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Caitanya-candra

All glories to r Guru and r Gaurang

SCRIPTURAL EVIDENCES DESCRIBING THE GLORIES OF THE APPEARANCE OF THE MOONLIKE LORD SRI CAITANYA MAHAPRABHU THE GOLDEN AVATARA

Dedicated to ISKCON Founder Acarya - His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, by whose mercy the name and glories of the most merciful incarnation of Sri Krsna as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in kali-yuga is being heard in every part of the world. 1

Caitanya-candra

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.1 Who Is Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu? .......................................................................................................... 6 2 GURU PARAMPARA DISCIPLIC SUCCESSION ....................................................................................................... 8 2.1 The Disciplic Succession and Its Unique Characteristics: Of Which We are a Part ............................. 10 2.2 Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Sampradaya Disciplic Succession............................................................. 20 3 SRI GAURA PURNIMA MAHOTSAVA ..................................................................................................................... 83 4 PREDICTION OF SRI CAITANYA MAHAPRABHUS APPEARANCE IN THE VEDAS.................................................... 84 4.1 Sri Caitanya Upanisad from the Atharva Veda...................................................................................... 84 4.2 Specific Reference In The Vedas As To When And Where Sri Caitanya Was Scheduled To Appear? . 96 4.3 Other Relevant Scriptural References Describing The Appearance Or Qualities Of Sri Caitanya? ..... 96 4.4 Prediction in the Srimad-Bhagavatam Describing The Appearance Of Lord Caitanya. ....................... 98 4.4.1 The Yuga-Avataras And More Direct References In The Srimad Bhagavatam ............................. 99 4.4.2 How Does This Krsna Varnam Verse Refer To The Advent Of Lord Caitanya? ........................ 103 4.4.3 Did He Come With Associates Or Intimate Companions? .......................................................... 104 4.4.4 How Is This Yuga-Avatara Or Incarnation Of The Age Of Kali-Yuga To Be Worshipped? ....... 105 4.4.5 How Do The Six Goswamis Explain This Famous Verse? ........................................................... 105 4.4.6 Other Verses From The Srimad-Bhagavatam Which Describe The Advent Of Sri Caitanya .... 107 4.5 Description Of Lord Caitanyas Future Advent In Other Vedic Literatures........................................ 109 5 LORD KRSNA REVEALS DETAILS OF HIS GAURA INCARNATION AS STATED IN THE VAYU-PURANA..................... 124 6 LORD SIVA DESCRIBES LORD CAITANYAS APPEARANCE IN ANANTA-SAHIT ................................................ 136 7 DESCRIPTION OF THE LORDS ADVENT AS DESCRIBED IN CAITANYA-MANGAL ................................................. 170 7.1 Krishna's Decision to Descend as a Devotee......................................................................................... 170 7.2 Narada Muni Visits Dvaraka ................................................................................................................ 171 7.3 Rukmini's Lamentation.......................................................................................................................... 172 7.4 The Power of Krishna's Lotus Feet........................................................................................................ 172 7.5 The Power of Radharani's Pure Love .................................................................................................... 173 7.6 Lord Krishna Reveals the Form of Gauranga ....................................................................................... 174 7.7 Narada Visits Uddhava in Naimisaranya ............................................................................................. 175 7.8 Narada Muni Visits Lord Siva in Kailasa ............................................................................................. 177 7.9 Narada Waits Twelve Years for Maha-prasada ................................................................................... 178 7.10 The Effect of Maha-prasada on Lord Siva ............................................................................................ 179 7.11 The Vishnu-Katyayani Samvada from Padma Purana ......................................................................... 180 7.12 Narada Visits Brahmaloka .................................................................................................................... 181 7.13 The Yuga-Avataras................................................................................................................................ 183 7.14 The Bhagavata Predicts Gauranga's Advent......................................................................................... 184 7.15 Sri Krishna: Three Colors, Four Yugas................................................................................................. 185 7.16 Gauranga, Kali-Yuga, and Sankirtana ................................................................................................. 186 7.17 Lord Jagannatha Glorifies Gauranga ................................................................................................... 188 7.18 Narada Visits Vaikuntha ....................................................................................................................... 190 7.19 Narada Sees Gauranga in Goloka ........................................................................................................ 190 7.20 Gauranga Tells Why He Descends........................................................................................................ 192 8 DOES LORD CAITANYA APPEAR IN EVERY DAY OF LORD BRAHMA? ................................................................. 193 9 DESCRIPTIONS OF LORD CAITANYA'S BODILY FEATURES ................................................................................. 194 9.1 Specific Bodily Features And Markings ................................................................................................ 197 10 WHY DID LORD KRSNA APPEAR AS LORD CAITANYA? ..................................................................................... 200 11 SRI NAVADVIPA DHAMA - THE DIVINE ABODE OF LORD CAITANYA ................................................................. 204 11.1 Lord iva's glorification of Navadvipa to Prvat in the Urdhvmnya Tantra. ................................. 207 11.2 Antardvipa ............................................................................................................................................. 224 11.3 Simantadvipa ......................................................................................................................................... 225 11.4 Godrumadvipa ....................................................................................................................................... 225 11.5 Madhyadvipa ......................................................................................................................................... 226 11.6 Koladvipa ............................................................................................................................................... 226 11.7 Rtudvipa ................................................................................................................................................. 226 11.8 Jahnudvipa ............................................................................................................................................. 226 11.9 Modadrumadvipa................................................................................................................................... 227

