P ropu/-i ti a urmi i odre' del t ' " -" ." ti; , ' ; ' ' ; ; " od. r I p"n l i n l u r;l F v.rl i ^l or ' rrr ' l rl pfl r^: u r;rr ' a. " . . - i' r ut '' ' u miidd l'haa votr at liLleen Ue ts at l$'ortX lcss se'ious Cor p. l ' i. t r " P o z i l i s J a i n lle is rl. twenlv lss s.ricns minded thiLnvou c''rd ai' lilteen' r A t enlLe persr' ral P ent r u a s a c u ro a rs to a z u l !0 ra rt tre } u i e stl 0i }; Irontrrn' l ' { 88.1 o "" ." \P ' o rr' p l " ' b n' onozi Li u Lptbul ' fl t' : dJ ,l u p" " o ; r n' r ' i' " , 4 r,' i ?ne? consideiLim norc ddpctenl tlu sld lconsjdeN]rin-rl

ii,;i ;;i;;i;;; i,'i- ii.i"

/@ tlan iuret oonsiderl -.i"t*t c z i ti S 2 t2 41 (V

de la S 8so sli4 slnt lalalile ii Ftrtnr subslanti!_"' '-r".".ii "".g"U;i cele 3 O llpsa (Pronumet'ri ftlrti!)' -

l 8l

ln stilul colocvial, nominalivul dupi conjuncliile r,hdnti a, este inloouit prin cazul acuzativ, consiructie condamnate de purilti. Se spune totuqi in Siierrlr-.Xou.ge.thio ru. Ile is ar nrch tauer than ,r. \\'e a.e a! rrlev.r as rtun. lVczisi S s7i) dJ Oonctuzie.:in slilul coloct,ial, pro unele personall chiar cind este ul,ie: rd, iir'.b?ul nomin"ti\J r"- nu.. - d"t"r;ins d"ni"i oprppu/iii". ia. t 1o'ul ,.ominatirului.lorma ecuzeirul rr. u rrrrr-i lr tFr"orn. l..i ll loate pcrsoanele:
It nas zs \'h0 had been sidEjiAl. \1'! sair him at l]|. corccfli al lcall i thirk iL nas nin. U:c -Uother md Lr -\rnt lor a trial n in or. nNv .af. "I am sorn. I rPsret." -41: nd (exploziv) : ';,1t too! lu. tooIt-r. nDl" (NeE'anaiicitsi trutologici drr c. i.struei.,pp ,," r.' , 1". m . 1i"., , a ' 1. "r ", 1.in,J r,-. r r r. gir ilp A rJdJ , i",.ar .: i. ar d" o lor m ' I r,-r" '( , d , I rn 'i c r J J rdl n,'"q i l rr p leon. o", I c , ' 1. , d r , . r ' , lu t \ I1 t, .V, r. Toa- .11. ). ,

g 885

S 886

Dr. P. Gurrey, Readerin Educalion and Head of the English Department in the University of London Institute ol Educalion. tc. etc., etc.. scrie: "'fhe use of the Nan Nominaliee form of a I'ronoun fllter 'is' in rrr","edt rcltoquial speechis 'Who is that?' 'Ii's nre"'. 2) Nominatirul vocativ (Noninuti,tc of Addte$) (S 192). - Irronunele g 887 este in crzul nominativ vocativ cind se referl la animate sau inanimate cdrora ne adresim: Hey, goul WIat are you doirg there? Mfuties af tuy childhaad $ty do yon comeurwanted? I 3) Caz[l gonitir. - Pentru forma de genitiv a pronumelor pcrsonale S 888 qi adjcci,ivul posesiv" (S 900). 'Irronumel O formd idiomaticd de ge itirJ intrebuirllate Ln NtiluL foart. fan.iliat. | 889 lonsti din pronumeiepersonalin cazul obieeli! precedatde prepozifiao/: You wilt I. thc dcalt' ol mcl vezi
I wouldn'L do it ior thr lili 0l ,nc.

4) Cazul obiectiY3. pus drtrt verb. a) Pronumele personal tn cazul datlv sau eclrzativ osl,lr Ctnd acuzatirul esie un pronume, el prcctdd ln generedatiyul:
I g d v r, (1 ^) (r' ) l e " a l l d o "oa I r Jv " ,/ J , .r /" r' . 1 7 , td , ' ul Cind insi acuzativul este un substantiv, el rjne datd dativul pronominal: I gave lf (dal.) a s,aer (ac.). I [Ii tl i n s , or . . i/ , naA .9 0 . , P. C u t i, t . " 1, ; . ; Lt K t .h L , o a a o . p t" . rD Jt'\. r c uz a. iv s iDr c D o :i l ,o n d l !l 9 i l ,R p s u IL .ra m-.i cri rarr orr\ .c.ui ,trr' . 1i\ 11li i n d ,i G aF f p \ . r . , 6ir - s ; t" i rr.,t.o ,,,,n ," e n i \s F n ,rr..b.rd" ri ,uJui .,,i i Joe l ,i a . g 1 2 . p nri u tun. rl I i . d:.l l ! nlru d 'f:n i ii da i\ ul. i. S 1 r0 p n a l o rma " u"nlr u .J-Irn iad, z dl v J lu. S 3 " 7 p n k u fu n " .i i.l ' .r' -l u i ..5 L i l I nl " un i i ni l i J " .,/ .l ' ,i i {l n l i .ba r o' bila. . nd p r.n u ,n h trs l b In a .u z a ri r.5 " 5p' rn un or i i : -l ,l 4l l sendsoz {dat.) ,i (ac.).""Don't you slve ne. (dat.) t, (.tc.)." etc.

S 890 S 891

182

Erceplit:

Sul,\tantir',rl | pronunele iD dati\. firrl se urmnresle -c\tzaIi\ I'rtctdti jn mod sperinl H,'" tjrarea da'rir1rlui. care este.iJr a|easti s;rnarie. pfcedat, dc lrpozilia t0: I gaycl.Iero,,l ia..i io tur ldafl. not to r,, 1dat.r. D, Dupe prepozjlii.pronunlelesi,n h cazul aruzativ: S 892
.rbout li,. bI 4.,. oi !i. to ,p. \rilh r/rf,. eto.

$ 893

Er ce p li,: Pfepozilia,/ poateIi urrratn lqide un qen;liv:


T r ja r.i :h l l d ,/ z i ,c i s a 1\_czisi $ 196l personal in fazul obictiv este nrlrebuintiat idiomai.ic ln .r.,/ Pronumelo unele irterjeclii din limba vorbite: lvai: -{delirat? lir lrai spun.:) lv ail v ai de m i n e :)

$ 891

de rsnra{n1/s::r.rc{ ir.l) (SdJacarle.acul ti.cll de

ir 89.i

d/ Pronumele perlsona] in razul obiocti\. este uneori intrebuinlat {cu o n u a nld des uet n s a u p o e ti c d ) !i c u re c h e a l u i yal oare de pronurne i etl eri r' : I loid ,r. i: Drysclt do$Jr ro sleep. Ef t,ad built ,t, i- li;nseut a trous.. T he c anar yloo k l o i r i : i ts e l l t n D te . "L'i1]e slars mat hide r/pa ( ihenBel\s)Nh.n lhel list..' \'. shakesrare)

$ 896

IOLL-T,PROIITJITDLUI PDBSO\.\I, a, Plfi)umele personal este pus de obnri cit llra; dproape de aniecePronum"l" ,1, pprr,Hnl . . a th . ,h . ,1. //,FJl oa,r "d-deori n"-'pre 1.. ,.'rlu/ii ln.,.p".apirint.,.Tr"L-r"daim'rltiit.nLi, 1.,irtrpb,.rnr"rcator:
Ann's Diotlc. mored io Ll$l,c. Nhen sn, sas h kirjdcrgaricn. f\t nrana .ra la grldinjl;i ciNl s-a ,l.ai.in Llster. ci .\na. Fraza t.cbrie rcli.uti: astlel: "$'hcr -\m $as iD lindcryirten Ler moiher movcd \i,jk iord tris brortrer d didi L know Engtisl. tsh _, _l\Li lntelc. .i \i.lt er.r rL, larc nr ilia engiezeite.Fraza trebuie rellcria asllll: ''Nicl<said to Lis l'rclri.r: 'I dor't know nnglishr,,l P er t r u ac elas jmo ti \-. p ro n u n re l e p e rs o n al de persoana a:l -a nu l nehui e rn tro dus ir t r o pr o p o z i l i i n a i l te c a a n te c e d entul l ui si fi l ost menri onat: .." rt t! .d D " o .o . d 1l L " ro 11 " r \ h n r ' a{ s. . n l l .ql o h;n. otr ' l "p " ,, PromLmdc de peNoana 1 singular'. cind apore jnsolit de pronumele care se refer:'r la celelalte personna sau la un substaniir. na lr"erdd, ci urmeazil ,1un as \dl ls I/m.r hlls to go al oncc. Io a a n d l rn e a re fri e n d s // and Iile cou. lo b.eaklasL .arly.

s s9?

i 898

i ri!rrl

La piur al. or d i n e a e s te u rm n to a re a : $ e , aou, * eu: lt., ,,, rnd hare nianJ tastcsjn cotudrn. 'tuV

PIiONOU\ '{JD ADJJ]CIIYE) {ITIE POSSESSIVf,

P0SDSIV . Pn0NUIIELE$I ADJECTTVUL

s grxl
S 1)ol imz $ ll03

dord lorrre tjfrriti\ul pforumFlri personat.are' L) lrcfini,tie !i rornll. i rrr r "dl' ri"li re lJp'rivLl n^ e'iLr' r, pr- p' -'it , r,, numi ll' {p o 'i:;",: to"J'r1s; f""'iu t,',1",,,t " l^' Iunui 'uh'"n'i\'b'| "r' 'lhrscoat's mr'' determini ur sub"qtantiv intlicirri ln acela;i timp ;i ,tdjectitul posesit'
Tltis is D!/ (oat

- .".n'i't nu"itut,'i''

,,,"":,:":iliil:l?,'lliT;i'".i.,1lii'ii'""$xLt"'iii1f,:Jli*'"
t""'ilj;*t""" sint urmdtoarele: !i pronunele posesive

s 9o4

I! ls veDs
Ii is tu. dog

Obser p&!LL

,.,"s{,1.x1?"iil?:Yill'{ii';*?':l:Yi?;lii:";'#"11
906 bJ Formolorp.ri al' sdj"crivuluipo'e:iv ra;t" -si/i;,?P"rnl inlrFbuil.!dla s orr subslanlttelnr adJerrrve_ dupd un \o.clit sauinHinlcs modernO in onei"za poatic' sduarhaic5 .du cu un t. panr a dd o nuan1a ru i;. ;;;,;, ;r. ;; "' " "li stilului:
r nt n I os l n r FonlJs o n t n r l " 4 r n " ' ntn p"\,s,m i, "aa" Ftr rai, n -\'', Lddv m ; t el t hi " eJ ' " t ht lc h c d t t oqn t dJ | \an l lo do ll"nJ " in dir P I dd $ "1 ' or n"d bY m ' r ho: i: al neu s i dl ilu) . ij , lt , e i: Ce F aL m eu e - i i r l U u l .

s 905

produmolui al adic(livuluipoqo'iv' DeodrP- fronumelc 2r IBtolosul $i p"*[i'-.;-o.a l' io tirn6uengt-a-(u subsrrntitul cdrcdPnume:r," * .,f i- i'i,-r' ';".;;;;;i' ;1; se traduc !n limbs rom;nr'u roarelronu'nele sal ad:trrrv'rp Ind'lorFnt oc pospcorulur' io."siv" rehri'oar la p'rsoano 'orespunraLoare pospdst Spre ex'mplu: obipcLului i""J ri "r*a*t
nir ' { - sl n ru d 1 r' a i D d i a r Ddhl r n" i. si- 1 l l o " , I l n r, a i l u r' rl " l o r) l: tiu. ta, iei' iale) "olr ;ur i: noslru, nrasl.ri, noitf!, noastrc) Lc'

s e07

i ',t"r* g, *' t i, , t l ' ..' S r' "q i :,,r llr . r , onu, n "' T . rd' l m rr\ p o " s i r n u ' e ' ' i i ,, ts 9i esi.s fornil cont.sl' ntr trn loseBrs'

ni ' i oddtl ns' dn

l r' ' " Jmnr

184 Natd S 908 Ca ii in limba romand. Dronumele Dossi\-DoAte dre.{ si inLelesul de ..lamili..'udc. prie'eni. sau ..propriouare-:
H e { i l l a l (d 1 5 ,h 1 r \ fv L i rd r ol ror and u-. .. I m' (- n o i l ' :tt0 rr' o , i e t* e e i n;i c ana 18." . (Pentru

S 909

i n g F n. num J r s i . p e F o a n a . .u q u b s ta n l i v u l .src dpnu.n,qtp poseeordl .nt -,i ''u obr p,r ! r l pn. oJ d l . .,r' ' .a a .o r,l ; l n g o n .i nu.u. tn l i mba fomend: Me has lel chitd: ii. is n,.r. Da a.e coDitul cii este al ei.) t/i? nas i"t chitdren; iiey are t.rs. [Ea a.e copiii ei] stnr ai-i.) p s i p ro n L rrn e J e o s e s i v l ,e r" .re speeti v l rrs. si nt l a D ersoana a [ { dje. t ilul 3 a leminin singuLai i.a si pose-sorul sie; ele nir stnU acordate !i c'u obicctu) p u s edat , r / / d, c J r e .rp n p u tfi r ;i , i n p ri m u l oxempl u, l a si ngul ar, i ar i n al d o ilei la plur dl j 4) oaz. - Desi pronumele Dososil rorezintn genirilul Dronumelui Derso nal. . l r ^ " t ' z ut p ro i ./,,i ' l F p F ;d e , IJ p c ;ru t ant" :i de.rtul ui saul d" .rmi na. d c r olul ju. ht dc ;l j 1 p ro n o ri i i a d i rr ra re fr"" parte rvazi si S 826) j ' Itz a (pron.,nom.) rs . will x on lend . l a u N a t (a d j .,a c .)? t: ny.o4, (D ol l r.)] t t at h?, a tl .j !ro ... Iom. i s d g,dr re.to..,bi t,v. lh, . l d r.r," r' i \ / ur , t s Nv lpo r --g v . l /s o r /a d ..d " t. s i -rri nst" " .brt tr,.J;n\;/r... l t'ron. , dar I lns l i o t.s . AdjFctirului pospsi\. in propozilie este dtorminat de rolul substai,-C0zul l i vu lui ( . nu Hl p.h i \" l c n t.l u i o " ^ l u i J t p p trnqr .1r^ .ta ri , u cdrp formpaza tm r up s int o. t i. . { \p /; pri n " \e m o l p l e d e ri r,r " u-" i l di " a. " ur.i r..1 I ' r . bf ^r gl zJ p p a d .l i d e : ' d \p )o ,.i o' yo," . p.on.. a..). r et-s ook Jr t;s (pron d.. r l- r r b r n ||' ,u .rh o ., r.rJ t.. , p " p . : d l tf!f. Lo$. - r Nat il . T h" t . br o b. r /,..s r rra r" l e s , F tr Jt .i i e.,a un dubtu g6oi i i r. \ r r p ex em pta :" / I m r ai nl ,,l ra " ' ., .a rri .t,n J .a t l .u T h' . o bu .rn .. a l t" " ;.. ... -rL N. t , ic t , r r . / l i (.,s e \? r r, j r.t.d br.i th ; Hansi ns eommi ti ee.l N i ci un radou y

3) Gen, numir gipersoani. Promrmete adjectivele qi posesive acorde se

adjeotivele posesive ln spocial, rezi 5i g 817, 911)

$ 910

s 911 s 912
$ 91 3

{ V e z i , p e D i .u d e ta l i j , S 2 9 4-196,:esl

5) Adjctirul posesivfzie Passestiae Adjp,ctire ). d, -{djectivuiposesiv insole!leintotdeaun'1ut' subttanltu nr gerundie: san


This is mr./ stsrer.I ' subst.t Do ).ou mird my smahin1l (+ seNrdiv) ! , J Ca or ic e a d i c ti v 1 n l i m b a e n g l c z a ,a Jj ecti rut poscsi v rf,c,' da substan d " F fi ,,i n i . n u l l ,rfl ,' a ,,d ,r- i n l i rnbr romJri o: !.,"F 'i t,rl , ,., a l T. (Aceasr.n e;te pilirin nad.j IlaYe i'ou patsd /oh crarn iJr maths? /7 ,-a ' l ,r(u t e x a me n n l { l raLcmal i cl ?)

PRONUMET

$I

186

livclor cu tumlic dF $ 9Il lnlofuies' arlifolul subsjar .) Adiectirala Doscsive I .rr; denumoicpdrli olPtrupului 'su oPi"alpd( inbd inintP ln rFtF' subiF arli.olul iolnrir: lalrF .azuri sF tnrrebuinlpazb
S/@shook 12. head I askcd goa to Put on Y'zr coat' Se sp u n e lns i: I took tu' bY ,nE a.n I oar nover'look ntfu in tfte lace agnin They thnmpeil /,tm on rre nack. (Ve z i!i S 5 i i I d / so Hr , ic o i, , s pp" i d l l F nt l Tr b a 1 '0"*ii . d rn li; beer ili r n e a c c ent uat e: 1 lnt on tu4 coal. 2,"";"r,;;l r';";.i \r $ " nn / , ' . l" : nd' ' : (\., . n " d f 1 |- ni H. took oll nt! hat F n l ;d a ' ,,p rd Ir-o n ' /i ri i l at i n " ' r^ odi ' ' i f" l " r' 0 d u r l n l i n b d 4 ' n sr; Iri n Iorrr' ' dP ddt' JO(. elilitro ha{c leli lor tlie Pioneer' Camp fre au rlecaL copiii in tab;lra dc piodie'i r c \" I' / rn ,/\r_ d p i d rd ' rr i u" I ' ' i '
I havc paid m,/ shr.e. fMi-an rlrlljL paltea.)

S 9l ;

c) lnlr'o enun(.rare. adjcctivul posesiv nu se repcti inaintea liecafui substlntiv dectt perrtru clarificare "(au pcntru accentuatc:
/,' d b d - r hu,; ' ud II' .rnotmL ',P p. . . nb"i na. eo " l 'n rprq d' 1ii ]]r f,r"tJr,.n 4 or" , . . u, ! 40. r f i. ft dn d 4 :. . t r t ;'n 1t . . .." \ orJrer uJ r ' nd \ ' ' ' /Ir'.-an da ll"i o& p o.p .i!. s r F bdp. ei ; r nl: l dF ' u\ r n r u l \urp.ri\L l //

gl{i

D r a p t i u 'r '

S 917

,dn inrrFirp id'"' no "sirul,ri rPsn".ri\' J-r.1t" nu '' rr"Ju ' inrold"lund tn lirnbfl rornnni:
"TIe aii.l's Ora Boolt.": TheiL iltcrests are mr otu (Inl.tusele lor snrl ii alc mPlc)
Llo m-r ,0a .ookirg. (il11l,cseshRr'm.l slrc makes |o 04? dfcsses (lli fuce singnri ro.hiil-" )

L,r Adieriirul Doqesit gpru r-iirul. P r,"u ^hrirFrpdu 'ri 'rrl l pids' :i optu dr\' tn limb" p"r slezev' rbul prcdir.ti' ' Inlu'u: .rc ad'Fori 'u rr' formaunui adjectiv posesivsau a urtur pronume stn p Iingn care"sribiectul sub persolal ln acuzatrv: r Do vou mind lf I smldr deline: 1 Do you mind /y snaltzsl
i r r i, , uo, . r . ' . " 4 ., /o " th " tr' \t' tte q 1 wi llo. r . r t ' t" .: ' h .' r ro i " " ' / 't-ri n ": (\tuzi li $ 9l ll oon

S Clq

DO iIT'4.RINE s 919 NEfLEXIT $I PROT*U}IELD fiI, PNONUMELE GEn riEFr,o)ul-E AND Tm n]IPHATTCPRO:{OUNS) 1l Dcfidtie, - Pronumelecare, tntrebuinlat pe tinge un verb activ, 5 92{l arata'ln prin;ipiu cn acliunea"exl mati de verb se rdsfringeasuprasubrcctului se numeqtePrununerelkrLe. (s"'1fii"T:l"Til;i]"
The Ba!\

runeori adjcctivul ,au calain o nuanle alectili prDnnnlar!: Mv awn btuth't !


Aen Baak.

care vremu,i, avea pe.echea,esrectire roareapreciarpe ii ",sreze

186

$ ,21

Pronwnele rlc t,?rnn,'. in-rolaltF antererlentul pcntru aI acccnLua. 2) I'ormi. - Prouunl rcfle\i1. ti pronuorele (le intnriro au nceea!.i fornle in lirnbr elglezi:

m \* l J { : di r L o x l s e lr : i er l

{ I | I 1 { t

: i nsnmi : : : : : : l " 9rj Insar in rsi iNiii insgli Dsa;r

( I
Pl.

linRu (: s) lrersell(- se)

Nrtrd

iiserf {: {l ' our*lvs ( ncl ]' o u s l * s r= rri ) ilEnshas r= sl onseu (: r)

I I

: biine : nr_si ri i I - l'iqrI - tns'tl : ir$!i

s 922

Pronulllele refleriv ! cel de iltdrire slnr sinqurele prollume care. ja peNoana a 2 a, eu fonna de ,singulal'dileritir de fcirma de plural: iss.l Jousef - lp] ) r'ouse1.., J) Pluralul dutoritnlij $i al Iotitctii. LI 'i lronLm.lp rp cnu 1rl,." relers]3, s;r:&fd pprsoal"it,tur.lL, au.!. rflSrii :i polite,iill. rorma rFflF\i!d Fsr" ,rA4l qi ,rc,ns.tt inu o"r.t,,. "l !i'e oz.rcry belicle this to be ie rnrh. Ion sa'd so loLru.4, Youf }lonour. (curinte adrcsare judcontoruhi.l 4) Prinrilslelc funrlii alo proo m0tui rcflpxiy Fi atc !ftnrunrrtui de ixri. nrc. - rn i,trjnli \rpmp.p'onu1.ta rcllFr,i\ ,r.f,lI a cipj, dt o i.rrFr uin.dr. todrler;jpindild.i rpdi."rirnrnrtori".Frecarrru,irLrl e.ri.rno.lesrrr.inrret;in lare. Dro u'l alor d, po..o,nn l. 1 .ru a, . liin4 .o,rqidord,p !". er! LJ to Jorinld d \nrbrrorulri rl".r .. pun" in p!iJ"nlj. fi, .e. ,ti-)porfir". ,,r."/ rrrn4un .uiinr n rr | ,n: t i,, pntu0,.,tJ .rilulDiur aopp.trai t^,r t.," , drn 0lle morirp p^.ibilp -, rr\ tul tn vll -" or.s de, azi.ri nre" rnutt "ud" f.]r.,,1i.,"r ln'1 . Po "nalpr',rlo\iv nI rcbuiei"to,ir ca .rrbe i, ltoiler ard 1/e fnr inlseli)hadrca rogethlr. Pronumele rellexiv sen-este: aJ la fornrarea cnnjusdrii r.fk::ciw a vcrbelor,:
,, a,d '. l\ 6 b r . l! \ ir I '.to v .Tl' n mDr' rla o p. 1eo i . d s t ' , r ln.IidPd sing trd.l \ ld 4t t f . 4/ \ ' , - L 1,,," ,t , I d., ,,.. id.,

s 923

s 921
$ $25

,d L) rn ",F,,; - rrppo.:,,:. p.-"pJ. I dn onnozrr:i. 1. "t,.,t;.) n/ $i /rr. prnnunFl" -rl,p\i\ xr" ln1"lFtt ,1c ...in;ur.. dar.u ;u1 ," nit-r e
l,] a ." // s in; r n"r ' . ol I s ". r n, J . Lbl | I c am e dt ll |J L) r D. \ , \ n. r i . 1! r , 1" t ot _ n"i . o t i Sh-" did it n! hcrclli. (A lilout o sjngDrii, DcajutatiL.) d. nim".i,

" \ ez i il $ 1i; 0 .

SI

PRONUIIILE

DE 'NTARIRE

r37

ot oz6.lf

l: sir(tr.. de la snl The cdD c.ackedd/ tsaf (Ceascta o.llai de la sinDi lor o n * J / f : s ir ! : , r ( t u In s u l i c L l l l;".;;j " / . . , , , " - " r r rp \d - i a r o { i o ' ,l d ,n qi -,-a' .' i ' ,,,.r" -.o' ,nr,.!jl"i ,' , r i o rr' l r' ' r' l r l n l " r ' L : \.1 . . i- r ur \ or r" :\" f- ,' "o ' r" i " Cd. dhe prcpozilii: IIe k.!i. hinBdl r, itnt'f. She cadc & n..rall lSia rclent ) \Yhat .rre rou dontg oltk t!.u'setl lr:orbeqie1int.n iinrftr insrilijin nu.rclc lC-" Iaci asti{ea.d?l i rootr iL Lrh ,m$tf to o o n re n . tL e m e c l n rq . (Ii mr luat sarcina de a S 921;

c, Pronumole ale intirire tste intrebuinlai pentru a da mai mrtltd tirie dnui substantiY sau urui Pronume: TIer hcard the ncws lrom ihc witness ntnr.l/ lAri anzit resLca ohia. de la martor') I nin it mysctf. (-\m fiirut_o u lnsumi ) \Vhen in Ensland. I p.eld to \Yashmy clou,es nyMf al a launderetie'. ralher llim Iule thm $'6hed al a lannd.t'.

reflexir se lntrebuinl,eazd I 997 5) Functiilerronu rclui relle\ir. - Pronumele


rn g.n"r- ,rn sobiectul: p;lp n"mp pr"di ari\ sdu Obj t' ,i la s."Fdii p'Foani ' u
!n' {as not lefs.r/ last nighi. {\d c Ir.Pdi0.rtili Eob I\rtL hinretf- (Comrt. dir.) -He x-\" ]"i% .tt d mr, , nl I r I { Co npl ' nd "' di" rh ; n ,mba- r o h?""t t . t c ^apt . i-[ f r al $. d o adr r'u_ l o 'i'h o l d lo n a r 1 : 0 s t 'o r a I ' os s h" J' p& r. rliJ rr'a r /,hrp .4/, r r. lr d ' 1ana3 r ' J " or poz i, io. J l r : m p $6 J mr' rv lco np ' p_ l o r , r o l r r L ( c om ll "Ho' n' . . l/,e hou!,, h l.s4 /: i ,, ,ipr ,,/ b . .nnt " I ^' , dr onJ' tt. r"h; L.omt

rnlo.ul .alli p.'qonrlppnrI-ud:nc\irdsmbigurldlca 'FIle.\ii.-LFinlretluinls propocreate atunci cind folosireaunui pronume personal ar da un alt in-teles zi!iei: \'as prefer.ed nPrscn 10 Sr, k@w that na' datrshte.
' lrr .d lrr"r '' ii 'r'r lr . r . al- r

6) Pronumeleroflexie cu raloare de pronume Persoual. Pronumele S 9'lS

f"wa! prefeued to l,er" ar li insemnat,,era prelerati unei alle persoanedeclL :rceleia la care se refetn subiectul".l 6 was as caDable htms.lf -aiir r.other cr{ tot alli de crlabil ca;i Fl \ (Frutele sau l'as /r" s ar fi relerit la o alti persoanddecit aceeade al ciirei ffate eravorba.j
shc asked nc to look alL{ nJs.J/ (lli a centt si am griji' de mn'. 1 sn aibe ea grijd ["She askd me to look after tr." ar li insennat:.,\'ti a cerut de nine".l Cind confuzia nu eslc posibili. sc intrebuinleazn pronumele personal: Hc srve nd tle nPPl.s. \fc sa w it m in lhc s tre e t.

l lduz.tz.rtc : sDltutotic cu aparatcautomateundc lnblicul hi spale ii calol sntgd! d " " ! l u l s tn ' o d rd l or i t t rll",!t'n l .u l ' pi" ir . . . . Ilr'q i rp .r5 a u (5 ir n tr" p o z i r' o n d r ::or. 'co .n n ; m en

188

S 929

7) Pmnumele refleniv tu comparotii. A se observa qi tntrebuintarea pronumelui relle\iv cu valoare de pronume personal ln conparalii dupd lilxe, than i as in locul pronumelui personal: Hc is l,ol-hcaded li.td n?s.n S " i. mu t' \aut t tLA" nJ,tf.
T'r'

S 930

..u..t. r.ia,il Fntiu: "1 slaq" in loc dc r'l ;ndrc n?a.f". -\c,la!L 1 loc de "l dBs /r/sl/" ctc. i\rezi ii ,,Dinie7d .elle\ivl,. I ri76l.

8) Iipsa pronumeiui rellexir-. - In contrast, cu linba romend, tendinta limbii engieze-este a tnhi,ura pronumele relleriv acolo"undeacestanu esie dc necesarpentru claritat0a f?azei. \irbele reflexive stnt aqadar foarie putine la nunnr tn linba ongleze.Chiar lqiunele yerbe cu formi retlxivn, cari au o rirculalic mai nar, Fjnt i locuite de prlerinld cu o {ormn aliernatild intranzitili: ''| ,,,t | 1r ,r,rrir_ "r'n,"J .i |,.th-u,f...
"I drcrs', tI

'"

nn

( "ad

s n) r "e. . os a' - . . t r .

S 931

9) ?ronumclcmoiproce. in limba rom6.6, u eori pronunele rcfleriv nn a.ai; o fcljunFcsfc!e rd\fringc asupra subiectului, acliunireciproce ci a

dou; rdu n "i nulrF .ubiF. .. Tn a .Ft .,/. limbd "n-tFZj nrr mai rrrrpbrin. ,eazd pronunele relle\i.i, cr ptunumele reciproce, ctLreslnl urmltoarelel eech oth0r cind este vorba numai de doue persoanesau lucruri, sau de o actiune rciproci lntro doud persoanesau lucruri dintr-un gmp; ono another penlru mai mult de doLri pcrsoane sau lucruri:
Thts t$'o hierds wjll nol sce.d.l ori"/ nsain lor a lons line. (C!i doi ieteni nu se vo. dai redea mllliL vreme.l I n o . ' " ' . 1 \ p ," ." J r./" or.,. o J rr,.' ' o . ri ,.. r .t t !' rl o :r" sdu d L p, ' u. r a , r !. .,1 ,. ' ' , ;, lr i l , " ln " .o ts | rr.ri l to \' n tI co ,o,ri t on. N i LUi. , , F y u; .tu ti rr.rtro ., r.h i ra n o $ h ,' 1rn N i qi i qu si gnraD renbccerea.) Not d Onc anotho esle rdeseari intrcbunri.rl si pentru doui persoane sau luorurr: Siie nrd L,,r broilrr arc lor fir\n ol ant: an thq. rlusbard .dd Ni{e (ere siltins Na. rnc alalhn. A s e c onp& r a : Ther kncw /lanvl.s. (Refleriv) t 5. " , , u. r ea tp e ,i tn s i tr).) T h. r t n,\ . d /. o ,l .. i r.i ,.o .. d o .i p " " ..o, J tSe cnnoneau (i1tut pe ahrit ).1 'lhel rnl kncN one antnEr \tte.:itrot) n{i nult dc doun lc.soare) LS e, unoit P { x a & r,l l l .l qi r e\pri ms' p i ,l i ,!i rn n Ur . " l" r pr l" , u i r l i nb,.o..n. ^il p Lr " z r \,rh ' ,r,,' ' tru,ro c a rp .,p o" " tS Jl l : l i mL" n in nunF l]'e,.r jn ujr Darl<.sdd a l.w {ords. slorl l/ids and Da.tcd. (Nc'an hnlniL in pot:, z az sp,s cifera ouvhte. ne ttu siins nita ei nc-amd.s-

S 932

S 933

O bse r a a !i e Prepozitia puneinaini.d pronurnelor se reriproce, tntre elc ca in limba nu


'lhc.t t.\ll<rl Lo .Le aiotker. lvoibeau un1 cu altul/lDtre ri.) Tl,.\. couldn'L rt.IL hotr edcl. .thd_ lNn_ sc lutcau desr)jir1i unul de altnl.l

5I PRONUMDLE DE TNTARIRE

189

sau adicrlivul neboltrit. - Panlru roflexiv !i prr,oumcle l0r Pronumele pr onumplprefleri\ cora'ounzdiorf r^nu"rFloli cdjF'li\ alor n'horari F \'zi s 4145-1151. " in llr 0ne.plt. intrebui0lare. un:1[PrF inLrpbu;nLJl ]"sBluri 'r 7'o heoe Lnits ivell doDe,a? mu$l do it oaacry a is ?'o srcdl at lensth ol ozes.// bad nanne.s
Eihi;!: b! aneself is the besi *ay lo see a c.urtrj

s 034 s 935

ln "onlrH.t rollo\ir ti nl nronum.tuiJc l0iirir.. t2r Locul oronumolr ri pn ',pzH cu limb" rom.rru.1n dra p'onun "la r"rl"rir pr. - ta r^rbul. rr, lin,b rellexi!' se pvte dupd rcrb: lronumela
I lurt rt u / '/sil|| rh 1/-d r -i r , ro 1 d h. \\' '1 - J " F . ' lo"el " . m ui. lr ' l lo r l _ b n I 'a l

s 93{;

Pronumelo dc intlrir0 "<ep\ne inediat llald carinl&l p: care il ittdrclt: I n"sdlf rvroie ure rvordsflr tl,c song rDtr-t;dDut arn s0ris cuyintclc on,tecdui l him*l[. He had rews ttom Unde fnt'.t {.\ avtrl rc;ti .nidl de U ut.rhidl Vin0entiu l U re o .i I r o r m " J . r" rrri ' a - a r l ,,r' ,i r-t" ri l ' ' ' r\i nl " Ji l ' ri r. ' l i n "n r ' -rl i t rF -dl ",l i a .El ' i t ' r ' " " , r . i ,, l ' ,r,.,,r' ' u c u ,:rrtu l p tr"t r' - l ' ," r l l , _ ' i a rr\' I |, l Jt"{../ " 11i l p p ru i o ' ' r'r,. I lJ rf r. r lr " ndd dojp l h ,\, 1 .- y \" n t: r' .t.^L-stl (t','lc!sc e:eruiliilc .hre thiat de rrolasoarn) l ' o n l u ri i l ron.rrn.l " J" Inl ;ri r" ' i | rJ " I Ci rrd n op, r i i' i. lnqiur ' . jr l i, e l': l " ri n ,r' :i ' J i i i ' 01' ru .r- I rnl l 1' o ' - r "'"r-i -l " ' cu deosebire preleriin ln limba ! orbitn: t .lin it nleU. {tm lilctl o 4. t'rtn, l Ih.! \rcnt thete thtusele^. /Cria. dt s au d6 acoloI /Fm,4. !lj. tired id the |loctr oL rlals st had desigtrcd ll-muia in blo l pe (am .d ,nsrift il ltorciavi l , \ pr r Li_1, , lr , r ri .' ]
L 5a \\ \1 1|Y fu. s , / i-\n vlzu fo.fti al ! e Uar ia. ) I sr\ llrr\ nrnl/.

s e37

S u:lt

I\'.

PR0]{U}IDI,E ;I ADIECTIyUL DEIIO\STR]{TIY oEn DDlroNsTridlrlE PRoN0Il\,1-\D,{DJrlTrIE}

S e3e

inlocuiclt un substantiv (sau un S gao I\onnnele dt)/)lonstr.ltii, 1) Dcfidtie. preciztndui toLodaLi con-tiechivilent al actstuia) erprinat sau sLtbinleles, nutul in sFatiu sau ln irmp. std pe linei un substantiv (sau un echivalent al S 941 A(tiectie l d.emanslrdtlr pentru a srita locul ocupal,de obiecl ln limp sau in spa-tiuill raporl acestuil) cu vorbit6rui. Pronumelc !i adjecliv{te demonstral,ivese acordii ln numir cu subsirntil_eie la care se relerl. Pronumele demonstrative slnt urmitoarelc: S 942 2) I'ormi,.
this (these), rtiat (\hq.), same. suctt, stchtitt, e, the 14u.r. Ihe fi4t, the hsl, th. other (the aherc)' the fond, one (an4)

1OO

MOFIOLOCB

_ PRONUMEI'E

s 9tB

\ 911 "' '

demonstrative pronurne celelalte Cu eroepiia lui so fi,nc (anes).Ioatt! r;r' Lt"n'hn*t"o'ir'1 ru' li 'i tti' l' ' l\"?i a\"n,rl l" ii lr"qu .F I ld ria.dr' prnnrrmri fdr'F.o'^'Lm'i rralrrc rr'/r !.6r.it)l ar-; -P2t.837. i .r p" r'r sJie riIrp dpn'n ' i) R;0;h;"4 edi;cti\trlui dcmonsttatir' - Cind adjecLivul denoDstrativ bar' el nu nrlt; sribstantive unite prin conjuncl,iile .ln'J sar'L a"t".i';'l'"1"j sc repctn inninter fietirui substantiv in partei lh' ror'l ?nsd bovs arrt si.ls \tant to "oss *a3 nisi,r ?na,
Thc atnaieur P rYe.s were Lh. s' ticlds ' _-'tl., btt IiiinfirSs sellllir"s "r afe srldom lountl

lt-1"j,liili, l;t,11",#;.;" u., r|,orL in rhe ":lg:,.-bl:i ".,


THIS (Tl]trSrl), TII^T (TIIOStr)
.IDJECTTI''1 Dtr]TO\STRATTIE)

s !{t
S 916
.'his

(TFONU]IE

S\U

1) Furctii. mY look

This (thes(i)' rhar (thas') pol li pronumo sau adjctire:


LProa l ?ft'sa arc mI

.:rl;

?h6? are nl.vsns iPionl. . , ii.j iJ'-r''s"" te-".] ?&'s' boxs nre dv sons l-ldl'r itur a,,r is tlai.i '"r "l". rezi !i S slsr (I'enin ndje.li{c ! '1tcnlt. C.r\rnlul thdt dre parru trrn' ii ptrn'ilrlp: d,tia1tu ien; sraie e aeela.acer' cer, acea a!ea' ;i ;;i; p;;;,^" ";,, iotdeaunaldetl': tea), f ronunJati
fia, is ml' bol ?ftdr !&e ts dr'e'

i,i,,i.'r'-.*iii". t-ra;.i iiii" 's

7/..rcbooks'ar.mitr,: (-{dj'l

hoolis (Pronl

b) prcnntlt rel.jtie (: carc), ptotlunlAt [o'eL] (forlrla tare) lilat 'tl (forrm siabd): do4 thc laFrs \cff Niling about Thi6is ure loundcr .) nnjunxlie (: cn) ptonunl'atn ld'ell forma iate (rar inLrebuinlatn)' l6atl lorma slabn: He |ind me tna, he had |een lhcre (l) ad')crb(: atit de). pronunlai irtoLdeaunr accentuat [6eL]: 'l'hc sro\t Nas /n.r high ia.lllnd inellid'"i otr mloal S !rfR Zr -Formi.Uetr.\umnr.(az. " 7t'+.tl, . '/,r/ '/,o "uo'in:ur;forfl' pnlnla cenuriteir .azu'rle': ele nu sint dilerenliatedecit in . ',"',t;;";i; irrmirului:

itti{ ,,,,

{ li:l ::::!:,, ,,,-, r*-r { liij r"')J


{li:l il:::,"

[ruu:t{lou:]

'o'""i li:l ii:ll .,,.,t oo : tI tB; I ', il,' L" grI

llil 1 ,"

1fr'r ! lrt I ", L tr i :l


adj,'.litel,tr, rezj I 8181 ' tt 'a t t L 'l t (r'

) I tr'"- { ii:j

{l,en|.fl, tNdu&rea

: f ru nxnlir dr t r t n io nc pat r r az r ir lP oJ r " 1i' 0", ". r ", ' - . ' , ' "' ",.',;;;1 1" e ste lom ' at s t c u pr . poz u, ' a t o' 'Datilx1

,o,.: .jnraloaP adje.ri!. nun{arsax ste d. ,"., PSI I ,lllilillL,Ti.x!,{l'1".,,,"

r".'""

l 9t

3) I tret'ui lare. s 9{9 (ttuse) inlocuics.j sau deterrni.i ob;ecielrpropiatejn tin,p sau u) Thi: spatiuin raport cu vorbil.orul: depirtatejr timp sa.r that (thosc) obiectel spatiu in raport cu r-orbilorul: Tinp:
Tntr t-. Iinc Neathcr oe dre l{ving. (Prczcnr) a. lhc rvcatlcr (. iad li6t Snndal iTr.ctrtl ?'no, "rdr rill De iine! (Viitorl Thxe arc \a! remarks. ll'rPzentl Ihasc iete t\is Nords. ilrtutl I shalt tatl to rlosa preseni. lviitor) Sp a !i a W ho js , nl- " ? (A !fo p i c ..). \\:h o ' s ,,l a rl (L retarLa.e) / iu t ' r r L ' y l ./ d o o r;. J o .. D p . " r .r ' n J to $ -!. t@ p d p i " | i . th d." .\' .r. ' pr ol' r " rlcri la i,imp, demonstrativelc this, thesc sirt jn genere lgate Cind se de lrcrent, iar that, those .le lrecut ran de t)iitar. Cind se referi l,r Fpaliu. demonslratirele this, thcsc desemneazi numai obiecte din imsdiala aTropilr a lorbitorului. obiecte pe care acesta 1 porte atinge. Cind tnlocuisc o propozilie sau parte din aoeaslia.this, theEe sini in gerere intrebuinlate tumai jn c:rzul irt oarc curintele Ia care se releri precedd ine diat sau urmeazi 1n aceeasi fraze. Potrivit acestei reguli, ioarte adeseori in limba englezd se intrebuinteflzn lndt f*oseJ acolo unde limba ronAni {oloseste demonsiraLivele opuse,,acsta' , ,, ac e n sta " (. , ac ef iia' . , . ac e s te a " ): ?/'a, Nas onr decisioDat tlic lirne. lAceasta a last hotlrirea no{sili ]D ac.l non|Di.) fld, was a lortrighl rgo. lA..asta se $tretiea acuri doui-rsliptnmini.l Is rrzr all lhe lrgga8e }ou a.e iakiig? L, t ^ a- n to , i i i .l l . l i"i ' \\-1,all r}inl ,,nr l.l oti (n,dim usrt l.I ?ra, is ny opi[i0n. csn, I irna nica a-.1.errro lvhat do yon Dean bI ,rar: icc $fi s,-L su'i cu dadsru l, -\p l i ra rc a r c E ulii r l m a i s u i , 1 -a l a b i l ni n o a re fa re nl i suri r fi i n l i mbarome ni. e ste mu lt m ir i s lr ic l, d i n l i ' .b a c n .q l e z l . 7 ' ra l i n pri mel e doue rmpl e se r e lern l a u n lapi t r ec ut ; ln a l l re i l e a e x e rn p l u s e re l e r d l a un obi eci cfl re nu sc a.fh in imediat.L apropitft a celui rare l.rrbeste; in ultimele trei ennple sc fcfcr, la.iufinte spuse inajntea propozjtjei in care se afln lllal. ?rts is lvhat I advisc Jor lo do: make n list... rtis st intrebuinlat aic; pentru ci !e relern 1a o propozilie explicativ.' c^te ur/.ca:d. in at:ee.tti lra.d. Ti d i ar e in\ A o niult ma i l a re i i n tre h u i n l i rr' e rl cci l l ri r, l ui nrl u i acesl r)i a adeseori locul. In asemenea cazuri idiomatice. el scape regulilor. ;i poate lj 1n\'6!at numai p n obrerlaiije ,.i notare.

s 9;0

Lo lelcfan:'\\'har lral:" 1:Cinei acolol (ia distan,tn)l "rnis is e Gene). ,\proapetoti, incon;tientrridicn tonul. strign chiar. Gene"(-,,lii rind rorbesclir tclclonj aiii derie e impresiadepiirtnrii.Rarcoriallii tnLrcab;
1 sel]s sranatical {$ !).

109 (.\Vho's apropicrii tlis?:'. prcbabil pe un ton sLizuL-\i?oatc sub impresia 'nl1 u r c c n a '
.onriian t.rpd lp d F r n. P3 !n la v or bpilp

S 951 S 952

b) This (Ihese) sint intrebuinlale in corela,tieN lhat (those)l \ hi do Jou Pr"hr' trb o" 'i'' ' \re lour slamlrs lidI de aceea a adr.erbuhri ?trs este legai de noliunea adverbului t'l'
I'ut rnlr lich.c hrt. and that 'ir th'tt

S 0;3

! /ltenlie i\'lor Puri lii 'o',dim ' " lii ,l u'r pl"orr'rm rr'lr^bunl r% I' onslr_' r'.Lu tr"'t'to1t":1' r stttt4ltn'ra i4;. i1ro, lr.ulir. rr;l',r r\d"/r 'i 'l sa recomandi:i'qi fic evitatc. ea Se aude 'Lotrsi a,:lseu. !i ir linba ronlann: this nuln hte thdt child Ih$. eLc.(: on"ti u"o"iu de aiei, copilul acola de acolo) ca o rccentuare sau clarilicare. .7 L ri inrr r,L,or^m"J ''.is t,t ^ t \thl| /'''s ,'inr Inr'"Lui r":i Penlru a se evlta repeLarea
m . on' - , ' oll. r ' . . t . , ' H""h^ $.d I r,"""-.o .r r o / h. " t.- -r a le - : . I. s J s " l 'r ''l !4 . a $ - 4 '_ a a ] '

S 9;4

.J) Irronunele ttis (thtsN). Ihat (tha{) sint lntrebuinlate li in lo'nl denonstrstiyelor the l1.uer. thc lbrru:r: is Hc disliksl liolh dnosar'. rnd nanill,,'i lor 1nis rs ruch oi a! cltrerne6 dar' homelong alie. ihe c ldFni ltlie 'lrild'erl I'ad Nn al ri-" r--nt...,1*l $ d I d l o \l \' 'ftcs' r" l l ' $. , \ . i\ ' l t hn. th
'l E r ' c eplt iel La singulrr. pronumcle li;s li llnl nu pot intocui in acesl caz subsl'llntive']e care llenunesc PosLrane: \l-. coui.]n.t .lcci.lc brtieeln dre gtl a\\f rh' ba!: the ltrz' \\Ls us innrlligenl' as ttE Fritt. d' l i }p pen ru i / / 4is s ' , , . ' rn l i n rr-h ,ri n l s re In p r un r i d rr' :r ' l i rrmp rrnrrosai o p' ri od' l ;44 a re f c ht : l, nnz " n . r" I p p n u I d -' ' rn t ronand. aceasti construct'tc nu se t'raduce viitoarc, iegate de prezent ln limha decit rareo Ptln acesld, accatlal Sce you aaain fils di.r x'eck (\_'iTh.r is.r sl.onri bfrier. cs.ere^itgs lLn+ zcnt) (Nd reledcn de asLezi inl._o sllunn'i ) (Vintul esLctnlemrc searal she is eoinq lo Sinain liis month bcer asal ,ris rvc.k (Tr.ortl He h.!1 {Se dro; lr Sinaia lLrna4..dsD.) lEste Dleori dc o sipLimiraL. (-{ losi rlccat siPumina a0edla l Iou Fill rcsret jt one oln's The-l.l,avc ben norkn,S hard d,s lasl. (\l s-o rcs' e!i i ntr-o zi l ) Itu luo, l t onr t " m ' n t i n Il trn ' 1 r z l l r

l; ;

,\ se observaintrcbuiilarea i'lje'tr$lor //ti\ sJ thdl.c'rp Lr li arij'ohl { 956 unpr nehotartt ($ 529), de;i ou formn ila sinqular.poh dctrmrr5nurrLcLe peoade de timp cu sens de plural' prif itd ca un toi:
'1 nd \'\e bd ar , "r ! bus v t hh - dJ l. r do! \ r "J h1"l o n 'o Thi; Jo rmy / i"* u, . r s bN b+ I'!c been cxpeciing lot this taert! mLnutes r "

sau, pentru irecui: Thst lrst ,rd turntnsFas cndless

$I ADJECTTVUL

r9g

Aceeati lntrebuintare o au !i cu alte plurale care pot fi privite tolectirl sixty 11 (sau rn.el no* Beiterhavcthis t{o !ound(s) Did he rcturn t|rtt tbee Nunds? Thel: coultlha.dtt walk that lst tqo hitomres,they wereso ljred (Veziregulala S 2i'5t-25ts ci. S 533) Natd A se obsdva lorma de sirgxld"" a substantitului ln urmitoarele expresii idiomaticel Wc hare tilcd heretn;r seren,.dr a lialll coulle
ttp ha, b.-n ,4. , i n ad I d do o.

precedet[ sau adesea o intreagn propozil.ic f) lhis ti that inlocui-qc parte din ea:
kno\ ,i; n, t"r. t S he r.it "! t " ut t n" p anat , 6t . l tn r r ' lo' lor i 'm o 'n : e I dJ /" I p' omi.o, -: l " .)1 Th.a ntt\t !. hanP anl thtl lle i,s the;epulation of a rn.^l lrnt 7//, hc cellainlX is not 1a r r th6 p sin nt "ir i' f^lo' ir ' S ) T his. '.i ' L"

S 957

s 958 s 9;9

? les' are m! childfcn. (lli/\ { r.eziil tc copiji mi.) h) Thi,r (these)\i tm Unse) + ta ,, sc traduc prin .,iati": T7z.r. ar. his lliings. 7/,;s ts sliat hc told me. (Ia ti ce m i- a s lus . ) tIat,'!i l,rcNfile (nici).1 ,.\l'hioh is 1-otrr por olio?" ,.7/,tsts il." flior. afc ltis Dftenls. ilalli i Dirrinlii lacolol.l lcre este'scrrii,t.rtn? lai o ) Tnoas hoN ire heard about rt. (latn jr c! fcl am auit desl.e ace&sta.l *This" ,i) Toate Pronumelc demonsttal- pronlDclc relrti{. ,si'thii' r" ' du j " hrr:' l " P /} ' ' si t i\ F tu l i n J li ' , r - s r " J a t ,o u n ' p rp ,d r' ^ . , { p ,i ,rdt sint supuse aceleia,siuzanle: lvhat is r/,is rno,. I sci? nefor' is a ditTercnL nroblem lmn that (.tltuh) \\c discussed d l o ' k ' r,/&. tn h ' .n a t" an l ha ban' h d mi i l n r "Lir 1 ." \ n " l1n. b1ll" i n ' n8" /rha Th p .u l l ^l; " lr n| . , . r . fl d r ' .d l -" ,,r' , i l " l d ' a v rh -t.t" am A l t Tri s i s Jol, n S nit h. {lli/^/d }ronri t. JolLn Smith.l Na ti i . Consiructiei thas. trho ii core""punde la singula? lr, (s au s,it, {tlD: H. ( 1, . r r n do p . n u r tl ne" l ' .1 i P { pahd. ' ' r,i l o " o l F .p ,l .' 7f r ; - , ' n. J o n .. .i r!l i . o o l ." g " J ,j r,l p ( dl l l ^ F{ pdl al . (pls3. socotite acum prelioase. le slnt prelerete urmiitoarele Acestor constilrclii. conliderate mai pulin pretonlioase: Thc siudctri nho doesnot submit... StuiltsntsFLo do not s!bmil... 5) Adrerbe compusc. - Thi.s \i, that. precedate de prepozi,tiile after. at. l n l o u i l e i n li nrbd ]i r" rrr6 " cri rS ori in , o [. o n . t . ) . ur an. r ' 1 k .. r' ' rn .^ ' i L, t , oii"ial a "u FJ v " r ba . o' np. .., d i n a 4 \p rb p l " l | .o u th .rp-: tratrozi l i d ' F.pp" ,{.sifl: her . alt c r: a l l e r th i s ili.reniter : alter thal

S 960

$ 961

S 982

, p' onun lal p I : ri. , / . " r . , rr J.+r .13

s d, r PP, . ' ' nl l . I n a o n P d d n o u ; Jo_r . / ?r ur . L'. pr 0num . . I ar ir . pf on I nlll [ d3 ] .

cramalica rinbii eneleze

194 iherety - by. ihal hereuron: thereipon : l,e.Nith : th.rcwUr : rpon this tlpon that with this with that

9{-i3

o, -lbiq $i{h l id{erbc. ln' ilul rJmilirr'/'l''"i/nd'l"tfisisd!'r1." Jpn'^r"lrJ i\e I = .ol Dl' sinr a un'i urrnllF d- un rdje'li! sJu de un adr!rl care e\pr;mn lniltimta, cantibaiea, distanla, timpul etc.:
r l. s h. . 1 = \l ' i l (c a :r ,. /t" -r,, 1t us 113| ||t u !)n i g l ' { In /i l l i m ' ). P , , , . \ r i, i G u u i .' ,l o J l ( s au a ,) i a r' (D i s tm l e ) "&tr fPlnl aici (sau acoto)l Th-a $at.r $ds Inor hia} ,i n d L :-' l ' I I n, w / nr s m u rh , l h a l ' o u s

96{

He rvcnt tldt iat and no Inrtle. Did wc stax the.c rl4, lons? ! Atenlie ?/,it ti lhdt cu in,tclesexciarnariv (: dialeciale:

'' J

aiit de...l) sint expresji vulgare ofl

I s $ r/d t.o l d l (['li_era aili de Irigl)

$ 9ti5
6 966

Trr! Fox-trx& Trrn r,ATTnrl


(},IONU}Itr SAU ADJDTIIIV! DDffONIT'T,ITTTX)

{) Functii. - Demonslratjl ele the fanrto l- pLimu) ldin doil pr in:: prim ii sauprin',leldindor,igrupr,rirlsi 'l' tdtt'r ' ult.i rll't r<lin,loucr. ooi), ulLinaioin do r' ullir"i"u 'rlr m'l'rd;ndou:grLDUrrrlpol Irplo'l' sarr adjecdrel I lravereadBob's1\ork anil Jan's l ptekr nk funet {llol\ work) to /r lor"' (Pron.) iJano,s). '-- ine;"r";ked l.ochoose bet\on Sha$dd Ocas'): rn' /n/'/' snbie'r (Eh'tr
$&. pelsipr, t h P 10 .t \o ' p \ Ocd J ld mori rp" r!'cdl

{ 967

r/r 2) Fonn5.- Demonstrativele lbrmo ;i tfu lalter au o singuri lorm; InrX distinctie de gen, numdr sau caz:
, \ lic el. lNasr 5i l. m s g no, n ) Isaw lho ho !6 r s , ig b"h: J | ' e' t L' h' \ 1a5. s i lpm . pl. : , . t h b "r \ ' e d Jl.' p 'n t r|| b '1 " ' J d d 's 'r " ' I

Cecil dit Alice arc hothr and sislet: the f.'rn r (C.ril) is youger Uran /E larr-_

t]l ' /r' th Demon.rralivcle fnm". Fli /o'"f. tiind^dnua 'on'p(not;r ''ill rar se r"tpra la doui obi"c'pr.In 'zul unpi I numprari site numai arunci,jnd conline mai mult, ale aloud {iinte sau lucruri, tnt'rebuinlarea acestor dou: demonstraiive sste incorectir. -- -'ti fnrrotruintar". \ll dFnon'lr"ri\ul [om'r. rit "i d"r"on' -1 . 969 I tattpr pot li inlr;buinlaLe inJpp"ndFr urLl de arlul 'l"r "u morrlr "r: -.i 96E
m:r lomr Dteits { toe ii m' rhri, th; fun{ dcin 1 - lostul dc.d) in /o.ne. tines (: ne rremndl lhe / dt lpfhalj o t l h ; c " n l u ry I a d o u a l . nbl a' p 3 s" ol u i t he lolb, Dat Lo l L h Pn o v d (- u l ' rmr Ird l n a romuurul in r h" : " l; r pf d s v s { i n ,,l rrmu l l i D t. 1 n ,i l " l " no6k" r a .l J F . ' p :D i idp ul rrmi o" rJ v I r r r p. - dav iew ! a ' ;o n .e p l i i I S ensx am a l i .s l($ 2 . Pe ri ru d e ' -a l iv p z i $ 9-n i ! perrrir o enumFf;re d mai m-lt dp douJ obipctp vFTi 5 970.
nv tonat t . a th Pt .. lo b l , n "d p to i"r d "b )

$I ADJECTIVUL,

lt5 S 970

THE TIBSI. TflD LAST


.PRONUUE AT ADJEI'IIVE DEUONSIA-{TrIN)

/r" Adic"rivFle fi.s, ( -primul. prima. primii. primalelsi ilp /arl , ullisini lnlrcburrrlat".a m Ll, ullima, ulLjmii. ullinFlc). liind doua s,/1,./d/i'P. pronump adip.livp dpmonstrarirF eazulun.i eau'nFrSri.dre Loolrnenar in si hult de dou[ fiinle sau lucruri. (Pantru detalii vezi S 965-968). TEtrJOTIIEIi
(TRoNUMtr S-{U ADJESIIY DEIIONSfRATIV)

THE OTf,EES
(PRONUME DtrIIONSTRATIV)

s 971

(: Forma de sinqular llv ol,{r" celetalt, oealaltd) este consideratdca lnd' jar olinind une"ri funrLid do adi..liv sau pronumpdomonqlrdliv. Iorma d" oth,rsr= .prlsl i ;lplil ni ea fiind numai pronum" d"mon' rali!: ilurdl !h"
j. r ' ( \ d j l r nd t "t ' + t |' at h. . ir Orinc rl' b lu" \a5 . r'. .s i o .rr J ppt d, t n, r LaLp , t ? o/ f r - . - r o n . ) I . A k" ' E a h", . dan' pd l P " o n r l n rir. l h i l in a "h ro $ ; 1nq ; nt l SAITE
(PROr-UIE S-!U ADJECTIV DE]UO\STR-!.TIYI

$ 972 S 973

poate li (lucru),aceeali aceia-si, aceleafi] 1) Functrii. Sazrc[: acelaqi pronumesau adjectiv demonsirativ:
lrllatrrryNew Yearl" "The sand to yo!I" (Pron) in way. (Adj.) Thei irehared rlre sdme A tenlLe ! Intrebuinlarea pronominali a curtntutui sdrzste condamnati in unele cazuri ca nclitirari !au desuetn,dovedind uneori chiar lipsi de culturd, spre exemplu in vechiul stil comrcial: Wc liave Xonr aelvet and {'ill scnd sa',. at once Samc poate avea li valoare de adaerb,cn sensul de,,la fel", ,,tntocmai": work wnl on i'ast E satu. In his nbsencc I leel thz sdne as yoo about teaohing. Dimpoirivx, loculiunea all tle sdnd (: totu9i) exprime opozi-tie:
A lhe sanc, I don't like hef.

