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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, GANDHINAGAR

PLANT LAYOUT

Submitted to: Mr.Manoj Tiwari

Submitted by: Aryan Singh Ruchika Tripathi Swati Singh DFT- 7

Plant layout is the spatial arrangement and configuration of departments, work stations, machinery and equipment used in the conversion process. Layout of an apparel production plant directs the flow of materials and work-in-process from start till its completion and integrates material handling and equipment. An efficient layout has the flexibility to be changed to meet requirements of the product line, delivery schedules, and anticipated volume. Safety is a major consideration in plant layout. Fire and safety codes, emergency and accessible exits, open traffic areas, etc. must all be a part of layout plans . The following factors should be taken into consideration while planning a layout: Minimization of manufacturing costs Efficient work flow Minimization of work transfer Provision of future expansion

Selection of Factory Site Demographic, Infrastructural, Natural and Social factors should be considered before selecting a location for a factory site.

Demographic and Infrastructural analysis is all about understanding population age groups, per capita income, education level, occupational structure and availability of skilled and non skilled manpower, tech nically qualified and trained supervisors and managers, transportation cost, link roads, nearness to railway station, airport or sea port, bankin g and financial institutes..

Natural and social factors like climatic conditions, pollution, public hazards,

political problems, local laws and regulations, medical services, public utilities, civic amenities and means of communication should also be analysed before selection of the layout.

Layout of the Plant Layout of the plant is decided based on process sequence, building structure, shop floor transportation, type of layout (product or process based or a combination of both) and arrangement of machines. The aim of every layout is to maximize utilization of available space in order to speed up the material flow. Highly specialized machines and small parts assembly may be configured with a line arrangement for final assembly.

Factors to be considered for designing an effective layout include number of workers both male and female, number of machines (size, weight by models), entrance, exit and passages (size, width, position, number of each of them) for production as well as administrative wing, change room, lunch room, lavatories, medical emergency room and provision for those governed by local laws. Utilities like boiler, air compressor, vacuum pumps, generator, electric panel, air conditioning machine, underground water storage tanks for boiler and washing machines, water softening plant, waste water recycling plant, drainage system are also equally important.

Other factors that need attention before laying out the factory plan include ceiling height (3-3.5 metres from floor), lighting (large windows of 2 or 3 stages) and illuminance levels (600 Lux for production and 800 Lux for inspection areas) besides ventilation. Also, the workplace should have sufficient number of men s and women s toilets and drinking water outlets

in the vicinity.

Objective: To set up a manufacturing unit producing 3500 women s semi formal shirt per day Plot Area: (22*100) 2200 sq m FSI 1.2 Ground Coverage: 80% Total area that can be constructed = 2200 * .80 Specifications of the style studied Raw Material Body Fabric Interlining Button Specification Poplin Microdot Plastic (14 L) Consumption/garment 1.81 m 0.42 m 16 pcs 35 m = 1760 sq m

Thread (Ticket No. Spun Polyester 25) Thread (Ticket No. Spun Polyester 50) Thread (Ticket No. Spun Polyester 100) Paper Printed tag Printed Paper Main Label Wash Care Label -

38 m

195 m

1 pc 1 pc 1 pc 1 pc

STORES DEPARTMENT Process flow chart :

Stores

Receipt of Bill Of Materials

Package verification against packing list for weight & no of packages

Materials received

Lab test

To be inspected

Trim card for accessories

Yes

No

Inspection process

pass

Rejected

Inspection fail
Quality checking Conditionally approved by buyer Storage of passed material Storage in rejected Area Update status to production Rejected

Issues of fabric to cutting section based on lay record Receipt of end bits from cutting section

Issues of trims to production Receipt of left over materials from production

In stores department we have to keep an inventory of 15 days for the required raw material. Therefore we have to plan the no. of racks required and the ir dimensions.

Racks for Accessories: All the accessories will be kept in a box. Here we have assumed the dimension of the box and approximately the no. of pcs that can be accommodated in the box.

