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Nera Networks AS

Subnetting
2006-01-05

T-Manual xx, slide 1.1

Subnetting and Creating


Custom Subnet Masks

Nera Networks AS

Introduction: Why Custom Subnet Masks?


What are Subnet IDs?
Step 1 Design the Physical Network
Step 2 Choose a Custom Subnet Mask
Step 3 Determining the Subnet IDs
Step 4 Determining the Host IDs

T-Manual xx, slide 1.2

Why Custom Subnet Masks?

Nera Networks AS

Default Subnet Masks


Class A (1 Network 16.7M Hosts)
Class B (1 Network 65K Hosts)
Class C (1 Network 254 Hosts)

Addressing an IP Network
Assigned an IP Network Address
152.77.0.0
(IP Address)
255.255.0.0 (Subnet Mask)
All Devices/Hosts on the Same Physical
Segment Must have the Same Network ID
One Network ID Supports Only
One Physical Segment!

T-Manual xx, slide 1.3

Custom Subnet Masks Create Subnets!

Nera Networks AS

Example: Network Address: 152.77.0.0


A Single Physical Segment with 65K Host IDs?
NO -- Many Physical Segments! (Routers)

To Correctly Address Multiple Physical


Segments We Must Divide the Single Network
ID into Sub-networks or Subnets
Subnets are Created with Custom Subnet Masks

T-Manual xx, slide 1.4

What are Subnets?

Nera Networks AS

A Subnet is a portion or subdivision of the IP Addresses

that are associated with an assigned Network ID.


The Range of IP Addresses included in a subnet is
determined by the Subnet Mask.
Subnets must be meticulously numbered for network
communication to be successful.

T-Manual xx, slide 1.5

Subnetting: The Connection Between


Hardware and Software

Nera Networks AS

Hardware Layout Physical Segments


Defined by Routers

Software (IP) Addressing Subnets


A Subnet is a portion or subdivision of the
IP Addresses that are associated with an
assigned Network ID.

All Hosts (Devices) on the same Physical


Segment have IP Addresses in the same
Subnet (range of IP Addresses)!

T-Manual xx, slide 1.6

Why Subnet?

Nera Networks AS

Why Create Physical Segments?


Hardware Specifications
Standards
Vendor

Network Performance
Geographic
Different Topologies
Routers!

T-Manual xx, slide 1.7

Subnet IDs

Nera Networks AS

Portions of the Assigned Network ID are Defined by Subnet IDs


152.77.0.0

(Network IP Address)

255.255.0.0

(Default Subnet Mask)

Network . Network . Host . Host (Default SNM)


Network . Network . SN-ID . Host (Custom SNM)
All Device/Hosts Share the Assigned Network ID (All Physical Segments)
Each Physical Segment of the Network has a Unique Subnet-ID and the
Subnet ID is Common to All Hosts on a Physical Segment
Each Host on the Network has a Host ID Unique to its Subnet ID

T-Manual xx, slide 1.8

Custom Subnetting: The Steps

Nera Networks AS

1. Design (Assess) the Physical Network

2.

Determine the Number of Physical Segments


Determine the Maximum Number of Hosts per
Physical Segment

Choose a (Custom) Subnet Mask that creates


the number of:

Subnet-IDs >= Physical Segments

Host-IDs/Subnet-ID >= Hosts/Physical Segment

3.

Determine and Number Subnet IDs (SN ID)

4. Determine and Number Host IDs

T-Manual xx, slide 1.9

An Example Problem in Subnetting

Nera Networks AS

5 Physical Segments
With 5000 Hosts Each

ISP
Router

Problem:
Create an IP Addressing Plan for a Company that:
Has 5 Physical segments that each have a
maximum of 5000 host on each segment
And is assigned the Public Network Address
152.77.0.0

T-Manual xx, slide 1.10

10

Step 1. Design the Physical Network

Nera Networks AS

Design Issues
Network Traffic
Geographic Locations
Hardware and Software Limitations
Mixing Topologies
Mostly Hardware Issues, Few Software or Addressing
Limitations
Outside the scope of this course

Assess the Network


Determine the Number of Physical Segments
Determine the Maximum Number of Hosts per Physical