S 974

S 975 S 9?c

Sdmepoate inlocui i a tntreagdpropozili):saa frazdl They alplied the Dcrvmethodol wo.)r,and I did the saru

s 977

are 2) Formd.- Sam o singuri form;, lari distincliede gen,numlr sau S 978
'l'hcv all s:rid the saue. (l'ron. neuhu se. ac.l T hr r df r p op l " w r' - d ,i .' o n l a i o , o n l l ' p bu' ro l -i ol i _ 1. \ dr m ac s i l e m l l n .m ) Sdnc est"eaproapc lntotdeauna precedat de articolul hot[rit. 3) Accentuflrc. - Pentru accentuarea ideii' same poate fi precedat dc cudntle ter4 sau sef (: chiar acela, identic): This is ihe v.fu saa.r baa I lost. S'" \.- r h, . " 7/ . dp. Li " l l I' a d m i o n p L r,,i n .

s 970 $ 980

relativ as(Y. S 1094). S 981 4) Corola,tie. Samcpoateii corlatcu pronumele I Demonstrati{ulsdru poatetilsi clnd este treoedat ile adv.r}ul tery: "This is the $r

198

S 982
$ lrbS

so
{FNONUIIN DEMO\STRATIY)

D"mor'lr,litul s,, { a"rqra.r.r' r e'rF lnlrnbuintHi 'J I fur.lii.pronu ' :i "lun i In'o.uiorIpo Intr'-ei propu/rlreprpiedFnrd: I knewsnc wasr'l ri8li, and I told her so
"C& she IelP us?" "I tlLiDk so-"

E 984 '

\'erbele cu care pronumlso este tn specialint'reluinldL tn acestcaz,sinf: la beaftaid, to b(Ii.ee:tu do. to fear. ta hape.to sa! : 1otlqpote' to leIL to thLnherc' So poate inlocui lqi u Adjectir; S 9Sb
tle $ -Etre1,snaod sn rre \e I xse d to -be , r An, s , iLL I am o no lor ge. "It ws .old lesierdal." ".!. it $4"

i 986

,So esLc ;i adverb sau conjunclie: .to Dranymer, so many mnids lAdv i
| \

(.\n 1 .1 S he is s i r t r e l .tl ' L I le s nok e i, ' a l m h l i \,rL ) k r ipt ; on b tJ .j .o . ,o L r.r h d " J r $ ," . ,\c\.)
T1e-r i.r n l I' . ,L '. ."d ,. 4un_ l

s $87 s 988 s 989


\ 990

2) Soandso. Lor liunearo an.l s/)(Fubstarl,i! set'raduceprin',culare l $ilh ihe lr'_ozl sos lsubst !l ) \Y stayedovcr ihe \tecLend ,ct 3) So"so. Sr-s, (adjeclil' !i advcrb) inseannA ,,a!sa ala : a clcrk she is ro-rc. (-{dj.) lIe ^s sirss io-so.(-{d\.)
SUOIT
(PNONLT]IE S,\U -{DJ}]cTY DEMONSTBATIV)

g91

a-c erLl { dFr' A ' a/ a l a ra . i rt' l ' l ' S a rI I , hr nc lii. pm' npa p as laj s " " pi; r a1 .3 re " tc 1 rr F r..l p o i l p l i p r^"nurF r' i ' dJ^' rr\ d' rnun' t1 o, Hc Y'as a .lNm man and eell knoND rs s"/' {Pron l Sz., rcsulls are rery uDsr$sla.rorJ edj ] rh i 2) Ionnfi. - ,9r.i are o singure forrnn, lirn distinclie de cn, nunir I can'i ba slackersand all sr.li lPron Inasc.ii lem l)l ac l (.\dj ncntru ss Doml a\raJs Judn music 'tlcornc. 's dternrinat de adjeotivul sD'n '= al substantiruhi Articolul nehotarit p u n e dupi ac es ta : Did vo! cver see sz'l a tJiing? It rvas !z.l a ,ine drYl

S 999

s 993 s 904 s 995 s 99{i

a) Sar,t poste {i sironim cu demonstrativele this (thesc), that (tha;t.'


rd .n I Jr./, I lh6 i, r ha Dq, / l . or J i . L' \ ine , n s i l , l o r ,:", onlJ r l, , ar ; n - od r Lr r ' ! I n J n n l .. '\ 'l j r o n l F I 'o ":'

3) Inteles. -

J ( . / . li: . , , : d .n , j r,\' , ' . J rp r; i n g ru l L ! rr' B " l JrpJ : (V.zi 9i S 51') cJ ,A.deseorisar,t nu apare in lraducerei romaneasci: I t is dps i" ab hro -.u " l d l i / n l ra * d -:e . ' . r ' Jl o" oprr-1" lL" t e d. dori L .a r l rJ d ..r p a J F F p o lt' rr' " m" as rof" dl ' 1m' T hpv \ v " r . a L " d l o s l o n ' l l ' Ib u n l l ,/ Io:a' ' ' a m4' ' : sr \' l ' p r," ' i' : ir ' i s i a .n " r r iu' t oq

b) Sach aN qi lnleles e\rlamati{ (': atit de, aqaJ: Pr'lrr"rio,, uutF"a\P hal ,, t a bumo| 'rol rlrF - ' ThF Asri.u'ru,dl '

o r

FRONIJMELE SI

197

S 99? 4) "Suoh" -1' prontmel rolatiY. esdeaproapc S 998 a) Cinn snch este urmat d u,n pronumerelativr acesia as iDtotdeauna (: care)' rareorr rro:
in l.r ' l hi t' , m ig h l l. $ r . h " a 1 r , i r p w !"o d ' r ' r ' \\ i\ : l, d\ o'' ' | o n p p " o j . | 5 / ' l n ' r d |lo u l' | 1 | .| l' .p n r J\' 1 0 1 ll, n $ lp l' n ' lo L J lh p h ' r 4/ , u. lj J l o l ' 1 r 4 | | ; r d r'nl l d rr \ar po r'

b) Suchus este sinonim .n thoset\Jn, tlv)setrllich:


ils dcicnoe' Let all slrl, ds t: tl,oseshol want leacc e'ork a.t, but'l wjll shitlx lrr d Jotr.rd,/'dr ( : I hoseNlich) I nav' i!;,s."; le; ".(,ik$ "' dl Srrl &s poate avea Ei tnlelesul ..ea de eriemplu": The Sl,alcstore ad{crtised loys sr./, as lraUs.dolls' drums aso Do lou lnow therc is se./, a piohuesqucplaic os ClovcllX? 5) Such and such, - Locutiunea srr.l, dnd s ,]h se lraduce prin -,cutare': On sr.lz and sai a da[o, it sacnond nr.t a llacc SU(,lILIIiE
{-{DJ00rlr.} (= ascn'{ta)

S 999

I 1000

S 1001

s 1002
! 1003
.\ 1004 ihfillers and nrnltne

l're neto hen

sr./r,^. iDlrdinccl

rrr.'rrr (Pror!M!/ (: asnentn He enjoJ.d rcading a lotr lovels, short sto.ies, plr$

oNr,! 0r\Es (PnoNU]rD DrxrorisrR"{rlv},

s 1005

On. si .,n.s sint rrrolrrme denr.nstrative Ele pot {i qi S 1006 ltluxctie. ..,b"ts ri'o ii I2641.:ingLrl"rul pu" e ri nrrn"rfltil2lSr'prorulr'n"1rnnn tirit !!u a!lip,ti1' n"hora,lt (S 1104) or' li on r d r n ircurd iormj panlr I S 1007 2r Forori :i lDtrh..- Pro'ru'rFlc d-'Fpbr' dai jrr pri'inla nu'ndrulrrr' ioaja Lpnuril..i 'rlurilp. EIP nu '-''. 1008 S -^ au urmntorr.rllnleles: demonstrative C; p;;rril acccn, cel,.eal o,, l: acela. tss.) (d cci acerea, cere) ) ores(: accia, inttebuinlate pentru a se S l0og Pronumele one !i ,n.s stDt, 3) Intrcbuinlarc. erita repetara unui substantiv:
I c1\e h pf rr'" r"d riL lon J r d I , pl rhd oo( olr I'e r,,d g lo! "" r r d ! . r lhe L, lu o, P in s om F, dk o4Pr.

O e nu lnlocuielte ilecit subsLantivle care pot, a!'ea -siformn de plural: S 1010 to SDeak tlai llttle boY. l.he fair o/ like tncm? L;ok ai thoseplroiosl\touldn't you lilt to hare ones Se spunc tns6. cincl subsi,antivul nu poate a1'ca plural:
I IiIe cold milk ieild thlln hot. I'll lakc re lat neat not ihc lean Llneori promrmele onr precedat d lr adjectiv tu are antccedent '{cesta este insd eYidenL: l l y l i tt lF o, . i ( P uiul rn .x r) Ou r l i iile ones { : c 0 Prr'n u s l .r) l rl '" \" r ng, 4i' ll" o, q o t d n i rn a l sI p ' ' ." r' i m d l " ]o_

198

MORFOI,OGIA - PRONVMDI'E

s r01r

Dr] oltSTBATlYE gl coNsmucTtl lDlo)L{rrcD co ?EONUIIE ^DJEmlvE

oi'l', #i"T"fi."tr"uoi"f"h"',"i'' noi sr'rna'"dr L)

iit.i-;J,a;' (: Ztke tirrs//ndl asilcllJi tu r"r" ) Vii) iiiij 'i 'a'" r' cla"'iu,nm

armi :r :;i',,' il:", Am' na, ;",i Ii: ;,Ui,." ":,,."'*,,

l#ii"'111''at "^";'i''n:"''"'l]';,". lj:';,;1":,"' i $'1"i: o :" i[lir;s. "iS'" u'"*n :'l:Hrll'"i1""i35:'i":l;l;r i*:i;;"';l ran out ,rilft tndr, sh.
r S r r alnd o' c dr ' fu g r a ri ta l

*11;""*;'t *l'n"'"lfi'a't a gaod Laa'


't"n 'li.l it Tho' tAi reusitl Brdt' rl r 6; s and J Ir wac a lwrls J ol' n i e.cu lo n in Fus . r on t n J ns l

c'r c@d I
' n ' ldr '

'Fii"*,iliii:1;}iq:i pe a,a,i ;fli"[,.1; a,,a;,i irinc. i; . :' ;"?l,Y';;J; \' - *"r {


ll i!:;'l,,,: il^,",,
;l'"i:f ?ii"ie3 s1012 .
t l0f3

a hr ' 1 "". 1 ' *. "i , r 'p ,,, ;i ; '" '' " t ri ' o;'""' ' ''iT;'","' ii. s" orat .u'd^4 r r"*"... ""a 's"'1" "; ;;'r {: io .u,adzi,tn ;;?l' ot,i''.1"'"; "
(TEE INIERBOCNr'r

v.PRONUlrE.-L!,.trr?JR:ll'*t';l'131"*tl

F're f'rr"s de I" ;nt"togoli! i't'j p ' t " I) Dotioilio'- Pronutr '\'orbirt s r' r e ' h iv rlp n lu la ""ll'"u t ' t r n r p r ogrrrta D r oDo zilie """' "'-"i'-i'O'r""ri ' ; l ixoiimat ln r[sPuns:
''1 4h t ra d,r';rs l' \ lv ' t olle'

stl intefoEatit' Adiectialll tntrebart: nnei

..," n;ii';; - FFrre:te ., -#ftfTl1*"ltf-',"-,f:i;i;iii / /i,.,l' forl LulsfeA qubsrantiv pe ]ingi un


intcroT::.:]r"i";:lt*'""' fi 2) Formi,. pronu,rere $djcciirerc

- '.::ii*"* " ^'o' ,X:J'i.::':;,t::,"'t!'" *t ** ;;"1


ltlnol (: cinc?) 1\om l

$ 1014

ai are ac''?cui? t;n:ii laloi? .", 1Tj,xfllill"i::ll',1*l

da'i {': '""J#"1llrt"fflg*i s,'paLFro l=:itiil:ili \#,:\\ ""' IFiilllil""';,,i";;fll'1..,0,',.'1"1.''''

FRONUIEI,i

S1

lv

199

T \r'";:l':t':rl ''-'n 1iY,n:.', ',;l:"iq,T { l"#!':lj,l\T" ';, i- ;.,i''ldt"*, ;- ;" :;' I#l;;l"J,ll,ill;iiTi;"J,'".liii F r l' I n dn ; n B ' L $ o d ''r " o 1 )
I lv nol

t|n4,'(',:

iii:; ""';,..):r;,,cj.J';.i"i:t;.ll,i'n"iiljx.l ,-' ill';;. .


l l'i'" ::: ,n,.7.'oli:, ,',,0'r"
TbseraaILL $ lorb

'\on. -rr.

ltl,]"""

,,, Jirol.iiJHi"

alti pot inr'crosarire alea sens de sinsular' ei adjccti'rle

.u,- sdip. in,,, i', iii;::::i,l:;ii.;,ll ii,i'' ,lll"li"", I i .,l ,, "i r: u nora rr' iL" ^o,i " " ura , jr , d i n Fo l c i, un s r r b. r dn l i \ r-r, .rr
" ' \i rrl -t " p"":;,, ._.pr. a .^\FJ..,n " .i .1"*) l:l,l.j:";; 1,.1r:1:;, *h;+i

'a.i'li?ll': ,:'i"': ,"',r ",,,'i,,':::#:iT";l-:ol; ;,,,";' "a:-,i'" n'o.l,l;1";'l::'?;'.i1,;!l'il:1,]Jl;ll;fJllij'iiii'ii"ll"'h j'|.rG

:l', il:l'lri L'''i;r{: *"1'l 'n ] . u . rl:;"" li,ilirXl 1,;;t li'"1 ii;i:fi ; ll;l;;i;. . lli tu tt lt ';
fofln1.indit'r.nr ,1, gcr':i nu'nnr' P' n ru

,, a "2 . P ro n Lo " :i r l j ' i \a l "in ' u' a' i\" "' o ' :ingr ,r S l0t? r dil"r t rpFr I arurrL'r'

stnt tnirebuin- S 1018 5) lntxcbuintare. a) who (trhascl, Lvlto(n)' to o/ro'r, tate nunai Pentru Persorne: ' iwno is ihis rnm?" "Un'lc l orn" _iv,l" ."o' ^i.t? f i ' 4" I I'n" rhp!J ri -\ rulr'y"rouds.. -ii'r,,'"". i:".,; ;" pr s nD n ! _ "-' -whr'. is i r p. on ) "Th" n \ ldoor I

',;:f, l:i8;: ',7',' i:,iH' """

)l -riq llnl,lni '

; ll"il; ' ;j':rr'

.. _ T o n v \rd rp n' - who! n. t di d v o ' r '_ ty in o -: ').0:""':'"" $' 4nd hrss Lp P" ' . l don l liL F r l' Whon: ) "

:lT;;o:;'-:"::',;.J; ;

-r1rbrbr'.^

,;;ili jJ'ff Hi.J"pr"poziuia :;i' dF ;,"T.'iJ'Silil,"':,tTlfi:JiiiY" "'i"li'ii"",ilJ,ilTii o/: li' J t'"""i";'"rJ Ji;ing;r sauesr"utn'61
, j which intproseri! e.ip 'plc' liv ( 'arF
' wh ich t/nr ,t wh ;.h l1|6i.1 o l vour br olhpr " i5 \I^d\ p f a! on"il"j oLc J lx o " ih is $Fk c t ilm \ ) o t"p s won r hr r 3o- r \ or I dratr:ns do You P"f"rr '^ol i Pron'

1:'-',:i ;i[ Tjlk"Ji, ]:ir':, . " {fiT',"

din'rp) - prFupune aleepre S I0l9

o*'Pff"l",lj'i,i1 J-.1:"J8iJ'fl flil'';3f'.)i'i;ri#j:"il'.'f,


lI;;lJ'."$,".';.:* plurarurui. p.ererarr **"rui esre

i XflH]i" ;l"J:'r'";"{

sr ?"'*,. ' i r."h,ip ri'.p.r', deprFpoziria 'dat 'o '?lh,f '

Whieh iiind invariabil ca fornil, sint situalii in oare numnrul (sg. 6au pl.) trebuie toiugi specificat: I'vc lound sonc smpsiiotsr /ntul, (pfon.)wouldyou havc? Ambiguitatea lntrebdrii creeazi o sitralie diiiciln: l.cbuie a]esun singur insLantaneu sau mar multel Solutia:
Which .ne \!antd, you h.r1e? s a r tfii.l o"s s'onld vor hr!e?

1020

c) 'lYhat, ca proDume.sereferl nunai Ia inalndatel gi indirect la aninate ; ta i anim&te: ca adjectiv se rcf;rn atit la aninate (iDclusiv persoanc),cit -si
d i d " ,,. ^ o , pdno:

"n nd, (adj.ld,s nit him?" "The }utch.r\."

i r1,," r,"

i ..-

eb". do rou rrcler?" "\'rolet." gtts did I'iru tnlk to in the hnll2'nTo Jill and Ar.r." 's lhe ,tmcr" "1Il's), itrst goDc livP." di.I it .asr1" "T\r. rrounds'. js your nafuc. nati;natiht, rnf.s!n'\ kleth'n. nnnt,a, oddnEst" 's i'our \rife lil'e:'1 "Swiret and .os) to be Nilt,". I "ttrlo arc.rou?" ",\lec Jores. tour nrother's rricnd. .oDP l,un :1 s. canPan { the stares i: sL,{j"\ !,. J ' :\' I' } 1 /., ,- ' u .' 'l

1021

Aten lie

Se atrage atenlia asupra intrebuirtnlii incorecte a adjc.rtirului inlcro,JF "J "ron1' lolo.; d" .ru,lp lii ro, ini t'-,,r,,, rr" Lu -i, ;a rr .i;i. TI/; /' i, i,nji'r\ -''" 0djari\ului inrpo-J'i! ",.- din IrmtrJ '^,,';1. srlfcrir (: care dintrc...) . Cind adjectivul iDterogatir ..faret nu eslc sclecti'. ..e-. cl ste tradus prin }'hat' al firui inlelcs tn limba ronarri nu ".tenr.rnrai ci 1i ,,care":
Cdl. scriil.f lLi nlar! cd mai niull? : Ilrld, \vritcli d; Xou likc best? Cdrc din1rc scriitorii seoobhi al IIX-l.a ili tl{!e? : Which of lti riih cenlury wrilcrs do Io\ like?

1022

What erclamati{.
n?d, a rvisesa]ingl \.rzi S t46. 1090.239t. SITLr:\TLI,lCrU-{I.l.

1023

.rJ IYho lYhom. DupI cun s a mai aritat inainte. iendin-tade sinrirlr ri'.-diir Iiml , !njhir drn.lrlul .o,.';"1 -rri. prr".ii', r.l 'rl 1'u ' 'si r'r" ,vhat4.tor". iiili\,.lui ri, rin?inJ.dinlo 'ri.., in l^d. iru-lrr ' ^,, la pInu^FlF )i cJ:p'riv.ln i.lp,4,d i\ ' torn,' oLip.,i.ur..r.,r',/,. r 'r | . ls,FlFrFloti\F. I'rrn I9'o. l.l"rr.l 'idpir.. s in:Lorq,ri1". r"1'. i: lrom now noi el et Lil safto prophesJthat within a corple ol hundrd -l'ears nost leirned jurist t'ill be saling''l|hom did yoir see!" Evoluria actual'l acestui pronume confinni adel'drul proieliei cilalo.
- t f / . , i. I " Jt,r. !ro"urn.. nri\..- o t,,' r \ n. nr ' . a! r ' . ' L d I.i -at Jrd J ?1 "qtp tn"r r, ?,o /,! n "i ! j , i t d . n obF : nanim a t , r " e r r . ' u i . . j i r ' - l r '/ , o . tit pl,\.: d l . / l i d , . t r o r 'r n . _ u : r 'l u r r . '"'"+od ..r i. 1"i. |lpl. n6r am ali "\.o u. \rfe' "tanirL Ul I tyloi's the time? [: urhal tJ...]. 11'r just s,ac live. I: ll no6 6',8...1 r' S 1::' 186t, 3 Citai de Drian Fosier, The Changing ErylAh Ldnguasc, p- 2al, 19;t'

PRoNUMEI,I

Sr

lv

201

";i .", iiliit: il:i,T i: li#;i,,f if iil;i,1l.r :l:l;;,1; i, t". :j;lll.f .n - ilul .oloc\iat s,ri". prin ior^r" ,,o j!i,.r,,,?J::lJ:i'iff:J " ",,;'ii,lii;,ill:ff"1x!?l::,,""1J1,:i.ifi?x:J;ji;
s t i tut i nfa nnatIcok.aiat {ro.ntt sau scrjs)

lllat.). prcp.) Erenple:


'.rylo Jid

ro Nhom lor \vhonr.._


, pr

(9 " t 1 . pre!.)

' vho

.. 10

who... ior, crc.

\^, r"iil;s jj, r.;i'rd' ;''r'i'r-,i ,. i". I;0";1j,.; ' J y , no t t , . h ,,o k D !

,.r I ni,

nn

I , pj-

,t.r..r,i.-.-

1 ,. ii.jt l; 'l I :,;i,i.," ; ; 'r":,"lflooll;, ,,," ll ' ,'

'.

\,

p-

;'liI " i_11,1 illli;:; ll:trli; ,Jil,l ,,,l;;";' -t'


, n lo u r.,.oL . ' r . , , p t r dq r hi1t . . gol. . \, I' r

;:i;":r"'lij (,:;;;;il,l'i:li#ii:i
Thc cottage o/ o,,ri.t Lhc sh,ttqi

;r"': r;*';ir i ;ir.lr o'"r"u'i,,,i".i^;;;;; irlj l#:, '', lr ;ii,r' , r,ili ii;,in:li'li"r
i;il:
arf grlcn js lton\.

. ri $bi.b "i $hat c" nanrir "., m,i su. r$ t^t_ ln stil,rlIo ,,at. ni.j jn cl Loloclidt. ',r.i

tu22,. t.,r".,t,ir,,bdri q t0Z.l

c, Which - Nhose. cenitivul o/ eht.h. ltni o lorma pred greoaie. { 1096 p!re dp.Fl. rnai m rlrn ori t,,tocuit, u'it,F.,,n.,1r, Dr: Esto inlocuit,cu:
T,rP ro om r1".. t a9 r , , dv . |lr. ro om .,./i . d . t , - "r . .

iii';iii#E,r,,;'ii::1;:: (:::i'i;;,.ili;,,,,."",.,") i;fj,:;it'


ir b"y nin4oq . -

Inljrogalia diro.ri \i inrlirccta.- lnrratbr;t".ar",onli,, qi pronu,,,p { t02rj . ,, li LrJAsrr\. Inl"ogr i\p. r r d' JuIA htuflr ,tirp. _:i inuirrctc.

FF ri r Fopro. n' ''' ;;{,ti' ; ",!'1 t ""'i;;;, :l il;\; ;i'1 l' -":'iii',iii "p.' "1;[:"i] tt'tal is lhe lran,s namc.
IflBtn) .tid vou rt,E rD. I t 1, n i l t n e e r h l r ti i i i n i

11,,:i:1L;;;';,,11x,,:,i,,;X::,:i;' "'',u "i:::',:::":i,:ix,,lii:tl':ll,iliTf


| '( J ' r "l"' ,,/.n \,, I _l I r r t , 3 . n

r \-czi R . Q ni. k c l. at ia.

909

AtP,nlie ! ver\ul sau aunF La jn orice propozjlie interogat'ive'tn interagalia'l'irectd 6 102? " liarnl /r.t,rdii subieurul:
m' aa 'Ptul: \V "t h g '"" f ido al l|" d o o ^"r r \ \ nul n' '/4" al \ Vhu { l 'tl' d P

propozi'ie interogativx' ci declaraltt interryali'1 indl]ectl' carc rru esteo \ Prbrl se PunFJl/Pn 'ubi"' | : I i\ ",
qhd ln ' ) ! T lm I r ) l' d h - sn o In Sn o d o o "r ' l "1 o \ s

t9 5 1i { V e z i ;i S t0 5 2 ' t8 9 l '

tu t ro""l "Jk ' iP h a lJ touan at th" uoot '' n /l fto r sP '' Lh4 s"rP Io 'r

s 1028

pronum"l" inloroeatit' "' ' ?r lttritiurrrt DO ln ixl' rosd!ii' Cind ji,i':"a"a:""1i\ Jl inrFfofairv Ll"t'tmin; 'ubiP'i-ulnu 3e inlrcirurrr.rr '"1' propoziliil' in erogr'iLP poriLivel: iil,r" ""'ri'".i;i Dti in l7lD thitrks so7 loD:
lt ' t t "c s o1 r am " or ' ju l n o {: |, l, t r n s or nun ] ooLed in n"'1 J""rProar l'"ta' l3l!

E 1029

: propozi'tiileinterogativ_negabive) Se spune insd (in oazul obiect'ivsau in

I":#, 1):; wn!! l':':" i:"'i:"*'!


W h h "a' d: t lh" Por ' m 8 n g o '

tt rcgulilor.srdm6li'at" stilutlornal 8J Lorul 0repoTiliei' Conrntrn 1030 ' "" " p r " p o li,i , p r o i"do phnum'1"'sr adj";rit u l in re ro g u lr\ :

EL',,=n Hi;;' i::,1"'j".''lLi' **, ^x:

:'li f;,,iYil.,' he %xl'n" ' want it?-* 7or ohom did langhing?
At ehat are lou

1031

il este pe prepozilia .{cesta rotul care "":iirt['ffi,il,ii1'"x'rgli:i, esie I curentriinsn.


In aorbiett Prepozilia
Ilrl'o is Uiis |ook school does he conc l'o4' '/r I/l;n it lb'r Itl@ did hc $dt

t{l'i#"" ]""" J"- ;-,tri,; l::

1032

lrr s'ilul Ln'iliat sp lnlllnp' rl r' 9) lronumele iol'rogaiiv compu' exnrimd surprrnoerr' t/'dl mele conpu"p: i)rLotPr' ettt';r "'/ li '"/ 'sre nedumeriri. indignare elc : ,tp ,in"': wl". -"'.,ro d tthD a1-: "rounill'i :i"iJ:'",

::*: ##}1i;' :iit*r;lii'*l:3r{

r? f;:'::;:'i ,.::::" :"' ;;;;" "::,'s r " n'a,',

oede acediar". :. po?ili\ nu r upr ind p o n e g a l r P : ,.Cine I ln "roe ,l ia . d c l_d' r er

"l* iffig,qit;"

nu cio' Jii'i"oon"s'fr' "'r"0'

t Scrise tntr-un cuvini fitlo-r.. 'xhicheaer) ,haterer pronumele intero- S 1033 )rt Insc s, 'drrtDtrcbuinlat pentru aseaccentua $l{)g4 sitire deroti ljps5 d cDlturS. prnnurn-lai'rre'og1li\'.n,r Fsle puq llngi pro'lrn": have known the rcason? devinein sc,is: lfha e,et aadC, Wh, canl.l,erd have known th," reason?

10) Conshuofii idiomatiee


Cd Xou tcli mc @ho'sqho? lPoli si-ni srli cinc slnt c.i dc faF lsau ocj dcsprecarese Yorbeqte?)l lAluarul notanilifililor) Itna, ,ind did h colne? (i,a ce ori a v.nit?) l]'rafs the Xnglish 1o. lhis? (Crm s s!u!c la accasta in fngh' (D a r tu ?) Ate n l i e ! asta?l What abaur t show? (Ceai zicc si ncrg.n la un specla|ol?) Johnny'sdrawerx'as luli oI ma.blcs,njls, nsils ard wrzt ,or. (tirl.arul hi Ionicil ra Dli! de lilc, penile, cuie Fi cn, air.,,.,f trhdt of thot! sat What theh ? i ]]i i i ? C c i cu asta?) I d.n't know tuhit:h is ehn:h. (Nu 1e lo1. deoseni.) l l e k n o { s ," ftul s @ na,. i s ti c c l s e sc dcscurccl sau (D l ]e ) H. 1n111 me nax (ha|. dedrNbiuril-" cliestiunii.) il\{i r ertlicnl 'hot (M-a l u s l a ruenl .)
tEr sr I Lr' I uu 413.',

$ r$6

this in En.Eli.qh?" (Cum S 1036 In hnba englezn se spune: "Itrdl do !-ou 'rall r.un,e:lia -dbla In , ngle/F:r":, ,;i nu. c'rnt ." .t',r, ' uF nl a" ' tr" 'n rirri. , lin,ba romdn.: Hou Jo vcu :.ll hi.. i" Lneli'l,l' prir "nsluLi- u

RNI,ATTY YI. PN,ONITU}]I]E ADJNOTTI'UL II (TtrE liDll\tryn PRoIrouN-{nD -{DJltlrIlE) GE^"ERAI-IT,tr l I

$ 1037

l) Formd. - Pronumele relalirc slnt urnldtoarcler': s t03n eho (,xhase,ohon), whith, i|hal Mt, &sj but. Ca qi in limba romAnn, oha, trhan. trhich l; trhdi poi, Ii aLtt pronume inierossiiv., ,lr :i pro,un," r^,irirp. dupi Iun rr" t" "d'-. ind-plir'er. ttl'u',. .vhi.h s, ,/'ol tnr li :i rdjF" i\" r"l"ri\F. Pentru simplificare, relalilcIf|. interogatiyle !i adverbele care incep sini grupdte tn gramatica englezil sub denunirea de "phcu literele ir/| forms" (forn,elc cu nri-tialelert,{-), la oarc sc adaugi !i ftoo. Ir^nnn,.lp rclativ arc doul func-tii sim tane: S 1039 2) Dofilitic ,\i lunrtii. le- S 1040 ul tinc loiul ,,,,ui s,,bstantir (sHual unui cchivalontal acestuia'). gindul de o propozilje alributi.i.n care explicri{ sau detenninis inlelesul antocdentului;
.1 . ,,,' t. h .r ,,.tl at.,- rsl l :l n l o dp. r , , ' nr r n s i n c ' ,r,u ' b": r ir I Pentru hadu.crc, rslr (lrourmel 'S till'r 1lrix, ladj.clirc) S 820. r Ve2i S 190, notr L I N u mi tn nr oDoz it je: r ti .,' i ' ,1 l $ j l t3 l . i! . \u mi l plo ' oz : i, " d i' n n :,u tt r \g
A n. s ., o 1 , u r ' , . a ' , . . 1. p "o 1r' tii,r ',' dl dr,/, t,.o^pusp,'d-.

l l 2).

904

{ 1041

al propoziiiei D/ este subiectulsau complementul direct ori indireci aLdbutive:


'lho man rno lectureil veslcrday is mI brother'

iffi'ffi"#ili "$${',:;ff J:ltf.ffi ."0,1:ll,tll,::'*,;f,,';::,'f 'x1':}L'J"f estc subieci.l


1049 ditec-t in dFt'rmin5: u l" ,lou: fu;"lii tol li .(bJ al" pronumcluirclativ a"stuin' nu'rbr-ul 6 7 p"-.o"' " 1i

orul L . e u' l Pr umer-,vhi"h inro'ui r,i' ;'"1,",i.: ",*"::i' ;;#' "f :f; liPnT;li propoziria t'ibutivE- "Nl

m.trtioned !a!e. iy'3'l'"i#l'lll,gl';"1"+3i"I":?'i:li:"1]"ii.l?f"""1'"i

r04r li i;;.'J"i:'u,^^"'n" ;:; .,":l,",l"lTi'?"T11:,""",{lfii;i;,


.a"iiuj ;i 'e, li"j;'J:'ll"1l:;T:ii"'.i,uji.*:;";;;;l;"";;;,-. ,npe*oa"n
lD numdr:
r' l\'dJts ldre g"Ls ulrpn rrold d' ,or. o / rio 'noa ,r m olhPr , . inDoL la! ou_ \ d 'ii': Par lY r iq' r s $io r hP dav ' "n "*

il'u#*

$'* u" ",1"t$ll,'"T"1T;*:"l"lTfiJi"i1 n"liilit"J:"i:lT'n"*


'u" t"'d rPro\Prhl

Obserr&!Le

;o ill;"" -;tr"tl";:P"fl l"J" "T,iXot'i":Ti.ff'l'l:#:

"""1i"c""",."""11:"Jl"cT,t s,orscps t sll joac d in p ro p a z l l d l:'::#i:i;;":,|:"Til:lil"$?,,:",;'"" d tn ta a


il. o rk L" ti ;:,1,;'; 'ii;:il;'jli"li"'"1\ ri l"''"1 r" ,d "\' :""b i;'""rt i11',";;'' ";I' ,:;:;i;,",,. *-''',' t .".
' -ho

ililf^-:*l"JJ'iitl1;:':1,:t;;il';li;3i*i'ii"i,T'J Lomple*ent direct' sau indirect'


' r nod r laus hq J l m is lor lu' o i s s i s .

$ 1{X6

Declinarea pronumelor relative este urmdtoarea: Datie Genltit'


I ol Nlich
t o whi l h

;"'":pi,i i;.,;", "t;:" "l i;lj; ;l; :L'';.:,, 1r" 1 fii -,i..,,1 li'".:,1x."il,1 :"1', ;;:T,,,,
qhich

Ceielalte pronume relative nu so dcclinx' corelative" 1{38) $ (Vezili ',Pronunele ! Atenlie pronum"l" alenlia xsuptx;rP$'tttar.dP rdre sepot i!i 'lnd SF slrdsp s lM? '47 " iDrrdelru: relativ est" ur.rol d" o propozilio I He $'asthe bov @nom lelt had told tho huth' ' apdriioa'um sulutuitirpsc f8'ol Ensli"l' Ultptio_ ' r"emot.teO"lo a"'sl pun'l tn paiarLez"' penLru as"pf' ri"chivarFDLrF iair,. ;i ;en!ibnar' t"lucra ii: 'oloc!'alP

{v liii,iii-.iiriiiiii'i iii l; i;drr d'.";tip ti 5 r0s0-i05r)

FRONUIIELE

SI

!05

wlpm trebuie inlocuit p n {rlm, propozitia,lird incidenta,.I felt',. fiind: ''the boy.rio had told the truth". Thercaresome ?eotlehereltrft I knowyoy nell havea ident lor music. fl,loD, Lrebuielnlocuit prin rro, propozilia, fdrd incidenta,'I know rery well", fiind: "people rr,io have a talent, Ior music". Fraza trebuie construiti ficlndu-se abstraclie de propoziliite incidnte, cat I felt, I noltced,lhe! said, he thought,tre knoq, e|c. ln .x.mplul urmerorlnFd.propozilid-l beli"red 1o ba lba rulp'it np. fiind o in.idpntj. ulon. pronu'lc in'"roJari!. .rle .omplcmFntuldirp., al verbului belieoed. atare, se sprne corect: Ca He asLed @i,n I lelivdto be ihe culprit. me (...p/b I believed be...l (coIo.v.) io Df scruf &EL PaONUIIEL0I iI ADJIi-TITLLOX Rr]r.ATl I t

$ 1048

Prorumelerelative sht tntrebuinrate,in general,dupn cum urmoaze: (Vezi olseNaliile S 1053) 1) ponftu pcrsoano: S f04g who (: care) (nom.)
The man @,{,spoke io you just now came f.om l.he countf}..

vhoser (- al cirui, a ctuei, ai cdrui, ale cErui etc.) (gen.)


4n8in.rr /x h o a ra u ,n d r) $ " . . .n | , -td." tdm i . J tri rp . . . Tn p a g " hut r u" al The wori'al to alnm yo! ryere talking is an a.tisi (s a u The woman you were talk. i n g io ...l which [: (pe) care, care dintre (selectiv sau inlocuird substantivele colective)l (nom. Ei ac.) li a umite substantive ca sh{.p,. babls etc.. He had two broth.rs, onc o/ onicn was siill litUe. Slre sondered qhich ot rhc sislds w&s the eld-"st. I c_an't teU.rrt.n I ivould rather hea. you play -Chotin. Tchaikovskt or one of ._ The c.owd ,lialr irad collcctcd cheredthe foreisn delcsal.ion.
1nd bnL ' t t h t , h

I don'l.bow (pron.) this bas is. (sau ...,tF$ ladj.) bag this is.) '"hose whom (: pe care) (ac.); to vhollr (: cxruia, cdreia, cdrora) (dat.)

.h ;-

dd "J . ; r hir q4rs 4 - ..L i F u .' oto ,n o \ r

b r o u g "l

in

d . p r P.1 o n .r

hdnt

r/.'

2) pentru admale !i lucruri: which (: oare) (nom).


The d.s r/,t./, blt rou las Nn awar. Is the -clr}oard ailt l siands on r:our left nrll? ot Nhich', whose (: al cnrui, a cilrei, ai carei, ale cdrui etc.) (gen.) th roon, Uredoor o/ oLt., {s a tr o/ lhe door) is otren, minc. is The room. dnos, doo. is oDen. fs &! ',lri.n room oith thi oDendiot...\ is mi^e. the Th ta t.r , ' h" " oot af oh :.\o f" h (h tl a N o ts r" d d p p l .d .arpr. $aq be.r,' i ,t. Th ",o F. nlol" r dr \ v a 5 a p p rp ,l .g -F,^ r * ttt, k " dai pLed " p,J,odlw 6 b" dnd .\ E , (Yczi si 5 820)

S 1060

l rn se esie urmai imediai de un substmtiv itrii a.ri.ol ctnd est adjectiv. p sl4dps pm , , dL m o d .L F n r p ri n I hmi D rn;n" t* . S 81), l ro n i n .h j ,p rsooal 'si i D pr onu mp l r laliv . or ps punz J l oIi i n d l n s { i mo F 6 o n a l d n n n l D pnl rul urruri , r rp . 3 6 a rv s r r d" " " m nd'dp o ri .p p p r.o a n A r a r' rf.i . D d ri n ri acpatanu ,nrotdoaunal . (i d si pfin pmnim"ln imp"Bonal _r. ru proDumel;rptd ie imb"Eonal .orpspunzALof r,,,t.t (v. _ { 854 1 . { ol enrn este precedat sau urmat de un subsiantiv drricerdr.

!06

MONFOLOCIA

_ PRONITMELE

which (: pe care) (ac );

106l

t) penlru persoane'. * 6 i"5 ' 1 i p. "arel {nom $i a"l il i: (;;; carel (nom !i )

Ahica iij*"*y'*jr'lrt"iJ'J'l;il"'j'xi'i";"?$'"5fl1 rol '.o'' animaleli lucruri:


'o

{'htch (:

clruia) (dat.)

;\fi tiJ';l#:l :,: r.'o:,:r ;",{ir,,l :;i;,:;"0 relern mai dsd*'*" -'',' I:: ii."'l' la inanimatedecii la ob se
re r: rne)carel(nom !r ob ) 1 . r' " n ' sL h F r' I J L l "'/ /"* rJ.^ o",a",d, "ij.; . , iriii; " l i "';i1 " " . i" j''-;:"i'i "" p

"",nl' ; ; " " , r ' , ' ]

rol ;;iT",i:' +;i1,f*lr:"rut: hr.n. v i'a,r'i":J';^,h"' l\r tup ''I",h"rs l{ soo d L ] ' ro 'j t i:l :."r ;";- ?;:I t/id
',1, l;;"11ii J"1"" T'I T"iftl"T;.',ii
tlut (: care sd nu) (nom)

rh . p L ' o rt' ' s o o d

o n .o ' rr d' {

sa" \ou' s' n" '

i"i" ' t*L ""r"

lti"*:*r"';:t:1.*i
s lo52
nchotilrit 4r cr irrtcles

iil'i:fi'i;$":"''"

src$e' orn'ninescu

oD i shat (: cP. cPAc') (norn fr * orr'J i d''"m nrs "r rr'e 'r" ;;;;; h"o',;-"d n^ \J' 'p

r' ,:";),,"1"{' 'l ' " v ""ir '''r -l,J""i ?i:; I'i,:""'
OB SX I' IA T II \TEO
{?RO\1J}ID XDLATIII

s 1053

: s,o'n ,"l,i"l"lil;1.:f"i;l'i:li.: lXii:,l"J:'J ilT':?$. : :1,'l: p ro n um ' r F orl:.i'#il; i < /' c: ^,": ""' ; : ' :il: r ;i '1 " 'i 1 J'|" P -i n ll. i J 'P *ttt"*""**-.

"
.

;i:x}f"nJr1i'ii* il*rUll'lt*:l*+lf{l$liii

S fOff

Zi U*-i

afatlar un pronume indepenPft' esLesirotrirn cu h' tt'hd' este

ll.friliifi,ii$"tiiil'ttl'"",;i rl !i,?ho ffl",ill,' _ deci _ nupoare s r0b6 s ,"r' ,'"f"",11,i,," jt.,":}","iitr,t;;,;,:' {,'6.'1 , "*i"J.,"J'i:i":'lil,l"ll ;l,t"t;Jl"l:l"ii',i:i;:,1"i#

" .' .l "

ll" lig'-"r '.""';ll 'i, ; ll::1 "1. llc'r': cu ---l.,1;"t enlioul'e imP'cutriL aDim{lesn{ cn'd siDt
,"

'u''?lJii"?;;;r'"'."" "Trl:,,l:"|]jr :;";: l:*l: ' ;--ti*: .i: ; ;i{,ii i.rr -,pirnd ',
".rr,d..,.,i:i,",,.ii,":;::ul;;;1i;,:l,l.jg;"j;ii"',.,i,.:i sr a
ri". 'n "'nt"t"l l' lr r J c ePi! 5i a7t

".r".a

r. lcrsonnc

PRONUMILE

9I

207

Thc trc., l.arcs il,(tered in ure h.cze,... '//rsd ligLts shono ir the darkncs,... The lut. .!Los 5) nhom. ln linba englezdactualii, pronumele rctnLi,twhom nu mei q 1058 este determinat de prepozilii decit atunci clnd acesteall precedi imediet. situal,ie tn care prezenla lui devine obligatorie:
She ivonderedIot @hon 'lom lad boqht u,c llowc.s. C a !i l a pr on, r m el" in, p ro g i l i \F i n ,n . l n s L i l u l .o l o cvi nl di o,n ocLei nl ,..ri l p r in /,t . s.b im hln, lu s F or J i n e B ru \i n rp l o r p c n tru c i prA po/i .i J s" vi n.] dJpd H rt"n , lr " h a d l " n l h i q s k rsh , u d q b i n d i rq on. q h , rp ,ai\ " d. nnt i" m . 'in n '| a | ' hr 4 ' t.,n ta a I ta ry d ,h a .l O) We lrave no idea who c]]ntabol.a.tes @hn.l,l iiLh I don't Lnorr pna he is wriiins dbout.lbl ' U n p o ri rhiar s i or p. p d J r d o tra p o z i l i p l "It js rery imlortdt." "To ohr?' LOll Pp n L ru a s p ev it s inlr F b u i n l rr.a p ro n u m " l rri J r\rcn. i n rtp Je dr.p" ri l i e, n h o ea Jl @ l tjl in) o. ui" " { p c b i i r 9 i In l i p s s u n p i p re p o /i ti i : Tcll me wno you watrt. (: Fhom) Ttr"F n no on. ( , t h. ) tru .l o n k n o w ,,re . I \' o .. A t l }p .lub , n , hould I r:n d b u t C ,ra l d : - \h o m ll A i q n pv prin r o ppoplp n d i s ' i l " r. | !h o n , O l n ta ' u pf o q.bqranti vr h hnppi . q h " \ a l way s ( r enr bdb y ' i 'l i n g b .trtd fp , s h . . tn , rn or, s" ,. ti dF., " toa. ^ u rnr o cu 'ip n - r nr l Wh o m p oalo I ns a li S i p ro n u m . i n d i v ;d u a l . d " .i 1p ctor6tor, tdra sntac cdc n l (: h c Nhan. t has pN h o n ).l n c a rp .a z n u .)i i .cl F i nl o.ui t. ci pretFra. : l.I'non the sods love die youDg. (Prove.i) IV]IICII
(PBONUME iI ADJtrCIIv IiE'ATIY)

s 1059

1) inloles.- Pronumele nlic, cstetntrebuintat: Q 106{l a ) . j n d an lF.Fdcn tul d.numptLe animals un "du u n o b ip . Lin a n ima:t
Tne figers ,fidn he had secn pedormins carn from Belgal. w o ipslp d rnF !o p. tc..41r uh; . h s , l bFln ; 1 I . p, . on.r i r d o r . \ l lhF @4 ;16 ,rnr.& h rd jus t u, n, "|] , d, ha t ook t r , " I n o r . g I nndor. -/., 1 i"'."",,'l a! . ' h"Un, o l\ i1g, hm . 5a . ,ofotisoD theTrJT^s.