Caitanya-candra
11.10 Rudradvipa............................................................................................................................................. 227 SRI PANCA TATTVA: THE LORD IN FIVE FEATURES .......................................................................................... 236 12.1 Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.................................................................................................................. 238 12.2 Lord Nityananda Prabhu....................................................................................................................... 240 12.3 Sri Advaita Acarya ................................................................................................................................ 241 12.4 Sri Gadadhara Pandita.......................................................................................................................... 243 12.5 Sri Srivasa Thakura .............................................................................................................................. 244 13 THE SIX GOSWAMIS OF VRNDAVANA: SIX PRINCIPAL DISCIPLES OF LORD CAITANYA .................................... 246 13.1 Srila Rupa Goswami .............................................................................................................................. 246 13.2 Srila Sanatana Goswami ....................................................................................................................... 248 13.3 Srila Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami....................................................................................................... 250 13.4 Srila Raghunatha Das Goswami ........................................................................................................... 251 13.5 Srila Jiva Goswami ................................................................................................................................ 253 13.6 Srila Gopala Bhatta Goswami............................................................................................................... 255 14 LORD CAITANYA AND HIS ETERNAL ASSOCIATES SPIRITUAL IDENTITIES ......................................................... 256 15 GLORIES OF LORD CAITANYAS HOLY NAMES................................................................................................... 257 16 THE YUGA-DHARMA AND THE HARE KRSNA MAHAMANTRA ............................................................................ 258 16.1 The Sequence Of The Mah-Mantra ..................................................................................................... 262 16.2 Hare Krsna Maha-Mantra The Great Chanting For Deliverance In Kali-Yuga............................... 264 16.3 Sri Kalisantarana Upanisad .................................................................................................................. 271 16.4 Lord Caitanyas Instruction to Chant Hare Krsna Maha-mantra........................................................ 273 16.5 Meaning Of The Hare Krsna Mahamantra........................................................................................... 277 16.5.1 Mahamantra-vyakhya - The Lord's divine qualities revealed in the Mahamantra................. 285 16.5.2 Mahamantrasya madhuryamayi vyakhya - The Lord's intimate qualities revealed in the Mahamantra.................................................................................................................................................... 285 16.5.3 Mahamantrasya yugalasmaranamayi vyakhya - Remembering the Divine Couple through the Mahamantra.................................................................................................................................................... 286 16.6 Commentary On The Maha-Mantra by rla Jva Gosvm................................................................. 286 16.7 Explanation of the Hare Krsna Maha-mantra by Srila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura........... 288 16.8 Explanation of the Mahamantra by Srila Gopala Guru Goswami .......................................................... 288 16.9 The Glories Of The Holy Name............................................................................................................. 292 16.10 The Holy Name Is Everything ............................................................................................................... 301 12

Caitanya-candra

All Glories to Jagadguru Srila Prabhupada All Glories to Sri Sri Guru and Gauranga All Glories to Sri Sri Radha Madhava gaura-vag-vigraham vande gaurangam gaura vaibhavam gaura sankirtanon mattam gaura-karunya-sundaram I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of my spiritual master who is the embodiment of Lord Gaurangas instructions. He is always intoxicated by the constant performance of the congregational chanting of the holy name inaugurated by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Indeed, the spiritual master is the personal expansion of Lord Caitanya Himself, and his bodily lustre is of the same golden hue. His unexcelled beauty is only enhanced by the storehouse of Lord Caitanyas compassion. vande ha r-guro r-yuta-pada-kamala r-gurn vaiav ca r-rpa sgrajta saha-gaa-raghunthnvita ta sa-jvam sdvaita svadhta parijana-sahita ka-caitanya-deva r-rdh-ka-pdn saha-gaa-lalit-r-vikhnvit ca I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of my spiritual master and unto the feet of all Vaiavas. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of rla Rpa Gosvm along with his elder brother Santana Gosvm, as well as Raghuntha Dsa and Raghuntha Bhaa, Gopla Bhaa, and rla Jva Gosvm. I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Ka Caitanya and Lord Nitynanda along with Advaita crya, Gaddhara, rvsa, and other associates. I offer my respectful obeisances to rmat Rdhr and r Ka along with Their associates r Lalit and Vikh. namo maha-vadanya, krishna prema pradaya te krishnaya krishna caitanya namne gaura-tvishe namaha O most munificent incarnation of the Lord, You are Krishna Himself appearing as Sri Caitanya. You have assumed the golden color of Radharani, and you are freely distributing what no other incarnation has ever distributed pure love of God. ananda lilamaya vigrahaya hemabha-divya-cchavi-sundaraya tasmai maha-prema-rasa-pradaya caitanyacandraya namo namas te O Lord Caitanyacandra, O Lord whose form is full of blissful pastimes, O Lord whose complexion is as splendid as gold, O Lord who gives in charity the nectar of pure love for

Caitanya-candra Lord Krsna, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. (Sri Caitanya-candramrta 2.11) nityananda namastubhyam premananda-pradayine kalau kalmasa nasaya jahnava-pataye namah I offer my respectful obeisances unto Lord Sri Nityananda Prabhu who bestows the bliss of divine love, who eliminates the filth of the age of Kali, and who is the master of Sri Jahnavidevi. ajanu-lambita bhujau kanakava datau samkirtanaika-pitarau kamalaya-taksau visvambharau-dvijavarau-yuga-dharma-palau vande jagat priyakarau karuna-avatarau I worship Their Lordships Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Sri Nityananda Prabhu, whose long arms extend down to Their knees, whose beautiful complexions are radiant yellow like molten gold and whose elongated eyes are like red lotuses. They are the topmost brahmanas, the guardians of religious principles for this age, the munificient benefactors of all living entities, and the most compassionate incarnations of Godhead. They initiated the congregational chanting of the holy names of Lord Krsna. (Sri Caitanya-Bhagavat 1.1) r-ka-caitanya prabhu-nitynanda r-advaita gaddhara rvsdi-gaura-bhakta-vnda I offer my obeisances to Lord r Ka Caitanya, Prabhu Nitynanda, r Advaita, Gaddhara, rvsa and all others in the line of devotion. hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare

Caitanya-candra

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Who Is Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu?
According to the revealed scriptures Lord Caitanya aka Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu, is Krishna Himself who appeared as His own pure devotee with the golden complexion and sentiments of Srimati Radharani in order to teach the religious process (yuga-dharma), for this age. In previous ages religious processes were more rigorous but in this age, the age of Kali, (quarrel and hypocrisy), Lord Caitanya taught that one can gain full enlightenment simply by performing congregational chanting of the holy names of Lord Hari, more precisely chanting Hare Krsna maha-mantra (Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare). To enact His mission, He appeared with His associates. Thus Sri Krishna Caitanya is often worshipped in His form as pancha-tattva, accompanied by His immediate expansions, Nityananda Prabhu, Advaita acarya, Gadadhara Pandit and Srivasa Thakur. The vedic scriptures confirm that Lord Caitanya is not an expansion of the prakasa or vilasa forms of Sri Krsna; He is the svayam-rupa, Govinda. Srila Rupa Goswami, the Rasa-Acarya of the Gaudiya Vaisnavas, and many other exalted authorities, also accept Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu as none other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, who incarnates in the form of a devotee, to enjoy rasa. In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, (Adi lila, 1.3) Sri Caitanya is described as follows: yad advayam brahmopanisadi tad apy asya tanu-bha ya atmantaryami purusa iti so syamsa-vibhavah sad-aisvaryayaih purno ya iha bhagvan sa svayam ayam na caitanyat krsnaj jagati para-tattvam param iha What the Upanisads describe as the impersonal Brahman is but the effulgence of His body, and the Lord known as the Supersoul is but his localized plenary portion. Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna Himself, full with six opulences (beauty, fame, wealth, strength, knowledge and renunciation). He is the Absolute Truth, and no other truth is greater than Him. In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, (Adi-lila, 1. 4) it is further stated: anarpita-carim cirat karunyavatirnah kalau samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasam sva-bhakti-sriyam harih purata-sundara-dyuti-kadamba-sandipitah sada hrdaya-kandare sphuratu vah saci-nandanah May that Lord, who is known as the son of Srimati Sacidevi, be transcendentally situated in the innermost chambers of your heart. Reslpedent with the radiance of molten gold, He has appeared in the age of Kali by His causeless mercy to bestow what no other incarnation has

Caitanya-candra ever offered before: the most elevated mellow of devotional service, the mellow of conjugal love. Furthermore Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Goswami explains in Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, that Sri Sri Radha and Krsna are one divine self, or one and the same, but they have taken two bodies. Both Radha and Krsna constantly enjoy each other, and taste the pleasures of divine love. This is clearly explained in the following verse: radha krsna-pranaya-viktrir hladini sakitr asmad ekatmanav api bhuvi pura deha-bhedm gatau tau caitanyakhyam prakatam adhuna tad-dvayam caikyam aptam radha-bhava-dyutisuvalitam naumi krsna-svarupam The loving affairs of Sri Radha and Krsna are transcendental manifesations of the Lords internal pleasure giving potency. Although Radha and Krsna are one in Their identity, They separated Themselves eternally. Now These two transcendental identities have again united in the form of Sri Krsna Caitanya. I bow down to Him, who has manifested Himself with the sentiment and complexion of Srimati Radharani although He is Krsna Himself. (Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, 1.5) radha-krsna eka atma dui deha dhari' anyonye vilase rasa asvadana kari To taste this divine mellow, Sri Sri Radha-Krsna have appeared in one body, as Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu, in Mayapura Dhama. (Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, 4.56) Similarly, Srila Vrndavana das Thakur states in Sri Caitanya-Bhagavat: sri krsna caitanya radha krsna nahe anya Sri Krsna Caitanya is none other than the combined form of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna. Sri Caitanya is Krsna, the maintainer of the universe (visvambhara), and He has appeared to show us how to perform sankirtana. His mood is just like that of a devotee not just any devotee, but He appears in the mood of His topmost devotee, Srimati Radharani.
In Sri

Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila 3.19 Lord Caitanya says: yuga-dharma pravartaimu nama-sankirtana cari bhava-bhakti diya nacamu bhuvana

"I shall personally inaugurate the religion of the age nama-sankirtana, the congregational chanting of the holy name. I shall make the world dance in ecstasy, realizing the four mellows of loving devotional service." Lord Caitanya descended to this material world for two purposes; to spread the chanting of the holy names of God(Krsna) to deliver all the people from their material bondage, and to

Caitanya-candra simultaneously taste the nectar of the pure love of God, Krishna, as it was tasted by His topmost devotee, Srimati Radharani, who is the internal energy of Krishna. In other ages the Lord incarnates along with His weapons for destroying the demons, but in Kali yuga He shows special mercy to the demons by delivering them with nama-sankirtana. In Kali-yuga there are practically only demons on this earth, so if the Lord were to kill the demons there would be nobody left. Instead He chose to kill the demoniac tendency within the heart of the demons by giving them Krishna bhakti through the sankirtana yajna. The glories of Lord Caitanya and His associates can only be understand through the disciplic succession.