Segment

IP Addressing Starts After the Network is Designed

T-Manual xx, slide 1.11

11

Step 2. Determining the Proper SNM

Nera Networks AS

Network
Address
Default SNM
D-SNM (Binary)
11111111.11111111.1000 0000.0000 0000 Custom SNM
Network . Network .SNID Host . Host

152.77.0.0
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000

SNM (Last 2 Octets)

SNM

#of SN-IDs

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

1000 0000 . 0000 0000

128

2-2=0

32768-2=32766

Problem: Physical Network 5 Physical Segments and 5000 Host/PS


Choose a Subnet Mask that creates the number of: SN-IDs >= Physical
Segments and Hosts/SN-ID >= Hosts/Physical Segment

T-Manual xx, slide 1.12

12

Determining the Proper SNM:


SNM = 128 & 192

Nera Networks AS

152.77.0.0
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000

Network
Address
Default SNM
D-SNM (Binary)
11111111.11111111.1100 0000.0000 0000 Custom SNM
Network . Network .SNID Host . Host
SNM (Last 2 Octets)

SNM

#of SN-IDs

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

1000 0000 . 0000 0000


1100 0000 . 0000 0000

128
192

2-2=0
4-2=2

32768-2=32766
16384-2=16382

Physical Network 5 Physical Segments and 5000 Host/PS

T-Manual xx, slide 1.13

13

Determining the Proper SNM:


SNM = 224

Nera Networks AS

Network
Address
Default SNM
DSNM (Binary)
11111111.11111111.1110 0000.0000 0000 Custom SNM
Network . Network . SNID Host. Host

152.77.0.0
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000

SNM (Last 2 Octets)

SNM

#of SN-IDs

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

1000 0000 . 0000 0000


1100 0000 . 0000 0000
1110 0000 . 0000 0000

128
192
224

2-2=0
4-2=2
8-2=6

32768-2=32766
16384-2=16382
8192-2=8190

Physical Network 5 Physical Segments and 5000 Host/PS

T-Manual xx, slide 1.14

14

Determining the Proper SNM:


SNM = 240

Nera Networks AS

Network
Address
Default SNM
D-SNM (Binary)
11111111.11111111.1111 0000.0000 0000 Custom SNM
Network . Network . SNID Host. Host

152.77.0.0
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000

SNM (Last 2 Octets)

SNM

#of SN-IDs

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

1000 0000 . 0000 0000


1100 0000 . 0000 0000
1110 0000 . 0000 0000
1111 0000 . 0000 0000

128
192
224
240

2-2=0
4-2=2
8-2=6
16-2=14

32768-2=32766
16384-2=16382
8192-2=8190
4096-2=4094

Physical Network 5 Physical Segments and 5000 Host/PS

T-Manual xx, slide 1.15

15

Determining the Proper SNM:


SNM = 248

Nera Networks AS

152.77.0.0
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000
11111111.11111111.1111 1000.0000 0000

Network Address
Default SNM
SNM (Binary)
Custom SNM

SNM (Last 2 Octets)

SNM

#of SN-IDs

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

1000 0000 . 0000 0000


1100 0000 . 0000 0000
1110 0000 . 0000 0000
1111 0000 . 0000 0000
1111 1000 . 0000 0000

128
192
224
240
248

2-2=0
4-2=2
8-2=6
16-2=14
32-2=30

32768-2=32766
16384-2=16382
8192-2=8190
4096-2=4094
2048-2=2046

Physical Network 5 Physical Segments and 5000 Host/PS

T-Manual xx, slide 1.16

16

Determining the Proper SNM:


SNM = 252

Nera Networks AS

152.77.0.0
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000
11111111.11111111.1111 1100.0000 0000

Network Address
Default SNM
SNM (Binary)
Custom SNM

SNM (Last 2 Octets)

SNM

#of SN-IDs

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

1000 0000 . 0000 0000


1100 0000 . 0000 0000
1110 0000 . 0000 0000
1111 0000 . 0000 0000
1111 1000 . 0000 0000
1111 1100 . 0000 0000