Accessories

Required Amount for days

Dimension No. of pcs that of box can

Volume

Required

be of box(in volume (in inch) 6360 9800 cubic

15 (inches) l*b*h 3*2.5*2 8*8*2.5

accommodated cubic inch) 2000 30000 15 160

Button Thread(Tk No. 25) Thread(Tk No. 50) Thread(Tk No. 100) Printed Paper Tag Printed Paper

840000 1837500

1995000

8*8*2.5

30000

160

10640

10237500

8*8*2.5

30000

160

54600

52550

4*3*2

100

24

12612

52550

16*16*1

200

256

67264

Main Label Wash Label

52550

5 Dia*2 5 Dia*2

375 375

157 157

22000 22000

Care 52550

205276 Therefore total required volume (in cubic inch)

Dimension of racks for accessories = 34*21*66(inches) meters Total Volume required (in cubic inch) = 205276 Therefore 4 racks will be required.

or 0.86*0.53*1.6

Racks for body fabric and interlining Fabric Required length for 15 95025 days (m) Length in a roll (m) No. of rolls req. Diameter of roll (inch) Length of roll (inch) No. of rolls in 300 317 12 64 one 7 100 220 6 40 10 Interlining 22050

shelf(assumed) Length of the rack(as per 84 given rolls/shelf) (inch) 60

Ease of roll movement 5 lengthwise (inch) Final shelf(inch) Ease of roll movement 6 heigthwise (inch) Distance b/w two 18 Length of 89

65

12

successive shelfs (inch) Required no. of shelves Height of the rack(inch) 45 90 22 75 6

No. of shelves in one 5 rack Width of the rack Dimension rack(inches) Dimension rack(meters) No. of racks required 9 of the 2.26*1.75*2.28 of 69 the 89*69*90

45 65*45*75

1.65*1.14*1.90

There will be two fabric inspection machines in stores department of dimension 2.43*1.82 meters

CUTTING DEPARTMENT

Receive fabrics from stores

Sample cutting

Approval of sample cutting

Receipt of cut file & pattern ( CAD Process)

Plan for cutting based on basic cutting plan & fabric allocation Release lay record

Receipt of fabric

Laying & spreading

Marker inspection

Lay inspection

Cut parts inspection

Numbering

Panel checking

Re cutting Embroidery / printing / fusing Fusing inspection Sorting Storage Issue to sewing

Dimension for cutting room furniture Length=Marker length + allowance for fabric rolls We have taken marker length (4 way marker) = 7.15m Allowance = 1.5 m Total length = 8.65 m Width =Width +Allowance Width=1.52 m Allowance=0.3 m Total width =1.82m Dimension of cutting table for fabric =8.65*1.82*0.84 meters No. of tables required

Total no. of minutes=480

Width(m)

1.52

Components of garments 28 Cut capacity/day Marker Length(m) 3500 7.15

No. of garments in a 4 marker Av. consumption(m) No. of plies in lay No. of lays Av. Time for 135 7 laying 140 Fabric 1.81

/lay(mins) Av. Time for cutting 100

/lay(mins) Total time for cutting & 240 laying (mins) Total no. of tables for 4 laying & cutting Av. Tim for sorting 1 1 garment/person(min) Av. Time for sorting 500 500 garments(min) Sorting tables and bundling 2

No. of fusing machines 2 (3.3 x 1.6 mt) Band knife machine s 1 (2.25 x 1.5) Fusing assisting tables Trolleys 2

In cutting dept. there will be fabric temporary storage. Calculation of Fabric Temporary Storage Fabric Cutting days inventory Required length(m) Length in a roll (m) No. of rolls req. Diameter of roll (inch) Length of roll (inch) No. of rolls in 300 31 12 64 one 2 1.5

fabric 9502

shelf(assumed) No. of rolls in a rack No. of racks Ease for 15 2 roll 6

movement(inches) Length of rack(inches) 66

Therefore the dimensions of the rack = 66*60*42 inches or 1.32*1.2*0.84 meters

SEWING DEPARTMENT

Receipt of cut parts from cutting section Receipt of machine layout Study of layout & set the batch Load pilot run lot Approval of pilot run Load bulk cutting

Monitor production as per target End line checking

Total SAM = 23.27 minutes Total operations (including ironing, marking) = 48 Total time available = 480 minutes Total pieces required = 3500 Pieces per minute = 3500/480 = 7.30 pieces Operation breakdown and line balanci ng has been done keeping in mind the pieces required and the SAM of the individual operations. Accordingly, number of machines required for each operation has been found out.