2 GURU PARAMPARA DISCIPLIC SUCCESSION


rdhknta samrambhm madhva-mdhavendra madhyamm asmadcrya paryantm vande guru-paramparm I offer my respectful obeisances to that glorious disciplic succession, which starts with the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, and came through Sripada Madhvacarya to Sri Madhavendra Puri down to my own spiritual master. In the Padma-Purana, it is stated: sampradaya vihina ye mantras te nisphala matah atah kalau bhavisyanti catvarah sampradayinah sri-brahma-rudra-sanaka vaisnava ksitipavanah catvaras te kalau bhavya hy utkale purusottamah ramanujam srihi svicakre madhvacaryam caturmukhah srivisnusvaminam rudro nimbadityam catuksanah If one is not initiated by a bonafide spiritual master in the sampradaya, disciplic succession, then whatever mantra he/she will receive will be ineffective or fruitless. Therefore in the future, in Kali-yuga there will be only four authorized sampradayas [disciplic successions]. These sampradayas will establish unalloyed pure devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Purusottama [Krsna], which is the conclusion of the Vedas. These four sampradayas are: Sri, Brahma, Rudra, and Kumara sampradayas and to represent each there will be four great acaryas. Sripada Ramanujacarya will be chosen by Sri (Laksmi-devi) to establish her sampradaya, Sripada Madhvacarya will be chosen by Lord Brahma to establish his sampradaya, Sripada Visnuswami will be chosen by Rudra (Lord Siva) to establish his sampradaya and Sripada Nimbarkacarya will be chosen by the four Kumaras (Sanaka, Sanatkumara, Sanandana, and Sanatana) to establish their sampradaya. They will come to Jagannatha Puri - Purusottama Ksetra, Utkal, and purify the entire earth during the age of Kali It is further mentioned in Padma Purana: sampradaya-vihina mantraste nishphala matah

Caitanya-candra sadhanoghaih na siddhayanti koti-kalpastair api If mantras are not received in the disciplic succession or sampradaya then it is fruitless. By chanting such mantras one cannot achieve perfection even in a very long period of time.

Sri Visnuswami

Sri Nimbarkacarya

Sri Ramanujacarya

Sri Madhvacarya

It is verified in Garga Samhita: vamanas vidih sesah sanako visnu vakyatah dharmartha hetave caite bhavisyanti dvijah kalau Vamana, Brahma, Ananta Sesha and Sanaka Kumara will appear as brahmanas by the order of Visnu, for the preservation of eternal righteousness in kali yuga. visnuswami vamanangsastatha madhvastu brahmanah ramanujastu sesangsa nimbaditya sanakasya ca Visnuswami, Madhvacarya, Ramanuja and Nimbaditya will appear respectively as a portion of Vamana, Brahma, Ananta Sesa and Sanaka Kumara. ete kalau yuge bhavyah sampradaya pravartakah samvatsare vikrama catvarah ksiti pavanah These four saviours will be the establishers of the four authorised and empowered spiritual channels of disciplic succession in the period calculated from the reign of King Vikrama in 54 B.C. subsequently through the 432,000 year cycle of kali yuga. sampradaya vihina ye mantras te nisphalah smritah tasmacca gamanang hyasti sampradaya narairapi These four authorised and empowered spiritual channels of disciplic succession are to be fully accepted by all beings; as any word, combination of words or formulation of sound frequencies, invoked or addressed, audible or inaudible, secret or revealed, ancient or contemporary outside their auspices prove to have absolutely no efficacy. (Garga Samhita, Canto 10, chapter 61, verses 23, 24, 25, 26)

Caitanya-candra

2.1 The Disciplic Succession and Its Unique Characteristics: Of Which We are a Part
by Sri Nandanandana Das It is established that everyone who seeks spiritual knowledge and enlightenment must accept a genuine teacher. Even if one has already attained enlightenment in a previous life and is automatically born with such knowledge, proper etiquette dictates that one approaches a spiritual master. Such a master must be in an authorized sampradaya, or line of disciplic succession of other spiritual masters from whom he has received knowledge. In this way, the unique transcendental message flows through the disciplic succession in a continuous, pure and non-contaminated form. This is the mystery of receiving pure spiritual knowledge through a genuine line of masters. The sampradaya of which we are a part is the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya, which descends from Lord Krishna and then Lord Brahma, through Madhvacharya, and through Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (Gaudiya), the great sage, scholar and incarnation of Lord Krishna who appeared only 500 years ago. He appeared with His eternal associates to relish and display the loving sentiments of devotion for Lord Krishna. His mission was not merely to teach the way of devotion to God, especially through the congregational chanting of the Hare Krishna mantra, but much deeper than that. He revealed to the world what is rarely obtained and what had never before been given--love of Lord Krishna as practiced by the most intimate inhabitants of the spiritual world in Goloka Vrindavana. Lord Caitanya exhibited this love and instructed His associates, like the Six Gosvamis of Vrindavana, to write volumes of devotional scriptures about the nature of this devotional love for Lord Krishna. The deepest level of this love is to understand how to meditate on becoming a maidservant of Srimati Radharani. She is the topmost devotee of Lord Krishna, and His feminine expansion as the personification of Lord Krishna's pleasure potency, the hladini-shakti. She is the enchanter of Lord Krishna Himself. Just as Sri Krishna captivates all the living entities by His beauty and loving characteristics, Srimati Radharani similarly captivates Lord Krishna by Her love and charming qualities. Srimati Radharani's love for Lord Krishna is so condensed and sweet that Sri Krishna is so maddened by it that He accepts the form of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who descends in the mood of Radharani, in order to more thoroughly understand and relish the love Srimati Radharani has for Him. Therefore, the goal of a devotee of Lord Caitanya, following in the footsteps of His associates, is to meditate on becoming a maidservant of Srimati Radharani to assist Her in giving that love to Lord Krishna. Out of so many spiritual processes for realizing one's spiritual nature, this is the most intimate of all spiritual loving sentiments. You will find none more sublime than this. However, it is not easily understandable, and you cannot comprehend it by the standard materialistic methods. In order to understand the transcendental science of the loving affairs of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna and Their associates, one must learn it from those who are descendants from that supreme spiritual realm. This is the unique character of the BrahmaMadhva-Gaudiya sampradaya. It provides a seeker with the knowledge and books from those who have personal experience of such spiritual realms and divine consciousness. The most recent representative of our sampradaya is His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Srila Prabhupada was the disciple of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, the