,) cind antecedentul denumeqtetn acelaqitimp atit fiinte, ctt si lucruri:


$'e iarled alout the tic"ds and erpoiencpr@hichM had had in commotr. peorle sh;ch sl.ood oli in oDe,smemodes. Tlrerc \r.r r.nrs ^nd _. c) ctnd antecedentul, care dendmeste de obicei o fiin!6, este tuat, ca I made oi lrcr L\e eomak shih I rvnntcd my daughrerto becom._

notrune:

{cr. 5 854) d) cind antecdontul esLe substantivcolectiv(g 1101): un


Ile had leen listencd to Iy taqe audienccs ont.l had tctr enUrusiastic. I : lipsa lui ,/,r. r U n p o ri FIa' i vut rnr:..[Idrl ha | F nnani_. ' 1" 1. d o m " si " " .l ra S i s . In rF b ,,i ,' !" a?J h ad a l o u n q d " pr r no Ls " d lo to l l o wh rr d b o u l i L r d D e tb u o D v.' 'g a l u 6 r . r v lnlul. a vo fb i l { l a o i n t} u .i r" ,, , pi f . . . 'lu i cl p l dnB 4oaaoaa. or ri T a rk l @ n d rrl J u lc d p b rus .u l p ror. c' or arhj ' nnt l oel ti i t alian,1 4 7 5 -1564

r0E
mic: el ctnd antccedeniul se referd la un copil shchad seenat the lrospital the Do', '{n" """]a"'t {orgei ''li'} {cf s 6t' 84, 854) prp'Fdenls.r' reca' a): sdu o /r cind inlo.uiFSle inl rFagrprooozi!ie lr"za
'^ , " h " tp " J ,h " s tl ,' ts . u l r' /i q 6 / prti ' ' eotl l v proi P e' s acrron ,,, o' a d ' s d ' h 4 a ' rp ' l ' h r" p I' r' r" ii- oir " " ) ',t, !.

t lOar i

''*'l;,';*1f",:";.i:'^1li';,il:itli;r,:""i]:liii":;i insi urmaatunciclnrl


pii,'.-.ir"'";"4
iubstantivul detLrmixot stijln ( o/ rni l t 'oll5J drF$hir^ t hrr' ' _oo' // *'1l or ""&\rsor

zt io n iiiv.

rl" i, ' o n R"lntitulr/'; l ot. rn "az u lg " n iL irro r" n a/ '

I,'9""aero"-" 7-il';"1'; oapoalc

!i

J) Funclic. S 1062 ""' t r . l ' ,1 , a r i' fen r r u tiinrn crr 'i p"nrru l.rrut il
thicL titue 1l

11;."i;li:.1i,"''., I;lli: """:l '"' ", "' in carecazsepoatelnirerelatit) Wirkn poatcli qi adiccrie

girr !ett".1tiU,";Ji1i,",l:f;"1,llii,f ire iak; ro.rhe "1.11'" i:lt:'i,::il"$i"ii,"d S"if;,i $e lPfi rlP Plo ngh ' t , 1hc ' gr r c

nrP'pJs d"^prppo/iiiepoarefixnpotl qinorrimo ad\crbialp lllil 1063 t'""",nto.ui, 4l r'/" r" 'poeri ri lir'rdri i'p'e '/'irl r(dF'u"l' pri""a'*S'f""" Doetic qi liierar), rvt?/ eic i

"'l*i;:llt"l,.,.ll,*,'jfl"!i'i:'#"ii;fJ7f,i,lu,'ii!^.*trh.ire

""'" {ff ." ,rqrrir":j':.!:.ir:\.:l1*}'il"hllii'j',ll;rrrr r(co,ocv rd ) a hote, i! it a hotPl u /rrlliP' \r $ P lnt

(;i,fJ, '""'llf*.;" flJ,li i::il ETf" iji'i1,,, U,.:,t*


hdd bat lent: to)

s1064
61065 r'"""

rlai poat' \nlo'ui' pronumdc ll ftrlrrhuirrlarr. P|irumple rFloli\ d"t inoint"un"; propoTi!.ii rntit'ai'rP' '0re oupc uha.,,l,a*..1,' n ts'n"''oi .ri.. p'r" ab''l rr np'P'Jrd par'rru'l:'rrar.eaInlplj ," "u*

,","",Ifx1,.,,,,

S 106 6 t '"""

1-!" :.p-' ' l hal " l ronumcl o 2) Cdz ur ilo in c a rp !e i n l r' h u i n !' d z i i d " u rp bi rp rr ' rrmi ' oarFl p ' azufl : . plF lHll" l ro n rrm p r" l Ari \F i "f* ri a7 dr r pa r r n ' r\i n l re ' e ' l l ' tr 1 I ' o t" P l A f 06?

ti i:i,;4,rit,ilil ;:ij:i["i,ilI.. "r["*!il)


t'h ih) I s ar it t o s t l ' rL

ti!"'t 'if:,,i

$ 1068 s 1069

D) dupn r mcrale]e ordinale: iliil not kno{ wnaL'nrss nedia" mtant si" rr"'.,1,, f,,,",r, "t.o.rt,rd' (l urr adjcctiv ir gradut superlrtiv: r:) dupn un subslanlivcaliiifnt div lriarl \re hrd on onr tri]' Ii N*'Itu l,ris"/'rrr

rh" r ! ilnl. la',.. "*|' "l;i%iYi;.i', \'''!'\",','o,i;* :': ';;' i i "r '''r "n"

.H:f;Hl':i: il''33'ii"i{:il't '""i:',i ,*gj;m*rill;,**;,?gt:irliii:lii

5r

rELArrv ^DEcrLvr]r

209

N otd
D remarcat constructia irtiomatjcii de mai ios, tn care prol1umeletha'' imDreurj'.u verbul rFspecli\," inlocuil prinrr-uninfinili\ slun'i 'lnd snte,.i.nrul lui crc lori esic pr".Fdbt,lF, un r'um"tal urdinal un superlrliv su rhe uDa din enpresiilethe anl1J. t'erA:
F hie' o; l\ pls o n r h " B o 'p l 'l 'n " Chdmoolliol $ i" tt" lt$ 11 J PI ' to;i v t " i " p 'r r 1 r " a J e 'r d F G A r r a l op' t lt ot hlos ;i; ; ; i";ii;":, oi'n ' . -; H " " -' ;ler .\a. /, /., I No,-nr n ' o d' : ! P. a t r ' ' ". dLr un i l' buz r i, t"'' p ima I m "i" r."' . ' Tal"" r or l.v ,o rrm" ,a h rJ..an" "/ t ni r h f ", ". $ds Lm L s rur La-m!r i. , op. "r ' I por ni' F ii.. iLi,ii' t , , lov p s r i r i '4" Th" " or' ., Ens. h b vo l. t o - anne' / lu l' ein1Fr 6 t t o L l r a f r \ r 'l ' s p r , r J ' \rr prrPre I n p 'r o l o r Lia! ' P. ol Put l; r "Nnodo" ,r-allllF p^ sl ,;5 li 'l"rrt .le lur O\.ar \\'ilde l d P re ;tru q h s.' r /i,,,/, o n @ r o"oA t r ' ls I s l L;" d ,/ d bin" plgl' r ' r l" r srrru , 'F rr He ws i/re *ry nrn i. do the job. (Xra omur td;.al ca sd ,ndeqlif;e1ld sanina d.r1t )

s 1070

d) duD! Dronumelenhotlrite: all3, \'erqthng, sarne,anA, no nnnP no \ 1011 one.s6n thinS.ontthtn!- n.thtns.i dupd rr\'inlcl" D'ttth.1;ttl' th ' th ot Lu
,4/ / t.dl glitle $ i. to t r j ' l, i t P. n\ er Ll :s l r,t.rht r e t+o , I rr,.t , . . r " n 1 . t lol inr I s p"int or /nr l\ \ ' i h' i-' n.oa -l,.j t ' othinelth atl yo u tl" r\ a l. r r r e lul. \ ' Lt P ' t ' ni J U s o u o l l " ' 1 2. \ o. Ao ,"'r g oo d r ' , \ ' s . ri. i rr' o ju,i.t n , ..'tt', o' t t p- o! ! t r , 4i | , lin' I Ln o { l O J boal l/ 1"/ | n r pd . ol O n np ) lrL l .a $ ,r,.,/

rOi

e/ dupd pronurnele interogativ trio. penlru a se fita o repelilie: ii It'ro wa,s riat rang jllsr noF? /) dupe construcl,iainrpersonall t Is. il oa, etc : He was suren eds Ilme that had rung hin ul

S 10t2

$ 1073

din eEte sl cind antecedntul compus doud (saumai m\ te) 5r$stant'ive,S 10?4 trho, alnt\ ahtch: unui'crind
thdt ha\c niade ttre world lhal I $nll write abouf ,n? l4o?1e and thc eoenLs it is'

3) Cezurileiu caro nu so lntrcbuilt.toari prolumelo "thst" -. poate ti lntNbuloiai:


$6 ns "\ on hn l i 4 d y arr:\e d \ 1s r a- Lld- 1. lIv mo tl,"r. rn rs nor an cntrD rf \ irhulas. dn /d/ ro u r aus h dL ' v r r ins ala' s r l r ^ h o 6 / n 'l J o u Ily m ol r r ' r lldr dr r v "d po sl .p ln;: tN . "

?lml nu S 1075
S 1076
l

d, in propozitiile e)iplicativea.deoarecel/lrll a.e sens restdctiv:


a!gn-

of b) tn locut unui genitiv (ahose, af ahich sa.u ',honl)' dat liind cn nu S107? are formd de geniti{:
T ' F ' . \in rpn l, {iDs" s ' ns " ' l lum our v ou $i' l at p''i d l F _ e: " v r n. e l. oI . r d' _r _ oI h' r m o u r I 1\d . " !o al".pu

r p ' "i I p' ' : Li d Dio ,,,,,'rh 'll " ",4,1 pl, \te.c Fcscnt ag.etd " ' ! Car nu llnr alsoli't nfoesa.. reftrtr

j;i"ffi"ri;*r-_ ''"..Jii,l;:';;l;iilr:" I nr ' . ' ' -li::j.,.fre;:iyir's n 'l!ll,:,ii.'ri' n " oi lr u IJj, qhar r r'r l1 l \h o r..rit , " ,1 8'
'l clariiat.a lrazci 15 ltal)

r Il. .

, d. |oc.' ;La l. l ,'E . Cdir o ESlpl. u d" ! _a gdil- ir . l T t c

s lPslpdpa.dP -d' il ru

910

MORFOLOO

_ PRONIrMET'E

s 1078

rle o prepozilieJdeoarece .r) cind pronume,leIeI,rLll'.{rsteprecedat, 'ilx, .,, oo.rl. ii pr-..,lrL ,1" pr"fo/rln'

r a n , a r . , ,,,i ,4 \d . " b " " 1 r1 r':, "' n11"" ,,,1... :l " " "1,

'"irJi;fiir ,l;,;';i t\ri lir ,;"'rili" i'" #i:'i,,


' f he t \ nr D i\ L sc Po atc \fl r r ' r :

{ 10?C o '

'r'"rbinr'm:i;;':i'jJJl;:l:i;l'il: ir"i,.."ii"rirre' 'r:r.iil'r"'i ln stilul colncli \e lootF,I rp'b:


".tt"l '390) pre'"d rp Je sdje'riv" rlT,Jupa num"l' or^prii 1i duni 'ubFrdnLiv'lp n'' ii rosr" ri r"strins' Irosbi\",', demuns'|ra""" """":;i;";';" '""''o''l lol IPstn.ov: iar l,tai ^f

$nr lrccFdste imedisi-de lrepoConstructn in caro pronuniele rcl lii.t-"

o ': ;; Jl,,',t;,1"1l:. :"j,-% (Vczi ii $

cfl DrppoziLis rin; Llupa 'a

{ 1080

"""1" ii*"xfdffi t g-.*rT"fti'il "",-'"'


_llral zero.l ztt 4, Pronumelo

s l08l

'

rPla'it //'dl nu - De obi'ei pror'umFlF

oolliri""J""i"ii" rn Fitcerpritnrr 'tna"ro ' "ur

rits" '*bita depersoaa'l

;",,,,:i1.,, f " "iijT;"',1:1i ii1;r",,1 :.,1i;,:")ll.l.i r"r 1o1 rf'?]l"l'ii";"'"; ]iult m*' q ]ill''";;'"tl:"i''{"J ilr n': ;*,if l,tl'lllr"[",;'b'i:" di
Ob se r o a !rL

llX i ,0" lJl:ili"::"'J"#"i"J':',::.::i;fili;;l'"|il '!':,0:""t' ",,"'jj'T3;, ;."1 *,r' " """"i' ioar''i"n'el"rn mod"urentIormdA i,i"ulii ii" .:""r" 'ndinjnd Ih"
ln oo- irr tormnro '"

:r"1^:'; l;j'il ['#j.t:d'ttI inl,r;r;:,]:* "H:','; "


"h ":h;i";i':;;::';1;;;ur"*
.IVHAT
(?NONU]IE SAI]'{DJEC'IIV IIEI2ITIY)

s 1083
{ '" 084 r J

'e x Dr lm A t : -

g * i, lil! " : 9 : : 1 " ' I, ln r r o lr rri0ltrro't4hot ,that'r'ril' Cu p rin rin d rF " c d p n ru u e s ra nl sr n ' i ' rn ' l a n ru inrr"bL'inL"a / r/"ri ';1"- p r o n u mei' 'p
Mdt bclonss to -rou shr'u be vous' We'lI tell You 0'd' s'e sa$"

o b se r r a lie antecedentr'esie ivhat e$telntlebuinlsL numai atunci clnd Pronumcle 5 1086 vag: neprecrzai,.

'.u-.r"r z F-r'nrur Ij '1";1d4.'?i1r064r. i';r. ' "' iiit*l"inl"iia s I08. 7.r6rr. tr *hr'a c0 , C'oi *lati'"lolldr -r Cons t t uc ti a e Vl h a t c s re th

I doI t lnoq r ' oI r o r X P r ' "P s l i k P a I 'g Com P ' "t ' ar

PRONUMXIIE

ST

21I

Thot \thi0h se lntrebuinleazi atunci cind antecedentul se referd la un S 1086 slro'FdFnrur bau ,p"',"4" ;;;'J,"r= 'jnJ ," "bi".l";;";;; rrrcntnat (Lhnt hicL 'tobrip '.J 'Fll
Tnp\ . , J rl e ll lh memrn g. in lh- J ! lio r ' J dod li' ly "o , _ 'i r r o ''l i Tl,,;F $ai rro r i1 l' m "nt l m il i r p"lon' Lr k p Thal qhichl he said was no !e$s io dvone 4 lh" rdl' d

2\ C$2, Pronumele P,tdi cste alegn neutru. cu inleles de singular fi se $ 108? intreiuinteazi in cazul nominativ sau obiecliv: lyn r r, ro b. I'n. n,rr oe s"l do " \o r'rJm"hi1'lppd rob' youh.dirl'1n".a1d ll'l:d i')i'.,,, 1088 3) Frmotii. - lt7ftal, in afard dc faptul cd ara l-cloire d" I'ronuJne dupi S pfi 'j sdi'.rir+lai\'indd-l'rrrn;u4ntrbbtar'pJna si,i. pod num. a "rcta
Adjectirtl tyhar Pti.6 that got were all _"amcd phal poate fi tntrebuintat qi exclarnativ: W , { dr a l i n d a l l nhdl n o n q c n s rr I l' r " / h e a l LY i a l ' Ps r l lr ez i ii S ' 1 1 ' 61 0 1 1 1 0 9 0 , 2 8 l rl l ,

$ 1089

! ,4 tcn tL e In erclarnalii, pi./t exclanativ nu rcdn cuvtitul ,,t4" din declt. atun(i cind acesta insolelte &n sa,slatl": tYiar dreadful manlers lre lce manhr,, olirilf .rrlr 1CcJ r t . ' I ur n u ;r.r)

lir

a romenn S 1090

Cincl cuvtntul ,,ce" insolelte lln d?j..1io. el se iraduce priD ad1'erbul/I,*':


\ se o b . pr ! ' . s 1r pro p o z i L rrl p a rp ' ' 1 l i n ' u !i n rcl F /' ' r si rr' 4l ' ubpns ' r0 ' r' u l i ' n b d rnr3n; orp' F' l a prp' l r' e.xcla-fl ri t. I n gp' c r F . u6i " tl u l l n .o

tul.

g rp ri l i n u \l ' l u l .. c eva r" ...nin' ic r c , ' . . F " r r l, hir " . o rn n u ' l p l r ro n ' i n ' q c ..' p nu ,' t hine . sa n ;h ; r arri \): ci pi i n rr'a t t de obi" . i n" r p ri rn rt In c J Z u l ^ b i

pronunrclc din e\0tFirlP"tot ccea'""' .'F' 4) Whst. That.- Adescori l hot D u' rx ott' 4' rr' r.s d u c F p
rFda nrrn o' or'

S 1091

.4r 1 d , , h . r ", . i . n o , s,rJ.


,N,, io, pa

:;:.-;" .,:,:"i:"lj,l

t""- ;",1"":...

& s ' . br u. p, . , n .p rra r'

i ^' ; ":ij", ,;'ij :,# 1 1 - '

*'

"

,j l l l T " * ,

1 . \i .i "o;",: , , . ; t u - n . p n r o " 1 L

n do.b i . bao.\ don" .

'" poL rredure ir .lirba $ lo92 5r What. Wbi.h. - Ilelarir"lo prin rirrn, a' rLaloa'Fstpp'unu'nc rrrrrndlo'ul unFl cnsleznorin ,t/,d/ 'su :"" ,';i i"'1, 'lin Fa'?lTlrarn' " inse tntrpburna irun' i 'ind pB pr'cJ;: "i "r3t-irii irobozitia urm"aza $hi'h 'lnd
\ t J s v h! t l r t r d l .nd .\r r ' d l,fidrlcou lJ ' Dt r "Pa ldr' I n l _' nd ft4q \o'! tut rr:t P" ,hi h I '

6)';What" idiomstic. Pronumelerl,al, repeial se t'raducetn limba S 1093 romAJl r"in ..ba...ba " in urn:itoarea construclie: jn
lrnu;Nilh e.lins llnd /rrra,J witn drjnkiiS. th'i \e$ Year hril tome belo'e thev I ?tdr ,,nt,n estc *i8r.rL" "rri"t". ocuir IDin pronudclc .r,ar li siil,l colo,i'ial: $'rrsi nc sai.l ods cstc o prolozili san larb dh accasla atuoi iitrd anteocdcnrul

219

S loel

o'r".""*""**-,
pe circ le urmeazn' "u,l ti that' Qhich

E_'"-r ; t r0

o 1' |t"r'd I r F unc lii . - ' 7 4' sestPp' r e l u ' l a i X \" il' ;l;;i*" " J" ? ' i"ii:" i:' ' ;;:
*'" rdvprb'au 'onjun

' """ *i'1"'1;'nn*'' Ill,"liuiJ"""'i'H'19""1# L i' :


i" "''"" t'" "t' ^

$ 10rG ""tJi1":iiJlTi?"iilTronumeie
! loe?

?,,"." :'f li;;' i::.;if,l":"; njt".,'r,;,L'i;"pl;''i;;li,i';'l'l$ atit asseintebuinleaze peniru


rerativ
,**o*n "JJ,o".o"

npgaliv Fi pronumer'lsriv' arc lntclpq - B't cu veloJrpdP l) iolelrs' s 1098 " ,'tore 3' nu': "noa"

E10sei "

"""'l""lrrw J#,*'f'"ffiTit'J#"Ji1""T""x}'':l -- u ' ,,- '^ jtutrerruinlare.-,-4,,1f jii,Tii.{iutii"Xgi.Tlit"";ji:il't'*,i


hmD buinlet Si etunci nunrarln lsl F tF: 'olo'\ rronumFrctaliv bu' mai

$|roo i,,l^Yli::,; :'si:;,i. ,'i bdbr' too:poirr


mu"n ii' "5 'ur -'i*"t dcclr' numai){ ="U): bt od tPr b \=
r lir h bov H" is . nor h i n g 'b ,r

= a f6 n;?T"'lu"r, d e. daci u | = .t" ppt).. "/*:'""#ilhJfi *'"*""* ' (t) e nantial: dar' insn (olieclie)l:

iour lalk is ldll ol

0,,, s,, ni:".J*:l1"it,"J;.r'","1,.\ l;i ilI mlffit linili 1# * ::i* l u


! PsrP. relstr! trtD dnc{ Terbur

rlrJXCTlrELE r'A PnoNU)txL! nEl.trRlTo -sr ,Ltrlj cIrESTruNr 'E

'rrs

RllrflTf,

'l';""J';" ii ::l';;'1 Ii: :'.:', ; ::*":;'.;" :f

,"".." ",,' " ;]:';'i": il;' ""' tI:"':i:19;';i': ;^;1 -' "o;',;"'"",1: :'pTll""x'l'i"'3i"'" l.n;:i'lti'::'ri'YTi *1"1",1,:i:;liii

niii ,,",ii"":,il,'ii,: :,l.i; j:i,:t, I lr;,;il:il:i'il ,'t,['" "i:i;liil


.' .lnLi-"lllif*l
t Du nu are lunctie de i1 1 Unr i aulo fl c o n s i d a ri _ 0P ace6H silualie curlniul

onume'

p" propriu. $lJ;Jril":: "oD,

PRONUMf,LE iI

ztq

pqle Plor ln tnlrp p"rsordlli itufPrcorcl raz'rlt'uhqlaDlir 'olp'li'F AlAserea lacuia ti gon.r" 5,i fun.1i" d" iirFnlis !orbirorului scu o s'riitnrtlui' relaliv zerofolrr' pronumelui S I lol relatir. (Pronumolo 2t Eti-osa rclsti\' poale fi clipti. r'uD'i 'ind qli in raLut obt tt' d/ Prbnumdp indisf"n'ol)itd si cfni propozitl" din cere la"" rtl";d" J t rminotirn dn ln alip'6 F ' onclrEspronpPinloLdFduna 'r'rLul in{elesuiuifraz;'i. Anpasl6 nosrull rn o.ara.leriqricd d lrmbrrvorbrrpdc cnglezrr coiorvial:i.on.'ituip Anslia:
T h. Lo\ $. _tT AI i .l n o $ i . m J -F r' n e w h " b o J rl o a w " In " r" l , in o. " d. . 'Ih iactor! we aisited iv$ er.cted quilc rccentlX Iln loc dc:'"Thc lactory @li.t we visiicd. "l lnp . 1ild r n r s p o k p l o i s m v d a u c he t-s I t i" l; ; , t ; , - T i . .l ,i l d ro ;t;/i v o u ' l o (r' I did' l t f ind r h d p a p F tu)n u $ F re l u ^ l i n s l o_ . . . _. l h P p a Pp Fi o _ ,n ./l ]o u rv rP rookrne r lo loc d" : , J Pronumele relaLiv n & poole lnsa fi omis cirld este sabie'l sau clnd pro' pr y lic at i*i. dc ' i n u e s te u s c 0 s a ri l n l e l e s ul ui frazei : p ozili i "ste T hp bol , n g n 4 re J J rp j x s ru w i 5 .my n eth w qr norv ... l [ N- ' . poar ps p u ra : l h i b o J tn ' r o m p J L. r ' " \ : s it t h. tu .ro NLri li " ft i s o n o ,r s J y . _ " . v i s i l l h . Ia , o ty r" on l\ u - " poA le.p -n F : lhp T h. nap" f t idt i . o n Ih e l a l h i s l o J i ). _ l \' { 3 b l P rs rod,l Jn j pdp r L r \ u: ; " poar es p u n " : ^b n I b l s i D !F S a rd n in F ar h t, Ct ul ' n _ C a l i D l 1 l h " r I ' a s i n l h' . -l t Nu " " podr es p rrrP : T hank v ou |or J o u r n o r' q l ;c l I r' " i v F d J psl nrdov' t Nu " e loal. s tu n " : " T l J n k J o u l o r J o u ' "

S 1103

Es c e P lii intilnite in vorbirea S llo4 loarte colocvial, A se olservauneleerpresiieliptice. lipsescf|onumele relative chiar in cazulnominativ,dupi ai" care "u*"tA.it is, thereis, who i^P:
Ol //\ th F !d_ r br r , l ls \ i' \ r c lr h"' t "' ' v ot n O I n"r l 1' 1 l"_' r ' r o' /,' lhp r'..'l on lh' , ' ho_r ' q1, " s an ' l " ' l k 'n , ii"""'. ol rh ar Jl/, \ds """'. \ ' r J t nn' k ' d J l " doo" \ " 'r Ol

S c) Co structii idiomatice. In unele tonstruc.tii, prepozilia lipse'Rte 1105 odati cu Pronumelcrelativ:


,l ,p, ' 4u. r . s l, i hl 4ol i, / / lO ' | ^ .'n rJ t4. tw) ^ .p r , . / , r r t . $ ! h. it r ' lr" .d { l ' h ? r t L \ '' l l' .l v u fnn w 11, n n"r t in \ t t t . hl t hP no , 'L q Sne d ns! r-J /l lon $h' . hl J ' P I "ar "d n t u t 't t " r ' l \ 4 l "' . r

S IloG 3) Loeul Drotrumelui rolotiv. sdu' pus, pe cil, posibil, Itngd antccedentdl a') Pronuinelo relativ trebuie Neresfectareaacesii reguli dd naltere ]A mari confuzii: IIe took an ar.i.o, lrom the iable.onrn he at \tilh relish'
( I nc o/ ec t ) fNn a mincar nasa, cr catsa.l 'Fr;n the table he took d altr,t ( c ot ec t )
| - z?n p lati. p rcn au a' O l\ x dir d

( ii.,r he ale \!lth relish


r F a 'i v , P nlru simbolul

r l, p. n pr o' um d. i

t"l

enslFze m;d"rn1: 7 4 : 2 9| j.

.umir-rD t,i!.,ro srdrarim '" .T#jiiiil."Hi.i',i'l'"'o;o,,.r',r",t-,.. ispr...srn' ol Loht'nPo4rv Lnet'8n' p.o9ziii Ptht',tidle tqnitk. A cnnfut

214 I s d\ v t hc m nn i r' l h " s " .l //' , v u ' r L n o \' , , - r ada " . ' 4, , .u 4 o s .u ' j ....a 4 rri n d " u b -tJ i vJl !l n." doroti l Jr pror. r" l p

l l07

I'i the strcct. I saw the man ,ndr vou know L,,Omul" este ,,conosculi'i mdD liinil substaniivul alropiai de prorude l r-nti trt' a (ott. both. ndny rr" " rp -i n . D ) \ um " r alplp !i c ' r\i n l " ' " et qol. s a t., e ri ., q p p u r ' h ;b i " i In" i l l " J pronu' ^l ui rpr' cP dst mo .t. nuf i. d F fr" po/ ili, " t ) o l ' v h o n . o l a h ;;h . ms i a l e q ci nd ' Lnt ' rrbi prr' l The !triv{Tsity secttarialc cmp]oyedsix clerks. r"'o o/ sn;n rvere univcrsitv gra'

nt.tlrods nos, o/ rrnrn wo Hc erpo,rtrd.il lo ns a rnmbe. ol rfccnt lchnolosionl alreadv knc*. spoke ol ihe neoessitv ihe confcronce. the two sirls. &ort./ trl,n took r.hclloor .1ll ol ha\'ing a pooling ol e\peri-aioein farmirg pngl ,zn nr p^si bi l n conll08 / S pr " d. u. p b i ra d p l i b . ro n ,i n d , l n l in' bd ' propozil,ia relativi poate. in unele situaljj. s: stea dpparie de strur:1ii iri care antecedentul ei atunci cind nu existi ambignitate: i _ o" j mi " n n \d . .\/. !o o -F l ,l - , " a ' ' I " . r ' ld1" l lo tn . u ,tt t i t \b ' n o '|lJ l ' ' ^ n r' n;rrr:lb^l o (Vc z i s i S t,1 5 1) 4 P r oou||r r lf rc h l i t :i n re p o T i l i i . - C " n l orrn r' .:ul i l or:rar " ,i ' l p prll09 Do rit i" t r Lbui" . i D r" ,l i n ro n rm" l " r" l 1 i t p" ," ro 1l In' uLP : a, .\' n ' l i i e Euii r im ine ins " i rts L i l a n u mri l n l i mb a s e r i sn.l n stj l ul col ocvi al . prepozi l i a se"punc lntotdeauna .lrrpd verbul respectiv sau dupi complementul ]ri djrect' The lainting d, ,li.n yor $cr.looling is a Dcgas (itlamatical colect in slilnl lormal '1 1l o' fi ' r u. , r ' r in! \ i r,i .r.i \' o u w -f ,.o l i n g , i . d D g. r' i I orn.Jl | ..rr." Li .m" r ' ,o.. r l r' r..\; r,.' i ;,.4 ,' si "-' trdditiunal..r ' . , . _s , /rrrl ' 1 . " : s p. ' , rd r' $ l ' o rn ,l l 5 .r J o u r ' er ' , u " l o^\bl S 2390) lV.zi ,si Cazurile in r,are prepoz;lia sH intotdeauna drpd verb slnt urm{toarele' al cind pronumele relatiY nu este exprimai3. lhe, r ' " t r ot hia e ,$ i " l ,l o ' ,v /o ' . Tr'c aitlor .i it,i rjN-Ihonciic Diciionary is TlIn hol. Dani.l Jones!lwh.{d]l Jotr must hare lrcard aD,u,. D) oind pronume.le relativ intrebuinlat este rrdl (dat fiind ci nu poatc 1111 precedai de prepozi,ti): fi Thc nrrse rho, lhcf sclt /o/ $'as on dutv at U,c hoslital ft? animnls ,nar wc show kindncss,, al alsav6 graielul jn sine Pronumele ttftdl este un caz special deoarece cuprinde Ei antec_ 1112 iar oliicD pronumele reldentul. l't:l,ar: that tphich, thar lliid antecedntul, tiv. 1110

111e

Dacn prepozitia se releri la ani,ecdent frralJ, ea estepus{ numai inainte. Dronumehi pftdr. dacd se refere la Dronumelerelativ fttliictr' a poat'efi pu:; inaintea pronumilui rrral sau dupiverb (adici se conlormeazeregulii qnela1 !i uzantei de mai sus):
IIe ncv.ir {greed 70 i,la, you sugsestld1Ch. Dick.ns, Daeid Copperfield. xP.onumclc r;htve ozilii. ttnr si ai nu sht nrsolitc dc !. 3Cr iltr cu \;^ . 1n Dr o"um d. i r plar : r z " t o lDrt;? lJa vF r donr J ' Fl. 1 l. I piil I ! L_. o n d l i i b r ' 'r g ! / d- J u, D ictio nn r lo ne lic .ng l. z il 1- q1r - .

a D b l i r 't

!16
p d .n l r - ./o ,} ,, \!hi .h vorr qrrg:pcl oi l' l Pr"n o z ir r s / a . " r Fh rJ l 3 J n -' n,r p u d' a t i lu. i, dF ' i r ;n l i n l p l p ' .r rm ^ l u i r' ' d r' l we do!'i knov ,, rldr lrc rfnned (cranatic'l '!tect, slil loDDal) $J. don't know trna, he rclerr.d tu (Slil colocYial) r. : ' \\ don I I' na' r ' bJt I Pre D o/ i. i L / o bA , . t c rd d , J rn | ' p ro .u ' c ,' n d . i . .rp p u ' o . ..l o r1s:nr ' a pron rc ;r' i'l""lr Ll m" ri . i ;.l , n " r l' p. t " d rn "! dupn l Dumclui relativ, iar ln vorbirea curlnli, 'erb

:,) Prorumolo ruLrtiv cu lunctic tlc suhsti,ntiY. Fle\ibilitater limbii S 111+ cn s r a zr Fr m ;1..r - d liidF.uri,,.noi rr"t.',. prin . u n iz i' s i " u ro r' in I I " n .
W ho , Wh o. uuu r r ul r u m " l o r J a p ' rs o d n " ma " a n l F i t I l atr' p domFrrrr' rc . lc ml rl l , uno' c . r t . i DUb l i '" r " b i s rl r \' r.i u n rl - rtl ' 1 l " nti rr i r 7 hP fi nl " s are o i n rrec s . l pas i: a J p ..\4 :.1 ru b l i i i rF - i n ri rul a i frP W hr' s l V ho af de l E b0bl si tt" rs lV h a i ' tth " " e . li " a" e ' p " r a , u n l u " ; /" ' h ;' i n . ' " trt-s. l ^ Iot t abL B uild, n e s , Bo u t o L i n In .td n ! Ba i l t n" ' t c t. ehi ' In l i m ba e. ) r lpz E " .tp c J r.n r ro rJ I d e ' u b ' ta { i v d3r l ro' ru-rFl ur ' !l ' qi relativelor ln ginete - dovadi articolul hotirit care 1l tnso-te;te: jnt.cbat r,,leritnr la xltinele ;ti.i, a ritsllns: "I slau ask thc nexi Carl Sandbufs3, bana n a n Fdol" ' 1t ; t h. d .l t]" !h u t o t i t l yn a fr . : pedeapsa , c e a rra : Snc gave hnn ,tl,afo. whell he did not eat his lood lcolocv) WlLaxnot, p\. -s : pentru acestea etc. nimicuri, fleacud. tot felul de lniruniiluri; dulap' raft

Tablou rezumotiv :ll utilizdrii pronumelor relttiYs vho' whoso, whom, which, thAt Pentru inl,rebuiniarea cazului pronumelor relative din limba englezd trebuie l,inut seamade urmAtoareledoud considerente: 'r slill,l fo,tuutrJu "u]".,)in! pa'1r. ll sl a'a- E871.872r: n rl t r4"n lt rits \) ' tfti'otird - rtrPid .sra .rul I'rot,ozil:Fi 'li\" 2J p u;"1- InrrFlui,.ral t|2;42 ) 1"\'. ii "t.'l;n"

$ 1115

irllesului) (ncesarn I. Propozitia aleterminatiYar,


Caz
.. ] io nitu ti, A ct..tn. Cu p ip..itie '... Ce n.ilir ...

$ 1116

Anrmab
r Yho. llliat r l] iat j lll, ar l . . p. . poz t ! ' c llhos e

tFrnzi r c ltl trtl . i N hi , . l u \l i ' l /l \hns' . .

lI. Propozilia explie:rtivi (rcnoccsard intelosuluj)


$ ' h o (D r).... w h o ..., r]r* n ri l j c ..l ,e o z rr $hJ ....(1' hi cl r).tthatl ... .... prcpozi l i e \!l ' i ci r.. + ...rrr ' pr l ,o/i l i d ... . .. f kl ,i " h w ho.

$ 1117

L 7. / | e Zrmp r, AxSsr 8. l9: 8. J ' ag. 22. ii, t i 187s - - ls - 67. . po{ l b i o s r u f $ i $ r i t o ' a d " f n r ' i k;, . en, lr b, , ; . " " : r lu {a dv. cpld liv). ar . r . ult r J r lr v ; a' p r r pt t f \ t : - t M n 9 s 4 n d w n e r7 0 r P ' 's "ii,'; ' . D,ii."t e sreclDrin s t d a s t 0ur r t , ddot ur c r pl. , ' i\ e l " 'n u a , r d p l l i o r m a ! " P t 'o r'r,r0 r dativ. .all1 cu ,o sau f,. tn iaz

!t6

Ilezumal loarlo brhomalir (. il 'ol^'\rJl lrblll drlerminati'e sho.e Pr'rpozi!ia \rlri,h I fnanim"r" rintoc'ri'pnrin /ldl o ri' rr r' uz"ti t' onrls"shom, $hi.h i ro'rrilFpri- r/"r/ ornF in '.uzlriL' { | alrcrn.rirp a' r"plrbi)o in genpre i i rle oloieeiomisein vorbire I ol NotiL din 1-oF Propozil,ia xplirrtif.i. neljjnd eseniiah irllelesului . este omisi 11fE i' i, a\^nrudl "p"rrr'i "r o "rpli""tia ln rire\e 'uvrrlp birta toirr" aU,"ii' a*^iece stilul coiocrial erte format drn propozi-tii scurte' O" i"t*"t" "*i. neavindnici subiect, nici verb' ( S2743)' iiiii"i" ri,i':.S lllN "'" " in,-''"7rr1 JF"i penrrrr pe''osr' proaun'"lrp ln prnpozllia4 1 t' th4t: 'tatn0tird I;" ,i". ,""" o '*t" . ',\ ir,r. 'in l;-tr" 0d' "^ri rm:, ",i' ""-;' . l t . d ' ! : o"lr
" | ) \' f,'

(.Animate

-#'

-f#

(;,";;

A ten lte

"i" "a;.;ori !

ii#iiiT;firllJildt)il1.T.r^o,u ro.uAp,les !r;'tiru il | r:r'l ;,l"iil,,..,,-. lii u'0.,." n-,s,!!i ,am'), " ,li'1,:JXl,iil",,lilli T,',X'"'i*l:
elcr sne is rn; ('-.sr Nornanda' lras'r. ootncnv Nav

s 1120

Pno\uuEr.ll

lr,{DJxgIl[L'r,

RJlT,lrttl- colllPlls

1) tr'ormi. - Relativelc rft' tvhich 1i what impreund ou ^'tl:lb:l:-1' $ 1191 t "" c*e o'i on cu"actermai general' *r'ti'" qi l";;arlJ".""-" "o"'pose, "oJ; decti formele simplel Unii aulori consideri acesLeforme ca i""i "oltote"rt nehotdrile compuse: liind pronume

ahak'ershesavs . , i'iiiii2i r':.l,li",lpcl o'ricaq- tiep qnieL ( 1122 Fo nle compusecu sootl tthosoewrf: (pe) oricinel' rphicl*oepe -ri " t r o .f ^r ica r - l"i'-rars, ''l I ori'"r sin l lilo rs t p d o s u-e t p ' 'iJ"lnei" .i'.e'i"t" vhasoe'c' ihichsoe'erSi ahdtsae'cr slnt lntret rrga " buintal,ein stilul Poetic. """'P;.;-;i; cuprinsin ele: au antecedentul .o-p'* 1124 S '"i"Ii"" careJ otit)e
rhae'er \P{mani ohiche,o l: ari'c tlinld sae luc'u care) (tdrer" l: oflcc ruc'u ca'c, Pronumelp rclsti\.e comDuse au aceeaqi declinare ;i 2) Dcclinare. S 1125 slnt supuse acelorasr regun oa ti formele simpie corespunzitoare: whosoerer /N,h l Nhoe\' $hosesoever whoserc /cetr )' $ho(m)soeYet $ho(m)erer iob i

""'",:;;iiiii,,t"i,r;'"'*Ll;l'lr,x.:ll$,'i"tl',,';,I{f}, *'o'"* "'""'

q 1126 Cazulpronumeluit'hoefereste cr !i 'rzul proturmelul i"l1' lr|c pi ie: carc l].:::":.1'"" ralativin propo?iti'tlLr) "'--- a" pc'caretl are pronumel' j, i \ 1' Lr lt d I r " 'a l -fU ' Ps PJ / '1 ' l
$" l *_ d \ \ ' An e' l ! r olP, "; r " trtrt ) Th"r s D L' o ! h' r ' r ' nqf t ' l tunt ) o ! t ' ot n) \ p' ' \F r " ! ' f l. v s r ' ol

1lli

oompnse'S t0rrx cu r)ronumelcilrterogatiYe

PEONUWLE

ST

217

Formele compuse cu acuzativul {!Irm sint rar, {?l,rm fiind tn curs de disDaritie. ' R;tair1lp tr srdl'o / /auo.ingurdforms $ ll2? ahi. 'rl'at 'i 'vh'thNq. Jr Adiecti\elerelciire comlrusc._ Cu pr':nptraform'lnr i'\opJ"r 'i o/'o_ $ 1l!8 ^o"rpr, pro" nunolo relArirPco"nirFFsinr in r"buinLdrcir ,d a ljP'ri\p: soo,,'r.
Everv article. of ahoLe@ daoiptian. shall be enlelcd nt lhe lcdgcr' pat itc tu.n in Buciarest, Iuilding is in Fog.es! Ithiihqt 4) Constructia cu Eubioxctirul. - Clnd ac,tiunea are ir "speciatun caracj p r n p -i e u r, ph^lnr ir . ir - a l . \n rb u l F j r' I' u . l i ' " ro J u l subj on' ri \ ' ' u ' 1 l r' rro n . rr_i r. ,u .t,autd. hnr. L uinl p J;i lor m , r n p. hi\ a tp r,rp ..b .i o r,i i ru tu i ,?igl'l ctc.): rno4,.f tlicY ,.. shall he p..secuicd TresDtusscrs. tlr'h;lcrr :-o\ anrl s{r. sh! will not lisicn to rou. $ 1129

qndteret .a:t thi I ani Eohs io lrtrr urc camera. |t'hale;;r iit .eo-";rs,his &nduct wrs n!)sl unsrtisfictu.l ii ,\diectirul relativ tlrl'r'.r. prrs duri un Pronumesau un adjceti! S Il32 ro rl nll o n"1'o,,.; n",1a,i,,rr" rr oori i 1-lp.rrl ..,b.olul i' ,r' ...'l ' neinsemnAt"cte.: ,,odcit de
T nF rp. /.a . ^ "1 .,,t . t hp. , J e, ',p ../ .." o- ol' , r ' i \r,. i ' l: . r' obr d' ior L m '"r ' d .ir" "i inlrrr Lp-dl

Jr llte roxstructii sDcriale. lipsi: r'.,h',1 Dpoitc uneori lo ,) Dupo fo"n', ,i,ra;c,'r.

1130 -S S ll3t

l,ltoNu]f ti',ti

(oriDL-{TITII

s 11r|3

ronnneEti: S 113{ 1) Forrui. C.,n-qtruc,tiile celt ftre. at)rtl (san cn) tn. se trarluc ir linlbs e glczn prnrr l1c at"la isau (masc.),src trlLa(lent.). th( ane (sau ll,dr) on;cll (rreutru)| 'vi, tnpthar.t I r ', n '. ', r , , dr , r t f . . r , . j. f r tdr,tt,r . .
r" no dn Jrr ),1 r J \ l ' r J lr r ' i' r ' r o '_ ' n Yor lca\'r zs strnrdrd rrl, cnr b! t.iLslcd lot lo l.i yo! down i' i r' a' , He . 4 irtn ' "r L ^1 I rv, ^./.,;, l.ct,r j . n 'r '' 'J r " 'l js tlv aut l.r'ntutt dti.I iJ on lhc lrble ' r Tolr larecl (\'czi si 5 s;9 r

'l 'l l "

2) Pcrsoaa a 3-a Dlural.- Piuralut iccator corslruclii in linba erglezl S 11:'6 suth us \: cel (desuel).ci rltrs. tvir. uncori sir.h Lvha. actuain nu esterreJ 'vl,o
?'l@sedlo liEhi lor tlie }innin$ -ol nnolerr l\rapon tPsls ha!. \ron tr.oad Popular . l,.r.nlv rn ha fc linolr n ie. \ r or k c an t illi a|oul i t TlLc IIN;un rosscs.s leF old mstos. |nt su.i ds tlqt arc ratrk among urf Dest

3) ,\corilul prort nelor corelatire. - Ca 5(iil1 linba romeni cele doun S llSli nronLm' ^r,lJlr\i nu .. " orJ- r'lrp I dF i rr, ' ap8 'a Ir'r\a'l- lorolng ii nun'rrLl.,"/ul In"itr,i d, .rn'rT, d trrr .rr 1,""rr" oilJ'lJirre'' inltnpozii,ir din care laro parte lierare:
I/c d, addressed trs was our lea.ho. I *ant to s-"e nt,z orrs. \ro.k is bfst. \Ie oDenld t ]s kho \ad ahrnvs beetr our friend. I shnll Eivc it b hnt ih.nl Yoi !raiscd. :l.tt th's; loha(n)l lou s0ni g..cting cads l. \'cre dwaX

i\rezi ii s s.trl tceste conslruclii sint intrbirin-tate in stilul iormal.

218

$ 1137

4) Pronumelo corelaiye Si stilul coloeyial. prorunele corelative xu slnt. intrebuinfate in stilul colocvial. Aici pronumete personal este inlocuit tn genere prin substantivul corespunzitorl
The inaL s'h. I $.ant io see \\",'!p ,bl"o | .'.lll g ir i, \t tl.. r..,J addrcscd os Nrs our teachcr. *e salttEnt ahase qork is best. ' . r l . l|at s b " , n o u r t r 'n d , t , , , he. t u, ) "at o. ' , ) "hot.nt , . ' .v , . d5 "i,r d . . p . iio J or r . . L. J$ir. A, r ir "

s rr38
S lleg

T,RONUUNLN REL,TTIV II_I)EPXNDDNT


( NE I IDITDNDENI RII,ATIID }NO]Y OI]\I

Llneod aniFcFdentrn Fnrumeirri relativ nu esra exprimat, pronumele d,!p ir d o tt,l inJFpFnd.nr: 'pldli\
i. n. iF . . r b\ . , r t , . , p r . I . o , F . l r d J s Il:,wt., | " sho \ o- 1. \ , . J d, : , . , \ . r s r f . 6Lou may wrile 1a et.an l: ro him (sau herl irloml lou like.

$ 1140

Altcori anteccdentul este cuprins chiar in pronumele relativ (cazul iur wlal ii al pronunelor relative compusel:)
I doD't kno\L on01 i tt\aL i, ch) tLc Fanrs. Ilthoer.r t, h. Nhol is l,on.si. tirJs lis detjts.

s 1141
S ll42

vrl. PliONrJrrEr,E _{DJECTIYU| ITETIONn'T sI


(IIIE INDIITINITE ANJI'TIIIE ]|XD fII,ONOUN)

$ 1144

1) Iclinitie. - PrcnrtrLtk n.hotiirit li]lc toeui unei denumiri cle tiintn s0u ,la lu, ru lr , i rp .- rFtFri tn r,o.l rag. neprp"ir. un .. .,4djeLtioul nchotirit dFL caracter ragr nodefinit substantivului pe care 1l determinn. 2) Pronume ;i adiectiy. ,, trIdioritated Dronumelor rchotarle Dot ti S 1143 Adi",ri\". {\./i e\pn1pt"te !i ri "r,;p iij" t. lronur,.t. r..p."rir.1

3) PriDcipalelc pronume,si adjcctiyenehotirite sinr,:

( d) . . f r lRinJ . ru i . .i u s rF (1 r.. a n u mj trt ,l { .dj .j r\-?i si S 82l l c af o" ( : : lr e.a rP ) T hp . hidr , n 11 " .".-i \,n l $ o a p p tp ..d ./,. .r ro n.l [ o. t L or - o tp r.-;" .u ,t- ' d t1 ;o i | h. p" o,t,,-. t\d-., " n ,.r"

erery3 [:

fiecare. to,ti ("dj.)l

1J ' y \ or ling m .rn tufy \.rking man l u s p e ,\o .rt l b rd ry . lLe bt pnds?r e f, !e ' r' y h p l d s o n !!o k s .

ell (: tot, ioat', totul, toli, toate) I had seen dil belore.lP.on. sA.) il ,1ll thc sl,udenis were thdc. (-{dj. pl.) onoa(: unr unulr una, o; cineva, se) (!tg.)
On ca on ot Jl$nls nP r is lt . { Pr in ) oa P dd y h c \ill ge1 h s dFgr r . . ( AJ j. )

rV ez i I l1? . 1 1 2 0 . s :V ez i s ii {S 811 , 1 1 5 2 . It r , . 9 p" " num a i a d ." .,i v r\p ? i r. 5 h 2 r, tti : . oronr' " tF.or" .l ,rnri tor ti i nd: _. \ : / r , il d2r , 9 i i , 9 4 i , r0 0 5 -rc 0 9 , l l 6 4 I|:i ,.

2t9

anothd l:

(un) alt, altul, alt{, alta;mai ..tncnun(ul)l


( Pr on ) ' ldlr

On . ild r''d v d, or ot l ' s nr l"d \Vol dnd{ " vo ,, l'a\" d@ ' i. -

other (: alt, altI, al-ti, alte) (sg. ti pl.) (sg. ;i pl.) the othor (: celalalt,cealalld,ceilalli, celelalte)
o/ p' ar c r m { , r r d r. n o r n " ,--." r\ (\d j ) h \d n u ,,/rp " .l /.o n . D on l t dk " ll' : . p . , Ther came in o;e alter 7n" o,i4 iPron ) He iech,red on Milton lna olfu. day. {Adj.l

ot l e rs' (: allii, alt elp l (p ro n .) (p l ) r b c o tb or s r ( = ' " ilalL r, , p l " l a l l e J (p ro n .i rp l .l We harer't lisl.cncdin to l.he conccrt, bul orr4r5 ha!. Someol them $'.re late. n l tlE odere ]].adcome in good iime cither, (: oricare din {loi sau doun; amindoi, amindoui) "\Vl,ich oi the tso do you nani?" "t,,nc. \rill do" (Pron) I had a ohild on d,Ael side oI n'e lAdj )

ncither [: nici un, nici unul. nici o, nici una (din doi sau doun)] Tti.! L'oth Aot up. btrt neid.r ol thent slolte. il'ron i rlet;.. siofi' api'cared h prlrt i-\dj.) both (: arnindoi, amtndoLrn) .BoA arc awar. lPron.l B or n c hildf t n { e re a l s c h o o l (^ d j .)

it 3 {n e i ra dus ) ( im per so n a l ) (p fo n .): 1, is Uonday, . rr las go!," sri vc (noi) ( inper s on a l ) (p ro n .): I1', can't $'ork ii d'e ar tired i\jorbntd in g.nQaL)

yo u a (:

per s . a 2' a) (i n p e rs o n a l ) (p ro n .) l-o4 iccl Jour dal has nol bfen \taslql $hcn lDz have dore a goo.l day's worL s e) ( inr pers o n a l ) (p ro n ) ?ny sai' lie is a succslnl ariisi. mei nulfi. nrai nulte) ol l.licin iProtr) in. (-\dj.) $C90 601l

t h e ya (:

sevel:ll (: r,itiya. citeva, lhere Nerc r.t.rai "sed.dl d.n 0rme mrrrh {D r o . s i ddi, ( t a ri

mrrrr (pr^n.:i rd.i.l ( \'",i $6t0 691/ ({, lirlle (pr"n ii adj., rf"7i $ 676, (a) lcw (t,rof. qi adi.) (\ezi S 637) ,a\a ri.rp. turir . fu!i'i. LnL u plp .r ,5r!s. i{it" \ou.rl partc, vreur. vreo. un (o)... oarecatel
,!,D. saY slie is cler!.. 11'ron.l Il. took me s,n, tnne to get l.hc.c. (-\dj.)

ilova.

lathrs, the othns nu sini derit p.onnme. sint o,n. ij -\djeotivclc corcspunzltoare I Vezi fi S srt. . Vezi $i $ 85i1. a Vczi si { 1168. '\'"zi , t : 1. ll. 8- llc 6 . :4 1 8 -2 !i x . >i S

2!0 onyt [: oricare, orice; cevar vreunj rrreunul, vreoj .t'reuna,vruniij vreunele; (cu o negalie) ninic, nimeni, nici unul etc.l
I havc no money on m""r havc rou eoi onu ? lPron.) Il she had aze"iea, rhe wolld sir; nie ionl. (^dj.)

ro'l (: n;ci un, nici o) (edi). Thre were zo ltoNersh th-asarden. norct (: nioi unul, nici una) (deioc)
Pnticncc lre hril lo. Bl,aL hc didn'l lilic. (-\d j .l 'one r\:,r, ol thcnr spohe. ljlror l so d e b o d r 4 ( so rxe o rel 1 ( : ' r n. \-J ) (fro n .) Tt,oe is yn@n al. r.he gate. ,!b,rr.d, rafg t|c b.11. somethinga (: ceva) {pron.) Sondrit was Frong thcre.

s allr lrodl f ,',jon"i i

i "\ ir ': {'u o l jariF 'i"rF'l (p'on ) ': ''i

D aaubod! lsit\ anx.ne ) corne? Anlladi coittd ha!. don. it. Ban I don'l riirnf ra ",!t"*,1 see arwnti lsan anubod!)

anythings: re1'a orice: (cLro nosalic) nimnr (pron.) !'d Iou say a,37r,;nsr
Anrtjtlnp \s bel,lpr 1lun ill |.alih. I ..,d d ,i' i s c c ar r r r nr s h tl e d a rl . u ,'h o rl tc I o o | |e c I ( : n1n] . r r) { trri n .l ;\'dl,ol! stoke 1or a l)ng l,ime. rlo ,nc osFerpd Ure door rvhen I rnng. n o tl ri n g 6 ( : nir nic ) ( p ro n .) iV,Di,4 mal,|c6 non iliat s|f l{s gore. cre rrl ,o i lr T I ( : lr P td l e to ti l (p ro rr' ) e'e .j o n c i i T|e lcrturc. spohe lo a,c.!r,ly dter th4 lectnrc. n.?rrr. Fas Lhere. e ve rj th i r gT ( : t ot ) (p ro n .) I ha!e told Jou cc,/rni,z6,.