128
192
224
240
248
252

2-2=0
4-2=2
8-2=6
16-2=14
32-2=30
64-2=62

32768-2=32766
16384-2=16382
8192-2=8190
4096-2=4094
2048-2=2046
1024-2=1022

Physical Network 5 Physical Segments and 5000 Host/PS

T-Manual xx, slide 1.17

17

Determining the Proper SNM:


SNM = 254

Nera Networks AS

152.77.0.0
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000
11111111.11111111.1111 1110.0000 0000

Network Address
Default SNM
SNM (Binary)
Custom SNM

SNM (Last 2 Octets)

SNM

#of SN-IDs

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

1000 0000 . 0000 0000


1100 0000 . 0000 0000
1110 0000 . 0000 0000
1111 0000 . 0000 0000
1111 1000 . 0000 0000
1111 1100 . 0000 0000
1111 1110 . 0000 0000

128
192
224
240
248
252
254

2-2=0
4-2=2
8-2=6
16-2=14
32-2=30
64-2=62
128-2=126

32768-2=32766
16384-2=16382
8192-2=8190
4096-2=4094
2048-2=2046
1024-2=1022
512-2=510

T-Manual xx, slide 1.18

18

Determining the Proper SNM:


SNM = 255

Nera Networks AS

152.77.0.0
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000
11111111.11111111.1111 1111.0000 0000

Network Address
Default SNM
SNM (Binary)
Custom SNM

SNM (Last 2 Octets)

SNM

#of SN-IDs

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

1000 0000 . 0000 0000


1100 0000 . 0000 0000
1110 0000 . 0000 0000
1111 0000 . 0000 0000
1111 1000 . 0000 0000
1111 1100 . 0000 0000
1111 1110 . 0000 0000
1111 1111 . 0000 0000

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

2-2=0
4-2=2
8-2=6
16-2=14
32-2=30
64-2=62
128-2=126
256-2=254

32768-2=32766
16384-2=16382
8192-2=8190
4096-2=4094
2048-2=2046
1024-2=1022
512-2=510
256-2=254

T-Manual xx, slide 1.19

19

The Correct Custom Subnet Mask

Nera Networks AS

Router
5 Physical Segments
With 5000 Hosts Each

ISP

Problem:

Create an IP Addressing Plan for a Company that:

Has 5 Physical segments that each have a maximum of 5000 hosts


on each segment
And is assigned the Public Network Address 152.77.0.0 with a
default subnet mask of 255.255.0.0

Solution:

Use a custom Subnet Mask of 255.255.224.0 (all devices)


Provides 6 SN-IDs (5 physical segments specified)
Provides 8190 Host IDs per Subnet (5000 Hosts per physical
segments specified)

T-Manual xx, slide 1.20

20

Subnet ID/Host Chart


for Class B Networks

Nera Networks AS

Network Address
152.77.0.0
Default SNM
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000 SNM (Binary)
SNM (Last Two Octets)
1000 0000
1100 0000
1110 0000
1111 0000
1111 1000
1111 1100
1111 1110
1111 1111

0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000

SNM

#of SN-IDs*

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

2-2=0
4-2=2
8-2=6
16-2=14
32-2=30
64-2=62
128-2=126
256-2=254

32768-2=32766
16384-2=16382
8192-2=8190
4096-2=4094
2048-2=2046
1024-2=1022
512-2=510
256-2=254

T-Manual xx, slide 1.21

21

Subnet ID/Host Chart


for Class A Networks

Nera Networks AS

Network Address
33.0.0.0
Default SNM
255.0.0.0
11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000.0000 0000 SNM (Binary)
SNM (Last Three Octets)
1000 0000
1100 0000
1110 0000
1111 0000
1111 1000
1111 1100
1111 1110
1111 1111

0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000

0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000

SNM

#of SN-IDs*

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

2-2=0
4-2=2
8-2=6
16-2=14
32-2=30
64-2=62
128-2=126
256-2=254

8388608-2=8388606
4194304-2=4194302
2097152-2=2097150
1048576-2=1048574
524288-2=524286
262144-2=262142
131072-2=131070
65536-2=65534

T-Manual xx, slide 1.22

22

Subnet ID/Host Chart


for Class C Networks

Nera Networks AS

Network Address
206.123.88.0
Default SNM
255.255.255.0
11111111.11111111.11111111.0000 0000 SNM (Binary)
SNM (Last
Octet)
1000 0000
1100 0000
1110 0000
1111 0000
1111 1000
1111 1100
1111 1110
1111 1111

SNM

#of SN-IDs*

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

2-2=0
4-2=2
8-2=6
16-2=14
32-2=30
64-2=62
128-2=126
256-2=254

128-2=126 (Invalid*)
64-2=62
32-2=30
16-2=14
8-2=6
4-2=2
2-2=0 (Invalid)
0 (Invalid)

T-Manual xx, slide 1.23

23

Where to Subnet?