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Caitanya-candra disciple of Gaurkishora das Babaji and son of Bhaktivinoda Thakura. Bhaktivinoda took shelter and instructions from Jagannatha das Babaji. From there the line of masters and disciples goes back to Visvanatha Chakravarti Thakura, then to Narottama das Thakura, Krishna dasa Kaviraj, Raghunatha dasa Gosvami and Jiva Gosvami. Then it continues to Sri Rupa Gosvami, along with Svarupa Damodara and Sanatana Gosvami. Then we arrive at Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the most recent incarnation of God who descended to distribute love of God to all conditioned souls. Lord Caitanya taught by example that everyone should accept a spiritual master, and He took initiation from Ishvara Puri. From Ishvara Puri, our line of spiritual masters goes back through Madhavendra Puri, then to Lakshmipati, Vyasa Tirtha, Brahmanya Tirtha, Purushottama, Jayadharma, Rajendra, Vidyanidhi, Dayanidhi, Jnansindhu, Jaya Tirtha, Akshobya, Madhava, Nrhari, Padmanabha, Madhvacarya, Srila Vyasadeva, Narada Muni, Lord Brahma, and Lord Sri Krishna. It is understood that you cannot give such loving devotion to others unless you have it yourself. However, as we shall see in the descriptions that follow, we do not have spiritual masters in our line who merely have an intense devotion to Lord Krishna and Srimati Radharani. Many of these masters have descended into the material realm to explicitly describe their direct view of these pastimes from their own experience in the spiritual world, and their books are filled with such descriptions. They are already perfected or descended masters who have come to awaken and guide us back to their own areas of intimate service to Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. Providing short descriptions of the spiritual qualities of the great personalities in this sampradaya, we will see how fortunate we are to have come in contact with them since many have been identified as having direct spiritual relationships with Lord Krishna and Srimati Radharani in the form of either manjaris or sakhis. A sakhi is one who expands and facilitates the conjugal love of Lord Krishna and His enjoyment among the gopis, the maidservants. The gopis in general bring Radha and Krishna together and give Them assurance to enjoy spiritual pastimes. That is the transcendental pleasure of the gopis. The gopis never act for their own personal satisfaction. They are simply pleased by engaging others in the service of the Lord. The sakhis of Srimati Radharani, headed by Lalita and Vishaka, are unlimited in number. They are in the same age group of Radharani, and, thus, they sometimes deal directly with Lord Krishna. The sakhis help provide a variety of facilities for the pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. Occasionally, Radharani makes arrangements for the sakhis to have direct association with Lord Krishna. There are five kinds of sakhis, known as sakhis, nitya-sakhis, prana-sakhis, priya-sakhis, and parama-prestha-sakhis. The regular sakhis are more affectionate toward Sri Krishna, while the nitya-sakhis are more affectionate toward Srimati Radharani. Others are equally affectionate toward Sri Sri Radha-Krishna, while sometimes they are more affectionate toward Srimati Radharani. The manjaris are the direct maidservants of Srimati Radharani. They are younger, innocent girls, not more than thirteen years old, and the exclusive maidservants of Radharani. The manjaris are thus allowed to personally serve in the inner areas of the groves (kunjas) of Vrindavana, where the sakhis have no access. Therefore, they witness the intimate loving pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna and relish the highest levels of devotional bliss. As Srila Raghunatha das Gosvami writes in his Vraja Vilas Stava (text 31): "I take shelter of Sri Rupa Manjari and the other very dear maidservants of the great queen of Vrindavana, Srimati Radhika, who please her by offering Her betel, massaging Her feet, offering Her water, and arranging for Her rendezvous with Krishna. Because these

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Caitanya-candra maidservants can enter the area where the Divine Couple enjoy their most confidential pastimes without feeling shy, they are even more dear to Radhika than the sakhis such as Lalita, who themselves are more dear to Her than life itself. In other words, the manjaris, headed by Sri Rupa Manjari, can freely enter those kunjas where even the prana-prestha sakhis hesitate to enter." Starting with Srila A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, among his numerous preaching activities, he wrote over 80 volumes of authoritative translations, commentaries and summary studies of the religious texts of India, such as the Bhagavad-gita, Srimad-Bhagavatam, and others. Many of these volumes have been translated into numerous languages around the world. Due to his efforts, this sampradaya became a global movement, and he was given credit for being the senapati bhakta (great devotee commander) who was predicted by Srila Bhaktivinoda and Lord Caitanya Himself who would come and preach in different countries and flood the world with the chanting of Hare Krishna. Thus, he was especially empowered to deliver this message and took the mission of the previous acharyas and Lord Caitanya to spread love of God to all souls. It was through Srila Prabhupada that we, especially those of us in the West, now have access to this Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya, which is one of the few, if not only, genuine lines of disciplic succession broadcasting the intimate pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna in the company of Their confidential maidservant associates in the spiritual realm of Vrindavana. Hardly anywhere else can you learn such privileged information about the spiritual world. Srila Prabhupada has offered the path to the divine pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna by providing the knowledge as well as methods of meditation and service through which we can learn and absorb ourselves in the ways of the residents and damsels of Vraja. In this way, he has given us everything we need, even more than we can hope to understand in this lifetime. Few people, no matter how spiritual they may be, have any idea of this level of spiritual taste or relations, known as madhurya-rasa. This is what Lord Caitanya came to give 500 years ago, and which is still being offered by the efforts and mercy of His Divine Grace Srila Prabhupada and his genuine followers. Even now, the mantras that are offered to the brahminical initiates include the Gopla mantra and the Kama-gayatri, which are specifically meant to promote being absorbed in the loving sentiments and mood of the cowherd damsel servants of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. This most transcendental loving emotion is being passed down through the disciplic succession. Even Srila Prabhupada's godbrother, Srila Bhaktiprajnana Keshava Gosvami Maharaja, who gave him sannyasa initiation in 1959, has been recognized as Vinoda Manjari in his spiritual identity. Since all acharyas in our sampradaya from Srila Madhavendra Puri have the same mood as their initiating masters, it is, therefore, most likely that Srila Prabhupada, as a follower of Rupa Gosvami, is also in the same madhurya-rasa, or mood of a loving maidservant of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. So this most beneficial line of spiritual teachers has appeared to allow us to take shelter of them through their instructions and books. Srila Prabhupada took initiation from Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta revealed his own spiritual identity (svarupa) as Nayana Manjari to some of his close associates. Plus, Srila Bhaktivinoda had prayed to the Lord to send him one of His associates as a son to help him spread the Lord's mission. Thus, Bhaktisiddhanta is also considered a ray of Vishnu. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta had done wonders in spreading the teachings of Lord Caitanya and expand the efforts of his father, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura. Bhaktisiddhanta had established the Gaudiya Math institution with numerous temples. It spread Krishna consciousness all over India. He was a forceful and powerful preacher and scholar, and he wrote numerous