(pentru doari obiecte)3 \YIj.h do lon pteterT N.ith$ I: rici imut) tnlur (: ori.are) will do.
I \:ezi t i $ 8 11 , 1 18 7-1 r 96. ! ! 38- 2! 43. r /, .' " m1 i , or , 5pun/ bt o. I \ P 7i $i S 8? 1. tlu z tao4 4 lezi ( ll45 -11 18 . t 205_1206 2q1i -ii 5 \ " . i .i lli'. t , 5 t 2^, j. l! 4b. r r is . $ lt11 0 f -. zi \ i S rl4ri ltt8 , lLiu. r : l] J . 19ii. ? \ F 7j q I I',5. II t1: { r . I t 6t 3 SeDs grnmatical: ',0 liint, aiit cit Fi lucnlli. ,,4 ,..," S r2l. Il97l?nl .

PRONIJUJ

E FI

!!1

(pentru t di nult de dodiL obiccrei

(or do r.erer? whioh then) you r{;?:

{l_;ij::"iill,ii, ."

ILr Frr/ i pF' rrr' 1 ' s . i l a p l fd d. d. p r ' r " r u lc l L rrru ri ' " ' r l r l i i n ' o l ;" o r ' " \ Ver:bui rbspectiv esLe la siflg ar:

nehotdritetu alte I,Ionunlefi S 1145 pronumclorfi al ndieetiTelor 4) ,Leoralul cu verbul. '- p."""*"fu" tormolF S rlali de cu nehotirite inieics \ingrlflr l" "olc(purrd 17' . , 4 . /P r. h ts h a s t[ d a :' ' e r-fp' i l d n rsoa-? 'e' h i'. h ;n .i h ; ns , t f , . r u 'i

.,,,,,,',.';:,'"i':ii,,,:;"ilT''i,i,',L.,;ll;'i1,1'"";';""''':"il," " -s, l , pF. rr.1 h; . iPm i v r "ao1 l:n,1 l o ;/ ,t i ; r " : r , k ' ' m a n g 1 /i ohai. in trr eon.s. lllerul :, ,,1 ....t r""r, ut " er , ! , " ,j

",, i." ' ' , lilH :# "';,,"r:' , : : ':i, b; g: , ] r " "i' " ,,,'" " ,
| ' ' r' , JnI ^' '' ,- :r,,.. .-m'

"

"

o r d-r:' t

,t t "t r,:F,"',:l:,:l., .' ""d,,rr::,i:.,'1{ ' )'l1l'l:' . "'"".,:""1;:" [ill.:,:,;:l J,"be. ror''. i,,r '-b "o \irr" t/ il n

t i l tcr..ol l l ' "

ii".,ii""ri:.

Obseroaltt 11'17 lL':' sa .z/ Sc oluisnuiesle sc rxtrbuir,ie?-e his hitn -sii'ilzsef chiar atunti S cr-t^'i || ."1" iri,nn lr I'h^4n'Llp.p( mae' rrrn cir,dI run .r,,-t" r', ho arr si l1 o,r.obn^ de'pt i-rnin'n lf'7i "r"rrrl" - 'i' I pun' rul ld /l' s0u d 1148 ' a't cina pronunelenehotirit inlocui'fr' "u\'tdntiee de grn-hminin nndl' po Psr\arsFU rrllprrv.'.orFs r.-lr'r. | ' " nr,l , .Lr l'r. ur -1" ppt tb I ti (' )l' r""rJio,,"t,-r, "\'1, olFl, d- td t',1lrtr' " ,1" pl,rra13 I ln uonpt" /ir"/. /' ;r', $ lllr a rp', r"h,r 'r,." "u in1,r-. ;; t., ri\F ii p o'ur'" 'or"'pr|rr;'o rc tprbul lrrn0 qr pl " .. tt.n'..' * a 'Jj* 'l'.r la plural:
s"-'; i t ..a Cn xl celelat t epr onum i" " t " . n. t , . .t,. m onet " d f l" ii! , I nale. n "r-.i ' a. i Atl o f I '.i bov ) . or ' t r" ' b rr' r ' h .t ' J ' r' " t " P t " r o o . r o rr ' r' d _f | | rp u ' -o 1

i"i;li'l"i"i"

";

lo.nia lo" d" pii.ol. Yerbul pistrlndu-seinln la Finsular:

n e h o i n ri te ( * /rD o d r, t r i l Jotl P ' dnl bol l J.unttunr' S 111' 0 l fl .rd l . d F .i ." ' c .o m" n di .a prunumFre pprcod rl r p u -p rr s i rc rl a r. s c" ' l ea si nl l ol u:r ad" corr

1151 dl Adicetivelc nehotdrito au pronumcle personal. posesir'5sau reflcxiv $ pe ltngd c8rc stau: corespunznioracordat cu sub"'tantivul tea, mon is oblil.d to do /,is dtriv to ntnef f;ft"" si'l 'o || \i- ? ''onp'rt4r// , // r o a 1r ' r ' r o I n d p u D r '' .
-Lprtl, d orr h in ' . . ' \ r n'/
' Lni-t e r . f i o i , n d 1r. , h s o. h ' i I r' n4r_'onand lo ' r ' 1l r5l r P o itl' :/ 'al d r o l rp 'r\ l". Jlll l ! r!b "!J h a ' 1 1 ".. bi ' "l ''

\d, onro tre in /hr. $ ies gof g I n $or lr - P '' Do on r r b ' b' lo l d . ioliu' l! 's 'd '/l

*it,,'" l'll'il,i'-+iiii'ili, r':"":*i,i*il,i,1,lr',.;1;

:h .

. n r cu r dt . c r , ( f t e o ;r!i rE . 3 cu m fn l i u n l L . l i S rl i 0 'Ie liia c t s lor I Si adjcliveleposcsrlc. 6 Si adjcctirul loses'v.

pRoNUr{! $I ADJIIC'I M

NllllotARlTE
IIVEBY
i,!DJECTIV ]EIIOTTRIT)

s 1152
6 115 3 "

IIACH {pROrrjMEirr -{nJncrrv nEtloriRlr)

"o

$rua [i.ft]"yri!/-;]''".1r1","" i" r " " d .' ;r - d ' , r ' ' ",,",,. li*rxiil#i,llir,".i":] r l ,';"'il, '1: ; " 'f ' ' i , : ' , ,,. , , . ,
'1ao? L\tctp.Jl

e p a rt ' d ir rr' " n . 'p" ial lr..tip-r- uni'' i" c respe'tit' ci 'Ll'ituind'unt'oi' r;r; exocJrlre"' r^ i 'ite! "r"ir'i" ""i""4 a"'g"'"""rit"r" Do 3cle. \p.si !ildll',:1"-:."1: traducpte o a'l lr """";i';;;;;"i*;a"iii.ii. nrite ori fn ronnneite prii lol: t)'rltt ta1t tool' Ateeu-\L e"rvDodv lcr-'r!.nrc) : tn.\t lo3.ta-l respir,tive: -"i -J/:iUAcelrp RarcorL sr F,,cn "".p""" "t";i,i"r" i; iirra"t,u;: psletor, pl.rurin'lenir' iitiii:t Iaqi inleles':

fi " drF' \ ;r d " /' . 1 ' i " J ' 4 ;^ q p a n" i n l i mbr romi nd lt lnt eloo. de o s Pb i rel n s ;: o";;;.;;"i.'.i" " nLr aDt adc g ru p :

" 'r

-"

) Fiirixil t;:i;"1ir"il". i""1"1N": F* lru;r;;rl'll ..." "..",",.


{ ll55 " Pd'n--tL '"rv 2) intrebuiniarc. - Pronuntle ri adjertil?j" n-elotbril'e rucrurr' rpre mai m{rF dP doun frrnle qau sint lrltrebuinlatei pentru un numrr tl'hp')t- li tol^'ir 'i \n' zul 0dn'dobia c: deo."L:'"da;./rn".
l: ,,uth p,. t\ tl:,iL t:",J.,: t 1"m "s Ld I lillp | " ar led 11 , i ' u' ' 1, \ , r i ol pin' i "

l;*;l#'ii"ln:':tl:: fi?i'*lli',.:l iff'x'l?#"'l"liii;'"#iiiiil:ii':j

S lltd

de un numeral 31 'Drer1". Alte irrtrebuin,tiri' -L-tel]/poate fi urntat' s"u 'lp I ljo ri! r1Ir' rl ou bmi 'l , -rrlln,l

jl lll ; ;,";';"rt :,,,ij;,* iF;,j,y .T i.",;,i', :,, jl'l:''"i' l'"i,:1,1i,'"1 ll;;'':-*' :'l :: i"i'ir'.fi:il:l 1i;,1

J"l",:ffi HT'XF;',".li :[" "iHilf il'j'i;":'.? Fcei{csl..shr-n1!ties i'"'* r t',?r,,ii[1 'rhe sior.
lMagazinul de stal ldmclt' tr eN olto dnr hti lrnohed ai thc ornl'cn (O aitii ta Oo.i zjle tra l'lnzul la oanlua )

srar.c

ilJi ,* I

cind sint subiecte sau Iac psrLe 4) Aoordul ou verbr 's 1157 -r-ach Ei et'rl, " din subiecl. au verbul la "(ingular: n ri ' on "L l o 1 rj ' d \i ' l / . . a, l ' r' a b rrnl r' r' ' t l, , r ' \L rd " J " n ' "ttt " o' uf-a, atl c ur i n tu l u i " c a c h " i u l rt' l ' o z i fi c -Lucul pe-' arci l 5) Loc t { 1158 " -"

"

; :: ' ' ,"' !ll- l1,p" pr l e i' n i "o - i i i - . "pi rro rJr'" , ' .l n " i m i l.l' 4' "1 e Dc'dnr i\ul pr onum F i"t ' ub n -- f-i '" a u 1, i" L i , i *i ' i , ; ' a i . ;.i r','i" " ',
.r'r e,lj* iv'rl po "'it resl"' rrt '' 'il; ld 'nrLr 'r: s'ant to have cotl nis own }all The bo"vs
, f . ?i ; r dm p l l l S l l ,! s i S l tS r' r s pns A r am ;ti c a l : i n t. n i t l u rr,fl ti

PRONUMELE

FI ADJ'CTIVO!

NEEOTARiI

2'3

.:, il3';: li"d;illYtlli :;:ili"T; ifl,{i5i;:Jliiri "Jt ",,,'""i;;"1: ;'o*""'i.,l'Ji"lLJJ:':':.," c ,'i^ Jl \^',,,, ,,
a srdirenl r' r/r"i" o\,' ounl.,,j IT,L (PRo\rDr'l !l'\DrEcrIv

'|h"i

$ f1b9 rtrrloa;\tslr)

lll$*1* ,."uil"^il'J.tlll:",*i"i-:ilt:,
tn""

*.*""' me'ilionates1160 'sise

r.,lt"'!:"ll,il'1i,"*,i,j1'i\,i,il,''lilil "tot" ".oainirave l

.';j"' :;": I l;li'; "';;x;',;:prin " -: i'n**I li se t'raducc 'inirel"' "inireaqi"- 'lntr'qr"' "lrn"t"'U
t*"* ** urmt't de sjngular *eorj re'latd!i prin &ll1r arLicolul

i hot;rii

l;:J;"

i:': #l :l:,.lriii"*)i",,1'ilil' "Ji'I, ;:;,"'ori *". :,,"' day' all ;;::,' "p,.a "" t,ourtriunile arlrerbi'rle all
r * '| d1l o - it r F ' r l'; ^ l" T Ii ' ;"'' 1"'' t""

*"" Pli'l;" :-*ln*ti,; brroul'''''' .",?;\'l ",*,il*; ";;" erprl,;li;,il',li'"1' ;li'1, i' i: ;'-;' n*rr'''r"'
,; i

Iil;.,i'r"::lifii"i)',",i

?l'li; l:1,:ii:i;ll,l$.:,l,l,i:';i";.''J';'i:'""[15':r:"'i]'l *re,";l,1ii;i1ii'1"1 ;ri;i'G


i;

..,,, p .,p n.cr pch' .Joinr Fr NLl r r f l : 1 "i ,", u \ i n ,e ro ,,,^ mp u .-,,

*u iLril,,,i{"#ttjiii-i;is,**
3) forme

;:jI;iI,,,i",

i drr n" h'rppi l':'' ," ,"' ", ",, ,h soFp. ",,.":l', .no,d, th" otL ror "rt'r\{1"'1fl'"i,eh, b.,\-ot nl,,ll-,n"j,,1',,i'.1,j'",,. ar,. ar'I knou: ff,Ej:;;":'"::''::,:,

idio'atrcnei !i eo''strnctii allpolfrlnl' au_nerciful' all-embracing,

s11

;".r.f ",,..," llf,)"",."",1i""11#. gi't i'


,x")i 'n {i'l;*,,i'1""*: " ^i**" *"r-""t'

(Vezi S 2J atii anirnalc' cil' ti inanimalo'

224 $ 1103
.L vrnlul , / / a" e; i ta l o a r. d " s u l b rd n ti v ,ru rl " adrerb: , .,1ll )ou l,are to do lor ihc nromentis to 1'atch th." nork of {.hequatiiied turne.s. Hc f \ or k is n o t d l i b a d . { .rd !.]

4) Furctii. - Pe lingx valoarea de pronume sau adjectir: nehorao!,

$ 1161 S 1165

ONII lPrio\.'urltr rDrncrrv tr_Drrorln11) 9r

l) Formn lri irtrelr i[tare. Cuvn]tut ,nr csLeprorume sau adicrir' nehotdriL are o singlri fornn - c|e de singular- indiferentde gen,numar si

,1 ' ./ 9.". evP. k no\ r u rP- n ""''.

1/

li'",p \'_

r i^

ni, ' '

oll".LJ ,. ore.oulljn,t

roll:

Sh-" was so shy and qllianass.d,

het! icclilg sofur rrr hef.

_ tPronumele si adjfctn.ul in e-tcnplele tu)1i(I))siLt pronutne i ddjecri,) neltaldrtt caraeterde nltm.rdl; n e\emplul d," ]a runirrrl tcl nronumele cn ps r n.l,utari,.. tr;,.,p.t.onat, .,r,,n ti .,l.r trrr .",,:;,"n r.li_b.,:p,manr; cinen, se iri linba iomAnd)1. d,): un oarecare (nccunoscut): S 1166 Ilf introduced l. ,a. Prot.Rced.ilron ) nc 2J Tnfele\. r-lrp (rmper"o',il) este iul,rebuinlat aproane irtotdeauna S fI07 n.ma' i, r,J ;nr.1"..I o.. t,-rr . qer,-r,r. Jr'on,.ri": "r'rn, "prn.,p"
Onr should ahlal"s go nr n falk alllr dirner.

$ 1168

s 1 169 s 11?0 $ 1 r 7l

/'.l,,d "' ir t-. \ i, ' : , ", , , . i: n ol Lic"r .r, a ,,. . , . n" t , 1. r . p+ . I' -Ir ",,r,t: U.z ilir'I l'. is { Ft r ins I'eapb belie\a lrin 1o be a sf.ati artist 7/,P! \a l slP q d good \ A' r TI_ mu r J $ . d r" ,\' | nr o. dr at 'r . '\ '. 6 Ite is.sdtd to lc a m an lor aU $eat he$' /ir, irn pn r.nn ar r p. p t r t ir i t r "LLi' , H i r t r r b r , n . : t p z a . F o l o . i r r r . ih-" ^,-. . r J nr . t i, , , q' " . , r 1 , . l e . t i l r',. u i lr un, ' m , . r . r o

Cu cji in,telelrrl der;re riai restrins, penlru redarea idcii imoersonat sint t,+fprdre_iltcfnrmc si pron,,menho[tirp: t. peiple, thcu, ,u . ,u/ ii , Fl n,pi in la ,,o par..i: '"n p

/,. s/,.. - i r i. l oldd l I nr ' . t - , o- . ht\. h;n. hin,.tl. t, I nr r r z d . d r p "ll ' h.r\P tl. lt, 1 /\. tt* q I , i 1a l.. "bo J ' a, . . 1 1. . . 1, . 1r . , r . , , , , | ."t Jt n n""".,t /,, girl - r i.nd io h c 1 \. , t - r f olu r "ar '-1. t oe 'l

J) ,tcordul cu alte prorlume. a) Une (pronune nehotirit .,u l.aloare de numerat) estc intoLdeauna

{ 11?9

,J ,ne (proDune i,npersonal) are fornr -_ rcllcxi!. corespunzitor onrsrf: '[o looL ait.r o,c'.f is ,ri.s dutl.
l Pronrme Drscdin id nominatiy. 3 Pronnme lminin in acuzatir. a Pfonnmc imneNonnli,r nominal.iv. 5l- c z i s i { 1t il. 6 qlr n. lpl' . old .J u n dL a i d l L i t" n " ,i t . n ,g r ' : rn om pe f.1relF !o!

de geniriv ,n's ;i plonumele

FEONI]i{DE

9I ADJEC1NUL

NEIIOTARII

2P,

Notd Orp limppr(onall csr" si pl uncoria.orda. (mdi alcqjn vFrsiunea amFrjcanE ,. ru hp hts him \i hin^41. .tat s'paoru.^nstructie nu esrc :^l'::ll."l,c]:'") A se compara: oa ot ri" wof&'rs.Irided h;n"41o. hisa.ti"\"n"nL. lpron. . numerdt,
uz s d nt ndr oa c u r "r ' t ir ih s dt c . , erwavs p d "s o trs" r y . on ou ! a"hi. g"m n, s . { Dr ^n . i m o " r s o n d t , n ,nd. dF ". d- i. . - t r it . noas , . p. l

$ 1173

4),Futrctii,.- Oze poate fi:


Ue coutrred lrom on? 10 Urree. O alJ IJ T P $ t b u rn i n g . ' ," nehotdrit cu caracter ale numerat: One \'nto night he wenr io ihc st rting-rink. nehotdrit cu 1.aloare de mrmeral: Ozd of them slot e. nehoLirit, impersonal: ona shonld play rair. demonstratir: Shc hnd a gren tain ottranl.er anil a s.cv one. Lan yo! sec l.hose womcn? Thc on, jtr bticdjs in mo!.ning.
H. $rote a hrndred and fleren $irh thr.c oids.

s 1174

D, adjectiv c/ pronume d) Pronume


P)

pronume

5) Conshuctiiidiomatioc:
o rP o nd oll .wtya 'P t la t a it ru , , ii t J - l . \ . d r . t i l . n. l . p lo, r . ( - l r "r , lt m , nr : v- . t "

s 1176

SOME. ,lNI. NO. NONN { pno\untr tir -{DrEcrlyD xEE0r,iri 1rE)

$ 11?6

_ Same,ang .i nan. tt'r ii atit pfonumc, cit 9i ad.iecrive.]{o ste numai ltZT a4jp.riv loarp !inr i',\dri-bita. ;noir,r"nr Jp p"i*--. "' e."":";-,;;, ,!bn. ot rE wcrc aDsclt_ tDronI ",,"0i.
Hc madc son. mistakesin h:s w;.k. tadi.) I r d \ " " y , I J o u rd r. , r" .. (p " or. H \ to . rn ,J ,.h i td ra: L tt. I travc ,o lricrds ti.re. tidi.l i:,,, ot ihen carc rtr( me: iDhn.l Au', thf.e Ft6 zoze. ladi.t SO}IE

sr178

ples a[inld.ti() qi n ticttu. ad:,ce pune 1) r accentul { 11?9 _Inteles. . So,7? ar. lnt i unur nLn. ' r { f-.td n s ) s d u i u n " i , d n I r ti I i rF.| | i ,rop di nrr.un I , F . r\ rrcn I I .nra. i..:r sFlr r d. u, por ir . . r t i rJ r ..i tn ta ...u n i i -r.,L ,n _ F..,..ni .tp-...puri ntdJ-. .. p\ o- .p d rr p*. jn 8. . : l . ,n .,a rts :n r' .L u ;^ 1 3 ru n ,,i ...sub!td' l ti vi ta ntural . m e, ' r ii J dp. r. o L i p n ' ,:.trn rrra s e p o d rp a,." ;u o p..i " j .i 1 uD s ra s ! , lli" ':.,1 . t Ds t r ac t c . l r\ e "u 1 .tY- Foqle\ on. cit,. , Seusg?anatical: attt aninlate, clt
l5 cQnaiicq umbii erslse

ti inanimalc.

228 s 1180

{ usr

2l lntrol,uinFre - -iomP.F'F lntrcbuinldt: p*pl';l'lr:

'J

i"

j;jfi';n'".

.'"', li"Jl ii.^J:fi: h'tTfl' "Tili'''"'' "", c"" ili;";i:#i "itt;1".il:91'i1;*' " *''"*'' '''"' (Dd_ i, te rog' din h'lnza acecar
"ttidl""'I: E?l rcttoiarres' r:eT#Ht*ed?f

,:\,um,r rps,r,m, ," dFsk

mens 1182 i,'l"t"H?:1X-ilfJ"i:::fi111'ilr-, obiectur obiecter sau din


iionate:

''""-#";"t

ci numai pentru obiect): Se spunetnsd (lfun intcrespentru cantitat'e' di 'l i o l a r i p \ : oi r ' e r e"o nm "nd' d HJ\' to u go t 'rY o rr: i;: ';, ,r'.ii"",i d'n ""r rqoma o o sause adreseaze rugiminte ori se lace ,'/ tn cares otereurt lucru
sugstie: sliru I heh Jou to rone cale? {olertli)

ri:,'i';l;;;,

Pl'Jl,Sl'$*in'"' a,

tD 'rmo"r' c'''": b- ) in car" jnrFrofdlia nrr s' rpl'r" la


S ll8 3 "*

iii" ;";1,'il Siij'1,#'T0,1".,' '',n',' '' ru n'"/" m"'":l


' l ' fi ri e

"

, " ' ,""; nu n il..ltui'uu '--'

r'aves4P " " d: lirl ' o ' r ' r \l d r) o l ' m " c g a ri ! i nl eroeal i l e In ' 6rP ' " , . / in pr opo T i rrrl " n ' c a rr' \i ' {r'ii) a o b io ' L u lu i: a

ci nu iniereseazd' numar Dar se spu'c (ctnd nurt[ru] sau cantitatea oliectul): '
I nerer bur dnr lio$e$ lNu cumli1i nioioda1e llorr') A s e c om pa ra :

'nrirr{ii I n"' - eL \ J Ji s';,: ilx :'.\i J,".!'l l,T';'i]",'' ", a,, u lr o_ar o ::"1,q* " "ji; ''. '. l\r.io olla '"" " ' ""

'

.? i; ;"i;' ;i*.";i,r i;"'e14'* 'i; :l'l' l'l'"",'':: l:''JI;";l"'

\ro u n rrn o ) rl s P r a rra b o ' i l i l I \' u s ' | | m" -v J o r' ni P i rl : I $L' l " rr' _ ri ' r ' ' " o l r' D l r ' \i ' l ^ _ r-' b aprori rr" n: i n " i n re a u n ' ri u r' rd r' oD n' ru a ararr , i f lv er bi" l s l1 8 { \trnd ih. : ; r - { n( ns r" s ta d i !n i rBn c l L a ' e s tc a n s ' n " 0nooI' eopl e!l ucsonP ' 00n0 t'* xo 000in licioat "i3lxut""', ,,* ,t,,r'st" dir Bu0urcll'iale s0 00ir'le loruri' I)lrs "'o I' r" :l o l o' m' b' aarrl usj i l :r' i rr' L rl : l) P r onunl i e ( ll 8 :t ,' o " ' " rF dp ' bJu ni i u " l " pnr us r; s h tr " ra ri ' l ar" i nl cl Ful ,'."" pr1rn ' :;r;' " ' ;' " -1" i af' b a ' " d rn r| | ' ' "'Ll" ' F\' ar" ni or^" nar t e: I or m ls l ""1 i el" . . , DU! ini" ,,' P' L ti n " : I rn l { m e . r m l s :tl ' " ' ( ot r l" / m o i i In r" frJ ' n rmb I l ' rr s i ' u ' ns l ar' i r di ri dual ..r p o J ! ' l" " , *' ; olJ . u

PEONUMEIE SI ADJECTNUL NEITOTARIT I $ 31 se srp b oig l' . s dnr t alpt eo { . . r pv a. 4i. t . . r oF, p J $T- pau , | _ lni. t p, 'r.tie,

227

4) Funotii..- In alari de pro umc $i artjectiv(sau numeral)1 nehotnrit, S 1186 somestesi adverb(S 1{84). A.ITI wreol. . . lt lo.t"ln.. An? (: r.rcun.

s 118

rominFd-ca :1i;:,'"i:til:*,it,:l :;1,i,,'*Jj:1,*.p "d;.;";';;;;i;, 2r


Inrebuiolarc. !rJ Fsta Intrebuinla,. a/ ln p'opoz4iil" dfirnarirF r- oricrre. ori""l:

n, c, nsr es lp u nehoa,i t q i . c , " , " " o , , ^ , " " l " " " i,ily" ji;;f,;i[,' "il:"$ 1188 ,? ;i;;

inrhe wrons frl,*:l,lil,i,j*,lxi*;JJl"ifil"*'Ji"" .,lny man could do this.


(Otice btthaL ar luta tace nceasl.a.)

$ 1190

s 1189

AT",;!i,f"

," "i1""t*"i:'lh*rl'::fill;,:""i:,"*"ive aDv news? llnre'osatirr


,, in propoziriileiporerice:

(dupnnesari) o cuaccentur $ 1191


rc'ends. (Nesariv)

&".iXf;.,g;j,,T,

Tt I h r d d, 9 t - - on. | .' ru d a i v p \ ,u ., .r . r!'a cJ ns a\ ea lanni. i i a . ,1 1

$ 1192

$ .' an!,he to, be,'o -\a\,, t:i:X:J"':,1""t;,"ii;ii,""jii,'1i",,",, ",;.lil,xj: lt;ijf i:Ti', deroc binedupadocmai
NONI]
(ADJIJCTIY $T IXONU}IE IYEHOTIRIT)

(pentru sau + s ,,r."".l ?f':JL"#ii"JJi,1'lil;gli'.r,liiie' timp) anv s 1194 illrf" "'"' lli,T:iiFilfl,'*"" ': ' j:,"," J,: l"Jj"j;, t ;,; ,.:;;,. .i ;I#,, , ' I\i" ,,1li" T:l :ry i;" r"r"; ' 'r ,li; 1.,"": "i; d"J + un comparativ,an, nu so traduce: $ 1195 , 9""{:,*l'#;;,," f";"','l? , '1f" i,"yt,::jj" ":ari d-) the nL comparariv:
+ + 1196

dJ ca adverb:

u ", 'i,0" , ixq :':id.fiy li i,i""li:,t::r:::":.1 ,1;;J."r.i:'. ;'" "

rr93

Nt)
(ADJDCTIY Nd{OT.1.R ITJ

$ 1197

1) No este: ( = ni"i un. ni"i or aru' i,in.t J",er'llini dn suh.rsnri\ scu ,,.:!),dd!"," etnrldlentultir aceslDra. !1.." "_" ,"" .r, , ,s rri., r'o , m r'.'.,s: in -lo,-k Cind verbul ro be san ta lmre clc. ste urrnat de un substanti\.. negativ tntrebuinlat ste adjoctivLrlno care precedd sutstant;vut. cuvintul bace'inii
1 V ri q i g 130t . , V.zi S p. 195 adj. not a 1

s 1198 s 119C

MORFOLOOL{ 2!8

- FRONUMEI'E

enough'e''c)' *j*'i"*(ans' mch

t*:t',ilii"iqtr*1".'u.9;uti;ll
s 1200
"

*, tiii:i"*irqi' ":r'n. 1';:*,," 4r*, u,il".''" """,,


i) e ad'era cind n.uttLrnci
sd \e r! : q n ,o k .o r,i m no$ )o u n ." J

ilx"jli*"*iil il{:'ituX,'"1";iit""roi,,1ot unui r,."int"ucompa cu funclre de a


ln genere'no

p arerr r o e rd c ju b s t s ' t i{ L :

u , no,'""'', " " -'-" ::^ "

-l ';; r'i ,'""'"': :l;'ii ;;i ]::."""

l :";,.;l i l

li?t? ," ';;iTff;.i; l';;,:i;ll;ii,

pr siuncr ) s lii:islili']J ii:t;i$:"ll'nl"l;"-'"sru "on","u'/',.l"il"1ll:h mFr'Ds li\, l,)i;i;",1."X:=;"".i,"


;1; ""r1,

"'ilii,;:. "' llrir ;;"'"n?""

cind r "" '"" pr run'i dPlPrmi lil";l

"'''lt *i:iit;lti" t "";;;; 'l'ir';


" 'r ,.. ,.,

ii,.o,T",ra

A'ii

**ti$ffi **,i*:t*l*il:****Jl''1n'ircb i 1 1 . q i i ".,;;.;1'1


(sg) i1 "r","," no otrc(: nimcni) ri. or. ""n'emba-dt" " ".i"u d".-mi,,i, un alr ad\prb:

u , , , , r n p i n , rp , r . o a n o : cp

s120b *i:;;ru::fi.;::^::;;"i:"i"l ":':";"1:,1:i;:l.l '


':{y.li;;, "' ' ,:i,",:," ili:;;' "'ir'"' ',:;':,';'" " '"' i;';:ri ,+,r1" ,1i11 '" ''i" l:41: ";;';; ,,,"",,." l"l' ",",lli'i ",, , "
''oon,',"0 oro'*r;i ou', '"b'l,7 "inl "ino''imlv ez i 1.

h li"Ji::: T:"X'"Iil-i".'";'"..*"n

s 1206

:;ii1 ii i ::Li; r::,'r::;l:i" ;;;;,i ;r:;""#';; ",' :j:';,: 1 ,";; i;,i


"l]'";';i;:'

rl''olurn'"3lc

NUMER,ALUL
!!5 231 7201 931 1208 ,31 1109 231 M0 23i t2t7 t31 l a26 233 235 :t35 1249 9J5 12i0 235 t2i t ,35 7252 ,!5 1254 ,36 t257 ,36 7262 237 1266 231 \267 237 r1268 23' {tti 9 2t, 1279 239 12S l 239 7282 il39 r39 239 240 1290 241 1291 241 1292 2L1 r2!a 241 1296 24\ tt97 212 t3a2 242 24t 1306 !43 7i t0J 2\t 1t08 i243 1308a !44 190e ,t4 1310 2t\4 7t15 444

s,

I. NU]INR-{LUI, C,\RDINT\I,

N U ME N A LU L
(THE NUTIER,{L)

CONSIDEN,{TII GENENALE l) lretini!ic.l- Nun eralul cslp parreade !orbirp , arp F)iprimaun nunrdr Sl20Z absrr.1.D Jorprrninare numFric6a obiFntplor "0u ordinca obie.tFlorprin
Fie and leclee Thjs is the r,r.4d ol the monii.

2) Clasificare,-

Numeralele se lmpad in urmdtoarele catego i: numerale cardinale numerale ordinale numerale fraclionare numerale colective numrale lnulriplicarivc numerale distibutive numerale advobiale nurrerale nehotdrite

$ lg08

I. NUUER,\I,TTI, CARI}INAL {luD 0aRDINALNI]TNXrIAL)

s 1209

1) Delini,tie. Numeralulcardinal exprimd un nunir Jntreg alstracr, S tZ10 sau ur numir determinatde obiecte:
,Ttz, and s?'nkez arel twentFsi\. 'fhel' brought r/';r9 chairs iiid,.e ta),le

2) tr'omrd,. d) Unitnlile (Thc Units)l


rought, ona.1wo, urrcc.lotrr, iire. si\. sclcr. eighr.ninc.

s 1211 s 1212

ln

Notd Numfalul O (zero)estc nrnit noagilr inLJnbi Lurentn(forrnata)..zcro rgIS q r::nl" rti/i . .i O rpr^r Lnlut loul/ ta ,atFton.h TV, -r..t
30:l (thrtc norshl lFo sad th.. linndr.d .rd g.i a ,o,gir in ler ex.m. i-qhc g.e s a bo ve :..,, l1 d. 10 d. gr es Lr ek r r . f r , hrol

,) Cu exceplia nunorelor ele|en _!i I'vflre, oelelalt nu er&te piI,A ta 19 | lgl4 se lormeazi" adnuglndr se terminalir,1..n ]a unitdli, cu unele modif:ciri orrogrance !r roner,lce:
thii.en, Iourtccn, iiileen. sjrtern, se\rnlfor. ejRlt.a,r_ niiaicen

Nurncralele trminate in sufixul -rcenstnL accentuate pe anrbele silabc 1216 cind stau izolate: aight.:enL etrl nl. ln propozilie insii si;t accentuate pe Dnatp st,un , .i;s, no^", , r iu "1r n|, . ) - n orh 'ns |, m r : u. oi. " t o "t - t h, .^d r i , !,,,i, , " , i!1 " 'S" 3." a tt;,e ta nou|h! a

"

9S2 singurc 9i pe prima cind sinL urmate de un subultima silabi cind se gnseso siantil' sau un numeral: shr is .isrt?.{ [ i ti nl

1 ,' :ii'i'' ii"": i;'l;:i;t.; i;"3' } d I1",u',v nrtaDd,n'' r 0,Lin 's' , PP " r a ' ur oat
'\;r'^ r ne ^ p $' n lt t

td50 sa iormeazi a) Nrtn,rc|"L "oL. rfino ' '!' tth' tns) d"to 20 $lS16 " l"rmin1ii /'r lo rrr'l;Lr: sdausindu 'p iwenty, t\irti', io;lx. lillv, si!lv. seventl' 'ighll' nnietJ' Arenli.e Zecile si L legaLe de unitnli printr o liniald de unirel E 121? breniy one thirlJ tno' iorlX Lonr, nincil s[ Notd unitnlilor' Uncle pcrsoar,eilverse'lzn modut de numirare al ztcilo.r.!i s 1218 -l$o dnJ rhirl) -"i\'nd r""n't a".t"' i;"taln ''-'" "1"nint-on" 'na "i i" ln.j- .rr"rrrr o,,p . -rl'irr\,$o : -ror')- r\"' 1...''nP o'l; cu i",i": ",.. o nir"nla rl"su'rl in lrmh; cnol'25 'nnrdrrlofHr'ii plural: Numcralelc care erprimJ zecitepot avea fi formi de 1219
some dns ol mnsl"erli'ces

''i ,i "",",".,1l ',,


4,

, r r P 6r . r iq

. i, r ! . i\ '
r.11r.,.,

s 122rJ

qi rrtitLe niliounele (Llrchunbed^t the li1rrsdndr' lhe nillions ): d) Sutr.tc. hund..d. tNo hnndNd ur'ce lundret' etc
n 1 . n. hur dhd . "' . ""' ' . ,. . - i", r ' i" " : llr il lf o r \ " s r ' l ll"^ I nr li r' lrr' '_ d n d n: l o n 5 0 ' I m 2 m 3 'l

s 1221
{ 1222 o

Ca si zrile. :l.,csienumeralc pol aveAiornrd de plffll:

""1i;,ll,"rl'i,.,;;i"" .. '.".. ";,1,"..l.o"i'0. Ji',

inrre Ple-pflr Cilrele care io.iicl sute]e' iiliile ;i milioJncl' eie se 'li 'patL p'ir Iun r '' r ||inrr ur inrrru ilb i ' 1r mai'ri'-rp" 1;rrlor ,irputo nu l lii 'i" r'ru l,. l; nol "r'!1""'r i ' ' t ::' ""ii|i*' "i"' J. f" la 0 "'J 2;'":ti^, '0 In -u.r. N atncrtLlccu aflo1rafi': sl.lialnr: S 1223
liv c

,\a

nor

l',,: tt

",,

l, r iijt

;:-..

U ite .l I (saurn4 liliior i'beanrni bilbn (saumiliard) tn Statelc 'le E 1291 " in lldn'a Briianie Americii. iar triiion

' '

o :':',' ';,,lll-"'

;,,rt

i'l,lli!'i'l1i:ili",:l'::ier't,1.9": .,*-1- ,^**li::ill*lil'i'";".fil't ln r , , or lll


/i /," " -/"
s' rlrrril" ,.etr t l4 ,' r ! hr e, . , , S/ ' l{ ) r r ez i f r r ur m ir ntin' ln /'rr r..t ' I \ r c u 1n |o' t !

";::, ri1l1 ,,ir t ,il;;t.,i;i,;i,";ii rir;r,';., , ,;,

283

MtLrea Britanie ti alte ldri ewopene

St i
1 00 : I 000000n00 1 0r : I 0000000t0 000

$ 1225

.billionlsl

: :

.r/oneqtradrillion ./one qujrtilliOn

10b .= r 0000000000000oo , l r3 1000000o0o000000000 :1+ r/rzcfou.i :l F30 zl rouri

Cifrele de la un trilion in sus interescaziinLrmaipc specialitl.i. 3, Formo ..i ronblnr.lii .ne.intc. { t226 aJ \urn,rrl"lp arotf.,,,',li //,FF ,.u pu, or,.,r c,t,ctanivalap.nna a \ZZT s r f rr,.,-pJr; u pron,rnli..p,,id'd..F" u^u., .uL,.rrnti drn rrm. ;"tiind " a hallpcnnx Io'herynti
lson n q ,'4!"$1 . s on"n \ . 4. Ln ree tF,,cFt ofrlr ns J ; , ' ."p t"n rr.4Ji. ., 0np nr t . J b- \ . rdr lrno np dr a c,h r l Ir,r . I . t ur : I rn.da ,!.i.

l) NuneralLrl huniLreiL este intotdeiula lcgat prio and de numeralle S 1ZZ8 .ar A JFn rm p. . z ailF s au ,i n i tn ri l " , x ,a d . J .q i . , rrd t,rndrcd esLe ' " e r,n,i subinteles: two hundred a,d siat1.-four a urousandtlirce nutrdred anl sir s.u l.hirteenhund.ed and six oDc l.housrndond t*cnir sern lnnndrcd r&ri,r.&s). c.,) P_entru simplificare, se obisnuieste ca miile sn iie transiormaie ln g 1229 a l.holsand oni Inndr.d and fir! sau cleren tinndral und rire i - . nl ' , 1s 1' J J d rttJ * i \ .i ,i s t,, a ,t , t-si \ d) N u m" . al, le hundr" d . th o .t" a n ,l .n i tti a n p tr. srnr i nvi ,i eLi ,F ta pl urj t { tZto clnd sint lntrebuinlate adjectival. snu cind stnt. precedate de un nu'maral " ,! rdin rl o ri ',+ dil' l" " s c r . , lp. tl u r.l 1 .1 . . :(:u e /a tct| .). cu cr.]epl i a adj ec $1239 [.tp ( : . t llr t . ,rtF \a J : ' lT-" n16 lo.r ni nn,e e,, tznrl., S.\e|nI hLldred were at lle nfrtins, Sone hun.lred, wont)\ in rhc lactoB lLrd n.t ti,. set ot qn.tps asjgned to ihcm.

\,-. l, pt,rrat,.ind E t23J I,or li in.. ir ,rt."ttuti,F. rr ntit,, dF.i -, slnu:rnj' . JF ,r'r ru,,,,r.1. . nJ .i ' ,|'n," -.t" 1i"1.^zirrr/ 'rat'raFJBr. sau fttunci cind au un irlclcs nedeljnjt:
. ' Lnrt ands )in ] r.ad lh e i , if lP rD.onr colrntry tli! rumlcr of !o.ls lu|lisli rr.nl.htJ anirnrs ta huntlreds $

.,,i }iii"i lliHj:(r"j,l,/jil"itt'.iihij :il',:## i;if;,T1,,,r"i ;ir"i.u'"' p .ri,l, r"

'the rlolc aurtrled ,^ Ti, . . , 1 r sa

lo $,tc hu,dreds. a. ha . a. t . . at ^t . . .

(Yrziii S 1!21.t:la,sl

ppq, p,.c o$ '.ra, I' . n. d. obu. t bJ nr.o"n" rilp, ..srd.t,A . o s rl rl' ; t 1' rpr 'turtj I srksDJr ! l I hDDr n! 1. ...1 .:. r.. .. .mt.o rlt ir rj i. - r . . ". . v . , ". . .mbotrt no . Ll n . n t ror' un ,ri rbr , ' a. , , . iplu: ip t,.. r,, .da,t. . ,, 'r'J. . i 5 .lol.l in d ld r "r t d r " r . , r . t n r r o i i t.n ' t t . , t J p timoul 'r ' or.tJl " ^ .r' rlo ", i i i lo . l l] 1, n . , 1- r m l t r . r e t r . . a L r t n i '\" 1' l-os,l ir. n li , , r ", r , . , , 8um . .\o | \ t t N n t n a h u , d , . . . 't , " u - r n d " l/r!rl c uop/ / , , r r ". 'l : \ 8"1 lu mFr t oo^: . s o m " . h a . . , a r t t r u . , jdJ'r ,.r'd ln | 1 lri, . t u- d) - hut at . d, t hi, t . r , d. ,.t.t \ i_,,.a ,.ii,. sl/d de cAr1i, rreo nl. de rersoanc ctc.i, riutln nrvarjabile.

s tsSt

!tt

crn,r s r2ilduaher",,,imPr'r"rF-,l,'rrlfl ;'il:.'il;ii"r'#Ji ': irfrlli "T':"'*;l,u,'l' frimPi' ,,ousJn.l


TJIili';l:,"" l. on in mv po'kor'
i i't L"'a*a" ' '"

e''|",sineuful ./ 3J"i: sr2r;rvea si uirriod ' de Plurai 'u *::i',i' ".T;'J#':"1i.1;'ji#l'Jll forrnd 'uuu
ii" ".;'"; i""i"''i unui dlr numFral:
titree nl:l/;dn reolrc lirc nillior t{o hurdred \" /i $ 13l i ' J h d " d ,p ,1s n .t l t' u a tto % sr.rl i ng s o ( pLinc ln j ;j

' ^ "'ilitr';''pTilll'T' i{"{"" i,"*"t'#"i

:f.l' :i{liii ;l/1p,""'l:--,!-n-ririad 'l


T Pn \ o f ' a r iltd r

5" -, ,,o ,. "llllld.i;i,,:,i",:i,"" ",..

1236

la numaralulilor'uo'd: ^olrt ln ('ilul 'olo \rrl "" 'punc $i r"ldliv it' f o"
I ndld ' wo

"x ' dnl' thausand ti millio' /) Numeralele hundted' !- 123? al sau one' ! t r. R O ne s e jnt re b u rn rc d l r:

sint' precedate de nurneralele

B ffi
S 1940 nor:

1'l'"in'.t "';l:::::,;.'::";";; "'


f"l

) ^" olli qonn'J'in 1\"orr)'ror' Ir'n ' o ""' un de nnPsP gdse'sLc num6r 6upecind inaint'eanuner uiui precedat'

d..p'nu,'d-, nu,dq,p

one d lhousntrd hund'eilatrdsirtJ: ini: / "1 la Ja'" numai PFnrtrr

*'i lim b s "ncl'r ; 'onremp^ rrnr' numdr'rl ^ " -^ " . ; : : ; ; ; ; ' i anurt n s ru o cd e rn s*l '"'' 'n 'arr J+purlir'du e I'iii i".*"'r, 'sr" '1"'emnazd , , 1

ii"^' u" " ""'-*"*r"*il**'11*'",1ii1$"" !l'""ii,l"il";*t "n""


''n '' n \' J nP si i l co oi u l

iil"fl.i'.'li.'$T'iKi*"Jiiil;"u

" '-

and hun{tftd rive' u'"*-u nine

:i;i; j:1,,* ro._r ll," al,;'",:ir* .:: li l ::i"l::':l. o,.": i' , 'jr "ii:::l il'l ":'i'"i':'"lli1- '""""r -,'
1n r ' r ' ^

s l2ll

fdra dcoscbl l e d s 1 u a n l ' p i nl rabui nl earr ^ ' " l a l''Ie ' J l u ri rq) peopl d 5a rr' tr' n e " $ ' r' r' " r u ' I I' u n ' (Vezi !i $ 541' 55il)

.r" 'rrtrL o ' u .J:l""l.Xir'{;"',r'j1T"li,"':.:il"f"'^" $12rs tF,rm, d"i'q"r r:ctit,' " d c r Lf l Dr ec e s ti ' d e
nt, indurisinsuri
ilti'p""'i"['i pini" tn;nt"itui iru 5eani un

A tcn lic

-:k{ai:.}s#LHr,i,.,.,rutiiir:ril
'r'&sdn4i'-'"'"' mllr maP 'i;; 'i

laicn strpedot,
numfil

r&i Nu se spune:
lrrndred and i,serl.\' I0ur lhous and t iir f c hr nd. Pd illi(D lonr liundfed , Iund.ed atrd t$fniX{orrr d thorsand lhree trllnd.ed d m,llior nrr hundrfd

t it . , ind ! le j F rm i n i u ,, .u ,,rrJ n i \ : oa. hrnp or $rgar js fnough. ' fh .re w c ..,n ,. l e o l tc o n rne ro]L su bs t unt ia. c jnd a re v a k ra re d e s u b s ta n i i v . i n care caz poat avea !) !i formd de plural: Wdl. elelen $iih tm ,nes I soon pnt l@, and lpo 1oge1!pr. She js oD . t hpr ( " r thc wrols sid. oJ /orrvr. * d tL i n tj .. I,J i rq o rrh rp :- DJ. \os,r.r r_-/ ir c r s ri n rs rrc l rr' \" . I $a ,. rn -,,;tr" .r ,' d I n , . nr .ry. o) odj lv c z i i i S 3 3 a . 3 !i , 1 !3 3 t:3 6 t N u n r or alul onc p o a te l i q i p to n u m e . (S 9 4 2 943, 1005. 1164)

4) i lrcbuintare. \rezi g 1257-1261. 5) nunctii. Nrrireralul cardinal poate fi:

$ 1243 $ 1244 $ 1245


S 1946

.l

s 1247

C a q i ru m pr J . l" . s , r i i x u l -/,.,? p o c tp r\,,, \e l u rpd.aJi e.ti \.au dF sub- q t248 s ls rl r\: I p- 1pl. ) r r p ro ri r.ra i rr i J n l .F " -n ri \" d i ,d i orJti ra,ed ani tnr,u numa t! .p rn I nJ r " t n - / , . r . tn trF l j i .: Io d n i i " rtu b i rJl f he. ho' f . on .s p d o l p q o 6 p ttp i | re,,8% :ubqt.,l t ie r s s f llt r n t' rs l ? tu oGu b n .l " ...o ..) . js Ile Jb, olt .l ljis teers.6 {sunst.) Ile is o.r of ,,s rdab.? Lsubsr.) ij r Nu mr r nlul . ar dina l i i a rl i ro l u l . - N u r,.e r" t ut poa F ti rrF.eLrr ,tF l 2t9 Brli h olar il . r , r n, h.l Ari r ' E .r8 . i ' l l ::i :. l 2i 1 t2i zt. ^ l l rl

II. NI,IINR-{II]I {)RDI.ITT, (TirI oltDlNAl, \_IiltxRAL)


1) Delirilie. Hc .amc out rccond ii liis cxrlr. She lut on lfr t/.t.d b.sL (d.essl i ,t ri 2) I'orm[, Numeralele ordina]e se lomrpaza ad:uqindu se terminatia n .rmFr r l. lF . r r di' pl p s c u I. F ,h i v rl ,n ti i l o r: loudh, sixteerth, lweniy srcntl,, l,udredth: the Dt), lower 'I = n bccut dc painzeci de aDi. : Are ftslf nDtze.i d. ani t t h ri f i, s ol t i, "t " , ,h. c , tu " ! n ,^ a n i J :.as , s e j nrt,\i L: rhsi rr,. n/r? ..,-nr iellt ,.h tu "r:lnLt e anii t Cr i o i l 9 C 9 i n l l u s i \ s ! : Ctr ri late din Dal,!e: tcolooria|. r , rr ,^ ,i re a ,' i . Jd.r" i. ) . - n" i! . : g u: ,t I -,,r. - -\t,r aa nr r , linil20 d r J n i l r. , dt de 20 de in i . ': -\

s 1250

Nrmcralul ordinai indicii nnmeric ordjneaintr-o serie: g ttsl

\ 12bP

986 E r c e p I i i: primcle irei numeralei precum 9i nunreralcle oompuse

thsl. second. lhird thiriJ seoord. sixiv third' i'i;it-ii".i. 'tc primeqt termiralia'lll: La nu leralele compuse. numai ultimul termen

s 125a """ "

s^n tanl\kn Numeralcle orLljnalecare con-tincuvinLcle l4n(beit'-thausand' poi sa nu de a (ci $ 1237)' sau deeit de nurneraiul on. .sinu .hi;";;;,l"te "" aibi decit ariicolul nehotirit:
, .n p o ' o' r ' d d eigh'h' ni'th. . nd t L r v - t i- . 1 i' r ' r ' l id L' l 6 p 'n n o i{cl/lh twoiii'th'

..0'n',,,',0'., ll: :H liliif$l'"tl"J;"IJi'ii'J1'

\udcrale
li/ih,

tu ortogrdic spocial5l:
thjrli'th'

etc

s 1?pj t 1265

:' l ormo :i coo'lrur!ii b0c:iclc'-itre doui lirorF adnuglrp ou uLrirnctp d.,/Nurnff'lcl" 'rilrnrLe srns
4[h , nd 3.d 63rd 100th

s 1266 $ 126? s 1258

a) Nuneralul ordinat precdanumeralul cardinal:

; lTl]""iJ:" lriilll*l*:i:.1;*:;:llr;; :l[:ll'ii':ii, '


-:i

The tfs, llD xea.sol tle century:' rsrdiolle nurnerAlolor ,'il lntrobuinl,rrca

I rolor ordionlo'-

h ir ilu l oln'!idl: Jur'F rln s'r"r" Fl"'ial ln.rr ru l. s rrb s t o n riv " 'ro r : d : n : 1 4 ' t\ irP E I 26 9 r o l "ii;i 'i ;r "'" r-\rr.-r,,n.i "rn'l nu"nnrol" t' d in 3 p f -" d ' e i' rF U:d p n u n rrrr "' -" " a i .i ,i,1"ii"'* "i dl numeralul cardinals: i;i.J i""e -lnur" the t""d $'ortd \\at (Wa14 tr Tqo)
the 1/"rd Rooh (\la( Boah Thrce) 1 t ') ar I nt r h' v od Pdr l t 'r t Los n l" I nt \ 4t ' I Ar at sn r \ ' t dt t t utL r r r r ' . \ . p", / , I c l t r a- " t I F / ut r \ ' l\ t lr /
thd , .' n 5in il' " ( ?P {'r l

'61tl"'i'Jl'Jr'" .n"", the orJ n') r'hird "n cFplrm b ' r t s rl\ p ' lirsL

10"' l*,j:x'ld'"X;Li:Hl,".'?l;xllwl;t*:]:,$iiiftl;:"11"i"

"t

tle -ir-i''ft ra'agraph lt\xr P astdph nlhe) r h", l"r "d r ' "r o \ ' t dt ; t "4 ' t n r " t .. , $o- J i' ar Pa3 " 1r a : '" " - s r ' " 5 t uor n 44 u4 t hd t h' ltaor lr i 'd

*'*iil,i+lii+:*:r'r'#rliif';*;}lt"{:}i

; ilrll',,111 **;1.1 sl1;',i{lil* tP, ;r"';li':t''J;Jili;"""r: ord 'L n'r '" -,:e;iilititti l,-,fllliliil*Jli'i';r;:l

2C7

nata

capilor unui stat, ni bisericii' ai uni familii, expric) ordineasaccesidni{ de nuneralul ordinal: gitliam the aoorl'i Popc -!crode. tlie Att& Borgiai Quccnlt];abel.hthc rtsr, Joln Smith lhe Zrtd tL, numitorul unei frat:\ti ordinare eBLeindicat de numeralul ordinal, ) iiind cxprimat prin nuncralul cardinal ($ 1272). numdid,r.arul Numeralul ordinal poato avca valoafea de: 5) Functie. o) alieclitt Henrv vTtr \Lasihc first Kine of lhe houscof Tudor. b) suibstanri,':tnil puero a$r ambeJe articole ;i pluralut terminat in 's: ' He 0amein an casy/ts,.
\!e r J \ r s ' J ou o lJ / ; J . . P. / ilr " n. - ol \\' boohed tao secotds'zlo !]raiov. ( Vez i t i S J e5)

S 1260

S 1261 $ 1262 S 1S63 $ 1264

Wlicn I l'sr camehe.. I sas a olild.

s 1265

6) NumoralulordinalFi articolul.- Numralulordinalpoate fi precedat $ 1266 in de ambcle articole,articolulhoteril tiind lllsn acelacoretl insotqte mod objlnuit ( $ 517).Nuneralul ordinalpoatesta Si ntarticulat:
He Ieft tor the seasideor the t,.lrlt ol ihe monl.h He llas the ,,tt..t to oome A ,odf,n innovalion wB added 1o ibe othc.s. Slakcsleare's comcdy 'ils \ou Like It" ws pcdormfd on Night "esfd

ITI. Nf]II{ERALUI, FNACTIONAN


(TED TRACTIONAL ]IUUNRAI)

$ 1267 s 1268 $ 1969 s 1270

1) Dofinitie, - Numeralele fraclionar exprimn fraclii. adice una sau mai rlulte pn4i eqal0 dintpun intreg. 2) tr'ormi. - Ffi1c\ia (the Fraction) esie de doui feluri: lraclie ordinari sau tractie zecimali a) iraclia a inatd (Ihe VuIS(irn'rutrian) Fraclria ordinarn are doi ter'

nnmitarul (he Denominatur un numir intreg cale araLd ln clte pirli ), pqole s- impdrtjt rin ditsA; - nut,,d4t;rut(Th. \unrolar). un n'rr;r inlrpq.nrF srJrs .i Fdin e.A.la Dirti sini tn lractie. - -Numlritorul estedespdrlit,de numjtor pri tr-o linie orizontald sau oblicd, S 1271 numiritorul aUindu-sed;asupra ei. iar numitorul dedesubt:
'r tu S.^t* 1t,,,o^;,- 4 ''' Frd, lia s^ po"r" pxprini ii ttin 'xrin ": lr linba engl"zi n,m:ri orul lag,t constddinrr un-nuoLertrl-cardin^l pin liniuln de unir6 de numiLor,care S 1972 esie ur numeral ordirel, eu semnul pluralului cind este caz : 3 : (iive+ightIt : : ) r r m J' 1 lJ\n P!a - l - .t\

lth.ee qlarle.s s!u

llrcljon

hsl

t (a thi.ix lirst) 31

ll

10

I sc citi "Henry th. ScvcDlh". t -{ donr:rbilcl,e de t.cn la chsa a t-a. :

t38 S 12?3 determinatde o ftaclie ordinaril se aftd la singular: Substantit)ul g hatt atu hou sau a hau-hou'l I n "" "a*"' 1 l"e .itette,three qudteis ol o nl:/el a' ^it" determinatdc nwn(r'tlul 1 (one) .jft compnnrecn o, fraclie Substantieul s 12?4 ''' ' dar pcl. .,rir lic la "ingulsr.tnd 3eciteltPdupa ..ai.-"i!. olu"ulin ., " ":1''r. 'is. plural cind se citqte dupi fracliel tntreg, fie ia
1!, n* t | 1^"1" loz anil three qnafteN sau ane and tttteequartErtot)

ot a ptay 1o""i"a dc, dnd a harl sa\ ane dnd a hdtl @ts) -x plural qi compus cu o Substantirul determinst ilenn numerai cu sens de \ 12?5 p l u ra l ' trd rl iF or dinar a oe 0 II5 l a (secirette: iln and a/onehau /ruotur"! sa! rea kitbwt'^ and d hdtf)' t0 + ftilnet*' complicate: :1r E sau ait:r6: :; 30/et 5;; se citcsc: /ozf ae{ fi'e -1@ai'; seren reslectiv: ,,{i/rv okr nlnetlJ ttn ;n o t F ru a i on ) l ' unP l ' razuri fra' Li a s" r ft' bJ F r u' lio. . ' t n o d $ 1 2?6 pdrrea ( f h" D " " i not V nn" r) ma i p6r ' . er pr ina rl p ri n rr.u n ,a ' rmd r r" ' i m a l paftea zecimal; prinlr-un puttl inireaEa a numarulur lxno ocsldr-titd de - pr ir r r o \ ir g ' tl l i " c \n l i mb i rn m i ;i ' ;i n u ' o t5 s; citeqte: (noushl) deci!tral rsat point) ser'n li!c' o ii ""u point) two Fraclii mai
ejght.