Line Layout:

The layout that has been chosen for the line is the most common method of arranging machines with centre table option; here all operators are facing in one direction. For one column of workers the centre table is on left, while for the other column of operators the centre table is on right, hence differential ease of bundle pickup and disposal. Centre table on the left side of the operator is always better for larger component. For operations involving a two component assembly where picking has to be done from both right and left of the operators, the service table at right is advisable, this is because additional extension space can be created at left side with comparative ease but creating additional space at right side of machine is difficult. Generally wiring is done underneath the centre table, and sewing machine motor is on right side of sewing machine table, so wiring for one column of sewing machine is cumbersome. Material movement in this type of layout is

lateral/vertical/zigzag. Light source has to be separate for two columns of machine, thus infrastructure cost for lighting will be more. As operators are facing same sides (regimental seating) they are less prone to talk. The arrangement is vaastu-friendly .

FINISHING SECTION

Receive garments from sewing section

Middle checking

AQL inspection

Receipt of poly packing approval

De dusting with blower

De dusting & removal of cut thread Pressing

Measurement checking

Folding Tagging Poly bag packing Presentation checking To packing section

S.No.

Operation 1 Thread Trimming 2 Primary Inspection/ Spotting 4 Ironing 5 Measurement Check/ Final Check 6 Final Ironing Total

SAM 0.43 0.64

Pcs/min 2.33 1.55

Required People 3.13 4.70

0.64 0.85

1.56 1.18

4.67 6.19

0.96 3.52

1.05

6.97 25.66

LIGHTING DIAGRAM

Definition A light source emits a flow of energy measured by a unit of power called a lumen. The density of light that falls on a surface is measured in foot candles, or lux. A foot candle is one lumen of light density per square foot. A lux is one lumen of light density per square meter. The foot candle is an older British measurement that is largely being replaced by the metric -based lux.

Lumen: a unit of luminous flux equal to the amount of light given out through a solid angle of 1 steradian by a point source of 1 candela intensity radiating uniformly in all directions

Outdoor light levels, as measured by a light meter, can range from 107,527 lux in bright sunlight to 107 lux on a very dark day. Recommended light levels (in

lux) for indoor work spaces are 500 for personal computing work; 750 for supermarkets; 1,500 to 2,000 for detailed drawing work; and 10,000 to 20,000 for visual tasks in extremely low contrast using small -sized objects. Direct, intense lighting is required for the latter tasks.

Activity Illumination

(lux, lumen/m 2 )

Public areas with dark surroundings

20 50

Simple orientation for short visits

50 100

Working areas where visual tasks are only occasionally performed 100 150

Warehouses, Homes, Theaters, Archives

150

Easy Office Work, Classes Normal Office Work, PC Work,

250

Study Library, Groceries, Show Rooms, Laboratories

500

Supermarkets, Mechanical Workshops, Office Landscapes

750

Normal Drawing Work, Detailed Mechanical Workshops, Operation Theatres 1,000

Detailed Drawing Work, Very Detailed Mechanical Works 2000

1500 -

Performance of visual tasks of low contrast and very small size for prolonged periods of time 2000 5000

Performance of very prolonged and exacting visual tasks

5000 - 10000

Performance of very special visual tasks of extremely low contrast and small size 10000 20000

Lux requirements in the industry:

Task Group

Standard Service

Reflectance Errors Contrast

will Rask

of

have serious short

Illumination usually low consequences duration (Lux) Storage area and plant room with 150 no continuous work Casual work Rough work, rough machining and assembly Demanding work, inspection of medium machining Fine work: Colour discrimination, textile processing and fine 1000 1500 1500 750 500 750 750 300 200 300 500 500 300 (Lux) (Lux) (Lux) -

machining

Very fine work: hand engravings, 1500 inspection of fine machining and assembly Minute work, inspection of very fine assembly 3000

3000

3000

1000

3000

3000

1500

Levels specific to garment industry:

Operations Sewing

Lux level 300 - 500 for normal 1000-1500 for critical operations

Embroidery Processing Packing Inspection

700 150 150 300

700 for routine 1000 for critical/minute inspection

COMPLIANCE REQUIREMENT: Exemptions 75 hour O.T. Exemption Exemption for Time Card Exemption for Ambulance Exemption for Creach

Building Name Sign to All Rooms / Area Indicators / Direction from Security Gate onwards Storage above Storage limit Carton Box etc. Aisle marking Aisle width minimum 112 cm. Indicators Arrows in the passage Aisle without block

Health Drinking Water At least4.5 Litres water provided per day per employee Water Testing Certificate Drinking water not in plastic pot Drinking Water, Cup availability Drinking Water centre (one place to every 150 employees upto 500) Drinking Water centre (one place to every 500 employees above 500) Water Cooler / Heater available at every canteen, dining hall, rest r oom etc. Drinking Water Signage in English and a local language

