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TUGAS MAKALAH PENGANTAR APLIKASI KOMPUTER

Muhammad Reza Utama (01091001033) 2.Rayon Hendra (01091001071) 3. Shabri M (01091001043)

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Disusun Oleh :

Jurusan Manajemen Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Sriwijaya

CHAPTER 8 1. What is the significance of telecommunications deregulation for managers and organizations? >Companies large and small from all over the world are using networked systems and the internet to locate suppliers and buyers, to negotiate contracts with them, and to service their trades. Applications of networks are multiplying in research, organizational coordination, and control. Networked systems are fundamental to electronic commerce, electronic business, and the emerging digital firm. 2. What is a telecommunications system? What are the principal functions of all telecommunications systems? >A telecommunications system is a collection of compatible hardware and software arranged to communicate information from one location to another. 3. Name and briefly describe each of the components of a telecommunications system? >Computers to process information. Terminals or any input/output devices that send or receive data. Communicate channels, the links by which data or voice are transmitted between sending and receiving devices in a network. Communications processors, such as modems, multiplexers, controllers, and front-end processors, which provide support functions for data transmission and reception. Communications software, which controls input and output activities and managers other of the communications network. 4. Distinguish between an analog and digital signal.

>An analog signal is represented by a continuous waveform that passes through a communications medium. Analog signals are used to handle voice communications and to reflect variations medium. A digital signal is a discrete, rather than a continuous, waveform. It transmits data coded into two discrete states: 1-bits and 0-bits, which are represented as on-off electrical pulses. Most computers communicate with digital signals, as do many local telephone companies and some larger networks.

5. Name the different types of telecommunications transmission media and compare them in terms of speed and cost. 6. Name and describe the technologies used for wireless transmission. >Microwave Systems, both terrestrial and celestial, transmit high-frequency signals through the atmosphere and are widely used for high-volume, long-distance, point-to-point communications. >Cellular Telephone work by using radio waves to communicate with radio antennas (towers) placed within adjacent geographic areas called cell. >Personal Communications Service is a digital cellular technology that uses lower-power, higher frequency radio waves than does analog cellular technology. >Personal digital Assistants (PDA) is small, pen-based, handheld computers with built-in wireless telecommunications capable or entirely digital communications transmission. >Mobile Data Networks is wireless networks that enable two-way transmission of data files cheaply and efficiently. 7. What are optical networks? Why are they becoming important? >Optical networks are networking technologies for transmitting data in the form of light pulses. These optical networks can transmit all types of trafficvoice, data, and video-over fiber cables and provide the

massive bandwidth for new types of services and software. 8. What is relationship between bandwidth and a channels transmission capacity? >The bandwidth is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be accommodated on single channel. The greater the range of frequencies, the greater the bandwidth and the greater the channels transmission capacity. Bandwidth is the transmission capacity of a communications channel as measured by the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be transmitted by that channel.

9. Name and briefly describe the different kinds of communication processors! Front-end processor

A special purpose computer dedicated to managing communication for the host computer in a network. Concentrator

Telecommunication computer that collects and temporarily stores messages from terminals for batch transmission to the host computer. Controller

A specialized computer that supervises communication traffic between the CPU and the peripheral devices in a telecommunication system. Multiplexer

A device that enables a single communication channel to carry data transmissions from multiple sources simultaneously.

10. Name and briefly describe the three principal network topologies! The Star Network

A network topology in which all computers and other devices are connected to a central host computer. All communications between network devices must pass through the host computer. The Bus Network

Network topology linking a number of computers by a single circuits with all messages broadcast to the entire network. The ring Network

A network topology in which all computers are linked by a closed loop in a manner that passed data in one direction from one computer to another.

11. Distinguish between a PBX and a LAN! PBX is a special purposed computer designed for handling and switching office telephone calls at a company site. LAN is a telecommunication network that requires its own dedicated channels and that encompasses a limited distance, usually one building or several buildings in close proximity.

12. What are the components of a typical LAN? What are the functions of each component? Gateway

A communications processor that connects dissimilar network by providing the translation from one set of protocols to another.

Router

Device that routes packets of data from one network to another. Network operating system(NOS)

Special software that routes and manages communication on the network and coordinates network resources.

13. List and describe the various network services! Packet Switching

Technology that breaks blocks of text into small, fixed bundles of data and routes them in the most economical way through any available communications channel. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

A networking technology that parcels information into eight byte cell allowing data to be transmitted between computers from different vendors at any network speed. Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)

International standard of transmitting voice, video, image, and data to support a wide range of service over the public telephone lines. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

A group of technologies providing high capacity transmission over existing copper telephone lines. Cable Modem

Modem designed to operate over cable TV lines to provide high speed access to the Web or corporate intranets.