/saa ?#i";'i#.;;'11";;':iil:i,l"lH,i,'Jl",i'l'ii "!ei,,cinn, '0"

six

Obserrlti.e Nunoratelc rnailte Jr' purrri 'qeciLcscca un singur.numnr' 1Y!i,p.li-"] a 12?? -numar ;r ouprl rcl ' lj".o'" cifra se lite-stP 'r;t l{inutele se ciicscca un smgur
'. Ir.l5 lr l\ il P l- '

A se colnpara: poir! No lonr trrce) anil eight]'_scven 18t!s3 (s; tirlire: ode hnndred ard loi'v' and eis}iv{er'n and l'wo hundrcd . ,1, nP ,'d, }r,ndred 13;.il ths ilirce thousiu'd

12?8 '-'"

la singulardaci Substantivutdeterminside o iraciie zecimal; se afli parteaintreagd I (zero),qi la plural dace irac,tieiesie 0 o""t#i"i"""sll iractiei ester:rnalt numeral:
n.J" nn r ' 2 J d t's \n a Al, I p ' r nl " n i\ p at a ^a" w " ' \ ; Poir ; l s o ii\ ' , " " 1

$tt*nntn*tuxuu fi

!80

3) ALte nnmcrale fta.clionare sintl


q u d1 rr' o ' a r, r. t, .r J n d aqr-ri dri r.r' cu....ui , aqr d l "ro l '1 1 hoLr i h,rl t d. ro$n '. h J r adoz " n: t o, r ' n d d ' .d -l : " n o o u rd sa n d a r,4.t." n :r' .dJ nrtt po rnds; H o ff a l. al is beller t h rn n n n r. a good-hall ot ii.. t_he ri.sl hnll oJ i]]e year. one hau ol it: the rwo hahes oi an apltc; to go halvesi to do things iI hnh-es. Ate n !i e ! Numeralul naffho:f] in compuncre ru subslantil'ul penna este pronun-

s 1279

quarel;1 taharr, harvest; (rour pr. 4+ i t" "*t, ". ' a , lr r eF

tat I herpn4,. Dxp&sii matematiee0urcnte


+ + : + : + <

S 1280

$ 1281 A' X rekslsouared X3 x feksi cibed It X lelsl i.o lhe powe.fou./io nl n tnl lrctorial the irtegral ol i

llus/aDd mtnus/takeawav rlus or mitrus/aplru.imlklv - iy/ti m a isda b1 i i s ) m ! lr iplied pentu drm4srulL) (is) diaided bv (is) eqnal io/equals t not eqtral to/doesnoi equal is less 16an

pi lpa4 r fol : radnf oI ci.cle % Pc_.lent O is an emlty set

ts lerDendiculd

to

an a.c) ' minutc -acsrei {or ' secondlor an uc)

rv. Nulrl]|t lr.ul, co[Dctrv


[T[Iri coLLtrltTI[I] NUtntjlt.,{r.l

s 1282

riv orprim" id""" nun pri"1 ,lp plural in s 1283 I Dofinilie. ),lumFrslul "ole, ^ Jufmd,re srtrgujr. i, 2) Formtr. Numeralele colective sint: cauple,lair, brdce,span, team, s 1284 yolrc,dozen,score,grass)qaire etc. a) Numeralole coulle, pair, brace, span, ledm, yoAd numesc grupe de $ 1285 do; astfel: couplel: doi (sau mai multi)3 (neasorta.ti)li

pair l.: tol (asorta!i), perechel:

a aupl o sen ,nd -. a.N u. I " al d- inls : ll' J oLn; , , , r , 1. r : | | g1\4 v^u d .,,rk aptLP, ( do .r . ^r

.n.o,p!poi"Jt\

n !at, oI gloves, a lat oI trorsers, ctc. \,. a o: / . ) , al I or " " l . d .d r' i " 1 ," J rd t.;r 1f . \ ' t r 4 t@tvq P4tl l'hey wuiked in pai6 Ior couples):.,perechi, pereohi" sau ,doj .lle doi". a ,/a.. oi dor$. of ristols a,.a.d ol dLoks. of rhesants thlcc ,.d.c ot parl.idsis

(termen vtnitoresc) brace i l:,J.oi (neasortari)l

t helf a ctuen:2 s 6.1.anodc onetnrl terimrtai,ln ci.culalie irri',ter introduc..ii :is t em n l )i d . . im al ll9t lL 'Ve zi ti $ 1! t 7. ' 3 Cu aceastnacceptiuneeshr nxmerahl nchourit : oilira. cttera. 'the lauls caupte: tifua t*eche ($o.tati), sinolin cu rat (e\cep!ie).

!40

boi el'c inhima'ti (ressran l< Alrica de Sud: doi coi. catlrj, ci-tivfl ' p;.ri\' inJugrli, lmPreL'ril: ' ' rinixgaLrimpround: pprF"he: ecbipn teaml: doi " i. boi . ". lnh,m8li rln labri'rl plcl: (de sportivi .i.r, ""1'ip" r"u noriun"': '"l,ipa doui animale lnju.Eate; Perechc): live sol, oi oxcn mai mari de doi: b) dazen, scarc.gross'quir(t numesc grupe do.zen iJnzin; (12)ll lokc (:
h 10 t c q hr "lq ) ^ L ' l{ r J o: somo .lD:eu eggs, ctrj TLev verc selling eggs in twentY lczm oI catile tcdm. 1tc rv0. \ve .fc ^ a s?d. ot hoNes, bto sPdr ol o{er

s 1286

) dozen (: a lon{ (san rcunrl, Itoker's, deril's. pnnter's


rio:aE

t3):

'altf's (ternen [: qross gros(12 duzini)];sredrgr{'ss 12 grosuri(144duzini) [: comtcial) (ahe1' g. gr')l:

$ic bonshl srx g.oss !e6. Slie rvante'l fit s'fss ot but!'ons' li g.oi g-* is tir:elvesrossoL144 dozcD

scarc(:20):

qair"e[:

s 12E7 $ 1288 " 'u' ' "i l ' i , . , *, . , u ,.,F , f' ,,.r- o r" ,r,\. ,L d o L., ,r ,- r "r .,' tp: s 1289 ;;,'i;.r - .i ,,;;,.-l-'.,1. n r'-r ' li I " -' r' F r' o r; ' rr" p ' . n n ' ro rro .n,, r' r' rn in lriP
in rn .',''""i '..i" 'i',.r' .'i d" i r" p "rF r' ' r" " " dpos ' birii-ln l rmb i \^ L n rrn : .u F
cieht .,url.fsJ .l dogs

coald (nffe, de 4 sau 24 etc foi) de hirtie]: The Paler \tas 'n tzrl'r' colct'iveau valoare de 3) luncji' NuDix. - Nlajoritatea ntmeralelor

il'h'i ffi r?";r;ia* ili,:ll*'r

l' r1

-"

s'Ine d4'" hmdk*'hiels


l.am old

tr,,;t ?::ixX":l;iF1,,:i"
He * as

ln. c c s . , f .

\ : |jnl

,,p li,,T"r",:.iiil"il'.*lid" "",,,

tiv coleotiv nr.sinl' ltecedat'e z]) ci l numdalcle fu.valoarc des )ita Irr'rr''ad' ttFpozrLr'ro/ frrmoqr ti'. J ' 'r'r^u'.'"r ' 'ir deun/ru -al. I .i ,jub'" r rrrol" obirt"'t1': i.i"i',.,1i" Ln ctqks
'I'he gxcsts l dkd i 'o uie dining room Thev sto't1 an l tr P'rr'

i--ria-i'i.:o t'i' re'rite do:'ns !I li'rfs

loflra.terminati in s;-c) substanlii'ulquire arc Ia p\Dal runai 51 ru acerali fornn la plurar ca -' brht:, vt'ss sVin .'i 17okt ai "''""."r"f" la siDgular:
lhree ,rd.e of Pn.s{!rl's two r.ors or pen.ls scvcril ,ole or oien
at t t "an" d^?n

| lri":.ilif,lll:,.,'", s*:iil";-l;;:lll

.-;

' -\ se

i:, . l" 1,:

o..pail

tJ

t",

r"

rJ :r

Ju i

"

'acl 6

rlv

Fr cE!

DIsrBBUrrv

241

Y. NUIIER'{LUL
(TEO }TULTIPLICATIID 1) Detiri,tie. Nxmelalul

}IL-LTIPI,ICATIV
OII' }TULTIPLTI]Ri arate proportia in care cresle

S 1290
q 1291

NUIII]NAI'

multiplicatil'

o sau se indeplineqte aclrune' o cani,itate mulLrnumerallor 2) tr'onni. - Cu excepliaprinului numeral resl'ul "-;l:,"-"; cardina]e; la nurneralele .Jai'gr"a'-"" sufi:rul -/old p["";i";
single. dou|le /so, t\tolold), irille l'nfold' fsad treblc' ihrcelold' lou'1old' a huD-

formele laiine: Cu func!,ie rlc adjecti!'e sint lneori tnt'rebuirlate li quadmPle,quintrllc, serl'uple scptnplt' octuple' elc

siilul $ 1993 lormelet'erninatein -lo&l se int'il cscastdzinumaiin Ca adr.erbe, pin; ;ti;ial. ln lnnba curentn,le au roFtlnlocujLe n,"";: t";;-;
tiBes' a Inndr'd tim's {as onoe, twi.c, tnricer .saa .threc time!, lou! times' te! as nanl. as g.ear rc l' muclr,

cu ultima grupx ( $ 1293)' exceplia S 1291 multiplicativedin aceaste Numeralelc ri,1'r (: on) cu.|intul punindu-se rftrlc4,setormeazn ,,",'"c, o"i'r"ii.l"al,"* dupi numralulcardinal. sau dc .{ 1291' 3) Functii. Numeralui mr t'iplicativ are valoare de dljtli' 0J'eiti !i .le rdbsldnli': atL.,erlt.
T he snilra qF lrrl a 'lo r D'

; 1r,';l l;ll i""i"-l lr i,f',':l;'ia o r';;; i,l'9j ,,. .. , ' l r\/ ir 'l' ti tr - Lr La'
\i ,,; r t hr , , 17" I U L r' r (\u h s ri r& r" rrb l' , s" r" " n' '

|ot t um

iiljl

'lI. r-UMIIR,\LUL DISTIiIBUTI\'


(TTTtrI)I STIUBU'flTD NT]III]RAI') grupe egale d obiecte'?: ]i nnrcrnlut ttittributir arotiL repartizafea in
1r ' oreaL rr; ". "r.in ". ' r p' li . 1h, bj " o, bv or'". r* , bv pl' ds dJ ' n' ov L" .,- u ". tt 't'" .. : nt r nJ , , . . I p ilr . r , . i . ;1 i;-,,,,,. . b.. '

$ 1t96

nr '| "' i i ,.,r" t r " , ' n l rr' " ' l o r ,, j l , i ;:. r , . ' . i iy . 9 ' i \ n ' h r' n " ' " ' . o r J ' \' " ' . :h i "',0 ,..' n tn d a J nJ ! s f s dr " \' .v cr.i t ' , 1 .a , b r tv .! o ,o \F ,i .' " . . I.; t , " ; '" l'i ,,i r \ ds d t a ' P l ,, Shc ran do\Ln Dr.. r/4r {i a mc' \t'-" N.re sivcr /lr4 fouos edr' Tnc.e lt.ni ionr sfotrls oI str der 4"'

r Le pr' L' r' l r' ' ' I- to:' d

rJ ti " ' t

rd' r r

l Ntrmerahl ,irl.t cste .ar nrhcbDintat tn ii'rba cu'cnti tstc inlocuiLprid Dnnre'alL't

'i""

j?;""

s",t"'"ti""rl'.,i I !)

AZ

s 1297 s 1298
S 1290

VII. NU}IEBALUL AI}YERBIAL


(TFX ADVBBBIAI NUIIIIiAL) Nuneralul adverbial indeplinette functia de ddrrD qi arard: a./ lrecventa sau periodicitatea unei acjiuni; D/ locui ocupat inir-o serie:
a t at". t ha" t , M . . - at h- ic ; h 8, , t . n"s . a t t u d - d t i n " . . os a. r , t ". p o, [ ^t t os o. t ik ] . c r , : . P"opt , 5 Couo. i' r . r r h: t d o i r a r n . r e r t r q o v . a r s . Th "l".rion s to f Uy .l'iJirpn .s"J r o I . av p un I : nCUlh t Fs s anr n r @ I . p , a ; p p t i . ' I I' rv" ro l I Jn u a hu, d4d t i@ , not u go t he r e . tti',

S 136$

Notd. Oncq twicq threetimcs eIc. Eint ti numeruIenulti) licdt;re. Deosebireadiatre numralele adverbiale ti cele multiplicative std-io inl,eles: Ozcbitten, ,at.d shy. [On"r ".1,r.rr..,1 adverbialpFltru.a arald frc$Fntd atiiullii. r+rce oste numeral multiplicativ pentru ct aratd mssura tn care a ;esou; prudenla.l _utir.lly, eigh y, etc.,in rhe iirsr (or second, S 1301 ;hird, riiln, , ,, rirsi.,lirsily, sccoritly.
e i c.) plac c : Ladi-"s lirsi.l Satetv lirsi.l Tle o,,lt, quesiiunsu,r rhp agcndaweft itfs,ftrl, ihe rotrre to be followed,s@.dtg .. th e DLm ber m en t rr..q I. 1 o d l d ,4 9 th , tmn .p ufl ol th" Frp.di ti oD . oi

5 1302
$ 1303

ITItr. NU]If, NAI,UL NEUOTIR,TT


(TII[ INDEflNITN NUIIER"I.L)

Nrrmeralul nehotrrit eqrimd un nunXr nedelinit de obiectes.Numerale nchoii!lte sinL urmatoarclel


:p! " ' dl a oa !. /o i h- 1, s an u . ", , 1 d . , o t o '\ , , -. troacr . a Beotle.ad tnnalt', i4pntqr, .Ir. S&trdl oi the bo$ in the school had Fo! scliola|shits. u!,-.|d n r s r . n. . L- gr i. ' . , , r ot adJ . lr'f4 a t,d {c o t o . \ . J ,

I shaU be lack nr a /e@ davs. T ,j n .r\" | , r' n dJ F 1t - t t ' s dr . ho. , t so a . m o n t i , s i o w , A ru ab ,.afth pajdnr - r r d b. n t , o", 1 t o n . p 4 5 p n r r h d , o o p d r a r i v . a , conleren,,c.

A " out b al n i s p -p :l r,d J y i ,,t." ru ,. 4lo o/ lhe u , m n k -rp q ,1 i ri ..t $ o .k 1 5 . Itls of rreopre had come to rhe Ineethg. l30l

,.r' t.

l -' or m A lpdp " in 3 ,r,rc u n o rJ d i n trc d .p s re nu.ta" al " , \ anump: (harl "l d tg a op 4 n u .h f u) 1; t t |" .d d B , o l o t (o l o v .), 1,,{. r/pnl r/ ,prveso l a exD ri ma r.a . dnr ir ; r ii in" t.t z u r n ,rm ,l o r d " mJ t" ri i l a u al .i bsl r;ti vel or absrrsi te: ,c yo. hd\ no iJ " 1 t" o ,ttu u .r..r.i p rro n s . h a \d roti + r,.d. Th" r p wr . v r r . n r" n ," 1 trr i i ,t" a ,d o J . A / t lllr ' m oneyg o ,: a l u n q Bd r. Hn . dd 4, , . i_b s t o j r ,,r t,-i ,t r,. a 1 t .p - o t r .5,..
T . l,ol

A lo, ol iris assuianoe was du. to ihe su;port his conrailcs Aare him.
r,nrt., estc dcsuet, sau lil.erar_ s t . , ! r s idr r at e 'rfo nn a fiatla Sc^ s e rdn ,ri .r l l3 , l 4vczi si b8s . $ U{1 ,08; ' pr et ioc d.

',1|

o !p 4 t

e .,a d d o l a t

tr a + .

i t;;tJ;

I \ czi r i S 0! 2, 2 5 4 6 .

u ;";:",i;:,,/p

J'p,i (e , 2 8 5 ). { ".m'rd,co.. ' iv o o . d o u a

?43

Sens nehotdrit au ii:

ii"i''i'""iliii"'f*;ai.;le, aprorinalie (rzi S 130tj): r s 1308)

carexpdmd etc colectiYe ) insolitede cuvinte


ciire nari (rezi

S 1all5

Wc stopled there fo. o'olt t'"nig minntcs D) nuneralele (cardinale. colective tc ) care erprini
Thcv came in nudlelr to the meetinS-

prrn srrrrxul t rlo: "n . o n . ut 1! r u. t no, . th r' r' o r n Ptr-. s a u . i n ' " 1' rl l l ]rnrl rar' -irl adnugai la numralele scurte: lve s'alked zror,/ua.iy a mile tw -n " tv n i n u tp q Io o k i n s rot a rori - . i' ; ; ; : i- , i; " ' N i l l ' ;' [ s o a ' rn i rs i i d tq o hL' dred I i er Lili- i" r , . " i Slie was manied src fiYe Yearsback' o D " r i i !" p ounds ir iL *r r . o' L tti n s n ' " l i t" ) l?e a{ lt " . a n d i d a l ,e s h a d a l re a d yfi n i ' h Fd15P papdr (1Fq LIF I' ay A t laur hht t pN ,i L o t" l r! L ' n o l l -P 3 !d i P n ' " suror o l $ p trrv th o u s a n d d d l -r0 0 00 bi r s , " . *i" iil " LFvd ! ur r: nd l r 1 j1" br r d t or il l $ " n ' v o d d U ro trs a p n d an l 'np :oqul roi r u \d rD ! . , u, le l- . ilr\a ) o l o u f mP n a l ' ras$ p a l 4" pn 1rutr t lr dv ' rlold io r d o F 6 o l i i m " s n o f l o ln is \ n lih p h a d p u b l k h o 4 N \D b a f d o ' n l ott po^K s ru o lnev t ir r l b" b a ' ! i n a d q r" o r ^ i p 4 r ; n * ta n tn ' i q q u tri ro l p a rn J o .r iii -' .ad" .. i or , v ' , , . no. l, ,0 mp ro .l d ' u d d y o n a n 0 !n L jin, c .h .. ' r^ :4 ' l 4 tn - \ \ i, - l -h, | { n eifre //o/rn.le) se xprjm;: aeer' marc than' dntL nore' 2) Depitirea u ei ahorc. u|,"a s (of) en.: Ile is ote. sirlJ ,qhelost ordr tilenty pounds in weignt. \ u, n- r " ar l h e fl .h i i . l ,b ti " ) 4 u " ' d _ n o ur' p oF on r l a , " 't; 'o r d .la t"n 5 r L lp t' r fl s l' r l h k ' i' r ' e i ;i . o l i g ti u d D o P r' rh " ' r' oi r' 6 n a 6 ' a ld n i s
Tnf s rr v bn or'

SPECIAIJ FOBIID $I CONSTR,UCTII ouorcd.i s, ":*frirr; prin: |ltaut.qlnost n.artv.sor'' S 1306 1) A0rorimxlia .lneal,erc 1iA". o oLout. kq. rcuthl oplrr tnotd.!.nddd "aupt'', lJ son", rhrne

\ l3O7

'' inriabitants of ii'i*"i-ii"t ii"i" ipi.,a"' r ' ]d t*o minion 1308 cul se 3l Dmrimareacitrolormn netletiDite tai'Fintrebuitrlindu_se inrPle S

h,tn,1"d.riousond,n''tttodt,nttt;on.doz"n..or"pl' .,rppra'pdalcdpnumprJrP qi de celemai mulie ori in forma lor de ptrral:


TIct F.nt iu /,endre.ls lo the conlcrence H t;rea : .n d ' t aLs d- dr nJ r h' l r al ' " r o s r r m . 'j;";"";i' "d hPappeJ l r '1 d \ I o r l d 'p" r , ' s olds s r g ''/l tt.o u'"to !: na YO o r n r ur r m ong"t ' : 4 th"u o.d rqa]'o:i : A th'""and l nr' o4a lhin- s lo r l' ilu I n a\d o rh ur t r l4nd ^ o i 'd L o n 'r r ' P

"..j,;;,lt:;,ti 'p n r c s ! l !.a cP co n"*r ise / Tl( o ' ttfir s l llm d a zPn l"o ' < I na\c m' th d i4 4 lL IJ n "lo "" r h fh;v fP l lf 'a in $ p i l rdPs i g l o r L
r a nyria.I : zece mr.

ru,addr .'.". n',, or

@s or p,orr.

'l orm r" ga.l l a i" ; o * or n .-.' t They had ioitrcd the cooperaiive it ereat numbets

214

S 1308c

4) Plusuls u nirusul fa,ldaleun nunir dxt se e\prinri asifol:

on. (t,o. tt|ee, cta.) ko ,tun! t: t,c\) nlui (doi. |Iei etc.) mai Dnll, trntrl {doi. lrei ci c.) in r l, , s l ane (nb tu, elc.) ko t4r l-. l.n) unul (doi, t.ei ctc.) mai pnlin, wnl (doi, tli eio.) ln mrnusl lhcre js,ne ligurc ra. ud,r to. a lhone numb.r.
llr g \F In i' Iillin " r o o /.r .

$ 1309

5) Iorme ialiomntice. A se obscrva urmntoncle forme idiomatice:


14, ,tr, on. (: pdnntioull set nd best I j de lort-A zild') (eorocv.) Hc's fire foat hnlhins. (: exactly live loot ialll

$ 1310
S 1311

rcr, rnt-^h i|| d d fFnrr, . Lor: a.) nunirul unifitilor de numirul zecilor cind acesLadin urmi esLe yecedat - dtt nu si urmali de primul ( g 1217 1218):

6) futrchuinlnreaconjureti.i "and" cu numcralele. Conjunclia dnd -

S 1312

a, nun drul unitn,tilor al zeciior numirul Eutalor al miilor ($1228) sau de : ;i


three hrndred dad onc cight thonsand dnl Utirtr iwo nine ilousand lou. budilr-"d dnlt fifi.y-seven

$ 1313

c) numJrul tracliilor de numirul intregilor:


tso ard Urree qnartos a poued azd a l)alf li{c hon.s o,l lortv minutcs fou az.l sirpence liar tn eaftircd curentd: lotr dnd. si\)

S 1e14

Not d In senere irsiL. nu se htrcbuiiloazn conjunctia and ra snlcgo numnrul uniinlilor de nnmnrul subdiviziunilor aoostora ln (azLrl ini\urilor ale ciror denumiri difern de acelca alc subdiviziunilor respeeLive: \ po. nl l, l :n a .1 ' r ' i .. p o u r ' l nl n , no' r nd ' o rr ' l i o n o ' rn i ,, I -. 9. i] 0 ( nine lhir l rr) (re l .ri to r l a i i rtrp ,l i d b a j ol i ci al )

S 1115

flonot{ tn Marctl Britanie


100 pen. e[ pen s ]l 1 0 0 p l:l Iro n n ds l c rti i g l paund ' stJrr!] l rl nsl tserliid)t ealonre tu)neda t oihlf on, \ .p rtn r.,.J l a d ' d l !- nl l l , ' onrl lt i ! F , , ny I r r n ,l . f.o /o ^ .I r! twolclce I l^jrrt, two prnc.. f.,1,,r..1 l.wo l hi:l - ".
a i$opcrDl I!1,!n4 ptc..

t/on.:

l hi l

ra' !9r,L.-"' '


{L a | ,,,,l. /s/ , ?! ) | quid f k $r ll ti, ttn . !10 i\. P G n, lq; r r . t !orrds, allala, fivr/i,,r/trventy a^f iv . r / L n / t w . r l J po!nd n.ie, /rla,s, a

t3.8t

lhre potrnds .ighl,y two p.n.'

'Sa\ hatf past nine ln litubr cnrentli.

,At Monete tn StaleleUflile


r00 ccnts lscnta] {100i) : I dollar t dclol (gt) (tun. : dola!)

1131C

toi ten cenrs 25c lwent]{ive cents roi }all i dollsr. fsia'81

a nicke'l I nlkll a dime tdarml a ]ialf'dollaf

a dollar ltll $r a doltrf, /ildDs) a bDck [b^]tl a riYe/ten/twenty dolla! bill $5, $10, $r0 live/ten/lwentY ' dollaB: 1sla,r, rivr/tFn/l.wfltY S3.8! in.ee dolla.F iBhly_two cents

TERBUI,
tit
CoNSID ER A T I I G E NE R' { L E
ndnhiliP

*t'

"

i ".l i ,' o" . j' i' t r t r b rr rra n z ' rr\ Di a l zd. . . . . r : ,: , Prr,o a n a Num & l' r n f ' ^ u

i'i-.i, J"i'":pot.i v'.b au\lia' -." -{srco1 .

"

'

t!18 25t 131! 255 1329 236 {333 251 t58 l J43 158
160

\RI.t CUNJUU C . \ RAATERI S T I CI G E NE R A L I' ] ' ' Inilicslji Detoitieo .. l Tituputi (ind;catieut) irirr\l l'ormo r eiltsle '. iNSi
13ii6 t:6i

260 -.160 161

1368 26t 136! !6! 26t tS i i


ltlGUL-\T ila dilt'za a0Dva ' 1it I { 38rl {3 8 1 ,64 iJ6a l6i

\_!RB CO,\JUGAREA SI]\[PL-{ 'q' LNUI

DIAT]'ZA ACTIVtr.
NTODLBILtr PT']RSO\'{[N I. Indic.titnl ?tc.entul snnPlu . 1382 t65 1384 t65
,138i 96i 1386 t66 t66 138t 1388 !6t 1110i !69 :t0 tI]06 1t0 {4 1 1

;. f,l"il"'".:;";'"; "i;",i',;'
i"j,J"',ii'i-;ip,''."',r- ' lrl.: jl, .^: .;. ,.-". ar,niu' p'.?"1,, indi. r"ddu,"r"d lll i:^-1.;,, continur cr prezertut iiliJ,ii,lilii,lii;i;'Jiiili
I're.:utul srm?ut

1412 270 .,]70 MN ti o t\14 74t1 271 273 tLlB 7429 213 7431 t74 214 t43! t15 211 2i t 2i a 215 !76 277 :78 2i, 2r9 28tl

Evet \i ,ct|, ftenn! | .i lo u liuni' -\ l!";b.

adv r Lir lp d_

1445 \t 46 1447 14q8 lt'35 1461 ltrii2 1463 1465

T n , t ut t

Dt

r488 t(8!

!S 7 i rst

' r4!4 :r88 1495 :88 119i 1 289 1501 l 5r2 150? 1l )l i 1528

290 :9D :92 ti 4 197 :99

t110 tlt0

!0t
S u l , j d,f ti! ul !.e ^ Jrt.

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: r , , r' r i. l tr,.l

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l u a .s i r , ' . rir' .l r_ l '"s

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3U l 3r)' 1r6i i tr3 1:,05 N l r4

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MI GHT ......

sI l ou L D. . .. ...

F orme .. . , . . , . . . . lnle l e s .. ... . I un ctr...-

! 1591 15!' t5!3 15!4 1595 { 590


1611iJ

w au L D. . .. . . . - .
I n i i i i livul

!15l 308 309 309 309 310 310 llr


ll11 312

1606 160,.. .

Indicatirul .. . . . R cca p rtu ta r e- . . -

IY. lmpcr&tiYd Delini!ie

1611 1614 161i i 1bI," 1618 1619 ' 1610 t6t1 !tzi l 1621 i 625 l ttt 1630 ' 163t 76tt, {6i 15 t6t6 10t, t6t8

att 313 313 314 314 314 3l ' ,l 31t 3l i 31i 315 l t6 31i i 3li 31? 31t 318 3tt 319 31! t19 :l!0 3rr0

Iorrna ao0cntuati - . T ra .l n o e re. . . . . . . . Sllicctll im!{rl,in]ur.. Nnrniaea iulerallvtrrur I]IIIERSON-{I,O ]IODURIT,IJ I. rnfinitirul F ormJ .. . n 'dL' , J . I i, f . i; ' 't, T r rI r"rP.. l un "l rr . . . l, , i ;ru , i' or np I ln :n l ."l . . 'li r b : \ \ ru r'\u l ' r n ni ' 5 r b r d i ' " r p r4 r -, ," .,,.tr. " al" i\ ' No n r,i 'rul ' u
\ L o rl, r' lr,'r''\rlu:

163,.1 1640 16r3 16r6 16Li 1658 1666 16ri 7 n r' ri :


l(itii 16t9 16.q3 1681 16Sa

3r: 31rl
:126 Jti 328 3!! 3j1l 3j 0 t30 3t1

n t alr \ | ,i . "'rl II. ta icipiul . Caatilialii seletutc

?6ti.it i1n $t\b.l)


llama 'Iinil. tn 'ing Djatczi Ee tun' 1i! \ l .

'1 6 s 9

ucn n m'rc_. . . . . , . . . _.
P ottait' ntl Pt.z nL 1691

:l rt 331

t:t2
. ..
ltilti

. O .l, r)gldrie ... Particir)iul t.ezent + ger n n d i v n l..

r33

L'd.ticipiul pre.eat

Caracter 9i lun4n . . .
{F rb .. . A dj' .' irel" I,"u \"n r. dr n p"r |dpr r pt dz pnr ! :1

Conshuclii !a.ticiPjale

ru p'lr Tip ' r ' ' .\.!/ari\J' \on:nali\,.1 .r 0d rL \ominativul alsohrt 'Pr u

i 1100 ti 0l 1i 02 1109 . _ t7r4 17{i t tt6 7721 7,.2:l t1!t 1,426 1i l 7 17!3 ti 37 7i 44 ti 4i 1.1l ra 1750 171\

,14 334 334 334 335 336 336 336 t31 338 3lr8 338 339 340 310 311 3'+2 3t2 iti:

l'nrlicilntl

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. .

G.rtullirut

F o.ml .. .

a Trr" l' ri. l 'I i iu n.'ri \ 're l, ' !ii I un. ir sin l r.l1 r rrrl' . rl- :i !o-'iva P " rmrS (nd r\ul q

-.

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|;au
1i t4

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l.o.nn. Diatezl f 1 n i ,.l c". nnc lii ln i o , ,,r a t , 3, t l'iliulr r i I ' ri P .r c u l a rtrc rl rD l Pani.itiul pdsie - .- .

It3 7136 113i ti t9 ti 6n 1t61 3\t 1162 346 1t63 1764 346 1766 3n6

CO^-JUG\REI

SI}IIL;\ A U\UI . -.

\-]!RB RI1GUL\T (IA diAtEZA

rr-68 1t69 3t1 trir 1t7t 348


1)i 2 ri i t 171tt | i ,.6 1t80 I/-81 1t 82 ti tT
3i8

1)-6i

Dcl i n i l i e . .

DiateT a actili,............ Di. t eza tJsir"

_.

34il 3/,9 3i 0 3i r 3i 3

L, n "a i" h\ r " l .' r' n u l 4. ' , P oL .. l o .m{ren c onlr gi la s rl e ..r \.b '' : : ' om Dl.n r 1 r llFm ' nlc \f rbul xciiv 'lt,u;

"

dr r'.,j,i ,iii.. o, ratoare ic,.i!

CO\ JUG-\RI'],\ CONT]NU;\ A UNUI {ERE


Canit t ldte d . a r t t n l d

IIIGUL-\T

(la diaLczaactiail

l i 9l l

3i 5 1 , 1 9 6 355
1195 tJg)-

; ;;;j;*;" iil'## !:T;ilti';,,'i":iil,$ill" "i;"i.T,T;l#1'iii#;; ;;;,;;;

3tn $6 1 8 0 6 3i 8 781)1 3i9 1 8 0 8 ?ii9 1 8 1 6 361 365 t8t6

lr99

!51 !

Formt lreevenbtirn . . . . Forml


k , ,n .ri i

tarl t 828 18r9

T r d d -c" t P . .

(1osithsrcs cotrjrgdrilor'
CLniugar' a 5labd . Co n j ugd. ^ la t P Co n r ugarP dm xL A

r'orbe r.gulrl. Fi rcrb' n'rerulilc Prln.i l sl .h ,Pr bc t r er r y ur trre


C4 r o ti@ : ... . .

oc.b.tarnercsltlltc \t"abe1i p,;";p"t ii^p",ii "t" Verb1.nrreg'Iale .ompr3c


. -

1. .

r-l,.la' rc ' ; r lo' P O b -, r' ltt ^npd Cibra absc\alii to.eri.e asuPN adbaa' nercSutnb ' .

3ni 365 36i ?65 1832 366 466 1838 1819 1840 36,' 784t 1843 36tl ta47 368 l 8rru 3i3 r849 3i 3 l s l g a 381
1850

DNTRTTI] CATNGORII DD ITTiBTJ

AUXILL\nD

1851 185' 1856 18,8 I861 1862 i ,i 63

3S 3 38:l 383 383 183 384 3E /r 38i

' 1S 65 386 1 8 6 6 386 38,' l|l6t


'r 868 1869

388 388 3rJ8 488 t90 3!0 390 390 l rl 391 392

T O B! A. CoDjuseo! silnprn..
Diokza a.tita . '

r870 18tl 1372 18?3 t8?4 t8t6 1380 ' rN 81

Fi , nr!ii . .

. Ca ve rb Dr inc ipal . . . ca ve rb aiailia. . . . . . . . Ca verb colulativ . . . Ca verb modal lixprcsii idionatice.. Ioniele .ontase TO H-\\'Ij A. Conlug&et sinlti
Didt.za actieil

1889 393 1891 39n 3!4 1 8 9 2 394 396 1 8 9 i ] 396 1860, 1867 3!; 1 8 9 1 , 397
1S9ti 3!8 . 'l90il 19!5 {9 0 6 3!9 39! 3t9

'

B. 0onjrg&3 conthun D hL .a tchpa


C. Formcle ootrtrd$e ,'

I t rn cti i ..... . . . . C., vcrb prinripdl ca vFrb anx r r r dr . . .


ca v. ct mod dl .. .-.. Verbul .,to hare', ti inrerogatii !i ncsa\ii D {l zero ,S ; lol"s'ir' J',r,1'iru l D O

TO DO rdDclii . . .

t!1il 1914 1915 r916

p'q 400 400

TO LDT
Funcl tl . .. ..
Cd Ycrb P.i.,iipal .. , C" vcrb aux iu rlu; a ' 'i "n i LI T . , 11l"F "n Ci / u o r. r ' l. l i i \ u dLpl \i rb I , ' oL_'' l-o' m | I : .t; D O d o+ ' uJ

,t)2 tga, 1921 4!1


1924 1925

1926 1t2J 1928 1,)29 ]\IAY . ,' 2074,2088, !02t1

442 LO2 l u: 403

SHALL, !fILL, pr r n*e. . ... .

tL vliltB]n,E DErri(lTlv!] IIOD,{I-E.... .-

19311 40E tgill lgllt 1t35 /!03 405 r,06 406

(I,) C ^ \ Considdstii genBl. For m. . It 0, iu ri l pn n i r ' . r . or r Rlc r n' ltro n a r' :r . . . P r onu n l rfe Intetusrlia !i rcgalia I un. ,, (II I C O U L D Considcrllii sL{enlo
Forrnel. con'lnse

19/12 tlrril

........
{-q:r{ 1!ll5 11J!6 t!5?

4lrS

ll,\N S lud i r "o rl r' F lir


Tinturi .i .a\.xt' tLta

CotlLD

Bn \BL1i

1(]

t1158 410 i 10

(',{ {

..
l- t
| i" " d

t ur t.1 '
totl. l L at

lll nt
. "' 'l

l6 L L

l n ..

1902 410 1' rt1. 11tr t!ri 5

To l|ltliAli[

bt

tntt

r,,

-tl'\tt,l.7o...

..

1!67 1963

.. \ ,rJ r' u rifl /f'\'f ir 'ii rlr .Ar-LI) l r-

a,OOl-D in stilul irdif{|. Coniuqa.rr Inodduhi C.'l-\


dc tftcu i. ,.. . . , . . . . . . .

ti .onditionaltt. . . . .

.
. -

1!60 1!t0 ti12 ti i 3 L91L \9i 5 19ii 1987

411 41r 411 4r2 4\' -) t' 1! 413 t't3 41n

. O ( L D . Tn. r ut F im plu.r o trJ i l l o n a l p rP /" n l i r' contrastiri lractice) CANICOULD fi lnlmdilodi rNpcctiYi- -" BE ABLE TO. ' ' . MANCE T O . . . ' I JSEI' M . . . . . . TAGET. . . . . - . LD ZERO CANICOU . . . - . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . B E,]IPP O S E D T O , . . . .... lnpcr.tli\'ul Poliielrr Co n cl u zi o. . - . (IIl .) II]IY /IIIG l IT Consiilerstii gencrnlc . ! 'orme . .. F ti U od L L ri luDjpeB or r alr im n ' .5 n n a F lnierogal.ia,"inegalia . 1\l\Y luDo ti i . . . . . . htrcbuintare . .
L] ! r\ rjd r mod1l .

-..

! 1989

t99t 1998 t0o1 !008 2009 !010 t011 20i 2 ,013 20'J4 ,0t0 !02{

476

416 417 417 41t! 418 41l J 419 419 tL2O 4:10 t' 10 421

!0rt a024
!02(i 202; 2ltl

CJ -, r, " Ju

,J \ili"r"

u A) .ttlcHl

t0r, t0ll4 411 2037 L' '


1038 t0/t5 2046 lr P' Ll 2A4! 2li2 ti-r5j 1055 ,053 1049 206i .!2il (t3 42L !21 t!)i 12t i25 426 4:6 416

.. . .. Fn r0 h . . . C'N]J,D: N'IGII'I' .r[1G9" : c.ndilional


P rLo' rl J joo "'r 'i \:r' 'r fa .; ' l !rli;-ll ]'

llt .I i o r ot r lr u. tr n V l I

(lv ) liusT
.. Fo mre . . . . , . Fonnele comluse

. /rFa ( .! lll:r at ML-sf in controst 4-4tI rlt 'l io "not-.t ru \tf,


'11t.\ f

llL.'t

t06r ra (v ) ouGlIT
106' 20611 L'-),.
,1168

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11:19 ,0t1 10r_! 429 1rl 1i l r29 !076 ,!!9 419 20i ) :0i 8 90711 4!9 2080 430 !08r 108( 43i

IntercsaiLa9t negnlra Fu n cl " . . C a vcr t au lilju.,.

..

Cr ve rb m odal . .

(vrL) s]lOUI,D Fxn.lr . . .

954

w {vrrr.) IL L

!
:088

Lj

43r
431

431 43\ 432 4,t2

{rx.) woul,D
Fu n cl i i . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . C a \"r b p' in. ipJ l d" r c l v C a rux it iar m odal ,SH AL L ( S HO ULD) . W IL L l rtOU L D )......,\l te tn tr c luir t i. i .... ................._.. , .. ... ... . .... ... ......

tlo?
,104 2,Oti :,ori 2rr4 211a r1t8

433
4t3 43r 414 425 433 43J

(x ) To rr\Fx
Fo rme . unc iii.. . - . . . . . . F Ve .b lex jc al r egulat.,..,... .. .. ..... Al xi l i a r dlec t ivm od a r.. (xLJ TO NErtD Fo rme . I nnc lii p\ i. c l t r L, z it r v rg L l a t \a b m od a l .. ....... . ... .... ..... .. .. ............. -. -........ ....... .. ...... ... .. ..... .. .....

2t:24 437 2r2i 4X 7 2126 4X ,2rg4 4A j 21.1j 2t46 j I4' l sJ !166 216)' 2! 68 1169 2ti 3 2lia 2179 2180 t181 ,l !t 2192 t193 rt9i ' 196 ,200 439 43s 11a 139 141 4tl 447 4t4 444 444 417 4t8 4\8 448 448 449

{xIl.] usDD l'o


ro"md .. Ji.p
l. lele

..

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I tL. \_ERBDLEREFr.t\tVt-:......

....

Dp" inil: P ....... .. Trddunprp d o ir liob a .o 1. 1. i. . . . . . . . . A l^ ! . . b, rplp rivF t1 lr m bd . r 5 "/ 1. . . . . . . l v . \ F RB E LE I OVPl.CXC. . . . . . . . .. .. V ericlc co mple ae ou pa r t ic nli adr er biiu. . . . , . . . . . . \a L" lP p rrpo ziL ion al" .. . .

.. .

V - V ER BEL E I ] I P E RS O NAI,E SIU U N IPD R S O N ,\L D .....,... ... ......, ,.... v L \ iERtsE CA RE S E CO \ FU N D I..... ... .. ..... ...

YNR,BUL
(THE VERB)

GDl]anALE coNsIDEnATIr

$ 1317

"

1) Dtinitie.- Verbul erprimh o acfiunesau o activitate' o stare-sau $ 1318 un'i lnsuiiri o a'irudinp .ri,i"ii".""p",lfir' .u''it*i"r"'" s"u modifi'ar"J

Pcnlru .impliti.ar" n" 'o1 leicri ln "onlinustp n'rmai -.. dc un rprb.'ubin "lag\nd prin a'Fa'r0 si cclelalie notiuni ori* "il, "t*"" cuorinse in definilia vcrbului la acesi punct sau in- S 1319 2) vrb tranzitiY rorb inhanzitir. - Ve.bul poai li tranzitiv -si trimzitiv nen,iilor;rssrpra unul oJ verbul a .JrLi a' liunF sp 16"h1ngP nt dir' t a'l' lranziliI' ( TransitirPun obir.l, nuFil 'ompti

Verb )'.

M.g ts! ta1reil d', ga.den\\.e 30{ lIa c.mrng

Frcd js ltriting d l.,l?. Tlrey ere enioXiDs d.ns'Ites.

S l32o \:erbele tranziLive pot a|ea iliate.d po-tipd\ $1i74) asupraunui obiecl esie bl Yerbut a cdt'ui actiune etc nu se risfringe (Intran:itioe f erb inttaixi\i\ ):
He rral^s slowlr' And i]liiv ll'd happilj cver alter' l S2 l i r6 r !l n i | .| r' l i .i !p \ crl ," le inp, t s onc t " a r u n ;l to n 4 l " | 1 br,.' rr ' InLr 0u nprpnr \'.rb le inir anz it ir " n u ru ,ttr' , :n p rt' d t r' anzi ti l c I E lJ 24- 132 8 ). '''1 i \ e rb u l l r' rn z i l i t p o " l " ri i n l rpb i nl ar ssrl ' l ' i 1 i -npa r' " ' . ' l' " ur il. i nl N " ' d' ' l ' l, ri sr ru " e r " s t r ins r r ' -p ra u r' ri o h i F rr' J D ^ " rF ' a_t' lrri pre" i rr" r' ' n b h l u l J ' u ft' " ;' u r' ' F ^d l n a' ar ' i ' a, li u n ".. \, r bului, r u di intranzitivt: veibul devine He sroodtlie mirfo. on a lablc. (Tranz) He s,oodthe.c siarins (lntr') llr $ a 5 l n r" tu rg I l o d r:i l l T ro m - l I s . r\rh i m p t;,r' ,6 ' d r n L s' a s i (Lnrrl llia/ / ' L o \v ri1 1 u . ra ri r l T .i n z I o '' I I ' dr l L I il .i rr'q
, ' ld ' ". . l' ' m '" l l T 'r 'l 1r, tRr ! r - l' npp r l lh r 0 o' ' ls - n r r ' J d \ r l r r ' 'l - , m f t , m ", . l; , , r / r "r a. ; / ; t in dr - r alolr F r p '0 r r , r i : dpr it in l^ tn jt'J

s 1321 s 1322
1393 "a

I-'n relb d) daed este urmat de un Pro unre rellexiv:

s 1324

D) dacneste

s''u 1,1;# il,1'J;s;ll^x""iti"'ij'"&!iJljiib'ui ,ff


v p- oul n "" lp Ln ob! 6li. il- ali" trp . p r ' vern lranziliv Inhebuinlal

P:,fr i,""i,'i"tr";, r."u,, !1;H,",*,r t

: Lnii x ,,ri ,o nsio"r t . " d "-t- in, r n mo, l db"o /"I, -oj.J

250

MORIOLOCTA

_ !'EREI''i

prepozi ia urmitoare se intesreazd atit de mult verlului incit devine o parttcald.I'erbdld. care transformd verbul din intranzitiv in tranzitiv:
t:r.r r on, . y dseo. "s t u lp Dv nJ Do S D o . r i p a r k . I n t r . l 'f1F t r al. ld i^ , . ; ' r / . . . x an: "n ed 'L i ; n s . rTranTI \\" s o, t Lns r ! an, r hJ d t s aDd$ic h . I n r . I \\" 6! l o. , ; oLr . . r pr r p, ( Tr dz .

interJr.(Cagnate $ 1326 . , c, dari.ar un complemerl,lL Objrcr./( S2603), care reperi roeea vernutur!.
Ee was r&e rinf $it h on. c v e oDen. llnl. . l H.p \1 - !""p,n i t h" J . p ot ilr dan k ho l, dd d o n " d g o o d d 1 . v s $ o r k . ( T . d n z . , Th" , h ld $ b lou"i; ne a Ldr py lau|h. Tt \ n t . t

s 132?