Nera Networks AS

Class A
33.0.0.0 (Network Address)
255.0.0.0 (Default SNM)
255.248.0.0
Class B
152.77.0.0
255.255.0.0 (Default SNM)
255.255.248.0
Class C
207.176.12.0
255.255.255.0 (Default SNM)
255.255.255.248

T-Manual xx, slide 1.24

24

One Bits in a Subnet Mask

Nera Networks AS

The one bits must be contiguous, left to right in


the SNM, no embedded zeros
11111111.11111111.11110000.0000000 (OK)
11111111.11111111.11001100.00000000
(Wrong)
Subnet Mask are sometimes expressed as a /20

152.77.32.0 / 20
The /20 is the number of one bits in the SNM
20 = 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000
20= 255.255.240.0

T-Manual xx, slide 1.25

25

Why (Minus 2)?

Nera Networks AS

Number of Hosts
Always (minus 2)
The First Host Address is zeros
The Last Host Address is ones

Number of Subnets
Dont (minus 2) if all hardware and software supports RFC

1812
All Current Stuff Does!

(Invalid*)
Valid if all Hardware and Software is RFC 1812 Compliant
Always the first Subnet ID Zero Subnet
Always the last Subnet ID Where the Subnet ID equals the

Subnet Mask of the Subnetted Octet

T-Manual xx, slide 1.26

26

Step 3. Determining Subnet IDs

Nera Networks AS

To Create ranges of IP Addresses used to number


Hosts so that all hosts on the same Physical
Segment:
Share the same Network ID
Share the same Subnet ID
Have a Host ID unique to its Subnet ID

Each Physical Segment will have a unique Subnet ID


The Range of IP Addresses is determined by the
Subnet Mask
Must be meticulously number for successful network
communication to be successful

T-Manual xx, slide 1.27

27

Determining Subnet IDs: An Example

Nera Networks AS

Network Address
152.77.0.0
Custom SNM
255.255.224.0
11111111.11111111.1110 0000.0000 0000
Network . Network . SNID Host. Host
SNM (Last 2 Octets)

SNM

#of SN-IDs

#of Hosts Per SN-ID

1110 0000 . 0000 0000

224

8-2=6

8192-2=8190

Physical Network 5 Physical Segments and 5000 Host/PS

T-Manual xx, slide 1.28

28

Determining Subnet IDs SNM = 224


152.77.0.0
255.255.224.0

Nera Networks AS

Network Address
Custom SNM

1110 0000 . 0000 0000 (Subnet Mask)


SNID/Host ID (Last 2 Octets-Binary)

Subnet ID
(Decimal Conversion)

0000 0000 . 0000 0000


0010 0000 . 0000 0000
0100 0000 . 0000 0000
0110 0000 . 0000 0000
1000 0000 . 0000 0000
1010 0000 . 0000 0000
1100 0000 . 0000 0000
1110 0000 . 0000 0000

152.77.0.0
152.77.32.0
152.77.64.0
152.77.96.0
152.77.128.0
152.77.160.0
152.77.192.0
152.77.224.0

(Invalid*)
(1st SN ID)
(2nd SN ID)
(3rd SN ID)
(4th SN ID)
(5th SN ID)
(6th SN ID)
(Invalid*)

T-Manual xx, slide 1.29

29

How to Determine Subnet


IDs for Any Subnet
152.77.0.0
255.255.224.0

Nera Networks AS

Network Address
Custom SNM

1110 0000 . 0000 0000 (Subnet Mask)


SNID/Host ID (Last 2 Octets-Binary)

Subnet ID
(Decimal Conversion)

0010 0000 . 0000 0000


0100 0000 . 0000 0000
0110 0000 . 0000 0000
1000 0000 . 0000 0000

152.77.32.0
152.77.64.0
152.77.96.0
152.77.128.0 etc.