14. Distinguish between a WAN and a VAN? Wide Area Network (WAN) is telecommunications network that spans a large geographical distance. May consist of variety of wired, satellite, and microwave technologies. Value Added Network (VAN) is private, multipath, data only, third party managed network that multiple organizations use on a subscription basis.

15. Define the following: modem, baud, protocol, converged network, and broadband! Modem

A device for translating digital signals into analog signals and vice versa. Baud

Binary event representing a signal change from positive to negative or vice versa. Protocol

A set of rules and procedures that govern transmission between the components in a network. Converged Network

Network with technology to enable voice and data to run over a single network. Broadband

High-speed transmission technology. Also designates a communications medium that can transmit multiple channels of data simultaneously.

16. Name and describe the telecommunications applications that can support electronic commerce and electronic business!

Electronic mail (e-mail), groupware, voice mail, facsimile machine (fax), digital information service, teleconferencing, data conferencing, video conferencing, and electronic data interchange are key applications for electronic commerce and electronic business, because they provide network based capabilities for communication, coordination, and spending the flow of purchase and sale transactions.

CHAPTER 9 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What are the features of the new information technology (IT) infrastructure? > The new information technology (IT) infrastructure links desktop workstations, network computers, LANs, and server computers in an enterprise network so that information can flow freely between different parts of the organization. 2. Why is connectivity so important for the digital firm? List and describe the major connectivity standards for networking and the internet. > Todays firm can use the information technologies we have described in previous chapters to create an information technology infrastructure capable of

coordinating the activities of entire firms and even entire industries. 3. What is the Internet? List and describe alternative ways of accesing the Internet. > The linking of separate networks, each of which retains its own identity, into an interconnected network. 4. List and describe the principal Internet capabilities. > One of the most puzzling aspects of the Internet is that no one owns it and it has no formal management organization. 5. What is the Internet? How does it differ from the first generation Internet? What benefits does it provide? > Research network with new protocols and transmission speeds that provides an infrastructure for supporting high-bandwith Internet application. > Sound, graphics, and full motion video are now important features of Web based computing. However, these all require immense quantities of data, greatly slowing down transmission and the downloading of Web Pages. 6. Why is the World Wide Web so useful for individuals and business? > The World Wide Web is at the heart of the explosion in the business use of the Net. The web is a system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting. 7. List and describe alternative ways of locating information on the Web. > Several companies have created directories of Web sites and their addresses, providing search tools for finding information. Yahoo is an example. People or organizations submits site of interest, which then are classified. To search the the directory, you enter one or more keywords and see displayed a list of categoris and sites with those keywords in the title.

8. What are intranets and extranets? How do they differ from the web? > Although the web is open to anyone, the intranet is private and is protected from public visual its by firewalls-security systems with specialized software to provent outsiders from invading private networks. Extranet is private intranets that are extended to authorized users outside the company are. 9. What is the wireless Web ? How does it differ from the conventional Web? > Web-based applications enabling users to access digital information from the Internet using wireless mobile computing devices. 10. List and describe the types of m-commerce services and applications supported by the wireless Web. > Information-based services = Instant messaging, e-mail, searching for a movie or restaurant using a cell phone or handheld PDA > Transaction-based services = purchasing stocks, concert tickers > Personalized services = Services that anticipate what youyou based on your location or data profile 11. Compare the WAP and I-mode wireless Web standards. > I-mode uses compact HTML to deliver contect, making it easier for businesses to convert their HTML. 12. Describe organizational benefits of Internet and Web technology > the benefits are : ease of use, low cost, and multimedia capabilities can be used to create interactive applications, and provide services and products.

13. List and describe the principal technologies for supporting electronic commerce

> Businesses seriously pursuing electronic commerce and electronic business need special tools for maintaining their Web sites. These tools include Web server and electronic commerce server software, customer tracking and personalizationtools, Web content management tools, and Web site, Web content management tools, and Web site performance monitoring tools. 14. Under what conditions should firms consider Web hosting services? > Companies that lack the financial or technical resources to operate their own Web sites or electronic commerce can use Web hosting services.

15. Describe 5 problems posed by the new information technology infrastructure? > 1. Loss of Management Control 2. Connectivity and Application Integration 3. Organizational change requirements 4. Hidden costs of Enterprise Computing 5. Scalability, reliability, and security 16. Describe some solutions to the problems posed by the new IT infrastructure > 1. Managing the change 2. Operation and training 3. Data administration disciplines 4. Planning for Connectivity and Application Integration