Nunreroasewerbe pol li uneori tranzitieej allcori, intanzitiae:


II" to .u "4 inL a s or Ll' , , p t of . ho" r . oai". . l l r , D z d , t r L E\' ur.ro n a i. r aa t o r n gov on - r r d , r v . . T r d n r . D a . v , 'l-t p .d" no r,r'nt r' B" r ' br \ t J m i. ; s an I oLr . I i t " . , Tlr ,.sn "r ot , p pr dt d iun , ' o", t pd Li. t abo' ,r " r , v " n t d r d . T r d n / . i f l \ ll"y u p." /, rj or - r ' "- "", . p6iv , t t r r , ". 'j-l F mb ' ),'nr HF ra -tiag har I I nr : is , \ am q. ' l t r . -o. Fred rpca&s Enslk]! iTranz. rcuyl Spanisjl is s?,ft.; a gie,ri dcal in Latin Am&ica. tT.an,. rasilt rle lookcd oD without sp44ii4s. (Inh.l He took her arm and besan rl d,aln her uD Lhe hilt. {Tr.rnz. activ} She las Ddara,n..t otl hei lcgs sholping toi tlc hotidat:s. (Trnnz. paiv) lle rds last. (Irtr ) -dll;?s Ti,is coltagc can s?d.? twehe pcolrte. iTranz.) Slic Jldqs like a top. (Inl...l

! lB98 . . Uneleverbeisi schimbncu totul inletesuldupn cum sint rranzirivesau


a culalal: ,",i" I ll,iHir a laceeF,' .n .: - d i d She did uie roonr. - ot, Ihl t !.,t dr.

t" h"rdll;iTi.) {
'"

ct,e llTni) { 'o

She sar. me a prcscri. The dike ts atrtzs. I ield the |askcl in mr hand. Mr p.omise still /rld.J.

l( t r m z . l :a s D u n -" : ,^, - , , .,, liLr . . ' z .r : a D o \c i ti :

to r!.a. I llnlr.) I

Il-" rds l" tne the l,ruLl. lhe child;.n a sto.ll .r ;,\,,d .r: T|ci. nords bll. I i ,n r .r : ".,1 | ( inlr . ) - a l i l i n l a v .a rc ae l r.)i Tlis rdlls in yotrr lavonr. I llr . , nz .l :a p u rl ,a : Slie atu (.d.i,s orlrilis.

ldasrr.e1in!J a trcce i.cct:

The nighl

ds

r.d/in6'

lo ib end

S 1329

3) Diatezir (Voicel. Diatcza este torma pc care o poate llra un -i'erb pe.nLrua arita raportul dintrc subiect qi cornplementul direct, exprimat sau subinl,eles: { 1330 al subirutul gr:mati,al lonte tndeplini actiunea exprimarl de verb (dnte otti -+ctirt l'o;ce): I rd.n Dnglistr. She rr.r nrr. ,l subieolul gramaticil poat sufcri acl,.iunea exprimati do 1.erbsi indeS 13,11 piiniti de conpLement\l d.i.recL (diarezapasiad , P^sioe yoice)l I n,asrdagtrE glish ar school.
Shc /d.s lur (lJ n,el.

rUDii art.ri ljonsid.rn vcrbul tn accasHsjtdrlie inirlnzitiy.

CONSIDtrEATtr CINERAL!

257

rJ subiectul gramatical poate in acelagitimp indepliii 1i suferi acliunea S 1832 r\primatn de verb. carein acest, se nume,sre caz ftrb tcflexie ( Refk rcftl))11
I

1. a-.. t. _'"J -..t|.

?. t.

1l t:|t:1i

4) Pelsoeni. l{umir. Timp. llorl. S 1333 a) Persoand Persoana este lornla pe care o ia \.erbul S 1334 f"drson./. ste tndplinifi de cel care vorbe$te (peAoana 1). fenlru a arita cn ac,tiunea de cl cdruia i se adreseazn r.orbitorul (persoana 2-s) sau de un ali. obiocLl a aninat sau in8nirnat(persoana 3-a). a (-\ruD0). Numnrul estelorna pe (are o ia rrbul pentru Sl33i b.) Nundr a arita dacn arliunea exprimati d cl nrc un singur autor (nw Ar singuLar.) sru nrai n,urli (numdt ptutat). c) TiDLp (lense). l'impul ara|; momentul sau perioadain care s S 1336 potrece actiunea enpdruatn de verb. Gnnaticr englezn.ca li .rea romeni, ounoarste tci,,timpliri de bazi"' ( Prindxl T1trscs)3, pr,:z.nl. h.t)ut -.i riitor. Pe lingi aceasi,a. verbul mai poate oxpriua si nuanle ale tinpurilor de bazi cu ajutoml timpurilor perlecte, nunile Si ,,timpuri secundare" fJecondal, Tcns?::l). (A se redea Conjagarea, g 1354) d) Motl (Mood). Forma yerbald care arati nodal cul]1este conceputii S1337 acliunea exprimatd de yerb este numiia nod gramaticaLIn gramatica engleze se l-orbette delalra moduri: indicativul. subjonclivul, condilionalul 9i imperaln principiu. acliunea rprimatn pri! inl.icaltu este reale, sigurn; prin subjonctia,iJea16, presupusn; prin cond.iliaml. conditionatn srr dodtn; p n inperulir, parn|ciLe sau sugerati dircct: (lndii,rl,ir) I rp.aft XDglGh. r'is ri{h Lim"\o., p,A?Inq.b,,.i!r rn m.,,1i.," .. -..ion, iv) t'iE.,.n it h" ^""rd. ,.on,tiliunat, |^ "art,t spp.''t English at Ionr lessonsl(Ituperativl ^i?rdl patru moduri sint numite nodari pffsanale (Finit. Farns), deoa- S 1333 -\cesta reco forne,lc 1or sint,legate de persosne.l)e lingi persoani. ]nodurila personale au numlr. l,imp, aspct, diatezd Ei sinL pnCic.Ltire. adici pot loma singure Dredicatulunei DroDozitiiI 62:llr. ' tl rt:r' rl' .ro,lu"ilip.rion. l". I'r crlnJri.a engldri re"bul ore;i/or.'r" t l:t:19 in,t r'nnatc(Nun.F;ni1,Forn' ol u I ptl, |\r I tLrl!).ar. nFfiild Ip!irp dp parsoane, sini inwaritrbile.EIe corespundmodurilor impersonaledin g.amatica romene li sint urmntoarele: inf;,nitivnl, carc denume,steao,Liunea, slarea etc.. o\primatn de verb; pdrticipiuL prezent,oare aratl o acliune in desh$urare ori o siare in curs. erprimlnd verbul sub forma de tnsusirelczultatd dintr-o ac,tiunesau arntind cirounlstan,ta(de mod, de timp, de cauzi cto.) in carc se pctrcce acliunea verbului; qt nd,irul, ca.c denumette ecliunea yrbale;
grama 'rJ ,.1 !it/,, I a. 1, ". , , , uiLt "/ 1r p t p . i . i - . i J " 'd p t ii .,o"' 1. , . 1 l,mbii roma np _, L l. n . P. li. , a" r r "f \ . I n pr \ inr d u F . r r d r " , l " a 'r m i " i . r S ens crn na Lirn l l$ 21 . . {,.r' mr,Iil. J. L;, m on, nr u \ o r b r ; , , b m ' n u n F , f dpolr r , l J , i l- . l. p + - r nl. ' r F_. p' , ni, . ' . m o m p n , l . p \ r {i " . " . ti . , 1 ,' , nu" , dtiso lur-. r..;,no , i " I . . _ , l n r r d a!a f . _1 '" r o p o " , u1 on dn r p rdrd rr , r ' 6. ! r s au ' i t . i : - t t r hr . t ; . " ,.. ur.,."os,o".. > i I n. . { od t r , , : 'j . l, li nd

958 de tnsulire rezultat5 parliciqiul treeut, care exp me verbul sub forma dintr-o aclrune:

..*. o"ili"""Iiu "" i;"l'l:;:'.:;: -,4 \ l S40Fo rmFl FnF p- r s onalFn u .d rrp p rq o q n a ' a ' r' n u ma r:i ' i ' tnp' t!i a' l i r' il.: i:i
" "'"
sr a rpoc , .

p""."'] i T:,,:l;ll'ill:;lli"l'-I" +:"r,5J"i jlir

p j r i mo no'l s ip s rrr' rp rd rr" r" n r3 n 'idioi"z' iarinlin it iv u l t SZ5r '1 ,..r 0;n
'

rerbul poate ii pnn5l Vorl princip: !i Yerb suailiar' - Dupd funclie' cipal sRu au) iliar' v''6l rp ir'Lcl"sproprirrrsi ' re al t'*b t,rin ipol t.Th' Pt'n";pd\ { l34f "' ,,rbul rurilia' l' formdrrr'n'oJurilor\i c li'"rpurilor'on'lusp "1u,",',:l" The housew6 to ld'
I ndoea son ihtv ore at ttie ptav' Sho dtd the room' \ f lt l torl l cl ar rrui r' t , ) V , r bt t t au t;ti o r r tl e A .u " ti u F t I rb r uj ura l r " on'roral 0 p' our.i u ti i n i 'r' ' :l ' r ' 1u rsi j i rl : !e rb ale. om pu' e. l rrn a ' F a e ' | 1P' ;;;;J

germooreo

0"r,,.r', \'li,'":l;i" '-;: !,'1")i"10:'*i

l,:%i!!"i;.

ii::j" li,lii'il;:'li'l-:-'
i" nntoo'r r"u:

s"*o """,11.f"n1,1'.J;i.T::'*;;fliiii'"x""J'i*".iJiJ Din punctul de vedereal dura!'ei8cljunD


n,A r P.

N ar d Totrte auxiliarelepot fi ti l'erbe principale/lexicale'

v'rLcr" r i"nnlrr1n,/r'r erprimar". ii'_|,i"']i ,"^",,**us \Pfbe cu caracter o'nr d') [ 1J11

a) Aspecrrll

\)erbclor'

' '''

A,p.a. pain..

;'-:1Ti':1i,1'ri ':'"i:: l,*ii;tt;;i;-lil;l;j;r:ll ':i::;;;il ei: ninnrii


1':$"1'* i:[::+ i:]i:1"* f'"T;

lslclJ' care eril)rlm* a"/ verbe cu caracierdrrdlio (y erbsof Dutdtiec d1315 " acliuni sou st;ri ce dureazi: csre au taraoter d"') verbe cu caraclerdubtlr (Verbs of Doable AsPe'l'' da cotrr'\r: sru dura iv 1n fun'{i' -n^pnrin

A 1ir16 '--"

*T),, tl i;,1'i;i?'i:l iii"",#;"il'""Ti r"*"''r


I l?a fd a n ois c ( Nom ent J n)

to' !iii"i".? iiin ri" | 'sons {n ho - " rolv nu"di' He srorrel shorr' {Nomenl'nr rrur ii;:;;fi;; i'i l" '!irras' '$^ dJrs Durirriv)

gmnr'i i ' J i 1' bi i ' J gl r/' *r ' mo l i \ v Prb u lp ti r.;rs l ' ' ." u n porirumi l i r auri'i'-r r"'" "rp ri1.''r ' r - *" i" ) i.iii,ii 1""r;''""uriiii p \rd"'"t"'"r ' " ^bli di r" \' ?' s r:{u i))i.i'l l i ra t rbpl ' m" rn P t!) t' 4 r' ' u "r"tt'': i j ioi" i" " ijai' iau^ r ! An a ajungc lntr'un lunci'

CONSDIN^TII

CENIIALE

Ob se r a. L! { e Lrnele rerbe lii schimbli caracterul din durativ in momenranl prin adnrgara part;culei advcrbiale sau prepozitio ale care le translormd in yrbe .orn p l e \p . ins i. l1nJ u s " . o . t" l c ..i p r" i n .,l u tu l u i . .ti ' .i rrl i .Ju rezut arui -i a . ! ru n rr o r i s t if lr p\ p m a te . 1os.t (: a der.n'r ldlrrativl 10s.t u! (: a sc s.ura) (momcnraDl (: I ii cnlcat, a znce) [duraii'r b tie t. tie &\\,r 1: a se c!i,,a, a se n,lnidc) (!roienra.) t o, nal. (- a l a c f) l d ,' ru ri v l (: a lusi) ituomenianl ta nat'r off (: I sed.al ldu.aiirt ta si.t _ 10s . t d. oqn 1 :a s e a re z r) (rn o n ' e n l a n ) to stdnd l: n sia h ricioar) l,tr.ri.irl to stand up 1: a s. saul. in pi.ioa.c) (monenirnl \ lg4? -

fo s;t do, v n. t a t or d u p a u u n -o ri -i In ,J l -q L l ur.ti r (r-Jp" .ti r a scdad. o s t a i n fi .i oar r ) ln t u. r,!i p d " ro n te \tt o rl o n 4 .u p ral /,/ L b0r sdu bul el la care se mdnlnci stind in picioare); a stanrl-up ieal (: gistare luafi stind 1) ) _ A s p p, t t , u l f - o r,m e L o r u e rl a l c . trIa j o ri tatea fornetor {erbal e , or n rl mo a e ngr c z a at r do u a & .p trtP, h') aspcctal perfectio (The Common Aspcct or Perl ctive,4sr..t). care c\ D r i md .liun" a i- s iF i d v " rh u l u ;. F 1 i -i 4 ,n a u " " noLi Inad da rl Li rara qi d" S L3{ 8 .a1849

b" ) aspectul inpetfectie (duratie nn nnLinu.ttiv ) (Itu Cantinuous ot \ lJiO Prc'-r s';r, A s p*' ) . . s r c a ra l / .d a , l i ,rn F a v a " b u l u i ,n , ur. .1u .b se " st" r e petd . Acestor doui aspecte le corespund doui forme de conjreare: . ) ftnjuqar.o sinpla (lhc Simplp ConjaEat;on) cind A0liunea verbului \ 13il . I g, hon-" And llc do$n rvhrn I olz tir.d. Shc nas s/P?r\di. I saw t,. .onz in. ThrX ndd tud such lrnl con.tinud (Th. (ontinuons .c").conjryarca oind acliunca {erbuiui este i'nperiectivn: ot prclrl'.ssit)e Conjalation) | ltiJz

'What d. ron.r,inAr" "I am t.Liins at t.hencH jfr air linpr..' t hp ho b, . s l " 1 i ... | ,r ,1 i .. .r Hr ho. t t , \ r" a d " A rl | l " r-, ,.. HoN lorg iar yan bkt tchiaq cotds tjke this? (R.t.tililel

A t e n l ie

S ljb g

._ \un'"le te.anjutor. "au lonnt pn"ta:ri F.re i'lp"opri,r.,t"odrp.c il limba romdna .progresivtrr"umn, !..ir! .r,,./. sau sFd. /. ar, i rFDtt roDu! r :r"s,r. .mr re nu e nazulaii. Fo|ao,ontiiua nLm"tpinLtj.Jr,tn limbl englezeb bc in lrrgrerr insemnind a fi in curs,"tr" in d(:s.fd.turarc, Mnti uare, i.n de unde:,.lrogress;re".
t Ve.belecomplxe oaractd nnmait.rr pot delcni dnrnrivc in htn.lic de cornrt. ou lt*

!00

t s 1:l;
S lil'r;

CONJUG.\REA
GE\DRAI'tr C.TITAOTUIiISTIOT 1\DIC,\'1,'ll\1trl 0Dtcli

1*!F*$*ff
! 13;1i

i1;, ffi.u+;.{i*rrr,1
TtllPtrRt I\t)l c \T l \' Ii i , Gn,Ir rrczeDl{ttui T i m D u ri l r' .onP us' au ru\iliid,l h !tu:flt l i i tor
'L i r I L urLlrrr '1 , , r u , r r r . i t j .t I l d t . d " f_i!tor ti1n, tlr lrtIl

ig*$fitffil"xi'fst
s 13t7

1
i

trli \ili,r n"Tt,r,t

Im*\

I
tig. 1

i:61

Aneliza fig. 1 lqi 2 Conjugarearonlini este un sistem eentratin Drezent{ver; Fi{. 1). pcl,Ltu F\primarFr lre, u'ului tal,l dp p'"rpnl. ronju'tar;x romdnJ arF-trFi rin,puri tl.tutrt impc4-lut. ppt[,"tut\inptu ,i I,"4..tt l ,ompu:. qi ,rn rihp rniFrinr a' P.lofai m4t mult ru p"r[ ftul. Pentru prprim"rpr rii'nr-lui romind are atitorul Ei \In timp alterior acesfitla. oi.itorul anttior. "onjugrr.r Uonlugxreo$glczi esl,eun sisten construit pe doun aft DarulLIci\ezi Fi:. 2\. cisl.mul F6tp oJdr pc rlouj t;npuri: pr .b oplr.p pr...ntu! ( p. *Lt i.rr,. ne dF a|a tt..u1u| (Pn,t t"nv). Redarea unci intinpldri sau a unei st;ri poate li ficutn: l) fie la prezent, lntrebuinlindu,se prczeitul indicairu,Iui; 2) fie la trecut, tntrcbujnliDdu-se t;cntnt indicar.iruluit
He knoc16, aaitt a liiUe and iher ot,ns th. doo.. lPrezentl H. kn.ked, kaited a little aDd l.len oFn.d tht door. iTf4,,L)

( l35S

\ t;i.')t) '

S 1:J{i0 i fl6t

.\r..bpl" limpuri .int ri'.1nurir;,,r1, Dle au liecaie trcrural si ;iitotul lal distin.!. expfi-late pr;u r;lllpuri co puse. 1) Fati de prezrnt ( Pftse t T,n*). prc.entLl p.rfect ( prcynt p.jrfcd ) I tttjl A\p|lrni o a rlunp "r,t-fluJ15.iJ' r;.totut (Ft, t,) si r,,]ar',tt.tl .t tFulrrp Pcdcct). acJiuni riitoarc: /,,.".d1.1"1 '.'t,'r,. r,.r.riofip....nt .tu Ll t,".r toU Ir

'".-,'l iii', ; , i,

. . , . , t 1 -l ' , :i r , , ., { | , , L ! r ' ' " /,,1

ErentpLu:
Yon Ano$I Lrre."/1l ..r l)fr ard itratt.all asain. !X fir. o',li.k I sl.r'trlre.olLd t$i!e. Atenlic! Toaj.c recsle limpuri. fiind raportate la prezent. au auriliarut respectiv g 1B{i3

, r l'n{n de trrecut ( pasl Tcnse trccutul pei{l ( past p.rlcLt ) e\prima o 1J64 ), li. . anl,ri^ rd. ),r,' tut loto d" tr.rLrt(t.r,ut tn,l,. t,asit ii't,ttorut -s a, p, !4 fuli dt: tecut (Futurc Perfett tn the past_/acliuni I'iii,oare:
I cn u t,i jI

Ir

i . , d , r hd
s no, ld, n r

t.cfll

pedect

(acliune alr,erioariL ircntului) 1 acliLDi riir.oarelaliL t 'lc trecrl

I I sno&tl harc I called

viilorul lale dc lreort \'iil.orul terfc.t

E x e n p lu :
I lold l'o! I lail unled .n her and \fodd catt lgdn. You krictr ihri by livc otleck I shorrldbsre.ali,l {s ngrccrl.

)! \

T o ,l n 0 , F s t - t im pur i. fi :rd ra to rtx ' .


l n dlc ollrnl lfP.nl.

l d /.p . r/. J u i U \i ti d,l ta r,.p-

ri \"

S l S ri t

Obseraalf.e . Arnlele srii d-iin luri - erupr prezontuluipc dc o part li grulo irecu- S 1366 ru ru, pp de olr0 - lormF0Ta rt':t-tbm p. I t! sitr,tlir.

!8i

s 136?

FORME VERB.{LE

lloonotnia de formc tn coniugareaenglezneste extremi. La verbele regulat, care roiNtituie mdroa majoritate a \;erbclor, o si[guri formir - aceeaa infinitivului prezcnt- stil l^ haz:rintrogii coniugiri. Este deoi suficient se se sLieinfinitit'il unui verb peniru a se afla ;i conjugarea lui, dao{ se cunoso urmAtoarele reguli de bazn: 1) lormle simple ale coniugntii dedvn de la tnltztltt ( $ 1639); s r 36q r^ rrll (infir ilir) - .4t1."olls (ildi.aliv prFz"nrr ' .o1r{imperdtiv) .ntl"tl\i",li."ti! lrc.u sLbjon.liv pre?pni. parri.ipiu rrp.uLJ- .dtrir: {participir prezent). s 1e69 2) formele compusese construiescou urmdtoarele auxiliara: WILL s 1370 n) SHALL qi pntru (cu trecutul SHOULD si WOULD) + iofinitivul viitor (modul indicativ); sini ciracte stice Tiilorul
I s/d ci1l, .tc. (lersoana 1 sg. 9i p1.) Iou (lZ orll. elc. (persoana a t'a ti e 3 a sg fi Pt l

I iilt,rul faln ,1. lro(rtl I sno"ldc 1, etc. (pe$onn.t sg. $i p1.) you .ro,id .nll, etu. (pe$omaa t-i ti a I'a sg.ti pl.l

s 1371

D/ SHOULD ti W0ULD + inlinitivnl lorneazd qi condilionalul: I sh.uA crl1,.tc. (!eNoa^a1 sg Si Ir1.) a sg Jox ru.id eauctc. (lersoana !-a ti a 3_a ii pl )

$ 1372

t[turor timpurilor .J to HAVE + participiul fecd ajut[ la forrnarea pclfeote: Prezentulpertect Yiitorul portect
I rnz[ ],r. caued, ett.

l'reoutul pcrfect Viitorul pcrtect fati de trecut


I stoall /ure called, etc.

Co dilionrlul perlect
I sharltl. ha@ .altcd, etc.

pelfeet (forma modernd) Subjonotivul Participiul perlect


qi conjugarea pasii'I:

Infiniti{r

pertcot

s 1373

dJ io BE lormeazE conjugarea continui . pr ni. ipir l pr f ii. il' iul

, o n i ,Ea rF O .o l i nur: p rc z a n l I an ca.lling,ctc. l re .u l .^ n j u !d n 3 p J " i r" I a,, cailed, etc-

r Ac.stn tormfr de bazn esie nuoriti 1n Sfanatictr nglezil,,Iorma comuni" f?tu Cotumt Iaitu. The Dase)

un Ztdefl

0bs.raalie \o,n0n laiurs rct,,ali ., ,o,,jucr i engleze prezintn acceasi sincirie si S 137: ? o .i .o,]iuga',.. T.a-,. l" r, durilF o/1. lirnp,||iln i/rrr; or.,olor ^r'mic' rrpi linlpu'ida b.zi rrrp,u,. frpzen .lir !ii .fl. iu.u\ ,rut Ir[p] rldu,".I lo n'rr"lp timoului .au -o,l'il'ri r^.fF,.i! s-'1"' too1" r'i1;1),1. t.n a'.,1 1;'
core".punzdtoF: Viitoful Intn de lr(ul Con.ti!jonalulrrezeni p.ezent Slnior.ii{l I n i j r i ti v ul pf z . nl P.,rl i rit ix l pr ,z . nt l)rczcnlul !erlc.t Trecnlul tefL.ct \' i i tn tu l p -a f eL l rl 1.,l e 1r.1rt l L o n o T ,o n Iu r l , rP o Sulriofotirul perltut Inlinili l rrerfect Parlicitiul perleoi S 1375

ll r c e p I i c: Imperathul. xce p l i o n al. ( V ' ) z i . s162 2 ). .1 te n li. !

carc nu are perlFct decit in nxrd cu totul

s rB7

A se observa ideniitatci de formi a urmitoarelor timpuri ;i moduri. en. si da i .inpli .,ter ri , -izis ronlrrc.:rrii r z-. ',r ,a,. iriLli"rti,'i' pr'rpnr rhnr p"r... .,-a.g.r. d/ lnfiniri\ul t,rpl-nr ,tdr.1 subjonctivul (forma recho) si imperativul. DJ tndicativul trccrt si subjonctivul prezent (iorma moderni). a/ I'recutui portecl ,si subjoncti\ul perlect (forma modernn). rl.,)Viiiorul falE de trecut si condiliondul prezent. ,ri viitorul perfecr faln dc irccut, ii concti,tionalulpericr. Diiro.lierea acestor lorme este determinatd de .ront.r/. cnrc subliniaze inl.alid vorbitorului.,\ccsi are astiella dispozilie qami intirriterie,^ubtilio Letti (ooertones.) caft.loate jongia pentru a ;i exprima cele n]d ijne nuanle cu are qrn( n sau srmlrrn. 0onchrzio Sistemul conjugn i enElezecuprinde la modul indicativ: 1) ttei.tinpuri d? be.ti aLercnj\gdri.i sbnpLe preznt. trecut ti viitor care evrimi o acliunc przenti. trccutd sau viitoare. nelimitatii la rllornntul 2t trci 'tnt)uti d h:d ot .q iup,.trt; ,onttrr" ptp7. ..a1tinuu.trFnt .u .onrinuusi vii,o' o.r",irrn, tn, u". ld n mom' rt, -'n'inlnr, dat prezcrt, trecut sau viitor; "i"c:r1rim.j Jt tr i t,npu t,,rl .,, ,tt. ,onjd;dti; r;,/,/./ - n-a/-nt pprtF, t,a.ul ', p,rf.,r si \iir.r p"rh" -,1p Frprimr 0",itni ,.rmina ". , nt"riu.rF unui m^manl dal pxpri'nrl prin prerFrr, trerut adu \ tor: 4) trei.ttnpwi perfecleaL conjryd.rii cadinu. - prezent perfect coniinuu, lrp,r'l I,Frl""' .ontinu r Fi \iir4r p-rlF.t ,.,,tinuu ..r" "xp"i.r, i.!iuni in r urs pina lo Dn m01.nt dar prFz;rr. rrp.ur :au rri or ."i.o-tin,rlnd .au nu in l. ur trpzF.t ii un p.rla.t. pdrri.itiul J\ind in r , Cplplelra oduri du lo prus ir un rrmp rrecui,
I DennniFa de ,e./c., are. ln rclasia sil.lr}tie.si sensuld. polcctat, iermina!, deci anterior !nni alt timp: !|czni,. lrecnr sau viiin.' : Pentru atrolunaarea accstni astect al limtii ngleze, rezi Y.rbele defe.tire ,odale

$ 1377

s r930.

904

s 1373 s 1379

A CONJL{,i,tltE-{SIIIPL-4. UNUI 1ERB nIEGUL-{T TIIRB) Ol' (sllrPlll coNJUGlTrOr A rLnGU[-\R DI,\TEZA ACTIVA1
(ACTTVITYOICE) TO N,ILL {A CHEI{A)' I \r I \ITi\i r?r\?l\'1?1 rz,

l)rr,zent ( I'res.:rLt)
lo c au ( : a c ] ' c m a l I'ARTICIPiL

ler{ect ( perfecL)
l o h a tc c:rl l ed a i i cl ' emar) {= (! ATTT]C]PLE )

Prczen\ ( Pftscnt)
(alr;ns i: clemhdl

Trecut f parrl
calld (: ohen3l.)

Peficc't ( perfcct)
hdenq .alle'l (: chenlnd)' L .V tnD ;

\l r' . l :L l N n l L \l l \ ( Prcsent) Pt.z$t I otll l.= chcn) rou call i' " I sre I caus

tl .\l rl a A i l l

i;' I'-- '


wr c{ll rou oall il,cJ call

'Irccs\ ( Past le se) I called (: chc!!am. .hemai, am chemat) You cnll.d h"| she I called

ir J

Fr called vou c rll"l l.iieY calld

Pfffed) Treeut lrerleot( Pusr PerfIt) Prozet pefc0t ( Present


I havc call|d i: am clremrtJ Iou ha{c ealled rlms.a llrd slr {'e harc callcd rou lave callld ihcr have eallcd

I hrrl callcd (: .rhematn)

Yiitor
(Futue )

yiitor pertcct

Viiforul perlecttati Yiitoml ta$ do trccut dc trecut (Fuhtre in the (Future Perfedin
Pdst)
I snolld c l l - v or c l 'e m '

the Pdst)
I siodld hale calted \"i li 'h p m a l , , ,

I rn,ll hnlc callcd I s/d/l i,all J, \ ,i.,T.. I I "oi . i ' fo-\ il|.'l\o]si'|''"\"il"J \ ' o' $oU|d' a|L

i." . | ,rr " I l$ir.,'r ;, iljft

\ii

r . . h //,.d l

, t .-,, "i'l rl' " \ ' $il.d .l

',r"r \o . $ilI ' c { ' ll"J ". . r . i. | lJ \ " ' llqJ

* s j.// r,av.

I woLrJ li_ I $"urd hJ\" t;.,ii" -'e i",i; i;" .lr, r" . 1

h.

*.

,,t,
'i l l l

ii"

{ ox " l l, ' lL' J { ull'

r, , ' d h ) ! " r r c u , ra"J'\.'m 'l " d l h 'y $ o u r o r J v r 'd r r P o

",

l Y c z i q 1t7i- 1 7 7 3 . l -r ' , i . , i , - otr ' ..r" . " . * o n ' p rl i ' ," ' In l u ' ra r" Jd- dt" un hi ngu_nl l Fs ' l \' rb ' l ui j*t , "r l un.l i e ,, ,/, . \ " t " ir " .,d ' r" J " c 1 ,.i u n i : a s rri g ' r. a xumi ,:r \i /i l a/l r.-l D '' tcu sersut ,,.tutii ce a chcnat" lcesi tinp liDsefl,e gramatica limbii in 'omane (V.z i S 1r 0r ) .

,6; tl0LlliL suBJo\cTIV forma Teche ( I ndependentd. linp ) dc I call (: sn chcm) slr. I call (,ttj B.ttiNCTtvE ltooD)

Forma Doui Ptezet\t ( prcsed) Pertect (p.4.d) I cancd. se .hcmj (: I l,adcalted s,'L ct,cmatj (fi
Jor falled |eI she I call.d Jou had caltcd t re l she I had cdteo

'rJjrl

]\IOIIUL co\DITtoNAL (CONDIIIONlL MOOD ) lrtzeloI ( Present)


chena)
I'ri I

Perlect ( Perfect )
I s/pzld have cdl.d (: ns ti ctt.Irarl you wonld h.rvc call.d nct slic l ivould halc ,ralled ri I we sloLld nare onlt.d Iou wolld |ave oalted Urcy would }ale callcd

ir, I

lloDUL TMPDRATIV(I]11'DFATIt/E trOOD ) ( Pcrsoana a 2-d, sg. ti pl.) &ll (= oheane,.henali) {Yezi9i g 162!) OONJUGI&XA ACNY.I CO:{TINUI (vezi S 1te1)

DINTEZA1 ICTIYA

(acrrvu Torcx) XiODU R II,E P E R S ON AL E


i ! tN l T ! IOR \IS OF _ {V ER Bi

s 1380

5r 3 8 1 5138

I. II\DICATIVUL
(T H I] IN D IC AT IY N )

pdltif'S.

exprrma ta ije ler b Lr r , ,' a t, rr{ a r" d .

sau eristen,ra 1]8s .trlodulindicatjvprezinreacliunra,si,area S


PX,DZENIUL
{THE SIIPI]N

$}IPLU
IIiESE\AI)

s 1384

1 ) De fi ni, lic . I n pri n c i p i u . ti m p u l g ra m d ti .a l r umi t..trei ,i r. e_rpri nr.r ! tB S b o a, l i u n e sb u o s r s r c . o e ri i q l rn ,li n p rp T r' , . l n t, p t i r,.H . p.fl ,,.,,t. de Li --,ol .- , aresFrp f"rd \ pr bul F " , n " l i m rrs ts ;l n ,a p " i n tF ,u t -i dutr0/.. ri n ti i tor. ir , . 1u.i v mo m c nlul pr pr p n t i n .J rc F . \' o rL i l o nrl . "ild rVe zi S 177t - 1t 73.

266 a r:hB , sroeulitr' - Ptpz"n'ulsinllu:'"::": 2r [nr,n;. Poreoarra:r:l-i'l ,or'" p".-""""f"-", ,',-pi;" n^Fodn;i a :r-d'ingul 'r' '"re ,., si i ni:-r iv.rl. t. "']":-' , ''rrinllio di 'in' r'ra: .... "" "

a 3'a Or tog r a fLtL persoanei t " l' ' : : r: T : ' "o ""r".i - " ' i ' A t i "ilo'.i'"'ai" -" iu rit " l n 'r u ,r ' .i'u "r i.' i 0..".rr .h"sri,rn' t " :S'o- ' p lt"alu lu i''o ' "rb ; ' t i' " '" : e r a t i'r i i v '"" '"'""l ilu't'sri\" p F n ' L u p c\emplc i i - " 1u"."." r r r m;roJrolor

i,'l:i'|"!il"' i;i'iI'J"l5ti"l'"",i";"li:' s in g u la r'

/a) (S el):
lo looli to r.dd l. bcar -

hc looks h. rcads lLe bctrs to i'o lo

lsl lzl Lzl take lliSueclrcte -

to s.ow - hc sro$r lo iaai - he ta\Ls ro eve - he cXes he takes tsl


nc ne he Pledges he lursos to blil,z -

trl tzl lt)

(b)( s sz):
to laoD to .o[gc -

sn'" laces she .orges

l,o plcdge to turse -

|o l.eezc -

iL fee?es

(cj (6 s:r):
to d.css to mir he orcsYs hc nnte_' to lnsn to icach to match -

iL blitzd

he Pushes he r_"achct he maicnes

rd, {s95):
to l'Iy

ro,ar-J _h.,ar,tr
xe saJs
ne gods -..-"

to say
io go

($ e6):
-

to to'r

he loys

(e) (S tot)' -^ f/) ( S10 2 ) l

ro do

''

ll l;1""-i" llrnl"

;:i:li"r Hi":f;""

+,2-i s r38? 3)Porbotoa :'^::r"*; i"i lt',i"::'"*."* Ji'$iJ:, mutr racr si bun-bunl " rormi , o it ta p"r'oan? 2."u""il};l a.Acii
dinrre

.iTl"iTiilo";llili,""lil"lil'il,i'i'T pa"$q*1 p""'." ::';lt" i. ,,"'i"i."i drn ongrndr' p"r.oan"lp .1


i""i.,.i
i-i " s au " m Ji r o r r nal -How oo 1'"' i"oi';rli"r- u ^ ( ti
: aslc'iai asoni (llsrd : !h'o (onomalopce hltl) 1t o a P o l c o r' lto r : - " 1, c ain c i rl l a i o&.4ll*' p"..,,iTi,m ari arhaic,-I, {rialectahsntrliLfarir: !e,s. n r a ss. c- r.Lu lormi

ensrcze d '"i'",i;i"," i;," io,rre .cra.leris1,.5 irmDrr A.asru i',1.'Yll.li-1"^-.r;.i,,i."r rctar,iiru

r' orisin'iul:"qhii""^",,..*".".s"a". a""^rn!'IliJ dP ' g ra z :1 9 )' " ' ' rY ' din jc x ru r F I'ii1q.",l:1"""1:':T lnrrch"rih i'""itir" polirctii'r 'or "r "l ma c a z in-\ v h a l c n I d o :

^i:]."i..-,,, ,, ::f;il:'ril"i' :rr,....-rs r"r;o,ri:'ir'" :;: i"ii i'"Ji ri;::' ri:i' i{itl"l,.jtil'i;ifl 'ii'iii obr'^""r:a ':ri'aIl:il

'"',,.;T't\l;;ir,:j;i/,"r,,b,irr.;.1,,'il":ll,',,lJii :lXl,ii:l;;-."; . orr fl Lurdr'oFn' I't

!67

lor lou, lladaml" La rcstauranl,: '\lhat \\rili lrou have. sir?" etc. stnLtraduse cu .,Ce mai /acl?', ,,Cuce t serrescl".,,Cec'rr:i iei2" in loc dc: ..llespectete si mel_e". magazin:.,Cuce rd pot serlil'. T,r restaurant: In r)oriyi lua1i!, sn ,.Ce 4) I trebuinlaruri przontutui simplu. - Ilrezentul indicatirutui esic { 1388 lnlrpbuinlrt penrru pxpri-.'. ir. lun.lic dp,.nr,\r. drj in.pul pr.zcnt. frI 5r Irmpur trecui- \iI 1ur,or.

z) Exprind f i,npul prezenr. $ 13Bg PrFzantul 6implu.cind InJJ ri'npul prpzFnt ,^.r r'ai hc,rpr ti tntr,. bumlnrp a sa xpnlnn: ( dJ un adevnr gen eral. u ]ni:;ersal an etttnul rr uii J. f; ra speciticarei ijmpu \ 1t90 ' lui,rumil ln a,e. rrz sj ..trpz.n etrrn-1. loar'" ii..li,"t in prorcrbe: The Earth rurn.s lts dis. or
jn reed i." a hiend jndccd. lP.oterbi -{ i.iend Tlii, sun.;rs irt the east ad se1si! $c FesL. TNo and iwo {"3 ion.. Dab'es u., lery sNeft. "Thc child is father ol the nd."

,/

o acliune sau o sl,are care cartrctcrizeazi subiectul:


The lanulc flor! into lhe Bhck This tcni /Mlds lonr pcople. II i ,r \e N qui, k $o. 1. . r cai\ slim ' f os i. He laees ltr canp out. l. b bt:d \F sle ju. . t l, \ Ps t aot : : . . c . ue h os a tbm . Sca.

s 139r

cJ o ac,tirne sau o staro permanentd care cons|ituie un obicei sau care q 1392 este repetatdl (adesea cu arlverbe sau locut,iuni adl.erbiale repetiti\.e. cn: ' al*alf, often. seldam.usuaLll. ca.r, neecrl trhen&er, erent rlult. on qe.hends
oa, liles and lca.ns. lProvrbl s,nls hlr lltiers brf ai. nail. -qhe Hc rlccpi iir) litlle. doisn'i nc. , : , . s \ ilh "L on d n fdllin ; n' \ .

\\i, /isnr 1o. r'cace I

r "r l.

r '" . . 1

,.1 \r"

rl,,

j. ! \fF o lnrIr o. r - r r ' on 1""1, - . , p. .-J ,s o/r a $r. seldom ltsr.? in t. hilk'sDoesit shc u a ! statl ut kde? It' \at er.r r.,7cnr.f whil I sa!? Undc u t-.r.r tl,c tt o.l.l I.r5 on lb. T\i. ",rf Wheher| t,\ttta cd,ls, sh0 brings cran.ie rlo1i?rs. r a. i , / l.r - l i ?). n u n ap .l-., r',n i i ", 1. , ' l. i",. J r J. i : -\i,,1 \'-l . I . r r . . t '. i , . . t 'r r . i . . / r . , , - i " l \p \ s e li,rh, nkro u ;ma inl, , . . 1L- . t t o. t r . . I n , r ' a,p: -t l.!1 . h,lo ut,fu ,r / . , c . r b. r , r , . . . . r p . t . : . . H / 1 . , i r \lrdirdi o \-.pl d p "ddu, , f lr ^r dt n, , ". n. n. . , , ; . ara, irs.,:.t I\ rr1lr E d t n p A tlaon,pa "u : r;/ru\i.t,lo r ' r r r J . ai, t , , . "; J t r..Jt .l_,L!\..., n io tr.J " /,.b i m1 ni" t u_din a r"ili",l"1 1.p . r J ! . luilor . . . \ ' 1 / p/ n, t L '- . t b " . , t t , rt t t,.i--.1 d i n ! p" uulanl. Pd "ld st,-rr: . . \ m n' in, r ' , , . t i, r " L , . l . ', t ) ; . , t , ', . a t n . o J , r t u n d a r, t , n &,toftl ttun E. L. I . d. . . . . . r 1, iun iu, r . a . r t p r ] J . , ta.dat,t. :.\cor z"a .,1o I ' r , t l", . r . d 1- r' rp ti t.. sp "\r r in' n u m c r,i rire:e ar sno nrc (ra anlt 14! , nt ) IJn lo. ' n p lu"r'.-Ji,/p ! ^ nai pud! . r , L " I i". , l , "7 , i r . . s . , , r - , t . r , , aFo.mil ninild h sramatic{ ,ic,ent iloatie (ttetutiee Prcsent). s"Innl.on Ca ine" a: Vorleiti Londral este nlrmele iransmisi.i TV a RBC.nlui.

268 q 1e93 d) o rcljune sau o stare cnre are loc ln momeniul vorbirii, dar care no qrr_.urrrp. nrrn,ri ra ci an'tr' ' , I riin.l In ,1, "ristind:
_\ o .-r" rrL o o 'r l " ' |/ , 4P 4. " r o lr r o - - \ ", 'ni. 'c o l l 3 n d Sl,p ra:",1(rl l,Jn-ds uid-,o/is su rasL that ihe oihA sirls in her teanr cdn hnrdlv ke .]l ur) $ 'th bc r . "Y.ur sist('. /ts / in?" "No, s hc ' s out " natuicd. l)aphnc ts l,apll h.''t d. ttt^t.l Yon d?rrc so l6t. \\'a o.ltnanl.ng. re.cipt oi lour leiler oi cvc! date

q 130{

.l o art;u,,ein curs sau o stare eristnti in r'.rb'i' nu y'"r . r!"r fo'mH , onri' ui { S l8{6J
'fhey /,.1 old and {oul{i like io see thet grandsi,n

ronentll vorbirii, cind

I remnbet ihe incid.nt no\t Urai lor n.nrtdz it. Tl,cy a.e shd Xou'! cone g 1395 /J l'rezentui se mai tntrcbuinleazi cu verbe de mi;care. care se referd l a u n iapi c e ar e l o c i n P re z e rl t: Herc .oma the ,tnzaf of ihe CuP. etc ) de eveninent'e corllentarii, interviuri, descrieri (la radio, tele;ziune sporlive; exclamalji (cu sau ltui ordinea subiect verb inversati): Thcrc r4lfts n, ld.l as'a1l th I r od. c ur l, ' , po n e .l ' a i rr.d n to Hcr' ('. a,tu a-carollinglr atuitt ga.s yab cdb!
'ttrre a.a th."rtnne. beli ! Tlerc apeats anothq Napal@t ! Hcrc c;mcs m! fdtlet ! Lct\ sneak ouil:

gl Dc asemenea, prezentul simplu introduce un citat in mod djrect sau E 1196 indirect, cir,d verbul irtroducti' aie un caractr momentan ($ 1344) fi nu exprimx o aotiune in desfigurare ln momentul vorbirii: on l{adletr'sadvice actingi.(: "Do not sawthe air too much "
Jo hr's l"ll' " ia y s r t i" . u ' f ' _d ir ' a' . ! r l. "l Dl , ,pllr nr. J o r r ' nr s n br r m p r . " o P

ul ii a.rp in reb rinlar ln i.dicaLiilp!..nicF, in rezL'ma pir sclor. sl filS I39? ' lologrrijilor mal^rii pov^tiril^r. la rillurilp arli.ol.lor.lin ziar.. al legendelor din ziare etc.:
Oli\in e ,, r u o "t ds t , \i"r.o .* , or', dr I up qr . r dd d";rl. slulvry.

t: trec 9. Erptind fitupuI $ 13$8 S1399 a) ( Pr.zcntulnal alir saai^rtoric H isloriN ar N axratiaePrcscnt - P en) ' tru a'se da mai nlulte aioiciune stilului, tntlmpl6riie trecut'e sini porrestite la prezent, uneori ohiar in continuareaunui tilnt trcui, ccea c contribuie la rliefarea faptelor P01'estit:
I qenr ir MC, clovd lhe doo. Snddenly a voice .alls oul .l the dalk dd srart'cs flc. I tcel iainL atd .aD ha.dlv waur' i ji au il,c Pacnls ri that d'll1 I rcmemhc(d one flridlr': Noihe' ir in the silliltgjoom' in.o,tt raiii to l,tr lii a 1\hilci bnt nll the ti;ie I /.cr th{t atl is not as il Ot rd, slould -,'" and yet I datu roi asir r,cr aboll lhe doctor's visii.

Prezentul narativ cste loalte rar lntrebuinlrat in engleza vorbitl A 1400 il ln cazul unor Yerbe care se reterA la informalii. cat ta forget, to hcar " to l:n dlh). io l.dnr (: r 8lla). 10ldl, ta be told, to uniLcrstand, tt'ritcela'j 3e intrel,uinjclz. do prchrintr l'^pznt(l simplu in locul przentuluipedecb:
I /o/3.r \rl,{t diy iL wt6. (t\nr ur.iat Ne zt .ttr) r Pe o il$lfatiL de !t{im Nor: .,In1.,1-n.. ,,n ea tt aL t: .a pt .-A.nul t u' jt . cr !e si ri colindim."

t /.,"drrc\

1.i; "ji

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: rr r. r,-surIn ",ad.,onJr ;,,. r, J,' - 5r ',n \,,,r 'l\o '

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o n \ ir $

ar ' - J t r ' d . BL, l' d- "r

lrrr"r'

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r"r'rizore

I 1.2., vou !e {on the Pdze l,1m ali.tL t'.\ ai ciltisat Prc iul.) \u lr" J r/r m J' \'-eol y uur . d"g- ' n\ r iar J i: . i . r oinlom ' n'i.d ? ; I \ .d-;v " I rn tal.l rau rrp \.rv rr!\Y Llli s-, stus ' J .rti to rrte o.npdt l 1 unlerctand. l\e is a mathemati.ian ol rclulc . iDupi olt om i4leler, esle un matcmrl'c'8n repurirl, ] rlv[her u.r,p s o \ " r '" n l d lh' ' . d. n l ot ' r o\ li a. , . . , . \Irmn rdd :J\Fr . 1lLa1a l\ l r r ' i uo r r nb. r Jl r d p ' p " n i J " d '.

riitar s r10r 1. E a pr i m d f i m pul d) In limba vorbitn, clnd exi.itaur adYelbde timp aiilor tn propozilie' .\ 1{02 simplu erirrnnnuneori o aoliunesau o starc viitoare. a.steptatiori prezeritut un proiectatd,sau care constriure obrcer:
'l'otuia* is J!lt-. 2i Term beiiiDs o^ Monddy. The past;nan doesn't eall on ,S,nda?

simplu esteintrcbuinlat ln specialcu referirela prograne' s 1403 D) Prezentul etc,: avjoarlelor orare! nlersul trenurilor, al vapoerelor,
\1hat tjmc ts ihe nnsic lesson odar''1 \re razd at. livc this allnn on The York trnio is duc in al 11 am. thc mass dntonstration is at 8 a.n shulp Lolnonos' Profesor Morris is dne io lecture on Frrdag oe.k. ' ' \ ! npn da,c , . r Sun do ! , iil, t s BBa p"o; - or F. . lL du, 5n . . l, s d n a lt ; - ht . on- . . at b, r , t . as t . ' nd: r ' lt do! lnLv rr \" t-'ra 't""-.lo l t r aa' ann"" Tt " ir is o ,a to H'oth' a; . t ; ' p. t t lt t , all hnur '

D" fapt, 'a.i in limbr rom-n5. programarpdplanilicor"rsau inlerc'ul eri.ld in irc/"n1, i'le'Fs.si tn rraful. !1, r'alizarFain \iilor'
Uo rh "r 1. , , - io- r ' r r " J i d p D ' { l \-P \. te.r,po.l Pr"z A n. Ll s im plLrp ' l A l n l rF b L i r,l i l i n p rc p o z l i i tP si undot. ql rrp \rrl ocrp care r ale. a u cu nJ i! io' J le - p p n ru a .x p ri rn a o o c L ru n r s" u a p l o . .a n. init , nt , F a u rp ro p F (o n " o n ' i l n n l . ' u oLti tt l un" tau state Ritrs me un as sooa as he ga,t lome (Telitoneaza'mi oe ta ros, rc'r.si.) hr J , s D o r' L 3 u nnlil t'ndatn l ]o u to . _

$ 1104

viitoare (S 2E52):

indicatirului prezelt ilin limbi romeri, ilr limba cnglezi' s 140 5) T:raaluoerea asupra traduccrii urm:ii'oareloroazuri cu lndeoscbiaLn1,ia - Se'atrage totul spciale:
t ,.o.h -.v At.ron p.'p , ot or u, t 1r r . L, nl, , .

\ nu I o' "/ P", \d l.ou _ o nr'P | .ha Lu v,, T\ ." s h"n I c n, s , oJ al, , / p in. . ' 5o"t nol" m odal" r tV , i " mdlrd i,n "l'\/o- ' i Il Virian crues on llondav, I'll look him uP iDaoi Vilian ta cd't luni, am si na duo sil vad ) no longr t b d l - r l o 4 i i l . I nra. . \ our,d lh t, - . ' lonof los . ' ' il m r ' l - ' lll m in, nr n Jr 'r n L p a d b 'l ,frr'r-, D-cJ nu,, \\ a . np \ ' hi r I ' D )h" \ ili lo ol a r ' $. ! /;P d" \\J\ F " \d v'r;rrjJ '

97n S 1,l0ti al lndicotivul rrrzent din linlba romann tradus ln linba englezi cu ' ;nd; ;;"ut r,.ut s;npll' $r,ontin,'u { S I4ll. 2838):
i"t tl) i / 4"1"' iil rl:.', d.p .6 laot " r n t uds do; ag h"r I ' om \ \ . r \ dd c o , l l a r " o n " ' -h .5!'d .he

s 1{07
q 1+0S '

,) IndioativLrl prezent t&tl,\s cn |iitotul fald de ,'ed'.tt( $ 2838):


.t," rn," , , p / t - , u, . ' dt x-t n, m r o c o m p . l

e./ Indioelj(rl prezPnttrdJus cr prerentulsau cu ,;iordl cantinuq reJind iiiton,l in .rilul familidr (S 1521/:
\la: dzc la llinbttre rresl. o o.d: $al. iD ar , ho I d rl t + :"'& tr " l ll i" A:t' E . u a s alk I n J n hn r ' \

,ll lndi.atilul prezeot tradus cu ttfrrldl sau cn eiitoruL fald dc tecnt S l{0$ " nntinttx. r"drnJ 'iiao',,1rn s ilul fr nrliaf \S li2Jr: o A spusotl se du.eta plimbare Peste oIe
ir. .b rd p -' - tl ,.,id h"d

q 1{10 '

) lndicativul prezent iradus cu construclid idiomatici to bc Soing to (enprimd crtitudine): Vrcmease s.ilrlnlrA.
1- The rveath.r ;s g,iig ,, .|aDgc l crnhesl,e-l'. tievi l.enulI
r' t ' ir ' "? : | ou l : | ' t-s l nL dn d;'_Pl. ^: p s i, ' "! r ' r a' da r r ' nr r l J n " n u " " " r " b p '" i". . n"got ,'eo i I i' I r ' r J in i r s l P d t d n t t o a l , I r t p 'll lo lJ h".:n l n' d . \ r n r ' Sind " o J u ' 1 6 ' d ' f\l_imi \:tn go rn9 bio nlr t r ' l

sJL _, j?Hf or n$. lk ; nanI . o. r ) qoos or J \ v 1l k i d "; ut ! , I

h o 't . l

continuu. Vezi Conjugarea cu 6) Prezotul simpluin eontrast prezentul 1806. continun S

I $ 14r
llt2 "

T&ECUTLTLSIUPIU
iTIItr SLIIPNE IIS'i TENSEI

lr Foruri. TtF ulul sinplrr I'rc o \;n ut,i forud l''rlu loere p'r'ur ele, . ,r . r " Fpt i H '.rbului /o At. Tr..,rrul simplu v'rb lur rP!d|ot .c Iat n ^l meazn adnugindu-se suii\ul -cd la inlinitiv:
, .,!, ., -" |-i I pt I r l' , : J o L, . "i t J : I . o lL: l. t . ,'J t ", . h. . r . .J F'n.l q l : d

esle foarte dire$. (\rezi thta verncrclttlate Trecutul s;nplu al rcrbelar nercsulatela S tE47). belor 2) Ortogralie. Vezi 5 1?;9. S 1i113 tr." rl ' rl .i m p l u . p ri ' o d l i ur,r ' ru n' l 0rp ' unrl l ' l Jr f un. lie. 1414 $ ttaddd d n" A s

rt 1 " . l ' .rr;n n ,o n ' ,' ,, r.'mi na -nI ttttn t' " , . in\ n' lr i JnD d ' x' r i rr' 4' l i ' tu" F sts ne1t uir "t J ! ul ;Po td . In o ' ' e rs z u ti l ti n p re l ;"1 F " lF , onl/ , - po ro tu d 1 " . F t t,t t tt tn tnt t\' ot ' 1' l tr' p. .a u i ri ri p ' rl , l ' ,pr I F' r" ri rnr" rl ;n r-l ,ui ntdl D" l t iinJ ir ' l l c ...l $ 11 1 5 " t,-, l e p o r " . Lir . a inlr n ' p l a ' i l o r t;p ' tt- t It ,' tu t l totot ' a| t ;snr" ' [)orroti v" or Historic Pdst)l: Georsc,,a,...d ai this rnd !rr,,d.l ac.oss{i lhe Chicl I'ligincer' rle ,tird himscu togel.lie. and rhtt ontLnued
IPrpn r,r..,jLn rdir e J F m r l J "Dd r ' ) : r r |\ 6 1 ^ r d r r r i 'i d r : n . d F 'r r r l p p r o \ i t r '. l" f^e T"a* 4n u' ii A"a^di. ip i ' t udi i n i o u l n . a I r i c" Lc tciusi DomFnrls_ .ri {\t ). dp T tn Dul 'nln Lrin lJr il l" ndr i' f l". 1"i . ir ' ' 1 u " " 'o n j r r C t r 'i e n g l P T a d i,"r .nierna naortaia tr lndareJ de fJli.