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Caitanya-candra articles, books and commentaries, including the Bhagavad-gita, Brahma-samhita, Sri Caitanyacaritamrita, and numerous others. All of these contributed greatly to the authority of the Vaishnava tradition and to spiritual consciousness in general. Then it was Srila Prabhupada who greatly expanded the efforts of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta by taking the message of Lord Caitanya far outside the borders of India. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta had taken initiation from Gaura-kishora das Babaji, under the instruction of his father. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura revealed the spiritual identity of Gaura-kishora das Babaji as Guna Manjari in his Gaudiya Patrika. Gaura-kishora had taken babaji initiation from Bhagavat dasa Babaji, who was a direct disciple of Jagannatha dasa Babaji. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura had taken Jagannatha dasa Babaji as his instructing guru, and referred to him as the Commander-in-Chief of the Vaishnavas. Srila Bhaktivinoda did much work and writing to help spread the Gaudiya Vaishnava mission, and foresaw the day when the message would travel throughout the world and bring numerous people from all over to Mayapur to glorify Lord Caitanya. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura also wrote numerous books and many songs in the mood of being absorbed in the pastimes of serving the lotus feet of Sri Sri Radhika and Madhava (Krishna) as a maidservant. In his books, Sri Navadvipa-bhavataranga and Gita Mala, Srila Bhaktivinoda revealed his spiritual identity as Kamala Manjari, the eternal assistant of Ananga Manjari. Srila Rupa Gosvami explains in his Sri Sri RadhaKrishna ganoddesha-dipika that Ananga Manjari is one of the vara, or topmost gopis, as well as sister of Srimati Radharani. Furthermore, Lord Nityananda is the spiritual brother of Lord Caitanya and incarnation of Lord Balarama, Lord Krishna's brother. As explained in the Sri Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika by Srila Kavi-karnapura, Lord Balarama's two wives are Srimati Varuna-devi and Srimati Revatidevi. These two wives also appeared as the wives of Lord Nityananda under the names of Srimati Vasudha-devi and Srimati Jahnava-devi. Both of them are considered expansions of Ananga Manjari. Thus, Srila Bhaktivinoda is the eternal assistant of Ananga Manjari, the eternal consort of Lord Nityananda. Jagannatha dasa Babaji [Rasika Manjari] was the disciple of Srila Madhusudana dasa Babaji, whose guru was Srila Uddhava dasa Babaji, who was the disciple of Srila Baladeva Vidyabhushana, the great Gaudiya Vedanta acharya. Baladeva Vidyabhushana was originally in the disciplic line of Madhvacharya, but after meeting Radha Damodara Deva Gosvami he converted to Gaudiya Vaishnavism and became the disciple of Radha Damodara Deva th Gosvami. Soon after meeting Vishvanatha Chakravarti Thakura (late 17 century) who was the head of the Gaudiya Vaishnava community at the time, he became his ardent follower. Thereafter, Baladeva became a babaji, established the Shyamasundara Deity in Vrindavana, and accepted disciples. However, that was not the most important thing he accomplished. There is a very nice story of what he did that helped give recognition to the Vaishnava tradition. Members of the Ramanuja (or Sri) sampradaya had challenged the authenticity of the Gaudiya sampradaya, especially that there was no proper commentary on the Vedantasutra from the Gaudiya school of thought. This was in spite of the fact that the SrimadBhagavatam had already been accepted by the Vaishnavas as the ultimate commentary on Vedanta, as expressed by Sri Caitanya. The king of Jaipur notified Vishvanatha Chakravarti Thakura of this, but he was now too old to travel to meet the challenge. So Vishvanatha sent Baladeva Vidyabhushana in his place. He was able to debate with them successfully on the grounds of philosophy, yet they wanted to see a direct written commentary. The Deity of Govindaji appeared in a dream to Baladeva and instructed him on the proper commentary to write, which he wrote in a very short time. This was called the Govinda-bhashya, signifying