Locate from 20 feet away from toilet Locate maximum 50 meters distance from work spot Drinking Water vessels cleaned at least once in a day Water Reservoir or Tank Cleaned at least once in a w eek Water centre cleaning condition Water Vessal Cleaning log sheet Water Centre Incharge person with cleanliness Suggession Box Register

Toilets Toilet Seat to Every 20 Women Toilet Seat to Every 20 men upto 100 Toilet Seat to Every 50 men beyond 100 All toilet seat with proper privacy and lock facility Urinal Accommodation Min. 61 cm for every 50 employees upto first 500 Urinal Accommodation Min. 61 cm for every 100 employees for above 500 Effective water Sewage system Soap/ Towel Bathroom Lock Water tap Dust Bins Buckets with mug at toilets Toilet White Washed once in every four month Tiles/Mosaic floors washed with Detergent or disinfectant once in four month Daily Cleaning Log sheet provided Adequate Water Tabs No smoking Sign in Gents Toilet

Awareness Quotes in Toilets Ladies / Gents Toilet Name Sign in Dual Language and Picture

Spittoons Adequate Spittoons Spittoons filled by Sand or Suitable disinfectant Spittoons covered by bleaching powder layer Spittoons scrapped or cleaned at least once in every day

Others 500 Cubic feet for every employees Disposal of Wastes and effluents Room Temperature Lighting facility Trees on factory campus

Safety Guards Metal Glows on good Condition Rubber Mat to ironers Rubber Glows to ironers Ironers wearing slipper Motar Guard Needle Guard Eye Guard Scissors and trimmers are tied Broken Needle Register

Dining Hall Dining Hall with sufficient Space Dining Hall with Sufficient Chair/Table Water Facility Ambulance Room Doctor Visit Nurse Medicines Medicines Issuing Record Creach

Fire Sufficient Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher all in good Condition Fire Extinguisher Location List Fire Extinguisher Service Checklist Fire Extinguisher kept in 3 feet Fire Signage in English & Local Language. Usage Guide in dual language Fire Extinguisher Color Background Marking Space beneath marked Space beneath kept empty Refilling Service Done Fire Certified persons photo Evacuation Drill (External) Every Six Month Evacuation Drill (External) File Evacuation Drill (Internal) Every Thr ee Month

Evacuation Drill (Internal) File Fire safety trained employees name & Photo List Fire Buckets to Diesel Storage Area with Water and Sand Fire Buckets to Boiler Room with Water and Sand Fire Buckets to Generator room with Water and Sand Diesel Storage area floor filled by sand Evacuation Plan in all Floor / Area Emergency Exit Emergency Exit on Open Emergency Exit Signage Emergency Exit with outside open facility Emergency Light to All room / Area Adequate Emergency Light to All staircase Emergency Light to All Exit & Emergency Exit

H.R. Personnel File to All Application Form Passport Size Photo Educational Qualification Certificate Age Proof I.D. Proof Address Proof Technical Certificate Previous Company Experience/Relieving order Old Salary Slip ESI Nomination Form 1

PF Nomination Form 2 Gratuity Nomination Form F Factory Act Nomination Form 34 Track Record Appointment Order Insurance NDA with Signature Employee Manual I.d. Card to All Adequate Swiping machine Punching Card to All ESI Card to All PF Slip to All Awareness Programme Stress Relieve Counseling Meetings Performance appraisal Leave Card Full & Final Settlement Exit Interview Gratuity Bonus Salary Breakup Salary on Date Induction Programmer Induction Register

Manpower Manpower Department wise Male/Female Strength Report Attendance Report Late Report Absentism Report Daily Staff In-Out Register Is there Under Age Contract Employees Punch report Leave card to each employee MIR (Material Issue Register)

Salary Salary date before 7 every mon th Bank Salary Account to all Salary Registers with employees signature monthwise Minimum Wages Basic D.A. Other Salary Breakups Over Time Double Salary to Over Time Any unwanted deduction for employee Unpaid salary are reversed Pay Cover Availability

Security Adequate Securities Lady Guards Staff Movement Register Visitors Note Others In-Out Register Material Inward Register Material Outward Register Vehicle Movement Register Visitor Pass Visitor Slip Guards Knowledge about their Roles & Responsibilities Securities Personnel File Securities Uniform/Cap/Shoe/Belt etc. Securities Knowledge about Fire Evacuation & Fire Safety Security Agreement file (If outsourced) Security Salary register file (If outsourced) Security ESI, PF Challan (If Outsourced)