The first valid Subnet-ID is equal the decimal conversion value of

the farthest right one bit in the subnet mask.


Each next Subnet-ID starts at a multiple of the value of the first
Subnet-ID

T-Manual xx, slide 1.30

30

Determining Subnet IDs SNM = 240


152.77.0.0
255.255.240.0

Nera Networks AS

Network Address
Custom SNM

1111 0000 . 0000 0000 (Subnet Mask)


SNID/Host ID (Last 2 Octets-Binary)

Subnet ID
(Decimal Conversion)

0001 0000 . 0000 0000


0010 0000 . 0000 0000
0011 0000 . 0000 0000
0100 0000 . 0000 0000

152.77.16.0
152.77.32.0
152.77.48.0
152.77.64.0 etc.

The first valid Subnet-ID is equal the decimal conversion value of

the farthest right one bit in the subnet mask.


Each next Subnet-ID starts at a multiple of the value of the first
Subnet-ID

T-Manual xx, slide 1.31

31

Subnet ID Numbering Chart

Nera Networks AS

SNM (Last Two Octets)


SNID/Host ID

SNM

1st Subnet ID

Increment of Each
Successive Subnet
ID

1000 0000
1100 0000
1110 0000
1111 0000
1111 1000
1111 1100
1111 1110
1111 1111

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000

T-Manual xx, slide 1.32

32

Subnet IDs: Examples

IP Address/SNM

Nera Networks AS

Subnet IDs

152.77.0.0
255.255.248.0

152.77.8.0
152.77.16.0
152.77.24.0 etc.

152.77.0.0
255.255.255.0

152.77.1.0
152.77.2.0
152.77.3.0 etc.

33.0.0.0
255.240.0.0

33.16.0.0
33.32.0.0
33.48.0.0 etc.

T-Manual xx, slide 1.33

33

Specifying Subnet IDs


Router

Nera Networks AS

152.77.32.0
152.77.64.0
152.77.96.0
152.77.128.0
152.77.160.0

ISP
Subnet IDs (255.255.224.0 SNM)

Create ranges of IP Addresses used to number Hosts


The Zero Subnet 152.77.0.0 not used unless all hosts and

devices are RFC 1812 compliant


Five of six possible subnets IDs used (152.77.192.0 unused)
The Last Subnet 152.77.0.0 not used unless all hosts and
devices are RFC 1812 compliant. The last subnet ID always
equals the Subnet Mask

T-Manual xx, slide 1.34

34

Subnet ID/Host Chart for


Class B Networks

Nera Networks AS

152.77.0.0
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.0000 0000.0000 0000
SNM (Last Two
Octets)

1000 0000
1100 0000
1110 0000
1111 0000
1111 1000
1111 1100
1111 1110
1111 1111

0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000

Network Address
Default SNM
SNM (Binary)

SN
M

#of SN#of Hosts Per SN- 1st


Subnet
IDs* (Class ID
ID
A or B)
(Class B Only)

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

2-2=0
4-2=2
8-2=6
16-2=14
32-2=30
64-2=62
128-2=126
256-2=254

32768-2=32766
16384-2=16382
8192-2=8190
4096-2=4094
2048-2=2046
1024-2=1022
512-2=510
256-2=254

T-Manual xx, slide 1.35

128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

Increment of
Each
Successive
Subnet ID
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1

35

Step 4. Numbering Host IDs (Binary)

Nera Networks AS

152.77.0.0 / 255.255.224.0
255.255.1110 0000.0000 0000
152. 77 .0010 0000.0000 0000
152. 77 .0010 0000.0000 0001
152. 77 .0010 0000.0000 0010
....
152. 77 .0011 1111.1111 1110
152. 77 .0100 0000.0000 0000
152. 77 .0100 0000.0000 0001
....
152. 77 .0101 1111.1111 1110
152. 77 .0110 0000.0000 0000

Subnet Mask
1st Subnet ID
1st Host ID
2nd Host ID
....
Last Host ID
2st Subnet ID
1st Host ID
....
Last Host ID
3rd Subnet ID

T-Manual xx, slide 1.36

IP Addresses
152.77.32.0
152.77.32.1
152.77.32.2
....
152.77.63.254
152.77.64.0
152.77.64.1
152.77.95.254
152.77.96.0 etc.