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Caitanya-candra that it was the commentary as given by the Govinda Deity. The commentary justified the Gaudiya sampradaya's connection with the line of Madhvacharya, coming through Lakshmipati Tirtha, Madhavendra Puri, and Ishvara Puri. In light of this, it is mentioned by Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Navadvipa-dhama-mahatmya that the associate of Lord Caitanya, Gopinatha Acharya, had heard Lord Caitanya instruct Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya on the accurate elaboration of Vedanta. It was this Gopinatha Acharya who again took birth as Baladeva Vidyabhushana to reveal the Sri Govinda-bhashya, the natural commentary on the Srimad-Bhagavatam. When the commentary was presented in the assembly before the king and members of the Sri sampradaya, they were awed by this presentation and were willing to become Baladeva's disciples. Soon after this, Vishvanatha Chakravarti Thakura left this world, but only after giving full blessings to Baladeva Vidyabushana, who took charge of the Gaudiya sampradaya at the time. As we now continue to trace our sampradaya back farther, Vishvanatha Chakravarti Thakura had taken initiation from Sri Radha Ramana Chakravarti, who was the disciple of Sri Yuta Krishna Charana Chakravarti. He was a follower of one of the great Vaishnavas, Narottama dasa Thakura. Narottama dasa Thakura had been inspired by Jiva Gosvami, and was one of the great preachers in the region of Bengal and Orissa. He had composed many devotional songs, and had powerful disciples, such as Ganganarayana and Ramakrishna, who continued to preach in Manipur, which became a Vaishnava kingdom. Narottama's cousin, Santosh Datta, took initiation from him, and also established a great temple for the pleasure of Narottama and Lord Caitanya. Invitations went out all over India to kings, poets, pandits, etc., for the installation ceremony. Great kirtans, congregational chanting, and feasting took place, while six Deities were installed. Mother Jahnavi, the wife of Lord Nityananda, was the guest of honor. When Narottama lead the kirtans, it is said that Lord Caitanya Himself, along with many of His associates, appeared and manifested the ecstatic spiritual world there. In this way, great preaching went on among many of the Vaishnava authorities and disciples in a most cooperative way with big festivals and temples being established. At the same time as Narottama, Jiva Gosvami had also inspired other great devotees, such as Srinivasa Acharya (who was specifically blessed by Lord Caitanya to be a great preacher) and Duhkhi Krishnadasa (Shyamananda), to preach in the region of Bengal and Orissa. Srinivasa became one of the greatest preachers of that era, and attained the help of many prominent persons. Srinivasa held huge kirtan rallies among the general mass of people, and with his efforts, along with other devotees, and the distribution of the writings of the Six Gosvamis, whole kingdoms took up the Vaishnava tradition. Jiva Gosvami (1513 A.D. to 1598 A.D.) was the son of Anupama, the brother of both Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis. When Anupama left this world, Jiva Gosvami was orphaned when only several years old. He then became the assistant of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis. Under their care, he made great advancement. After the disappearance of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis, he became the most prominent Vaishnava preacher and scholar at the time. He was the main acharya of all Vaishnavas in Bengal, Orissa and elsewhere, and guided numerous devotees on the path of devotional service and the teachings of Lord Caitanya. He had also toured Vrindavana with Mother Jahnavi devi, the eternal consort of Lord Nityananda. He wrote at least 25 books and commentaries. It is explained that Srila Jiva Gosvami is the incarnation of Vilasa Manjari. She performs the service of applying mascara on Radha and Krishna in the spiritual abode. It was also during this same time that Srila Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami wrote the Sri Caitanya-caritamrita on the life of Lord Caitanya, after receiving the blessings of the Sri

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Caitanya-candra Madana-mohana Deity. Srila Krishnadasa Kaviraja is an incarnation of Kasturi Manjari. Her service is in offering Their Lordships in the spiritual world sandalwood pulp for decoration and cooling fragrance. From Jiva Gosvami we trace our sampradaya directly to the other five of the Six Gosvamis, two of whom Jiva was directly related, as mentioned above. We should relate here that these Gosvamis were intimate associates of Lord Caitanya who appeared around 500 years ago. They were also authors of important Vaishnava literature which reveal the science of devotional service to Sri Sri Radha-Krishna. However, they are not merely authorities in the art of devotion, but they have been identified as incarnations of manjaris, intimate associates of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna from the spiritual world. This is why they have a unique perspective and understanding of the pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna, and how to best live one's life to enter into those pastimes in the spiritual world. Therefore, what they offer is not merely a process for attaining knowledge of one's spiritual identity, or how to gain liberation form the material existence, but they provide the doorway into the most intimate pastimes in the spiritual world, and the means to become absorbed in the madhurya-rasa of loving Sri Sri Radha and Krishna as a maidservant. Starting from the youngest to the oldest, this includes the following: Srila Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami (1505 A.D. to 1579 A.D.) met Sri Caitanya when He visited Varanasi and stayed at the house of Tapana Mishra, the father of Raghunatha Bhatta. Raghunatha was just a boy, but washed the Lord's dishes and massaged His legs. When he grew to a young man, he visited Lord Caitanya at Jagannatha Puri for eight months. Later, the Lord ordered him to go to Vrindavana under the care of Srila Rupa Gosvami. By regular recitation of the Srimad-Bhagavatam for Rupa Gosvami, Raghunatha Bhatta attained perfectional love of Krishna. Srila Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami's spiritual identity is Raga Manjari. Her service is painting in the spiritual abode. His history is more fully explained in the Caitanya-caritamrita (Adi-lila, 10.154 onwards). Srila Gopala Bhatta Gosvami (1503 A.D. to 1578 A.D.) formerly belonged to the Ramanuja sampradaya, but joined the Gaudiya sampradaya. When Lord Caitanya toured South India, He stayed four months at the house of Venkata Bhatta, Gopal Bhatta's father. During that time Gopal Bhatta served the Lord and was later initiated by his uncle, the great sannyasi Prabodhananda Sarasvati. He went to Vrindavana and was cared for by Sanatana and Rupa Gosvami. He also established the Radharamana Deity in Vrindavana and accepted Srinivasa Acharya and Gopinatha Pujari as two of his disciples. Srila Gopala Bhatta Gosvami is an incarnation of Ananga Manjari or Guna Manjari. She performs the service of offering water to Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. (Cc.Adi-lila, 10.105.pur.) Raghunatha dasa Gosvami (1495 A.D. to 1571 A.D.) came from a family of Vaishnavas. Although he was a family man, he had no attachment for it. Though his father and uncle put up guards to prevent him from leaving, Raghunatha still managed to escape and meet Lord Caitanya at Jagannatha Puri. He went on to write three books, the Stava-mala (Stavavali), Dana-carita and Mukta-carita. He lived a long time, residing mostly at Radha Kunda near Vrindavana. He gave up most eating and sleeping, and was only concerned with chanting the holy names of Krishna. His eyes were always full of tears of ecstasy. Srila Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami is the incarnation of Rasa Manjari, or sometimes called Rati Manjari or Tulasi Manjari. She messages the feet of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. (His story is found in Caitanyacaritamrita, Adi-lila.10.91) Srila Rupa Gosvami (1489 A.D. to 1564 A.D.) was directly instructed by Lord Caitanya. His writings were extensive and quite advanced, many of which have been used as the foundation of the standards the Gaudiya Vaishnavas continue to follow. His writings include the