2?l

'limpul ln (Jrps 0.per.erutactiunpsxprimati de verb poate fi precizat S1416 " urmaroal0Le rn modun: a, prinlFur aJ\prb da ti'np pr"ri. sru prinrr Jn rJ ati\. a1:u.st,r.Jor. \llt7
t t x a d otc.nA ' A.d fn'!J.dr$ er.),,- 0. t d. t ( Np"t : , nr t t Lj, 4, ". . t ; , n"c ' c. t . ' r k p n . , v\ . n p' .. s3u p rin n r i. p 1lt p. . t v . f bp or i t o. I J iU, ; I,l\erbilte rafe Drci_ ; n 19. 35 a. w' 4 a. ji ut t t r t , t t t . , 4 1 t h n l t i n t . a t t h e z " a 7 l limoul ln lrp , ., ': n u m nt. Jus ro r l ( ad inFaur i/ ; t h. t J o. t b, l, r , , t h" o t t t . t t l o . t . , t " da t Lelorc . ! s b " do. t . t..A. r . " n, l: t , t hi( d. t t t as t , t . 4r F l '. 1 ' J 't.tdo ! I called i.here z.,sr..da,. IIe srw mc fi; nizL,.: aq.. She lolt lor thc Cort.int\ir tdsl ucut. \\:hcn I $ng u!. sr rlr9 out. /. .... d s'3DoLc . I f l+ oc r iz r d hm I mat r'm r1r , , a. , i, ; |J You sr. hir.e the otte da1t, rreD't !on? '.\l ."b-lh $ as r ir . D ll. iil rn tr-;. \l!.rmc in ar ll] . r 0 t odr l \. d ,.,7 , I rsal ot p1 t o . r f oo J J r u. I so i trie te er nn t v pdne, k i. I didn't sl.cl al thdt Li,li. :,a a ula 'da u'.r ^11 c r n r o - , r , c r b. , ho ue hl tl,p t i. k nt , ; 1 Tr \ , ! t o lhp ahi . The Houses ot P{rliaert ir Loridon wore l|llitt d,,atiars petiods.

.^r, printr{tn verb la un timp tuecut (care aparline grupei trecutului g 1418 - 1356): {
'thet s,cte sains rhcn we ord{e{t. 1t f . t t ! had ! " n " r,.n ry d
li, . ' , . I . 16 \ ?t . oat d: p " it II- totid to th "' . p. . r n' r $niUw"' s t aoid Dointtnes. p said .h p tir ' . 1 1u- n , - - t 1ii" I nus i. . J , h" ^t . S' {St,t in4:r;t,.onfnrm .^ rPrlon d, nr, I m t r r lr or )

h o o ntcrpd thp room

_ c.) prjn orice alL indicator dc timp trecutpreci,s,care se nu tie adverb de S l4tg f rmp cdu.onqlruLllptcmpori\|5: L!i,fp. (r..th,t.tosaV.totell,togp\tabutf, to cost.to payj to LastEtc.l
h'tuN ,]id yor sa this buruundvl T t r y did ni. . a " h .r u r; ^ ;r /ra ," . lvas ,nar ihe nilknm ivho rnls? lvho sa'rdso? Who ,old yon inarl 1 bauahtl\is ooat ar lla.rod's. What dtd your teleajsioncosrl Hoh m u. iJ , ]' o u r,r4 r.r rh . As ta c .l s (tt.? HoN lons did tie 6h;q /dsr:

d) priq context sau numai ln intenlia celui care vorbeqte:


lt'@ she a! home?
He .ane cv.rv dav lor $cks. The rlay pd; teii sed,.,t rou hea. that noise? ,'d.e'1'0u aL the nartv? \\'h1 l d d Jo . - aJ / | ; av n r h"J r d ) ou Yor d/d, I sc. e tn ttte .lub. I ner him o, d fntt night: he $as a regutaf ti$t nignhr.

s 1420

4) ,Ilte luncfii alo trocotuluisilnplu,- Trecutulsimpluinlocuiefte urm{- g 14Zl


,u ph.,nttt p . 4 p 4 t g t i 'r .

lor . , i . Ld\ . "b. t r l D . l nu )iJ" ' int . , , . r r t r ui . *th" t n"t',..., ( L r, n' t ^. ; , , , d. t - . \ nlr id, 4 n g l . r i. , . ' iLf \i r/r. p ". r! a I na. "n : , , . | , ; t , , . . , o-

"u a F r n t . t , u 'r , t J r c u r c t r t d c

27t
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r i r n 'j '

T " l i i 'o 'a

itr

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'. '

:What illd YonwnnLio ialli to me aboutT" fDfst)E .,c i,tat ( ' lrcji si\ni \r,rbrsti?l (eu pro.edcLr niperfcclul in louul prpr'ntllui) Cr. ill tirnbalomAndacela'(i scop.ilustlrt prin rrdJu efle din pnr'nicTtlP I e rnal tnlrebuinlaLtn acelalqi Sll:3 " ..1.ln locul cnruiaesteuneorilrtrbr tul /rf I))tr,t ou i"ntr.r "'iarpi unFi r"peririi: 'r.r.irnpl:li'ar" pen,L8t

.'.\' i o L o r r i r '_ u\" l. 1l 1,, / . r r , ". / l!. L ho .r I l! t r ' , 'p a .,.t.r d t-. ".r a 't s t u l e 'l r L d a v Shc hn J |.cn {l lhe lui s inoe \ i, ' r ! 13v Thr s n o \ i t r t r n \ : loll"l I L\ oJ ' J s Jr'l / 1 .'a \bl dl ill.r la cab rnll dc hr i. \ ir s oar c a / , . / / , r w i L l o ur n l u l a s o 5 r r e r lirt! de doni zil. l ' ' l a d m e t l H a 'r 's " "sh r srill sh.l,r d l. hr o$n u, e bun do\ n t l, r r c b e n '. s l c ', r r i ltfu.ea cli rom l.ic cliill aool. inairtc de a't fi ittttttnia'l intllni lE llau's) iYez i t i $ 14811

{ll9l '

'ht,tt 4tp, in 'ilul indir- rinrr'o prap" ti'nr'lu 'n'n-i,l rinp,lin gr"!d r'"''r'rlLri' au ulorm; zitjc.p.Lr,l 'r;.Jur1 ,n r:hl'r' s:nll): J; r re.,r.3t,^nf"rn' r'i,rlii ur'0'nd.r'l"r rimputilor t:') (dn|il un tecut si.mpltt)3. S 1{2i} I ntousht Yot nad a sisier' ci lcredcam a, o sor,'' l
Ilc dsn.ll nit jlsr row ho\t Iotr 4?,r' J r'/ IIJi'n br ' 'r ' .\\'n .tr to ,, n" "dr r ^t t.It fl,,r I J,,. tr,, , t . . , o, t u, l i. lu .. \ "r l : i..t" r"J '...\b 5n \ ' l lJ \ r s l' " "lr "r ' 'd d '" '" "ld 1 n i' dr l" lio r ' l\ ' m r |I ' J ,:'lr'1 /.

5 r+'16 '

." ) (dupn eiitoruLfdtd tu lret:nt conform regulii coresirondenleilillllu) rilor ($ 28314:


\l'e rre.c told lNi s'a stus .h 1, "i,r, ' r.ra T "\' p:x, \.r"r'F li t,) wait xnlil thc lus .rdr lhcrc. sii {sl,eptlm riDiL .t ta srsi allobuml l r _"" oll1 l' i ' . r ia "r ", n 'r ' n lo. . l ' l l: r ' l , , / l n ' o " l i 'r 'l 1 . r nDt t J . . |at , r s ' p s nat J n' ir , i- ' ir ' r l " '

S 1{:}7

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i !ftozldl,rcd.1: sir ho ntuiic (asijsJ Adr' es / t \ d. . ) lCrcd .a r nn n.ie ':i

condili.ottul : )t

I J.r(. ,lcrome, Thtee)Iet d a R.tl :\'l . l ur: ' l d' .i o' -' 1. ,..' i .u ro \ r'..,:, 3Df r ; l I ' " ld l _ -q t r' rrL i ' . rrl i l - n;l : I' l ' rl l r' /nr ' rrrrl uro 7r' i .J u,r' , :. \- l r' r.: ' nJ' -l .' ,i .. p r' r I r | .:t n t ; , nlJ io' . r , .
noln nl b | " : i- t '..d | ' t - b' r" l in | ' :r rnr ' r ' r | ''r " i t r v " trDl. "m n carc iusLil'.i r,tlnrla ' 1nl, o iTf,u l. nr r, oui , r ' l. J ,jmr . i r b. ", ' ' \ o '! d d ' I i: '.r.'1, ' . ' i,ut i.:riro t.o,r"dio nd: li- n11" " tli'r ' /"o . r lor ' r \ d' L .n s.blo .' :' o ,J 4 l' l g . n r-. ' '5 F.n nJ ,,o llc v ialf . \ 'l u r l d p r ; / p - r ' lund' ru uljo I n 'r d d r ' r r i 'u

2t3
\\:e riotldi,ro&ldr liltc lo i.lierc Ic @a."lbr a poct' (\_e'ar |],-i.ca si! rriilfm .ii esre Poer"l

: )) Sl i h rl c oloc r id. - Pi n .i c ro g a re d rl rr" g u l a ' ofesl nr' rl rl rtP rl i nrl ' urj - S 1128 ru 4 0 .rr F r 4. prF/oni ,\rq-Fn 3 rn t ur : . in l ; rr,o \ , r Lir ' : - i t , - .r' . r" " :,r' l 'p d ' n r p fn ,' rF rnr' r\urrrl r' n , , \ . r l, .; n, r."l ,r: 'l | " .rl r' -' u i . ' rrl i i 'l ri n' nur di n r' r' t' ozi l i e oruoo l i i { . " u . l r . / d t" i t,, t., t::t t : . , i, ,,t-* ." r li, . . r,t/ mc she Is gting to bc o{$ied so.n -!lri I /rnlt stif,s
d ll' fh ". rl ||I r , ^. . d' , , l, nl , ' ,, .!r', ll" ,.. ttf , tt .i raria!1.1e c\cnllol.. de ltr I !S!l lgI'2. jlrl44l' 1t.zi Desjsur ci rella lea u no r ac f iur li s nu s L; ir i t f c . r iie e \ p r i n a t e l n s t i l l l

direct

fiitoare pislreazi toLuli forma de lrt'xl conlorm plin prezeni,fnrn il1rplica1,ii timpurilor: iesulii corespoDdeDlei
H'o,t
. r.t.

' t:tP ? -a

ro

F\

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Din schemclede la ! 1356 qi 1357-se { I'129 6l Tmihcerex in lirnbt rorne i. la trodul i,'djcrliv. noliurca de lrecl]t esteexprilnatl in limba con.iiit:i ca. qlF/d n,inrr .,4n r" rorn ' .prbrb' -'i rnrrm' I'in inlli"1ri 'rl rr'ul ' ^ j.. l:{.or. iar r' li nhr I 'n;": lti' / l l'r'rrF \.ch 'l' drlprrrp: t P)!1I t;s ) I inr'.ri t.i,li:. Ir:6 ln lr"r. irul tr"' rt p,j.",ii 7.,1 t't a,-!., .i ".,p',,.."-1"_i -l 'lr'dL'F'1 'rr'r ''lph r p r 'rrr , ur",.c.'rpe tr linba romeDe.astfel: t ' ";ntt,' 'du 'I p4t thl "otlpu li rFd'r'" inrr'lpbril r t ll:lll ot-'tp (s l:44 rrF.ulp d n, li'r ", t\orr',', d dp \p'l' " ' rb 'r num-nl 'r 'r 1347): 134r:
il t . t ' |J t s t t ^ ' 1 1' lh! ' p d ' , .11 1.1 t li . _il ,',,-. , . 1, s "al" " -' \\c a ,nl to { lli"r J f s r er dar ' 1Nc 4,, .l4r ifri la ttalrrr.)

b) crl inperfc.tul ln cazul acliuni]or sau stirjtor' cu cal'acter duraljv (li 1:145) sau reprititiv:
Hc sd1 ll,cfri i ' aiLins lDur aliv i /.se&a aiolo aitrflin'l l l fL P\L 'l ' l' ' ""Po r ' r _ ' / ft L je :r'\.' \ ( s],. ;'16 i Llcrei N.avcr lDu.aiivl / Era ,r lr.1 1o . { c Dr it . n r ' l

S 1431

., D rpTFnul \arr \ri o' ur' s u! I { l 4 l l . li2q, . dlil -n "l I l i rn p rrrrl rn l l c rr\F e fal : om i- i t radu i c l n ir nb "-"ij

\ l'r'rrn \\'' ,,.i1, / 'rl' llri l' 'n i 'r'dcum s-r ardtdt,rnJi S ll32 irecutul sinplu e\prinliir'1. Pe lins; aceasta. 'lrrpa q4

urri .s1433 sau unci ac-tiuni stari anterioare ii,,i; ,,,"tt ,,"?'.rtcrril tn-cazitl monlenldadtrecut(S 1423): "" "'ii" ni,iiira' r)rcztnlcind noliuneaestede prezent(in cadnrl cores- S 1434 "i t;mpurilor) 1424); ($ ponddnlei
rr',.n i rol, ' \ , ' Ilnir r- i i r P r c s sin
:\!'.i I,qd..(

l" at td ttt." .t ir ' r - lrn d '


1r:0o1.r, ,' .i,:,r ' .

'n i n'' d i n l r" i


I l- "

rr" , i 'l l " r' l o d " ,,' ,,


. S - Ji

i i _' ^.r^ ' Lrai ri . r4' r' i r rr4' u\rorr

3 1 r.c t , t 1, . , t , , " r," ,1 anterio. unei a.tirni lleente.

'n

" ,,

??4

143, .
{ 1438

c)..cr t'iitrr uL_ t:n\d noliunea sto de viitor (in carrul cljle.,ironrlonti
( $ 2834).

Atcntte ! ,{ nu so confonda trarulrt silnptu cu subjoncrivul prezc,rl cu care afe formd identici. (Vozi $ 1553). jon .oi!in subjorLl;ruj sr xu treLurul(dupn r c,.iu,,Llia dc . .Exemplele mni ,.d/r ii1 .^r,. rurr i.-, a\pr ,, Irqt-ri,.ra,: It\ linc Llnlil ron qe',r fo rr1.
llr fi tirilul si Lt i.ut:i. la r\tjNa!. Ion nrd ,ef.. sav .r.s,. /lIa i l)ine d i s pr ne _dr . - i: TLey \vish llhrrl ih,:J .,r sr. von. /-,1f l,.t si i. toitr-l redfa i 1 1. rath c . her ) ad t . t ] , f . g. . (At ',o rll pt.fira sir s! ' ia, r v insoarc cn ca d{it sn a. destflrti.)

5 1437

7) Trecut Di riitor.-, Din Fig. 2 () 1357) se vede .,n in.i;.j4liiri?lrrecut, ocupa prtrul .jstemuluide tirnl,uri care apartin trecutului.r\sadar.pentru ' rednrcu unpi ,rcliuni anrprioarc iceteia exprinat prin i dicati\-ul tre.ut. vcF bul cF lunp l\.!r. rt.t pa[!"..t pa\t p"[..tt.i"tp.n.u.F.riun" vii nar.raia d" d.cF1_"xpri dr! pfln in.t q rrrt rrq ri r"16,rt ... pur. t) t;! ut [afu tJ? trecut. (Ftllurc in the Past)l
lt".bllm ) 160. . . a , r \t -d st'r. .i o r ' : , , . J ttp , |". t . t r ( \ t i. , .n . " tt. .,./d.F" r. l\iiror ," o ,T f,d.d../

S 1438

5lf39

Obsereq,lie l\it trecnttll anterior indicatiyului tracur. cit ti riilrr..,l fate de acesta slnt l,impuri constnrif,e ajnrorulforn.i tecute a diriliarctor lesiectirc.lotme cn irnpuse de coresponden,ta tirnpurilor, care cere ca un \erb ce se'&t''td raport in temporuI cu un tecut si aib; tot form; de trecur, ( I 2838). 8r fompnr0tieiotrc irocutul bimplu .i trcrllrrl.ootinu||3. FormasimDla r indi,irivului r".ut i\primrj o drliunFsau n starp,,.m/ral.itn1.un mumFnL dai.irecur;lor_ma continua snger6f.ze tinuitdtca unei ac!,iuni sau a uner co stdri_trecute. deci ii Japtul ce acasranz, a fast desaitirgiti. Dacd intreabi cinovn: "Dd lor hEd.abort Lord Nounitatten'$rragic deaUiin Ireland?.' Se poate rispunde cn lrecutul simphr:
"Yes. I /kd.d l.he Dews on tle TV.',

"14 './r'r : ,r-eJ dlJ lr _ da. . i \ _o"biu"LI "" g r i j I l d m n m " 1 u t d " n t d u t u : b a r "/, r I d" id l l L. t g nd, , t . , . . 11 . , , v r , . r i in^ r o z i o d . r '. r , ht|-,..Tt,v,v.r, ns rlo ,( il r ',. . r , . t Rool r "t J y . _"u\ r,rt., t"" inr;rpr. iorbirorului nr' : t . ,.1 :1 .n ? .i a . r . . t a s , dor , o . , , luJ r ; . d d., - .,,i.".it.

R;spunsul suqereazdrd informaliile auzite Ia TV sint suficiente si cd vorbilorul .on.idFr; Lhestiunain, his,iSe poate lnsi rnspunde fi a,r trecuttl conti.nun:

$ 1410

t) Douna{tiuni simnltAne. Dcui saumai multe actiuni tre0utecarese dcsfaso8ri i.olasi fimp pot f; eriprimate ln prin indicatii,ul Lrecut, conrinuu.
d d .; . F ^1 . . . r I |t c rF s F J T i, s . a . u n I i | , u i | ., p d lor l " u^ motuent drt:
\,"/.la,In l^ ,tt) t ,1 1 ,' o . " lu \, co q r t.1 .) .,1 . 'E t,.,., T

!?6 []rfn I tuned in i.o ihe lilc o'clockne$s, Ure annoDncer,asrcddt,g the nalncs ol tlrp njrriirq teams. whilc oo{'ds eere ctucrits and musio 44s LeingPlalen. (Cind anr pns radionl pentru sinilc dc ]a ora cinci, crairicnl r.'zvrn.a nunle rclripclor cistigetoaf,, in timi c. mlllimea addnd li se au*a tnnzioe.) Foartc adoscori ins[. una din cole doui forn}e conlinue este iniocuitd S 1441 p rin 'r'.u ru l . i. lt ' lu I nc ^ i d p u n d ,l L Arh ' ? t. F \p ri mj ' unri nui l al F- ' JU /,ci .o n ri n ri r ,rp o j . ,r,/. \ :i ' nLl ranpi l i aar pr..: i {, r t t.."i 'Jr"J lrere Pourtng tn laft-comets -\s thc slrow ntuceetlen. He ou.ed,an, illrIc thc noist outsider@ sro"B in Yolumc. Dacd insn nu cortinuitatea acliunilor intorseazd. ci simplul fapi c{ S 1442 omcnt dat. l_erbele respcrtire se pun la trocutul acestea au avut loc la ur silnpln (N.rrftrtirr ar H^toru: PtLtt): Th-"1 /ear do$n lonnr and 1 cam ho .. a,t-;& dar in oras. iar eu d,' ,.,ir acasi.) \itc. tlc livc o'claok ri$s. the enouncer /add the mo,es 01 tl,f cdsi ir the pdpt it t l l o . l a _ lo lo n n {. so il n'u :. r 4. - l' r ' L s or r n i l - l l i . s '- P 9 , . P 4 1 r l r " l r l n t h . " i ': . " u / , r , fl1 ; J ld o ra.r ", ' r ir J r r . r l r . , , t 1um . 1. tlup. i: .dl r /"1 r " r r ' ' / ' \ " r r _ - n' o ,o h . : n:. ,^ urd n'

PREZE\TUI,

PNIiIJIOT
MECT]

$ 14.re

(THE IITESDNT I

r' Formi
|'rol.n|U|p.|tFc.''a' :in''||r|U|.ompU.di|||inl,ar"r'r"nJ nun r. Ja ,sern'n.'r". -" torn,pdr". u rruronrl rndi"' i'ul.ri prcr^nr il su\iiiarnlui 'o f l.\\E. lrmr dc p.tt:;piut tr-rl "l vcrbului dF.unjucal:,
I hale callcd: fou hdt! .alled; lhey la!. called, calledr he. shc, ii h6 callsd; we hale calledi you IaYe

$ 1441

D. Functii

s 1445

Din F;g.2. S l ,iL. q. or..'ori a prezerlulpprfr I la'e parle,lin srupg ,lF 'i mpuri , arp rn ""rrrrl lor 1,r':,nt"t indi ,ltitu't/i si slnr ' on lruir" ' u "u auxiliarelor respecLive. rr,"r:.nlul Prezeniul perfect,erprimi asadaro acliune sau o stare treeutl, anterioarl \arbului FqlFin ,.. yntp1y;, lar alll rlp "lrin. l"qrr" do a -- r In'll lnlPlFSUl t.tpt Jc tt"z"r1. pqz.nlLl Dorlpil li:nd 'r',anri hiar lr-d'r. u prF/rn ul ln ]inlba .omend (S 1475 b). PrezenLulperfct are l,"ri tntrbuintiri /rrincilale. Dl fuaLn: l) mterioritRtec unei acliuni terminate insintea altei ac.tiuni exprnnate $ 144ti prin prezen',:
on i, nJ"i". \h n 1 p 4as / , nd bnak d r , n- al{ d' . . d " '" 'h l J p e r ' m r . , l dd_U. j 44. ? i1 _ 'l d J u n a " i " r F p . D urnin ,,l . ,lu r,1 oi \ or l. I s r o l i o r a ! u p o l \ L liv.. , .n I h t!" ar ", t '- J . "u, ' , 1bu'r lr l' . a t b a 'r o e p a : c a , "r , d lir p. m lop r . r ' tlut',t " on l, * l, r' tic| n, ) 'd

1447 2) rezultatul in prezert al unei acliLtni anierioare. de cele rnai mulle ori "r cu irnplicalii ulterioafe, l}ronentu,sivlr*rii acliunii respeotivencfiind india deaarace intereseazi: n
D.ry has broken. IS'a cr{pat de zi. l: Esle zi, dcci ne tutem scula )l

ln di mull a LiPr ic nni ' E \ orsie um s ar .Pd" 1 , nur n l ; . , . o , r , r o 'i n bt t o. : \ t at . t dd ' ,' it o' n,w 'l duri iitlu). inspj.at{ din bltsDele 0clc mai cnDcscuie ii o e constiLuic cvenimenhtl lradi_ liohal a1 s,lrlriloril{tr d. ialni'L-

276 Whal ,rs Dfozsn,vou here? lce te-a a.lLs aici? (De cc ds,t aici? Ce nei de la minc?)l lvho nas l,tu,\e, the l.caD.t? Icire o s??, ceainicnl?[: Ccainicul.s'. sra.r, deci nu putem fuc. ccai.)]
| l"nr. .""t n , In .,n L d JU' .1 p i u r p

n tallou m nunJt. (Nu stun.,nd anr vtzut. iar)loul. cioi nu iriereseui tltu d .r,_ f F 7. 'a.ut ln f r ,/" n r: ta r,.u l, i rl r.n o ... . r i ,pl , al i a .d j nr ,nLU ,i d.rnrr.I lld ul
wl{ Drf

ctrd aios t des c his di d c a s L .a .c i l a p tu l c i l e rc a s i .r'adsrdeschi si i i j cl deaceea.srrcr. letter?" "\o. I h.eca't ben dble La get a stnmp. tlecryihing "IIarc lan pastcd.l.he p,ts ctosed." ]{ { Ai lus sc.isoarer cutie?- Ntr, n an lutut gi6i tinbrc. Pcst. tot cra ltrchB., "Eao. lot ne! t\ti Flcndnrsra" "No"_ "I'd like votr to rnaci ttiem.i' ( cd;Drri fa'nilia l lemmint?- \u. - ni vrea i[ rc ,rcztr.)

ld,. 1 o u o j. o Pd tt n \i \h .\. 4id,.hi. ( \to m F .,r t"t"d ' t^ a

x' l

.!r..t,i ni r'n

rr!,.a.d

$ 1448

3) o acliuno sau o stare incoputfi in txecut care durcazi pinl ir prezt'rlt (sau pind intr.-un moment,trecut atit de apropiat de prezent incit se confundi cu acesta)jcontinulnd sau nu ln pfoze.t sau in .riiLor. Se deosebesc urmitoarele a) durata perioadeide timp in care s a petrecLrt, acliunea nu e:rtearitat;, se subtntelegi;e cuviotele j,pi;[ in prezeni": Sheids redD a.long scacoast nos.,.a alt ihe new buildings. all the and a t(Pi l In p.ezent) losLpe iot litoralnlqi a vezuttoatenoilaconsh-uctii.l
H. h d " b " c n t + or 4 to $ ;d , n | l.m d s

S 1449

lse qiic cA (piDi in prezlnr) a iiitisai ri zecereprize srccesiv.l Thi ooncertnasa'l ,eszn. ddct nu te sribi.l lconceriul nu a lnceput (pine ln lrezcnt) Adverbele c/cr si nerdr accentuoazd ideea, nu sint deci obligaiorii: Have rou (r,er) sP, a sazelle' l A i r J z ut ( ! r eu ,l a l i ) o s a z e l i l l I Lav . f oer c r ' l/ u d . p o p p o rtu n . ty l N, ) m dv ur ( ' ijc i o d a tr) :j u l l : t;rl ,/ durdra acliu]lii e\primate de verb esLe aretati prin adverbe sau lo5 1450 cu l i u ni adr F r bidlc a l c ro i | rl e l e s e s L el e g a t de prezent asau attt de apropi ai d prezent incit se conru,rdd iu acesta), -ca: jffi (: tounai, abia), laielE', o/ lal., fecentlg3. d.aring thc I tlle:e l.rst three yeors (feo q'ecks, LtrJo montht eIc.)1 this last Aear, tlrcscllhis t|entlJ minntcs, oa Atr, Uet elc.l He ttds irgt dt:iecd.. lTocmiri (acu, abia) a sosit.l SIe /dsn'i ,c,u !vel1litsly. (Nu s-a simlit biDe in uliima v.eme.) l2ur ioclbr lb. so l d .l IF U !F s n I' F l d s n r,/ m u . l o l pJ.n, I n ul im ii doi d n , a a v u t m .l tft d n In \d l d t.j \- ft, hr.d u rF.r.h Jou tbi! rhcsc ro y mioutir. , I n. T dm d pd u re .r 0 e m ' n u l ' r' d a o d ti n..l cJ duraia acliunii exprimate dc verb esLe o perioadi de timp indicata { 1451 de un adverb de timp nep;ecis, sau de o locutiune-adverbialn (precedate sau nu de prepozilia /d/J : (far ) sone tine. some iieelis. sercral !ea6, a fart ight, an h,aur or tpo. a fctr minutes, ([ar) alang rine, ha',long...2 eIc.l \\c haeeb.at Daflt.l (lofl o week. /.tinkn cisiloriti de o sntiiLohi.)
r r\ 6e obrlna t.arer-'{ saDDilicai,ive d. ia 0..retrLdi nerfeci la trecnlul sjrnold din ultinia !tupozilie, ca.c s. fcrrfi la ur mooenr Dri;is din rrr;trr. : ncrfect vdnbilc si: "//dr? vou ir.D;L sazell{i?" "1 ldrfl''r /,ad thr olro|iunilv." "!lnt ' xrcd,tttu a;:Leun droib cxr. sicdnsLrtri.,ii; ri eu ir,curul simplu {S 1i6i r}.

!?? tt In"' l \ou: I / dt ", l ' J or ' lor r c ei' i t r r I nl' n. s i l \ u r " d' t : : ' r | ' t11 . 'o l '1 long? Itd.c lon ArorYz the (li .rtold dc iult?) {on long nat. lon beea \rith tsl lDe .in l cl,t la Doi?) . 1r pr - u t . "r a u l r ' l i u r r " J " \ n r i - d r d dr ln,"lur'rl t'.'i ,d lP: J - li' nP; ulr ' n x! l ! 'r l r d l ''1 r '4 \ l n r . a p rrn t- ' r nt l\ "r b' duolo { l a ! e rL, c" le r,' ';/d : L" ( :r s t t t " " t 'P c h ' t luhlu! ! jin l " r 't o t l9 ' a L i n o , rl r' r. . i-, A: \i

$ ll52

ii,,i'ini'ii,i

"f

ftan t",, (:t'c).tron .Lhov (froin his chitdhoott' 1e50ftum

1957' n Br ' ' 1 ^ \ t 4 b4 . ' ir " ' lui: n Fur"L"i fi ' li "a u.h ' home rrom o lle has liaed a\tal- lro 'hild' era coril-l a(Dl) tfnicete delarte de crsr'r d' cind tale agail thrt dlX sh. nds nele. beea f 'n |l]ni accn zi {ia) nu a riai ttlt.idr niciodai'i l

Atcnli.t! je alrlL" in sncrill al"nlid rt nu ' intrcblir'1:" r/'hddld ln lirnba en"ltz'' ind, ,1t",ttiftz nt i t]n'i "|nJ un v"rb e r" \n'olil dr u-n udvcrb do r' rimn lr".rll p""""d"r d" 'i. , ( J..in l Jp Jtu-.i da. 't tn lar' lron {1'ii,si s t4;;, 2361). er incerulul perioadei r1etimp in cate s-a petrecut acliunea crprimatn $ 146t un \Frb la rr ut'tt 'tmpl u: <lo '"rn...1" "i)r' "rrn,
tot hdr. b*n lrY ldtnd evo since I w!! born' (tni .f/i prielcn_dc citrd n am ndsc!t.) she .anc h$c as a .hild rnd nos bftn \titl us erer since ai'unct') lr\ venit aici de copil ti sd la noi mereu de S:n1J.. I la- m r t lL r d l \\'e /,, . ,, trnJo r nd ian i1 ; ln l u l m a o d - ' l a L .rrr up lJ I J " \u a ' LP itr I97' \tp l F I .4 n- r " lr or r ls o y ds nol "\ Fr s i n r F 'n t r In l9:9 r . d' ; r n' t ./l@ ai" i1pJ n: ,\ ' 4 ' "a '

p $ 146{ rJ d r r , r " r io- l. i i n c e r." Ip ' l rF ' u L a rri u n o ' F rp ri ' nrrdd' tFrb,F percrerol rr'' l or7t o i ' i ' uno n tu t p r/.' . \ ' " r b lA r: n d i t, d .'i n; t t ' b r" ' " n He ha3n't {orPel i}pilg since hc lrss Deenin this room ia n'a-:inade cind 3e afla rn aceasfi caderd ) il'-. l'""t.1 Ji "c"id I iatd neler rzdn disatpointedir hcr sincc I iure knolr! her' (Nd m-a d""zanegitniciodat'l de clnd o / l 'z@t' \1'c rat,6edn jn nish spir'ilsa]l ihe tnne Ne heYcrrorled at tho barage -entuzintti dc clnd lucfta la La'aj ) (Sltiten mnur loirie \ t n / ioi Dp " rJ r ra ,l .\.i n r" \" h u ro I' ccn mrrri P d oi i ' r r d . rn I i ,r" ' a " -.r 'rn fo I '

oerlec co lr , r uu " . c " n u, i rJ i ' l " " " d A n n ' i n -i ' r" d u d" Jurx' i iernrinaie in prezmt sau lnir un treoul' fo t'e recenl': He h.s b..n ,a.ntq llrglisl! (lor) l$'o veaN (.['t..li. eielrza .tc d.r am ) ri .fo rn ll. ' v 1r ' ' , r " ' ,
LD, ' rtd In o lPll,T i

$ 1455 d. Prezontulletfect simplu Si prczentllller'feet continuu , l L x |cr b.l " lu r ' r\p 1rpla 3\"' t^ ma'o in u ' rs lli: ' p " ' z " n lu l s 1 4 6 6 d' r' ur' r
unpr

l:li::lllii;"':i'":ii:l;'i1ilix"l-i;ilT n:nhxli:ill',,iiii'l:jir,il;:l:;fi

2;E
i..' '|:'':'].' ' ' ' | ' ' ' ' | i' ' i l^ , . ' \| ' ' l' a -'t',: |a" ||''j ''|'' , i d t r t 1 , . t i . , i , ri .m tL, rdt 4, ^. t on'h5' n ut.:mr.c

f I

S r157

ll L eori ffi.rna continuii t, trez,,rrutuj priclr !\pfl,,ra LUniirLunrea unci_aririuni pr;rzcrtjcv,jriunt :r 1,, \jitur. i!,!|lrott lir eu prezerrt!1 rrertoct. simplu.car.c nrat; o acliulp termilrti in prczrrLt:

l1 r , \ , . r J r , . a t l a . tm .,t| " , I\ou-tJr,rl " b p ,../ t t ir r . , ' . r - . t . T i .a n r,.rL ,r ,d t " ,, , n " ,r " Li ,t_ t.i z .. rr.r rpl r' n,r-o.J I uD ai.aid I /,ard .o/an 1.our lunotr. lTi ani niin(rr lrinzul {iu a nai r;iD$ nnriol.l P r ez eit ul p e rfe c t c o n l ,j n u u rl \e rb e i o r n,oD entai e (g 1344) edpri mn $ 145 8 .... / a.,, urr reperaie: r . 1or , t . " ,-" 1 ,/.r l l l ,:" \d\ r, th.i a..u" j .. l .t d ,,, r" -" \' r.,r, t, .,, .tr. r" b i .a , ,,t- ,,i , . \\c hdt. l,un :lapprrs erfrl r.rtnan $e met ro rclt him thij ,.s5 ot ouf trrigadr.s , " g , 1l{},,frn.ID roli mu.rjr.o.ii l. carf i am nitilrtit. oi sri lc spur.D rcsLalealizrrli o da' n. i r ' l S r45$ d./ PrczeDtul pertect lorrinuu drl uneoi te\rLrtui o nuanln emol.ioratd:
\,r L .1.. g, r , g I n I i. i, iiLr r . J . r 1: : nd , Lr ". ! - b ii.'rr', iarrp i o5la, : \:i d:r d, t.ziu,j ll. Lo t."- . it. ; , B ut r , ddinA , I dt , , , r . s n {J i n : (i J Lr / iu n, . . ' t r . , , . Do d.; J , . o b o , . i . l ".d -1,titp n1

\ se corripara in contra"ct,: : ,1 sartu snnronie. tte hasatut n a svmDlionv. o


\r"a -nru t a ,,iLni , . ! n npr . r . r ilbr . , i, . ' nu in . ; , p s , : r , . i . r d a r . r '! s i m l o n i d . \ , unul r - e, ut . _ t , e n, . , \"r \Io n".,ul a,'iL I r , j. p"e, . i/ J ' . an, r t t r Lr". \ m p h o n t . t a . L . ,1 . -.. o s,n on: p dnr . t bi. r t , , H hos r . : t . " , d s r n , r , h o i . 1 . i , r r a r . I \i u Lr i .!pu t d . i t pr m nai, t r " J " . t dn l p o i n | ,, ,F J n u I a' ps , i. lt - / r bp. , . . r t; t , , . g a s J l p r ! J , . i . J F r r . -j . ri - ' ' i \i n . d .nro pu, J in a, . p, J n du"pr / l . i . n F r p l " r , 1

$ I460

D.narcLe pfuz-nr,rl pc pcr e\primi ideeA anterioiralefali de Drezenl de J1r " i.tJainr;icuitutc';I.ri\in,d,o,,riru.,ii r.;";, r-";; ""1i,_"ii i r , r r F b u i r t \I o". F.l' LIF Jo fll . J ba I nlit ur p a. FJ . r i, r , , iio u r u n t i "",.h;trai;i n d | | - s a t n t d t _ ,1t.lina p.'tttn indicarea contiD!itnlii acljunri lerhutui ttztntut retel:t confinuu. care aduoeprecizareaneccsari daci aceastanu reiesenici diir cbricxt. {cf. { 1455). r/. Treeutul simph si prezcntul pertect

S 1.161

Deoscbireadintre trecurul sjmptu .sjprezentul l,FrIFrt prerinti mdri difi_ ' .1.r i ferrru .r,,.1-,,rii In,,,;ni. obi.rr.riir ,,.ri,g"rc" i"manl. as"ln".o. "u n I , .Lcl-zo :r I a i.'ii ,imi, fu"rrp ,lit"rlri J" pd. tje a, aFr. ru,|'r! ", ,r r. , Jb.tr rr_ dp rin,pufiJF gran,Jti..,toJin lrn bd romdna. s, r" .,urJia ,rr.,I ltru,-lr]rJ orjulrlii e',slpzc Fis. 2 S 1J57.avindu_"(e .!,edere in tn irif /.r'i/ \ Dr!utuI d|l,.rop,.2,,ia, Fzi. ri niridncrrr:r pr, rradrr, a.tin timoarumina. n, . . U c',mparair"intrr rrrcnrnl simplLt prezentr perfct va lnmuri mar .si bnre intrebuiniareaa(l*tor rimpurr. a.l.t:tdratul linp netut 1n limbo engleza.lll exDnm.ro . Trecutul simplu est,e d.lrllnn,Jrp r arut lo. tntr un tuot\..t prec^ 6du in,ro p r;oaddprp;isddin tfc.r?r!ar_trune ternrn.ltd atnnci s\ fdrii nici a legdturd.ct1, prezntul-

2!9

hczc tul pedoet stc esentialmenteun tinp prcz.nr' El erprimii o nciiLl si it ne trecnLA, crie aJ".l..g urd cn prezerLtul c e a losl s;t'irliti indr un r?,/rtnt ""ffl"fl*t simrlu inrlreaptn aten!;a asupra no rnllthu rr..ur ir ca.e s a ,<nvirgit acliunear prezenhl ptrfec{' nrn|ra rr. ltatttlui acli.u.ttiiin ft:tnr:
I 1,s, mY look len da$ a(o, ,,.r, \" .' u,ri rmrj, r r ' . d, r - , ; ' . r ;, /l . -q ' ,r r,i. -l r' ,J ar, I " eo-rnl .l r' r , d, . ., .t I n . . t , , , . t m . ,r" " . ." r 1 tr" r,ru rd p , ' .' t,.r " I nd' lo'r n'v r'ook. p" P ' 7d ' ' i i nr r' 5' ari U rn r D- c . d- -r r " ' . \l o n r, I l ;rJ .i i n r " t .i \" ' p rl L i i Io " J ,,.-' i pol l -n ,d ,tr r lo! d r r l ' ' ' i " _' Ir' al IIi .. s o n D o dy/d sr' r' / / h r' ,o, arri l | :.i .h p a - lt - l^t h ri lir n n i, no "c " rIl " tt,b ' l d r \' ,1 .l .,r \d a api n' o i I (\ I.l " ' ' r L'as in Bu.Iarest last l-.tr. l,\n lost anul trecul ta Bicnrllti (Tjmlnl prcciz.rt: ldsr !dr' ,\cl'nrneallII ltgli tndi iru lrezcntulr n! nai sint aon, in Dncurciii )l i haac \n\{ beenin tsucharcstllorl . ycar. tsjnl (acnn) la Bu.urciti de ur an. {Aaliune lrecute carc ocnlinud in plezdli ti !ro!abil in !iito..)l ds "rtd you err go lo Czcobosloraltia a .nttdl" "No, I .iil''l.. I onlv r'.4t lo Hun_ S t "v \u. ,,, a,n r,sr. \m ,.i "j e i r " . t v podd' a r n r" h !s r, \d .." ..td p tr: ,o p t: nnas o d d ta r r Lngr id t lrn l l a c L !r' a r7 1 l d p ,u \i n l " l ' d., ' nl d ). 'tl .r. \ l -7 1 h o .l o \n l i a . \o , l /d ' u 1l ) r' P o l l ungi rJ ' ' - \ a t " . n lo N " a m l L i . ndi rr' I n d" i a rs out' i " _ - \i lo- v r - , ] d d n C " h o s l o rt,a l L In ]rrzent-11 tctege ,,pin[
l l i.d l.r Init,u , ra . . r ' r ' , " J " r ^ ou. P i- r n"m alo g , a l ? ( T i n 'p u l d r 'n r l 't P n _ zat di cuvjlltele befate coins ta tlE lictLtes )) dard lou d,rc vour norka Lncreea ste sata {in prezent) (Sublnieles: ,,Dac[ inat"lrcraree?: tTi'ai'ter ste saia, poli acum sn te distrezj.")l I h. d,d O"h oL . n i Bh, ' r s d / in Dlu; , , . ' t . n: ! oua lF . a n . " t ( \ I o m n l r q 'r t D ''i z a l lA muu,il ..lla D oo id 1 lb; . r , d: d lu: C"t . ! $ilipr i' onr Fr t de cN'intele Pi'dd?/ at the .otu41 ,i fad hstttcd .u Pterentut.)) LdJ" ,{.."d riprsh{in; "ll dnsodv in lrluc_ /;r, ( t r n J i n p r P z e n l '. r t l o n. i,r d traDsod rlr I , a! . a- a l . i c pr . h\ in d" f';nPsi , \ mlrn7r p "r io. oa o" Lin, p or . I "eot u, o " p e ? ^ t n . ) l n p n l u t 0 tlu l: ,"/;-i.dr. "Ilate !\it rcad 'Hamlci'?" "No. bul t hnte seen it I sao the pic\n.e duing the l- tpt 4d t n F* . ?n! t " - Nu, dd l d m \ t z u t t l t 'o t r P r P z P n t ) | -A . icit:t lliil ot )1 t n"t pt ulu: t t - Vow ! t t q r ' l r i i A m iizul t ilm!l ra .:mpr' f ". l: \ alt lui She d,, u! to lhem and !s/'.dr "Why nd you c,ru: Whv dn lou sdv vou rveren't rp | 5-a roro !:dl d " "'s a nt ^"bA t t r eu ' a, at ir t : . , D"c F a r i r . n r ''. '. D r "tnrpli ai ; . t , a p*,p"t, ,,Dp rp a lis pus lnlr un anu4: t r nom pn( s r b r r '" 1 " s r d i n / 'P . u l ) c i 'u ! e n i ti?' il
Diu r" L oo 1ou" \'^tl b .[."P L a :,A to ttP p i tu "P

In urma to r r nl. s d\ er bF d F i ,,Ip n p rP " ;. d a r i n s i l ui l i i

alo Aalyerbele timD inhcbt riato atit cu trccutul simplu' cit Di cu prczentul $ 1462 p.rlP l p o r li i' rF h u in t a lp .ll D c r l c r l- Ar i l tr o uiu l -i'nnl.r, )i prF/pntut .
di l eri l " :

1) erer $i nc{er, recently,slnt, folosite cu: S 1463 g cind se gubinle lec u v in t e le, , in t re c u t " : simTlu, a ) Tr e cn tul
"rid vou crcr /tnd o,, the nanc ol the goal kecpcr?"r "I dtd'- iusl relorc I Lfr lhc st{diun " mcade le stadioD.) / rt;i,rJ drn se 'r"tia lortarul?-Da, chiarlnainte dc plecarea She was lh. rreitiest girl I or0r rad (Era cea mai arrgule rain te carc (fl pd:,t_o .odail:r') 1 (sport): parur {la lotbul, ho.h.i {do.).

{i0 Hc rcrf..er?{kd tlr. o/I,,& tor $tji.h Ie tad n{rn c.nsurcd. (Nu a /cprr, ri.tdd.d grei.th telt.u ca.c nrsese o.iiicar.)

Sr { 6 {

b) pr e ..n tul

. b r,,a n r { . . io ot h b. , p \r!'r.. i\-, /o., r . 1lr':r,, / "U | . r iI co ir ,rt t . . t . ; t .' . qnt t ! . .. /

p fe ze n- u- : }1{r, }ru crer llrilcl l.he ller.,itasr llnseun, nr Lrnhsmd? (.1i ri..inr rreodaldiluz.ul Emitasii din LcnilAfad?r I i. . ,n I.s ri n : | !l !s J . ' r h o r\n qrJp i of d i n., \.,tr,,L . r .rd re .1 i ri ,o t,r .- ,l n o \.' i. t." " ,. ., l r,tLa r,rc4,to) l
r DFr.r r", I/ olh i d i, ll);u ttn fast niciaddtil h i\arc.) $",, Dd,r ,.a or / pr ^ i. " / , , . , . . . / uf lr a to O,bcor. /\, tdn .. | . . d", , , t t - , n r / i J L t d " o \

t.rIr/:1.

t)tfi sc s L rb in le ] e g riirc t e , , p iI i rn cu

$ 146i, . . 2) -ldrerhele li locutiunile adrcrbixte de tiDp neprccis care cxprine iileeLr de..pili:i la un nlornntdar trcrut sxu p"c,"nt.. ci: dtt,dtl.lJ. stiLL, uet, .ot t.,,t. t tn.\. I tt ) ,t'l ,s tt,,. ,luJpt...,in r'uto-itc,u: a) Tr.t: utul si,LDl .. cin,l sc subrrreleccurintlc ..ollrdnrtr U, '-. ,r ,,iiJu. :,, ii,,.b.,,^mi.:, , rr irnpnrt,, ruir:
lle LyardlrldX tircd. /,4.o deji obosit.) Trrere p.fe articlis ltill not irfittcn. /E.aa attiole lncn ncscris.) -fhere ,e/a iobs not vct don.. atra& sarctri lnce neildellinite.) So nu lhinss gr.. al] ris[t \iLh lhe ,,e\Lhjrcddcd corn]e. (Pin,'L atruoi noii instr{iei se tnrd,a4 t}i.e.} I p lo nor pv " . v tl ' n A r .,a " d o i i c .I J . n ,i ro r l p d -, g r" r.r . P r ' . 1ar L) P r . : nt u t r,n d .p .,,L,nrFt,s ,uri n el , ,prna rn I. r[..t. .ot.r,d.j p r.zrrr r ' r r J us in l i mL a ;n i ,r r.4 .., t . . . . r' b ri ." ' o rrc a d r. Pr' .."r al f! fi rd;u r .xrozitia.) Hdrc yo! boughtuic tiokets rt? [Ai cumpnrat bi]etele (ptni in lfe?enr)?l Shc still ,usn't aond. lTot n-a e.ni1.) SIc n6,'i .dne xet. {\n o rr"n nrcai.) Up to no{/Bo Irr tl,c experjmert lds De'r a sucoess. {Pini h prez-"ni cxpcricnla a ac"r succcs.) 14tj$ 3) Adl.erble ,siloculiunile ad.!'rbiale care arate o pe oaili, dc timp DeterS nrilafi, ca: tadu!, Ihis tr.iehl /nonlh I gear I matuing,-a.tt tluy, all n{ght etc. si n t folos it e c u: t ul s i rn p l u . e n rd p e ri o a d a d i ;np sau acti unea rpfl . ).trt. m.rr1 cre \ er'IJ s a lern.Du1t: I / / . lJ f . " o . th n (N-am bliut oldra azi djn' n o rri n ( (\:orl.so dlti1-amiazn sau s!r0 scare). nealli.) lt iiinerl tune!. plaud a n.) -{ tlouat. rzl. (Xu "tui r,,!' nu si, I.l.Ia numal l.r p.czrnt. dar ia nn Donx,nr dat r.eclq consider.ttca ii Ir.z-;ni .F rtro or. z ta !h^ ,J.q!= pilt.\7i: tu rna, lay : pjnri ahuei.