36

Step 4. Numbering Host IDs (Decimal)

Nera Networks AS

152.77.0.0
255.255.224.0
Subnet ID
152.77.0.0 (Invalid*)
152.77.32.0
152.77.64.0
152.77.96.0
152.77.128.0
152.77.160.0
152.77.192.0
152.77.224.0 (Invalid*)

1st Host on
Subnet
152.77.0.1
152.77.32.1
152.77.64.1
152.77.96.1
152.77.128.1
152.77.160.1
152.77.192.1
152.77.224.1

Last Host ID on Subnet


152.77.31.254
152.77.63.254
152.77.95.254
152.77.127.254
152.77.159.254
152.77.191.254
152.77.223.254
152.77.255.254

T-Manual xx, slide 1.37

37

Numbering Host IDs: Another Example

Nera Networks AS

152.77.0.0
255.255.252.0
Subnet ID
152.77.0.0 (Invalid*)
152.77.4.0
152.77.8.0
152.77.12.0
152.77.16.0
152.77.20.0
152.77.24.0 etc.

1st Host on
Subnet
152.77.0.1
152.77.4.1
152.77.8.1
152.77.12.1
152.77.16.1
152.77.20.1
152.77.24.1

Last Host ID on Subnet


152.77.3.254
152.77.7.254
152.77.11.254
152.77.15.254
152.77.19.254
152.77.23.254
152.77.27.254 etc.

T-Manual xx, slide 1.38

38

Numbering Host IDs: Another Example

Nera Networks AS

33.0.0.0
255.248.0.0
Subnet ID
33.0.0.0 (Invalid*)
33.8.0.0
33.16.0.0
33.24.0.0
33.32.0.0
33.40.0.0
33.48.0.0 etc.

1st Host on
Subnet
33.0.0.1
33.8.0.1
33.16.0.1
33.24.0.1
33.32.0.1
33.40.0.1
33.48.0.1.

T-Manual xx, slide 1.39

Last Host ID on Subnet


33.7.255.254
33.15.255.254
33.23.255.254
33.31.255.254
33.39.255.254
33.47.255.254
33.55.255.254

39

Numbering Host IDs

Nera Networks AS

Router
152.77.32.0
152.77.64.0
152.77.96.0
152.77.128.0
152.77.160.0

ISP
Subnet IDs and Host Addresses
152.77.32.0

152.77.32.1 152.77.63.254 (8190 Host IDs)

152.77.64.0

152.77.64.1 152.77.95.254 (8190 Host IDs)

152.77.96.0

152.77.96.1 152.77.127.254 (8190 Host IDs)

152.77.128.0

152.77.128.1 152.77.159.254 (8190 Host IDs)

152.77.160.0

152.77.160.1 152.77.191.254 (8190 Host IDs)

152.77.192.0 (Unused)

Subnet Mask
255.255.224.0

T-Manual xx, slide 1.40

40

Example: 255.255.255.0 mask / 24 Bit

Subnet address 0
Broadcast address 255
Number of available ip addresses 254,
from x.x.x.1 to x.x.x.254

T-Manual xx, slide 1.41

255

Nera Networks AS

41

Example: 255.255.255.128 mask / 25 Bit

Subnet 1;
Subnet address 0
Broadcast address 127
Number of available ip addresses
126,

255

Nera Networks AS

from 1 to 126
2

Subnet 2;
Subnet address 128
Broadcast address 255
Number of available ip addresses
126,

from 129 to 254

T-Manual xx, slide 1.42

128

127

42

Example: 255.255.255.192 mask / 26 Bit

Subnet 1;

Subnet address 0

Broadcast address 63

Number of available ip addresses 62,

255

from 1 to 62

Subnet 2;

Subnet address 64

Broadcast address 127

Number of available ip addresses 62,

Nera Networks AS

from 65 to 126

Subnet 3;

Subnet address 128

Broadcast address 191

Number of available ip addresses 62,

192

63

191

64
3

from 129 to 190

Subnet 4;

Subnet address 192

Broadcast address 255

Number of available ip addresses 62,

128

127

from 192 to 254

T-Manual xx, slide 1.43

43

Example: 255.255.255.224 mask / 27 Bit

Subnet 1;

Subnet address 0

Broadcast address 31

Number of available ip addresses 30,

255

from 1 to 30

31
32

223

Subnet 2;

Subnet address 32

Broadcast address 63

Number of available ip addresses 30,

Subnet 3;

Subnet address 64

Broadcast address 95

Number of available ip addresses 30,

224

from 33 to 62

192

63

191

64
6

from 65 to 94

95

160

Subnet 4;

Subnet address 96

Broadcast address 127

Number of available ip addresses 30,

Nera Networks AS

96

159
128 127

from 97 to 126

T-Manual xx, slide 1.44

44

Example: 255.255.255.240 mask / 28 Bit

Subnet 1;

Subnet address 0

Broadcast address 15

Number of available ip addresses 14,

240

239

from 1 to 14

255

Nera Networks AS

15

16
31

224

Subnet 2;

Subnet address 16

Broadcast address 31

Number of available ip addresses 14,

from 17 to 30

223

16

Subnet 3;

Subnet address 32

Broadcast address 47

Number of available ip addresses 14,

from 33 to 46

191

Subnet 4;

Subnet address 48

Broadcast address 63

Number of available ip addresses 14,

63
64

12
176

48

13

175

79

11

80

10
9

160

47
3

14

207
192

15

208

32

95
96

159
144

143

128

127

112

111

from 49 to 62

T-Manual xx, slide 1.45

45

Example: 255.255.255.248 mask / 29 Bit

Subnet 1;

Subnet address 0

Broadcast address 7

Number of available ip addresses 6,

239 240

from 1 to 6

Subnet 2;

Subnet address 8

Broadcast address 15

Number of available ip addresses 6,

from 9 to 14

231
224

248 255 0

15 16

232
31 32

223

32

39

40
5

28

207

24
31

29

208

23

30

216
215

200

247

Nera Networks AS

47
48

27

55

26

56

199
25

192

Subnet 3;

Subnet address 16

Broadcast address 23

Number of available ip addresses 6,

from 17 to 22

Subnet 4;

Subnet address 24

Broadcast address 31

Number of available ip addresses 6,

191

63

64

10

71
72

24

184

23

183
176

11

22

12

21

175

88

14
18

17 16

95

15

96
103

159
152

87

13

20
19

168
167
160

79
80

144 143
151
136 135 128 127 120

112
119

111

104

from 25 to 30

T-Manual xx, slide 1.46

46

Example: 255.255.255.252 mask / 30 Bit

Subnet 1;

Subnet address 0

Broadcast address 3

Number of available ip addresses 2,

236
232

from 1 to 2

227
223

216

Subnet 2;

Subnet address 4

Broadcast address 7

Number of available ip addresses 2,

from 5 to 6

212
208

219
215

Subnet 3;

Subnet address 8

Broadcast address 11

Number of available ip addresses 2,

from 9 to 10

from 13 to 14

64

16

15

60

24

23

20

19

3
2

62

12

11

28

27

56

10

52

191

36

35

58

32

31

54

39

40

43
44
47
48
12
51
13
52
55
14
56
15
59
60
16
63
11

67

64

71

68

17

48

188

18

187
184

47
19

46

180

45

44

179
175

164

43

42

24

41

40

159

39

156

155
152

32

35

151
147
143
148
139 135
144
140
136
132

29
31

33

131 127
128

124

T-Manual xx, slide 1.47

123
120

119

115

116

95

111

80
84

88

96

103

107

76

92

99
27

30

34

37

25

28

36

87
91

26
38

83

23

72

79

21

22

163
160

75

20

183

171
168
167

61

63

49

172

Subnet 4;

Subnet address 12

Broadcast address 15

Number of available ip addresses 2,

243

251 255

50

195

176

247

51

196 199
192

57

55

211
204 207 53
200 203

239

228
235
231
224
59
220

240

248 252

244

Nera Networks AS

100

104

108
112

47