981 h.rc lor a lerv liours this $cek, He 'ds [{ lost aici cileva ore slltin]ina aee.rsta(da. a plccat )l pcrfe c t. N i n tl p e ri o x d a d e ti l )p si rtLarl i urea vrh ) p rcz ent ul

hcn: bului dureazn


I hdeen'L har) corlcc tbis nosins. (\-am beut calea azi dnnjnea!{.) {vorbeso dimin.a!^ i 'l'odrr nds ,c.i a line dal. lrzi I tosi o zi lrtrnmasa.)(Esle sca,d !i inci rrumos ) \on hdrc been here onlv onc. tlis weok. fN-ai lo6t aici dcctt o dalI (plnl acud sipfinlna ace,tst r In a{ard tle cazurile menlionat la aeest punct. ur1de iimpul verbului rsDectiv esto imlrus de necesiLatea clarificirii nri,.elesu\ri, r.tunci ri d situaiia r p ip. r l i rn p "lr J in " on, pr l ." l F d o L d l i " l p u ri ,n ' .4 "..nti fol osrr" l ur' d" o*bir ", n . m ai r " r . r , lndu s e d i .ri n l i a d i -rt, ' l F .l l bi l i r" r Ji ,,' . A ' f-l se spune in mod egal, tn,telesul fiind acelagi in ambele cazurj:
'l-e hnt a l l d .\. "artpd 'i .r . s | e hd r r t e n t L , ' rd5 \ ' / \ _d 'r .\" i1 p lt"

rad t. p, n" , o' t J - u. . o * i a n n l ' :j . | -ttl o tl t. ,j u o ttr. tt, q\.rttJ. t' '. .: t d" .a n . ! ' n s , ipt + ol t ' -" s . L i ' n " d t' | ' ,q o tn . n o t or t 4.q' n. L ' t JLtt. ". oJi ni oar,r pe tr' n' uti . .t . r. t ,-h fu rn t. . r ' r y [ o n!1 ,' ,.p t! I v x , t.-. n r" , m t t ' 1 \. n rl t' l j /r' i ,acpLi . srnr l ol o n. t \'.'), o t.- . t - o dJ l. ) . 1 t ti a " " r ' c i n d s o s u b l n -te l eg cu1-;n' .el c,.i n treeut" I s inl l [. a) l re cLt t (trecui indicat printr un adYcrb de iimp prccisl): Our lolk danccs grout lrcque.nttl toz g.eat alplans! dron Ne pertorned in the

contiruttirc slrnrepetitire' S u67 dc 4) Ad\,-,rtel6 timp ,\i loculiu,rle advrbiale

,o ' r Pd rard Jl i l J\' l o l i i s L;l e I :. { "tu F

[.

i ra rl r' e o ri l L d l ' dl l Ll d J-Jm !r:.h :l a nos r r t d" dan r,r, I" l u l d ' r" l s pF r l n ,,l c i n labr ic j. ) In mr cbllillooil, tle olten s"rn, thc holida$ at. trrc scasid'r' (ln cirpildrja nrea, petrecea adGeori lacanla 1a nare l As e b o r . I lom pliDcsttr+ d tn th .rh o o o n l b n l l I dn " -; i n ' r' i | n a l " d l d " ol i i 1 u ra ,-lr im , opr . . iur J " rr Shc ,st.i to tite in ilrh honsi once' (Locuia pc lrcmuri in ace'rsil casa) pe rf e c t. c i rtl s e s u b i l l l e l e g cul i ni cl .,pi rn l n preh) p re z e nt ul I ndr. olrlrs tftorqrr slie 1'.s shY. _ nn {A oczut. lnto tdaan d .sn1ar.r tindda l He llds olten ,a.z hoe. (.! vnit adeseori aici.) I lar. r.dn "Othelld' nonJ tidres. (Am lazut de mnltu oi ,,Othcllo") She ids ,,,2 here only otre. (-\ iosl aici o sirglri dati.) i:) Since (adl.erb. conjunclie sau prepozitie) se intrcbuinleazd cu: c i n d a c l i l rn e a s a u sl arca l :i cate sf rferi s; a) tre cut ul /l a -. (lat drn 1,"..r1: rre loc tntr un nonent I ta,.r't scenlini slncehi.aru hcfc {s a child {Conj.) (Nn lam v,"rzdtde clnd a lcnii aioi, trn oolil ) r" l b L . C o n l . l r'! r'," e J d\ . qinr p 'c. ; In a o " . -i ,t tr - r / i J , . r n, d to | .! ' rl r Sau prin fohivileniul tui, n,liri o loculiure adr..biali. o propoziii. (nrrnslanli{ll rc. -\..sf te.rr este nun,iL iknri' i;at rcp.li1i,

S 11168

2 !S Tlis line buitdirs ozs a ruin noi lonlr sincc. lAdv.) lAccastt irxmodi cltdire .ra ntr de ;rnr o niira_)

b) p, c . en t.u t,,'

.,pine /, i;T].-.;'::'ri,'pr"g .eri.,:;''u" in pre,

!(, nos tuld a }rrof.ssdship sinoe 1$0. {prp!.) i t ) eline o c at . dr i Ld i n 1 .J 5 0 .1 . Ravei's "llolcfo" \'as irondcast last Selrcmt.r, Lut ndr not tc.n ftp.atetl ci\.e. (_{dv.) ( .tsolefoxl' hi ltar.l a loEt dituzni la radio in settembria,dar n! a lost retelar de . P , , , , 1u, , t , { s .n .,? b l l .a l s a n d b o u n d s i " c ea!totuati on asi nrroduced. orj .) io" (C s w 'tr oJ . , d as t or, i -i re i n o . t. ,i n ,l .r ro dL. durondt,rdl I lr r . t , at t 1s ," a -.i p 1 t q i o rc I t, rd b rrn ,n .i . o.,i cp.rC ...i . /\r n ir \ " . . r 1 m u :, J " .n l s i n . t, b ro u .J ' -. just Do$ poal,ri a1-eadouir i telesuri clnd s retlri la o trf1jur t rccuti:1 6) S 1469 c) adiltainri; acliunea petrecindu se intf-un auumit morncni, dir trecut. '.impul eramatical i n tre b uinlai es Le t r e c u ru l s iDt p I u : s lic r d' lr nF uD i u s t n o n . i u i a i. , ir , nr r ad ;e d ,.i ./ L) : tomni. cltiar actLn: acliunca arind lLrc i]]lr un momcni care se corfundii cu trezentul, tirnpul p .rfecl . . q ra ]n tr t ic nl t nt r ebui n l a t e s te !rc te n tu l Tl,cI ndrE jusi loF &nc in_ I\u irirat .iia, r.z ./ Obs er uali. .o n ' i n tr.cutul b;rnl J:du D ' cz( tul f, r ' ' p. - r bil c . r, !" o p o /rr h ,d t, S Il70 j ' i " i u q rd !,rb p -n rfp r...r 1n' , \ i. li n rl i cdrpa ti mpurui rn." r" ' r.,l osrn;o a rd ac liunc a v er bu l u i , d a r d a c l rn n i n t, J \ o rbi i oruLur aceal tn,{cti ,rne este , l- r 1 . . ur enr . u ,i " a p .r:o ,. l d ,ri 1 r. " u pl rd r r.bu;nta h.r,// l .ca s tn p tl 1. . r t jat i s o g i ' rl l e q tel A re z u l l a tu l a c l i uni i l n prezent, va i ntrel uh!a pr...ntul 1rt4.(toDnl trecdt You raid rou Itdr't liLc il.. \rnltt dni ih."r dri lor Urat ],al? [:here dtl J.u .{.a urem? Tl,. raj! sropcd r0r ten njlutes ihfn E Son agair. Ilorv dtl rou sroil your dress? I 1,,, 1cn lrl "Did -\an n!rc. and
,{cliurc l,.c.utn lesdn de l'lezelt Iox'r., said ii. t\yicc alrady. \liral na-s sh-" ds^./ you? Tcu look so

naplrx. The rain lzs i/rpcd, I an so glad.


\ 1\nt ha@ sou dane! fo!'r.

I'rc sc.n them sad and l'0e retr l.hem

s!.ih you

h.at ab.ut llelen?"

u.te6 \on brcasht 1t t)ackl I hde;\'t h%rA \on. _S l eL (: /,d\l -\\ rt abort l fr" l ,r tl ' t s.l " rl arbhilr, Lon,l nn or "

I @, hcrc lor a weekc ,1 rn j o"nlru o p. o. , t , . r r n '. i - J pl m . ni. t - la J t d. \ dr l, s 4 p- . t u! g r r d in v j i t o r . ) lluO a s e. A. (Staro trccut.i, legafi d. lrczent)l LSini aici d. o si!tlmln:i.

herc tor a wock. ''ds .1n to6l di. o r.plin ln". I ' l1r r ua' un' . Li' ind\ d. lnLr r n t r d c u t d e n i f L i l d . D r r T Fn t i , ,nL, o tp ,roa dA iP tiq,r ' , l- r : ' dr " n' dm I nr or ; . I

'linpul grrmaiical pe care tl alegc volbilorul ir acslee\errple - si nu neapnrat prezn,taadverbelor dc tinp - este cheia inteniiei sale. 'O neiodd simptd pentru allarea iinputui gramaticat nicesar prezent S 14?1 simplu. preznt perfeci s.lu trecut, sinlplu - consLi ln folosir'lja crior d0ri tntrebdri indicate mai jos: a.) Ere npln: ,,E1est la mare leni.ru o lunll".
lntrebarc EsLea.rm la arc? A lost s,i tz 1..&rl l?ds?ens - Da. - -\u. prezentul sir.tlu

Sc va intrebuinla deri uu simplu prezent .arc se prelungeste ti in wiilor). He n .t 7llcs.ar.ld Ior a month b ) Ex:enpl. ul .,Ijl .s,. l.r m.rr. d! dori hrni."

(prczent

luri. A fost ti ir rre.zt.' Da, dou;-L Se va tntrebuinta ur timp trecut, care are legituri cu prezontul
Hc has ben aL tl,c seaside fo. hlo inonths.

nsle d',m la mare?

D a.

pr.e;en-

c ) Ex en r tu:
.,I.ll a /,s, la inare in iunie." lnttebote navzns Est a.,n la are'1 - \u. :\ l.tnLiL lrccut? -- Da. in iurie, deci un timp irecut care nu rre legiiurn cu prezentd He,.a r n i tl rc s e a s i d -" J u n e . in

So va lntreb[inla

?. Alte furclii :{e prozerhrlui tc ect S 14?S perlectlnlocuieltcliitoml pcrfcctlin Prapr.il;ih src rdof, I U73 1) Prezentul in special celelemporale condi,Lionale 2853): in (S si
I shaUso to nil oflicc w]ien I haeelod locr. {u'1 voi dncc la birou drpi ce coi fi luat ma.a dc prinz i U t hdeeseenho lcfore roon, I shau ]eare ai jira. IDarii o rot /t rdr,,'o line la prtuz, roi ll.ca la lora) .inci-l You can'l go ard play till ro\ haved.one 1ou. nonreryork. (Nr t"" poti duoc sI ic joci pin;1ce nu li lci /t it.a,1 1e.!iile.r 2) Constructia idiomatici haio got 1: frare). deli a'ind forma d plazent perfccl. arc tnleles d lrc:enl. dcoarece vcrbul ld ge.tnu indelhrette nici decit rolul de a interi ideea exprin,atn prin |erbul t.i idr'.: I.ndre so, a rvatch (- I nalc n watch). (Posesiunul t nm un c c 6. l I I p 4, 9. , , oD 1 /,,1 { ( II /d ., r-.1 .-\ . (OIl i ..' !' ( lr abt r ies r r nl " L trd s c l c x m .) a ,\oeftstn construcirie nu este intrcb nlatd.lc.il iD sli1ul colortial.

S 1474

284 1475 3) Tredoccrcs in limba rome i. - Prezentul perfect se traduce in limba romAnn astfel: pofectnLrom! s in toat cazurile ($1446*145rr), 0u cnreplia a) ^ punct,rlor g 147,irb $i c: I hnce \1:cfrarejust n., thcn. fhishe.l \ti\iot4. (,7m teminar.l,. scris.l ll-an izdlni, adineaud.) bt ,u indirc itut pr . n'in nzul 'rrrpis,tiuni in epul. ln ,lur,"/x plna In pr "z,n li probcL:l;i in.ri ur t I1448':
I haoekLoen hcr lor a J.arHoe long lare Jou Dcaa {o .L@s. de un an.) c) cr ';'iirarul an,r;orl ( S 2853): Yon Filt f(l ielter Nher you /,a.. beeD he.e r Nek. (T \'ei sinii nrRi Line dup{ ce oti fi skt aici o siptiminar.)

s 11?6

Prozcxhl perfeet

1) nllrimn o d.iinne all$joari piezdLiului {-\ 141ii) :l) llontri ine.lt nee.-Fimat ' r.zultatrl in treze.i inteFseaz:', i1r int,lirajii rltc.ioar) G ]1 lil. 3) Actnhetr rfti lo.ini,r-o riordi do iimti ire(\li-i .trc durerzn z, lirii adrerl !r !trLnrirhsc Ild'ia lon r.d, 'llrmirt"? ( \ 11ii4) , .lnrn in l(^ nNr .\ar cliltrned i, .n erei, ner.r {S 1a!i) Ente lri ,1; .i/i/ ..lltrnlet l ^ Te-rt -rrldi liici l{r {lrcrdX l0id rlc ]li-dt ,id,, n$ rd,"i trcoiluli I I 'e i

i cr. r.",.'t' .;"ut" fS rlll,,i i


../ or n rdYfrn rFrc sn!s..rz,i Iuu id.ea do ,,f:ni ia lrez{r:.t : al.q idL r t, s6lo r c ic ( S 11r j; ) ld!

I
rreoditii I N_ruslov.stoa

lori Ml DJsifrcr Xtl? -{i .u,r.rl'o

linn u.!d

!_. t.lgf.gU
ut tnal) iltrol

r.r:ll I
i snr risui dc

I,lde slill sotrDollet l/d \-rm.rul

i i cn l ri l ei al .

d, (tr un ndrorb .rro o^-lrnni T h ' ,b rn l r,a sq tl .. r" N n. Trenul d s4sii chii. acrn, i jrs1, ltlciL ll0s{ !(/dn: tscnty Dinuies.tc. {i! 1116iYe ld/ . r f i , ! L J ou l i t i l l .

Nn tr-d, !.i;d h nliin!

..) d' u rdrerb crre rrrt.i o TodxX |ad r lnrc da-r. ,\lnri z I'sl o zi lru!!'rsi. ldi tirnp reierminrti: t..ioadi rLe lods!, this ret, ill daI eir. I ldrr uorlrd lPrv lrrd -.1, |(rrl ioarte ntrlt (! 11ii{ il, )

1i. r*'nr,t^1i,' rl tltrl I

$'Iet dsJl

tu& rou t(n

dl Unde ni /r!, lorln ziut?

t Viiior'n rnFrior jn liDla ronini. ca si riil.onl D.rlccL ni linba rnsle7.i. ru cste d' laLr,l., l-n imr,e, d, . dt . , dl. lnl. . . il r nq n, n nr in n i / r n o f i r , l r - ; r \ i i r , r ', l n i \.l. l li id \ o, L, i' . ir . d . r i j , . , t r r , L-... r i . r J , " , 'l d 'i . \ l nr opoi, , l "l'. p," ,'u, da- . . 1, j. ., d' lrhir"rou r , l a ' , r a i i '. . . \ u l I . o I r u " .td. i. r ". i . ! i r r b i r , r r " d r p , , . . . i !1 ror,,' 1. . , h. . \ i"a

!86

f)

((n tar) u a{lv.rb .are anti o '(srn Dcriondli (lr fi'nr t!ri! rorriNlird) rrinaii pr.7ontj Niic ! rr lrt.i (\ 11: )1);

She ldsn'i trN' Irere ({or) (!ar Il'd /4r aici de un 3n. IIol1 lolg ldE votr ,.4, ir fo. so0c ten$ lie irds ,e., Tho gtdcn /Me ir?r,r.l

I Ile cl*d .iii in Buourciii? De cllirs mi Gl) l,{rd?d I Crndinr s, /d".u/nri Innoast iledl ln oprili. I'icsa r nrrl succcsde l&

4 / i nalxtrl frrii'JJrj d P tjm P t. rmrnxi lscx Drcz.ni este ]lr.Lt4l do nr

idvrb {.susll:

TIle tlrv /mr re.! a .uces

l(]l

Treortnl sin,!\t \ 1111


\\'o nrL lirril lifr sin.e Ne ,,.rtlr mo!tui il lalr Jas)-'. ii.i do ii'rd n!-rn

l J i ne! ri' 11 tcriu ad "i d .. li' nl, t P ru rnJft (srtr (o0 rrnn nr nl 'r !r.20trt. este pr..rzri de ua i r!,ni sn,,p h i\ 1 11 11 : i./ m {a lrmrr lreriert. an,bele lofu. dc trczsrt pcrlP.t e-F ldn!'i DriFird tarar.L.

Iis hetltl ,ds ,.tr botter Sinitotea lui $r a,r,liorui sitr.e h. hrs b..n t*inF do .ird hee Qia I. tsiile the Ml.rs al tle Slirnic

jl

is r151):

.n u ruati! olle& ci ., l i

xd v or bd. t im ! . o n ti - LaE dhr.xs l,ln!.d na -.1,r .r.a4 inloldeinn| ol san rcretitir: 3l${r\ somrii ei, urDi tiD'es \\'c ndf. olton l.er to the ,1m fon od*cori la nrt. 1{ 1 4( i?, iib) ;

- cr.r,ai",tiln*.,t
!i l]{jr-i

t rtal I
l

I liar4 r..r "Ila.r!t"

s.rc.

!,

rii{l.,Ilanlot"

de Dri

TRTICUTIIL P]IRTNCT irflli r'1sf rnRrxc! oli rll;PtrtuEt'rl

sr1?7

e;le un ijnlp ,omlus iofr,,nt cu sjutorul S 1178 Trccutul pcrloct. 1) Forni. lrmL Ul li d'l\il:1rL'ui to H tl L ur'. rt J- II i' ipirr lr-'ul Jl \arbulur de conluEni: I l,adcalled; f,ouhadcallcdit., sle. lt lad cau.di se hadcalled;vou llad calledi
r r P t r ' l p o r l " " r " \ p 'r t "r t t d l lt ' 1\ 1 . CA. s i ai' qi I' g l Am, ri d ro ln;n '. ',.a / . t i4, : , l' r l ! . lr nr lr ! . J osr slr r rl ur m0mpn n, a ,, r. ' iu .o lra.r',: ^ 'n'

2) lutrebuirtare. IrircutuhiiPerleetdin gran:rli.3 'nqiezniiro''.punJ S l4i9

fre.rt. si se tr.rduce in ];]rbs romeni ln acest caz cu rnai muli ca pedectul' cu perl6ctui sinplu sau cu perfeciul cornpus:
I kneN Cuv. hl. I idd not r.en l,in s'nce mJ Inar ase. de la cnsebria m.a) {ll cunqrca;n !e Cny, dar nnl 'a!zs.,z ll' 1 r : l. ql on l^ | ' I {'t o t i \\l, en tl,.i /../:d rd lo oior p, J |' onr r r uJ l J r L | u l !..ItLot i J r' , t " . ; , , t " p " t d ''i . r ',,.:i

Trecutul perlect irLr-o plopozilic cere trecutul simplu sau contjnuutn S 1480 cealalti:
rher h.d a aL e b"lot I . d, r ' I roia 1,,u nt tn,t been iaillin! rdr@ so_ :1. .\. or luiprotr'u ' I n I 11 s ' J Z\ or ' l a! . n' in " r 'l p ! '' L u : r l l F l" \dl" mro-rJl" "' "1r u Lnr u 'l Jpe ial{

an u

't

r86
S l48l

3) Trocutul perfect si treeut[l simplo. - Trc.utui pFrfpct .1re, fatd de trecut{ simplu,rolul pe caroI indeplinette przentul pertcctfat; de treze'rtul simplu. Ca atare, cl nai are urmetoarele functii: a.,i tradus tn limbr rcmAnn, cu rfrI,r/p.ral, ?.r[,etul sinLlnu sar !,:rfc(rul S 1489 armp[srarati ci o actiuoesau o FtaretncopuLl] irrintea un i dnumit nroment trecut, indicat prin trecuiul sinpiu. a durat o pedoadd de timl pini in acel moment (cI. S 1448):
H" ,o id h" h ad 0. . / t nF- t f o" $a l. , r r b . , a r ' oh J . doJ . rq pu ncdrp u5 . a 5o- , , l

S 1483

bJ tradus tn limba romAnn ctt t'iitorul antcri.or,inlocuie,(teviitorul pe.fect fald do trecut ln propozitia subordonatn ( g 2856):
Thp \ pr, lfrs;ou :rd Fp ,l r hd\ r , o. ld iom . s he, , lr d\ n 4 d t ; n ; - h e d \ , L r ) t . .r L o. i, n , ir , l \ or lt k n: ni \ d 1 : a - L , a . t , a t t , t r '1 . rrlt d d$d\.

"-"

$1181

., estelolosit adverbelejast, !i g./ (cf. S1448. cu srt/i 1450.1465. 1165b):


\ . r he $r Hd /kJ iu ar ,i, . n / lp, ' ih" nld ri .'r s t ill nnl^, lns ' ; J ou. She told me slic lddn'l s,., Xou -rei.

A se compara urmitoarele lllze pentru a se vdea rolul trecuiutui parfect fa_tdde rrecutul simplu. identic cu rolul prezertului perfect fald dc prezentul sinplu:
She @rnds sh has bcei matied llor) a rea.. ' {scric .e csrc mddtati de un a;.) She orcr. she had beet nuDicd tar lctrt. (Soriah scris c[ estc,'era miriial,l ^ de un an.] n.l ,s ro nl d"n' ) - , ill bp ar n a r b k h n h . t . _o' ,, t -t., r '. t I . t J , r u, , t . - r , , / , /.;",f.. ", rd lL,a n."tp siJ ",. 1 i"a\ io. ' or l' r ; b" Dan rd s ron d nl l' . - or ld L. B. - , r ior L. t ,. r n d n , / - 4 r t s 4 i ; r . . (Dan ra sigu r ce i s c v a da o s lt r jhJ Ll! p I c . , r i , , t i l | . f , r , i d r i . t t s , u m f n u t d c s r a t . l

A s e r em ar c a e l a s ti c i ta te a c u c rre l i mL l e nql ezd spdrge Li D Jrl e.Luntorn 'i n d u . " " loJ a 1 l o r c l n l l n ra ru l : Shc ras,ni,ntzb,on lic. wa} [o lhc oemttcfy: "Ioddy her cl]ilil /dl r.ez dcada y.a.,,r

S 1{85

4) Trccutulpeficct in stilul ixdircrt. ln strlrrl irrdirc, dupa un r.erb i. gruper cu lornli de trecut.deciapartnri'rd tre.rtulujr,lrcLutulpe}fe,rinlocuicstetrecutul simplu sau prezentulperfc.r dil stilul direct:
I.a id:'l ,r a - |r es enl , 1, \ F, r lh. ld. r \ \ , " r P , , | I h oJb&' J r , oa. nldir . n , lh l- . : " \ \ 'r l J 'o L i".r.r , 'ril Sn asl&'t tue: "Hdt. tot seen todal's !a!e.i"' askcd mc wlictrcr/il{ I nad scen ttiai dar's later. -qlc ;:

S1486

5) lnlocuirer tro0utului leriect cu treriutul iimphr. Pcnlni s; rplii;cire. ln unele sitra,tii trecutrrl perfect este lnlocuii ou i|ccutul snrplu, spre eremplu lnaintea unei propozi,tii secundafe iltroduse prin conjurclia ,rtrc sau ln propozitiile secu dare in care anteliorjtatea dcliunii c-\pr; ate r,1 mod normal prin trecuiul perlect rezulli{ ciar ti fdrn lntrebLrin!arer acestura:
T l, e nr . r nd , / , ( h .t l ,.tr) L . ..1 6k - ..,. ,.. tr, . n,.fl / \rj eI he obroitrJ ( . hid obtdincd) liis ii.it.lt.s, ne spint a \r..li s holidar ir rhe Shc.tLnid the tarcci Fiil, Lhe doll I lorsl,r (: Ijad lorChtj ii,'r. (Y.z i $ S 1 /, 1 r3
rvczi \ 11 :t., v eli s i not a. 'The Ir,nqe-t "torr,.". LiL l0Nl.er. 3 V.zi q 11 56 !nhcthLr - un.al lr.analifal, dar iorDal: 5ltn lruG.C.f. v ez iir ! g. 3r i0, f ut { i.

i/

!op!lar,

dn. cln,nt.

! S 1' 187 . . - p a' " " .i ,u . i .. d i q u b .n " ' ;ru l fF,h. r . a,e p\n' i ma rtu l p |r , .i " u ,, r" nLr ' -:rbui e p ro o ,7 :i d ,o r' ,i ' i o n 1 ir " 1. , 4ut , . , , /l r ^ t . rF . u tu ',o F "' coniundat. ln linbr r'.,Lline se lradu.e in ace.stn situalie cu cordilionalul . tl x.tt1 l ie T rn

( $ 276 2 ) :

I naCs.n liin lcto... brt I didn'L knoir his nnnc. lTrecut Dert.t ill rnai rd:k.D, dar nn stilrn cum i] cheamri ) it I h. J . , p, h m l ., ., .' \ts l o ,u \o u rc,bton.l r\ p/r' .1
lDJ, r I j , i . - .l+ r ' sp u .

i\rezi ii g 175:lJ

TLTPUTiILTTIIRTtrCTX (f!n Prxr!.ria. rir\nEs)

s 1488

1) Fcrn[. I'imporjle perfect se constniesd cu aiutorui au\iliarului g 1,tE9 to IL$'E, la modul si timpul de bazn, icspcotivi urDat de partioitiul trecut al lc'rhlui hrieal dc corjuEat ($ l:li2 l3?8).

Obscrealie Inlre co sll'rclin liilo.ului periect.a liriurului pLrlcllala de trecut.si S 1Jl,O h " 'n:r:ron,l,rlui Frr"rr p"J"opi,fl-.si ,o."rr..riJ\,ILF'rrFte!rr!.,,oJdl. urmal.e.de un nriiriliv pertcrt iJ. dc alta. e:ristn identitate dc lorme, de;i sltucturarespeclirl diferi. Cn alle cuvinte.in cazulde la1! se suprapun doue irterpreterj: al confornl hqulii de formrre a timpudlor pcrlcte, viil,orul perfectj S Il!)1 \-iitoflri pedect faln de trecrt ti clrndilionalul pcrfeot sint iorm|ll,e din .,iilrrrril (respectiv ,ttrrr l fdlri de tre. t sarl ':ondiliaMlul) au\iliarului to IIrt1D ]parli.ipiuL trecd al t',:rluL,ri. l,ti.taLx: / .pl . l-Fc'rr. | | I'o'1 Io, { \ir' r /o hotl-,o.t \r rlor p! lp l ,,, .,,4 tr,. I rir or/a t.4) ) -:t.,h.n ip"rr. r""xr1 | I'rr' I tiilnr l.r J r. .' o tnre|!st pl tI-',,] ,!.,r1. rra Ur/ \ ii or p"r'll felrl de trocut l rou l.Jr. (., \'iiLor ii!,i d., trrrt|l Lahaee)+*en 'rarld (parl. trecut) I | :hould haoe (: cordilional to lLure) + wtLlkrd lpatt. Conditi.ndl (rruld I'arc (conditional to haa.) -: rutr (patt. perlect -\o', t!acut)

6/ pe de altn parte. cin,l trebuie redatd ideeade limp perfect,verbele g 1492 del'e.ljIe nlodrle. deci Fi SHA[,L ii WILL. sint urnlaie de un inlinilir ?erlcl:
I sn"l, (dcl.cti\. ia.l6t) haft.att.d {n'liniti! pcilcci)ron ,,i/i {den 0tiv nodnl) /drd s],ot n tnrlhiaiv reriecl). l rau lJ\4 ,.\ r'r. Tol' / "/ , r ; nt ir i \ r . r . . " t . , . l: dr ini jr t " r " c ' , J, r Jorl/ t i"r , ' , n, l. ' l l. ' "

Ideniitatea lormelor de la $ f491 cu formele de )a S 1492 ste pcrfectd, cu toati structura lor dilcr'itn.
l,,Propozifia coDdi1iona1."' \:stt: subo aNta catu coniine if In lraza cordilionale g !t ir . :!'r zcnt . t r , , ut : ad \ il t,rr (S r1 .:!l
t r r .i .t I11ri, i. '" , ., dr' t l l . L " nr d z.ve r h r ll"\i.l,D,s,l,' r n h d lir .n r u d j' .,n.t1tJ i . . , t d ,4 d F to .r .,p tn 4 e lip r fe ,.t m 4 n l' onatp. r, t , r. gr t , r . t

s86 ln lucrarea de la!d, paliru coisecvenle !i o mai metodici. pred-are. coriuqarii \ erbului tn qeneial, se vorbe;te de utilizarea au\iliarului to HAVE 1.. ls firr;ar.a /x/l/ror ri';nijrilor ppr[a, .Flilal rcpe,l dl c^ <tru.l:pi cprute de ver!le SHALL !i \''ILL liiird aratat ln caJrul verbelor delcLi\e modale. Tirlpurile per2) Timpurile perlocts eonshuite cu auxiliarul to BD. { 149:1 (prezentul perfcet si irecutul perlect) ale unor Yerbe intranzitive llo fecle /; do L io tini.\/. tn pr.to.o. tn gnrl la lt e t. to n'|t. t4 'rt' b*om ,,o -n,, return,lortseeLc.l utreorio form; psraleli.in curerrrxiliarul au to sit,to ftst. to to HAVE esle lnlocuit cu to BE, padicipiul trecut pfimind aslfel aproalle valoare de adjectiv. Aoeasli oomporlate eiiisfi Si tn limba rornnnn:
She $\e Tte The h&s .on.. lEa a aenit.) is .one. Ea a iuit. {: ,'sie taatr.i, de.i poii s o lczi ) sun brd .:.", . . ljodr c t , r as a- . e. ) /,tsdrit. dcci nu mai lut.au sun 1r$ ras.n. suuele r\J.isc. (:trd

ve{ea

rnsitilul).

ConsLrucliato BE + participiul trecut, tiind in getlereintrebuinllta ctr verbe crre exprimi in mod obignuihaoliuni, arati sLareasubiectului rezultatd din acliunea verbului respectiv. Astfel:
Ue hs soue. lEI a ptecat.) (Alnlia estelndrellati asupra acliunii in sine.l He 13one- tlecat. (: tsr.rl,.a,. nu mai esterici.)] [D (-{tcnl.iaeste irdreptatl asup.a rcarltntului acliunii vcfbnlui. ,,!l ntr nri este airi, aia ce nu'i poii vorbi"l (irandlalhe. sas gmr'4 otd Grardlatler hril s.otD old, (Buni.rl tu {),trl;.) (tsunioDl trDdrtn6?.,

mai rechi il] limbi Formele de periect construite cu auxiliarui to BE au reusit si se;entine irl oarecaremisur5. alitud de lormle noi de pe.feci constrriite cu auxiliarul to HAVE, prin laptul cn, deli uDeori aproapeperfeci sinonime cu acestea.poi fi intrebuinlate penLru a rcda totu;i nuanle care contribuie la o rprinare mai subtiln a gindirii. .\sttel:
(V-aii ' odihnii?l {SInteli odihnjl,? }'ulcn tleca acum?) I travc hea.d he has /crrnd. (.^.m alzit cn s-a IntoN.l I have ha.d hc iN t.rurned. {Am auzit c'1 s-a lntor6.) i: Esi ai.i, il put-"n redea acu .l Tl . bxtier h.s aelr.J. { U n tul so tot,i t.l the buti.r ft n..J''d. {Untll es[e l.o!it.) ( \tr silli dau dc nt'oar.) .|ne1.harl jn the sircel. t -dt I L \e ,nt i ns' r, l ,e stradt.l ,/ T l i s N Jq thE .asc th' \ scn m , to I lAcesta c.u onzul p.ntN discutafta I druia so intrdnisari.) I | 1 I t

s 149{
S 1195

YIITORUI, SIUPIU (rrrE slrfrr,E rur[nD)

\'litornl (The b'uture) etpri,ni o acliune sarr o stare care l) Delinitie. vorbirii: va area loc drpd momenLul
I Lo os .h",',/1 , . h' _d u l' , n (Siiu c{ ra /t aici ]a ora lira i.r

289 l) Formi, - Viitorul sirnplu se formeazii ou ajutorut auriliarelor SIIALL S 1496 (lq pcfsoana sg. qi pt.) qi WILL (la persoaraa 2-a fi a 3 a sg. !i pl ). urmate 1 d.e Lnfinitieul lf;e"t al vetbului de conjugat: I sIaU otrll, rou Flll cal1lihe, she,ii will call. we shsll calll rou wiu oall; they will call. 3) SHALL. TIILL. - .\,ieasti ut;lizare tradil,ionali ;r auriliarelor SH,{LL S 1497 (f.f..L g.sr pl.r'i\\lLl lcrs o2"'sia3a'g 'i lt' I r" forn rrea vii'orL'lui qru \.orDr'). in ,.rorr-. la n..nclult2t.,t" at\ d etontat,,dt sltltl larntut(ncflq irc m"'u'a L''s il ,l toloc.ral t-' ri ',u torbili, \\'lLl d irlo'u:r rr l^Jtlr propriu-7isa ,,din'e" \\ll at-nape"r'Iuiv si a..,rli.,rulSll\LLin \nsli i'. :co'j0. lrlardd. \\'r1".. rr nro'ir fiF.i lr torirorirlap\ -dbtilani.^r!3 cE Britani" r.chi -qin 'r SU \. \u"lr ali3 ;i Con.n'unseartbul "nd" 'agl'za esle a doua linbn a-orbi$. u 1ll.i sohr'i- prr,onizr" l" 3r,'"-rsti'"ni n"n ru :a'ire" 'rr "i cui de iunslaaLi ,l.conluz"{ s prob)an;.- 'tFl pdP.FJ n'"i mrci -.,e.:n . r0Do' .r sll\l.L/WlLl. 'nodrc5 " ;n rpbuirr,arFl Iorn'lor ti. r" ul 'on'ras' penl,lu ambcle auxiliare. ,{cest erpedient', foartc I't.1. ltou'Il ;tc.. l.alabile rPrPbralrrp'".dr n lri qi r n irrim'rl J" ri se,lLrLr'or nrir .irnrli '''lorr i'lausor, eraLicqu" c.rrl,ri rur, o nou" su'',' ,lF Pf li.uiLeli e"-Anr;'e ' r' Iflbui d tir'^ddla l-olL rlF i rpo^ts1la'5rr'irp a li^ bii ltinpi"td"t"'nrrrlui numnr de nuanl,e inlplioite ln contrastul S}IAI,L/WILL. tinii eramaticieni mafcheaze aceasti schnnbare prin iotala e\clndere a .'nili"rului Sll\LL Lrp.n .li! SllOl'LD7 'lrrr lsb' l" 'ulilro"rii -\irii u ddupld' un "o-,promis 'n unna divar.clorFn.hplo,lo lifrrl a.pl-iA a I'i Il;r'in . .i au ins"rlsin !r.m r i"i pr"z"nla rnbFlur au\ir rr ordincr Ir! \'Fr -f. illrebuinLarF. i"rt.l: t i'tr Isnarl .o't.t r 4r:t''hott 'tt ri irrari aliii. L"i JA flrile dezaventaje adusc de acaxti schinbarei lnscriu: irind drept oiteriu I shallliiLL atll { Lve shallltvill call, nt\ mare numer dintre aoeltia inregistrtnd cind. I I we shallI wiII call. cinrl 1,/ oc tpill I shdlL caLl ltun , S au lircut toarte nafi eforturi!i pe scar; intinsn cu rezultate,.coDsiderabile" dupli cii se pare6. pentrr prclucrilra masclor in vederea menlinerii raportului SI{\LL / WILL traditionai. In aceasfi situa,tie,granatica de f&ti adopti tormele dc r-iitor t; de oondr" lional tradilionale, araiate la S 1496 ;i $ 1618, ca liind singurLrlpuncL d ple care posibil pentru expuneroa clard ii metodicd a numeroaselor subliliilli semttitice (oiertonc:.)care apar odati cu oric nlodilicare a raporlului SHALL/ WILL, relpecti!' SHOULD/WOULD, rimlnind sA se indice terior separat, modilicArile apnruie gra-tie interl'cnliei stilului colocvial actual.
ir ' : fo1,, Inl t hat ntt' ,,t6 , m. \ " 1, " r r l |"r ' o1. . nxmxr i <lilu l Do,t r s . L r c lir ios grp n, i, ' t F '6 r , r " l p . e r,.:/;o I . at a, . d r " l 'r -\ Lrl" d d \ l ', l - . ) i . , , , r ' 1t ", , . n- t o, . n.mliD-r s.J., in: Lt : i t : 1ot b r " , : . ) , "u , ' l - r 's p l i r . dbt lr "F' r l I ' . t ' l t nt t "d i ' n; d n/ DA,t " l l, p , 'r , S 'o l '/ \ \ b l d K : ' cd a' a l it "t I nt n o' d \ ". " "n / , , / 4, , tt ,,,r' i.\n!lia protau./oj. I 3l. d !t , , . . , , . . , 4, a/ . t " 1 . t aJ, \or'.1 .a., O./j. D. OxL ttrd t,tr,x l! h Dic r inl r \ r r f 'r '" J ls.Ir' r ' dlr on- n" ' \\' . l,ll " a l l '' 'l of E.slish is evcr c.lled oD to oleni a Nav through " "M.dcn r\nerican l\igP " ilf . I L NIitl,i'rsct {lj{ . , 1r t dc , r . . . .lt en 4S, pag. 9; $ ii: 8 Qlirk.1 . d lia. I r t lt nn{ r . . " 11. I ,' . 1 ?i r ., 1 .

200 5 1498 $ 1499 4) lnfsles.- Viitorul simplu este inirebuin,tatpentru a exprimai a,,l o acriunesau o stareviitoare fatd de un momentprezent:
I-sha l.vill see Urcm on Fdilay. (li ,ot ,cdd !inui.)

s 15oo

unei ac,iiunisau si,iri ln prezentsau ln trrecut: ,J probabilitatea

Cononclo..llease, that rtll Dd St. Thomas's? (Ta-\ai.., v1i rog, acesta esre!rcrdrtl spilalul St- Thomas?) 1vh.t a hollahal.o at thc doorl Tbat t,il, bc the children. cd {Ce t{ritroi la us{l P.oDoDtl stz, copiii.) lr anv nr lhe h ;\s h rs e a l e n l h e i a m. rl a r h 1Z Lc JohD . r O 0. i \ r F U , . ' L J ;." b e i " l i a ,_ n i d l m d m " l J dJ, l ral A rr.rt; sa /i p l on I A s \ r u , , i/ l air ra d v 6 ,,, tu o m h rr l p .l " r. s he aoi s l o Jb31. " , Lt upr c . 11 t r ob o L i i ,.i l i r rl ,r . " ' s o a rF a ;:.r l ' a,; Ia l d:.1 :torul u; s 1501 5J \ iilor ul pc rre c l | 7 h " I' " tt,' r" p rl i | .o Iorm1a7b ru aj ul otul a u r;lilr ulLi r o il. \ \ E u rn ' a l d e N t.;p ;,1 /f, al al vprbul tri de conj ugal r: 1 shall/$ill hare called; you will lavc cailedi lie, she i[ Nill ]rave called; we shall/sill lavc ca.llrd; you will have call-"di they \iilt have called. Yiitorul perfect exprimE, ca gi in limba ronind: d) o acliune sau o starc aiitoare: anlertodrd, altei acliuni ori stdri Yiitoare sAD r nni m om enl d a t v i i to r: Lo_, J on, " : L h o l l l !:x l a r [i ,;.l fd t _ ' b o roruprp' . r \ : ' a I nF 4r T t lA n .a t.p 4 :n sd b " L l ." J i u l I' i r c. L.i " osi ri i .) tle ial\ lLd'e dor ihe tanslation bv this inre i.omorros'. (Nu ure sd. terminetraducereapin{ mliDe la acastA orI.) l L 1 l r obobi ; t a t,o n r" a l i ,n i s d u .ri n r " " mi nrtp l i c l n r r P cuL.l j a i n vi i l or' fn 6 r p" i ar z \ iit or u l p " rrp . t .a l -r' l u rn l n l rm bl ro" r;na uu \i i l orul rnl eri ^r gi esle de ohicci lnlocuit pr Lr o construclic ln care apare adverbul t/obaDii: 'ton oi haectuald ure nane: it is so lanoxs.3 (t'.aLdLil.cd ai d&.i, acest rnner este alii de celcbru.) Ste eilt ha@ tin6?d.i nr nine o'ctocli.l (r.ababit .d e; fi tc.ninarl'a rrntnd phl la ora noui.)

s 1502

Patt analFuture krfect in the,PdJl.). - Acesteasint doui timpud, inexistente tn limba romAni, care au aceeaqiconstruclie ca ti viitorut faln de prezent, in ebirea ci sint form at e. nu cu prezeDtul,ci cu Itcr dlri auxiliarelor SHALL cu d eos \\iILL: ;i Viitornl fdld. de hedat (Future in the Past): I sliould/would you wouldcall; he, slie,il sotrld calli \te shoxld/rolld call; cau;
you would calli they ilonld tall.

6) 'l-iitord f&,txdc trecxt fi viitorul porfoctfa.ti de ftecnt (ltutur..in the

'triitorul perfect ta,ti de treflt (Fntute P:tf.ct in lhe pd\t): I should/would harc caltediyou, he, she,ii wouldhavecalled;tte s|oxtd/$ould Iale callediJou would have caued;thJ would hale ralled.
S t4 e0 - 149r . 'zVe zi ! 1 ,!t5 s i not a n. lr Das , t 84 ,Cln d il.t.r\ 1; i, . 1. ' d o . Diobi, bil, r x r . - . r iilo , . l p " i l p c l io.mtl l o x l d F r r ', i n a ,tri . ldl r t , t ot . l - . r . o ! - a t a 7 : o t " p c ; ! a : a" liun "viilo.r"an '"lio "la. n, , inom ' uh qdedb de tinp eiitot precX. rln u .rNLr Dr oD"/ i b. \ ' : r or I D"r 1, r r . , . , e". ! " i l J r o . 'r n r , , , , r i n " , r i o , , , r r 'a i '. . o r u l I n l , ', t J d ''n ': t.;:i- ' t . ' r , i nbnq, r ' ". r , hlrd .",,-.u ! '\ i i n{: ,.Vd l.ermira llni la ora 9'. i9 ti01 a) lVczi

2$1 In lirnba romAnn,acestetimpuri se traduc cr riitarutl dupn cun urrnazd: $ 1503 ltulure in the Posl cu viitorul, tr'urte Perf.ct in lhe Pdst cu riitorul anlerior Ce.ledoun timpuri rprim& o acliune considarati c riito(tre l*.i, de un $ 1504 momeni dat din lfrclrl s&u rillor':
r ' ' or , I ioid / ,l lho uld snr|l - lp ln \ lolhr r . r \ sr". t,, to, {re , nam c r . l l .{ m h. b, '; (\i nri \ lv nl. da \' o \ o r . , l 6 j ''. rio ,,/ . m . . or I I Fhould/ r oul' l ".o. a d", a ?: o ilr 'd t, " r lut.l) , \J,rn J lni , 1.".-o. She ldl arirreu shc'd/wonld lrc 6ble to come on th. Iollowing SundaX. Niihr pe cct) (3ois6e ce ed pLrea r.ni drmirica urnatoarc.l ilt appoinf..d linre. (\'iitor I rol.l Jou l'd/shouldi rorld l&yo t'dltlled IlrI tdk |rlot ' rTi an .\"u' ci it\i tai tnd.epl.inisarcina nuinie d-" ertirarla I llbueht ron woutd b&le ro'rd his books. lAn e:.ezrir cir li rpi ii oiilt (probabill od.!il.l iernenllui acordat.)

Viitorul perfect {a!i de trecui c\primii probabilitateA ti fdri prezen-ta unui ad1'erb de tinp viito precis: likc l,ontc ihc tine you'd (- Irol, bI Ted,as sur! Jou'd(- toDld) bcrctliDg going
,T " d.fd l: -rur,d ab s o l v im a uni{!Nitltii.) v r l, , edor , l", c . i, r ' , 1 ..\''r: .dl \ 'i l d J dip-o.1 ,l

In limb.r ,torbitaL dsl.i;1. cstc curenti lnloeuirer au\iliarului SIIOUI,D ctt \{OULD la pers- I sq. Ei pl. Periru a se evita problenele gramatioale cc se jvesc astiel, -se inrrel,uinleazn in gcncre forma r,ontr l'.J l: I shouli l q.,/J./ si "Fppciv r.tI ^sn x "houtdl^Ltdt i,,I h,i,.1 -lo.\iJ nun1i. rinrorbi .",i"r'i.. (.1.,It,t'.)!r! .n,p/, \'rI 'ri .r.r '.r'.1. "^nr'a.p //l 9i e'll ( S 1507 volitiv). ,{vind acerali fomi .tl Si candilionaluLcele do,,i iimpuri riitoaro sc deo S 1506 sebescde e1 nLrmaiprin inteles. Colter.tul ne va arita deci tlaci avem de'a face ou viitorul sari cu condi!,ionalul,viitorul fald dc irecui fiind corelat cu li!io Jul l.1.i zrrll ,l,.o proporirip u. tt..,tt:i,nr1,t d.."rp d"prndF,i'r,. g ""ititi nadt., i;[,!q., /..{piima,j.a,r -,binl"l",s;. \'"t,.,. fr""Fl.,ifdindi liitntuL pofect fatai dc Ltecutto oontrast c\l undiliannl L petfetl: I lnde.sfoodrot'dleouLl..onte orcc. {Viftor) at (Dutr .ir d,' i' r.l"-, .; s, u;i ;n. d J . ,r I 'o',ll rrnsro'r ,,r'.Juu,//ro,r/ or" d .n'.. (. i d
D ' ri , p. "1 e . o ,i. a , ,p , ,1 .' l' d

I li nll S 1506

rt,rr .,tt t h. , ; li- ' . ' ll; n " s . o r T q , L rra ,,i ' l r r' r' ' ' \. [ .uoi b:l l i l cu adverb de liml precis) (\iitor p.rlect). b) I kne|9yot'd.lqohldft6s over Dickie il Iot got r chancelliilorul rali de tfc.ut cernt de un f.c.ui simllu (ttn.tr). sot fiit\d tol u irecul.l c) Un t:ondili.onal !rd:.nl corclat cr un saDjon./i(, tr!!nt. f t lnct i e i l e s it Llat ie s au de i n te n l i a v o rb i i .o ru l u i : ,J.'].pnif, ii

.\ sc cornpar'ain contrast: a) \or @iU ha'. re.eindn"yg..ctings $!ilc ol th.l,oliday rush (I'rolalilitale-in (Yijtorpprl'ctl. rlc I.(r d,h.erlr tir p prccisl

// the letl.rs 49, a lake ihey ./ cdtainly not Deadd.ess.d you by i.o nan'e. "vourIret r,,,',,' m iinfi { { io !r z i i s l .i ll i i .ra rl .

(i"';13y'" s"o' u, iJiil$"if"}i""'i .oli"l1'ti,i$"T$i*.ili{'l'Jf"51"K.i;;


Yiitorul laF
I shail call ie. she, it shall call

r9r

MOTI!O'OGIA

_ !'ERBUL

Prezont 'le In L e n i i a l ui ddftsdtsau .e


c@ese firbel.e .lespre I $ili call' he, she, it will call iney will call

Viitorul fa.t[ ds trecut


i,e. shc. it sh.uld call
iie. shc, il wo!)d call

ihey wonld cau

riitor' o-idee modald3in Aceasti tormi exprrma le ling6 noliunea de pl.|l": intenr,ic, aainld, holdtir;, pronLisiune' ordut' amenlnlare' estinlre' inten,tir sau hotarirea o ar rcl carc Iorbe e' SHAI-L o, Cirt,1 { taOg buinldr ld Loate Persoanele: $c stn r'a'd tomorroit (lnieniie)
lfotu ,lecd nnte )

exp.lple sint Lipi'epenlru tloua "i i"ii""iiJ J.'f,"'i,.r*. on'irg't"ic rprimel" etc ): oii'"-t""i oii"l"l", initrucliuni, obligalii lornale
r om ' ADDli""nl. 5l'll r ' 11 r " J - . { O r lij4i"' u | , . lCa _n did alii,.eDt i' ' n ' o' "Pr c k :

F ' a to : r , d / i ' E a J c o l ' l a l i mp n u _ l ' . ' aLl ho n J rl n ) .u tp o rr' { ]-ru r' ' i ' ro ' ttt \ r l e' r o& dd, i' v ri ro . o / l o l s p trl rn u mP ! l r o r ' j, ll go t , o r a r o n c " l l o td :n i / / t s d ! 1. . i a c a s Jrr!' d ra !1 ) dre) l t t p " t ail bP P u a i s h Pid n ' J ' Sn b :I' r ' l m" n i n d l' F J d t P P 4&P s tt a ' i n u 0 5 ' u trI J I l c to' te pol soar' p]" mai cxpri mi lr or m a de \ ; ; lo r c o n ' (ru i ' 5 c u S H A L L e noLi uni " \i sti nd un.cl eman' ^ rr' i e rc l n to a l e a ' c ' AL, : oli" , p, *; ; un '

il".iil'i' I'" rx,, - . ir'i"l';:,;i,il'':l :^il''":' ... liil'111""' li'\it'il'ii.'3i'#'"1 'ili,':,, : :yl'03:,,',1 ""i' i\ c , l, ll / l a -, i l i m p . d o n I s o rrv l (P t ombune)

$-e'srud -r'u1r ":i;li':;;i'):i;:,!l) fxl lvom ..uii cu sigurarli (la

o:.::Ji'."i":"'l: i" d,.," ;,1',,,,:.: l;1,"1';;ll,':l "i.,1".1ii;; "l rir;-' i",'l 1"'l."i;,1 ;l-''"liliLl: "'''" " ),1.,'li';"li g.' rft'oesr,
r

se to t V ez i ii nof a, l , c a res c re l d a L t l r ,,i l l .n l i n c.' hi crre i or| ' ste' : I * i l l tal t rt

993

La persoana 1, deosebirealorm$li rnt.e simptul riit0r hreeulurat)si cel $ 1609 _ etpLr. cici st; in faolul cd. in .crul de tr1d,rto.l estcroloral modal,a;r"ntuat sau nul, pe clnd la simplul viitor nu este nici accentuat:
| r on" oo\ . qim llu v ' i , ' ..htlt ljt . m.l t r n, v r nl, u I., t , uI . o, i. lot t Hot J 1 r ,l ..tu r . " . 1, 1. , ,I.,,.r . . vr'.,

Viitorul constmit eu SIIALL intrcbuirrtat la toate persoanele E.isste S 1510 se ai jn_propo/irI.p "'ru^,lorrrF duo., r-"1 pl" ,au con.rru,ljite .ipcirir" ' ".1" hotdrirc.inltn1tc,e,ti li, un anlhI It hdsbun de.ided thrt Tetstars,sha te usedIo. flie transmission TV proof gra'nmes ac.oss the Allantic. Y,ur wil ir.rr"z,i,pd ttst y,u .l,tt t,,.. a rtlns h.tidrv tr', fFar. /o,-.,., 0r!1dI L"pn.x,ponr",,r r.;^,:w \\,,\; rru.i: rdl/ ,,.pr,, ,h. .jf"l,i,,* ,, Cind intenlia dt,arlinepersoanpi edroiate adresezi sau ilesDre carc sc S 1b11 vorbc\fe.auriliarul ,1,r, b,rin:at \\ ILL la to0te pprboanptp 1507): ({ ^"t. Y u s.'yJ U ;//sp-,k,o l,.r,n.ri -ol,v,r\r':ns rHotArirp 'sou'., .l /.o,a., \o"b,..i. nc,,..rJ..tori: iml'r"(.au oi.i,-"artrdrrta.l " I nnor \v',t,pr j, ". J n p
d .linsloL h. t pr . ", t r t $n . l|p f r ritrh"to mp. r\.oidra r\ rI i. lrp l ,lJ.: p od l. . , i l, ar r pa! J mj J-,rtr.l I know ll,p) .'.'/ nLL r hpr r iLk s har o\ Fr t ho d i f f i . - t [ F s . t t . r s j . t f , n t l l 'irr.L (5 , u ,1 vo" p .,"","!a p - nl, . a. i : ndF. ' , r i - ar , or r J t d . ^ d i d r I i g r u i d i i r p ) ' na

E r c e p !i e

r Pn r rH . norir flrFr. o. t L. o r or p r or b. l| : I sill tell him $tai I thirk. (Inl.n1ie) {-\cccrr treuiru) (-\ intenlia se,i stln ce siideso.) r ..ra, I go .rrL no \. 1o |. " inoi"t inS: ( Ho' ) "t , c 1 \ u vrrau sl ie s a , u D, d' c . a|a s r . ir ur t J 1\ Jll1 r,.o u Lr ol d . - , on J , s . r r , La, L, lPr I nt : J n " l i ., \o . J d | . r i. - I d, , id . r r F \ om , n b l o i a r ( A r r 4 n ' n , u b u , II\i loB ndt:n

td I,p,urr,t p.tp p . t e o n 4 / . e \ f rin b in - S t s t z ] " , P, i l 9p e r su "n ,1.|rin insust

Notd La persoanaa 2-a $i a 3 a. deosebirea formali intre simlrlul riitor necolorai S 1b1t si viitorul coloral modal erpus ]a acesr capitot std in faitul ci, tn cazul ale " fatn. \\rILT, este acceniuab,pe cind la si;plul liitor nu este: Yr!'llr'rtu, se. 1,e.. (Snrllu riilor)
L rr !e r v e0ea. ) IIe /l /,t?t under s t and. S i d l l u ri i to ..l l a |d irtelegc.) Yo n sa y y o' r , , / l s p. d L 1 H ,,t.l ri re l lSu u i ri i r s r i j" r l- ir it s - Ll o rb p .l r' .) I 4 o n l , k' uL( ihpt h. r I n ,,. t u r s o to th p l i r st ni sl ,l , r\' !i n| 11 r\. ri u dac r r 1 lr o" r " .ru n . ,/,d -o r' ' i ." " ' r p r,mi .rJ.j ., "i
. . oJ ti .,

", 2 : . i : ,:;" ' saielili (le ooniunicalic xliliz{ti in traDsrisiu.ile tetefonice si telev;alc 'ftlsr4's: tla$atlani,ice. ,. ..4 t n|u. ) , io Lt o n oa. t u1"i dr p J" "in".,,ti .ri,,.7i. a.r ,\"u lr',,. . i mrf l rmns, rl' &qu