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Caitanya-candra Vidagdha-madhava, Lalita-madhava, Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu, Ujjvala-nilamani, and others. Srila Rupa Gosvami is the incarnation of Sri Rupa Manjari. In the spiritual realm of Goloka Vrindavana she engages in offering golden colored betel nuts to Their Lordships. Srila Sanatana Gosvami (1488 A.D. to 1558 A.D.) was also directly instructed by Lord Caitanya. He established temples in Vrindavana and wrote several prominent books and commentaries, such as Brihad-Bhagavatamrita, Hari-bhakti-vilasa, Vaishnava-toshani th (commentary on the 10 Canto of the Srimad-Bhagavatam), and Brihad-vaishnava-toshani (full commentary on the Bhagavatam). Srila Sanatana Gosvami is Lavanga or Lila Manjari, sometimes called Rati Manjari, one of the leaders of Srimati Radharani's maidservants. Her service is offering garlands of cloves to Their Lordships. (Cc.Adi-lila.10.84.pur) Another associate of Lord Caitanya is Srila Lokanatha Gosvami, who is an incarnation of Manjulali Manjari. Her service is assisting Sri Sri Radha and Krishna in dressing. Other associates of Lord Caitanya are the sakhis in the spiritual world. For example, Svarupa Damodara is an incarnation Lalita Sakhi, also called Anuradha, one of the nitya-sakhis. Her service includes offering betel nuts for the pleasure of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. The person known as Govindananda is Chitra Sakhi. Her spiritual service is offering garlands of cloves to Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. Basu Ramananda is the sakhi known as Indurekha. She offers the Divine Couple honey in the spiritual realm. Shivananda Sena is the incarnation of Champakalata. Her special service is to offer jewels and waving the camara fan for their Lordships. Govinda Ghosh is the incarnation of Rangadevi. Her service is to offer sandalwood pulp. Vakreshvara Pandit is an incarnation of Tungavidya Sakhi. Her special service is singing and dancing for the pleasure of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. Vasudeva Ghosh is the incarnation of Sudevi, the twin sister of Tungavidya. Her special service is in offering water. Ramananda Raya, the person who had the conversation with Lord Caitanya which revealed the highest ideals of spiritual devotional sentiment, has been identified as an incarnation of Visakha Gopi, one of the param-prestha sakhis. Her service in the spiritual realm is to decorate Sri Sri Radha-Krishna with cloths and ornaments. Visakha Gopi would have been the perfect person to help Lord Caitanya reveal the highest levels of service to Srimati Radharani. However, Kavikarnapura has identified Ramananda Raya as Lalita Sakhi, as well as priyanarma sakha Arjuna and pure sambandhi Pandava Arjuna. As Pandava Arjuna, some feel that the conversation between Ramananda and Lord Caitanya is the reenactment of speaking the Bhagavad-gita, but with the roles of teacher and student reversed, and with higher spiritual truths being revealed regarding the devotional love capable of being developed by a devotee. Other associates of Lord Caitanya include Sikhi Mahiti, who was formerly Ragalekha, an assistant of Srimati Radharani. Gauridasa Pandita, was an incarnation of Lord Krishna's friend Subala, according to the Gaura-ganoddesap-dipika. Haridas Thakura was the incarnation of Lord Brahma. It was after Lord Brahma's humble prayers to take birth and become an associate of the Lord in His earthly pastimes did Brahma become blessed to appear as Haridasa Thakura. He was the noted acharya of the chanting of the holy names of the Lord, specifically in the form of the Hare Krishna maha-mantra. He used to chant the Lord's holy names 300,000 times a day. Vasudeva Datta was the incarnation of Prahlada Maharaja. Raghunatha Vaidya was formerly Revati, the wife of Lord Balarama.

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Caitanya-candra Kashi Mishra was formerly the hunchback, Kubja, during Krishna's time. Bhavananda Raya was formerly Pandu, and his five sons, namely Ramananda Raya, Pattanayaka Gopinatha, Kalanidhi, Subhanidhi, and Nayaka Vaninatha, were formerly the five Pandavas. Lord Caitanya's family brother, Vishvarupa, son of Jagannatha Mishra, was an incarnation of Baladeva, Krishna's brother. Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya, one of the greatest logicians at the time, wanted to teach Lord Caitanya Vedanta, but after hearing Lord Caitanya's explanation, he became His student. It is recognized that Sarvabhauma was an incarnation of the great sage Brihashpati. Gopinatha Acharya, husband of the sister of Sarvabhauma, was formerly the gopi in the spiritual world named Ratnavali. King Prataparudra was previously King Indradyumna who had established the Jagannatha temple in Puri many hundreds of years previous. He later took birth again in his own family to participate in Lord Caitanya's pastimes as King Prataparudra. Jagai and Madhai, the ruffians who threatened Lord Nityananda and Hari Thakura, were formerly the two gatekeepers of Vaikuntha, Jaya and Vijaya, who were also Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashipu in previous incarnations. All of these personalities were direct associates of Lord Caitanya (February 18, 1486 A.D. to 1534 A.D.). It was the Supreme Lord as Sri Caitanya who came in this age of Kali to bestow what no incarnation had ever offered before, the most elevated mellow of devotional service, the mood of conjugal love to Lord Sri Krishna. (Cc.Antya.1.132). Thus, He especially showed by example and taught the principle of offering all of one's love to Sri Krishna in the mood of the gopi maidservants of Vrindavana. It is through Lord Caitanya that Lord Krishna, appearing as His own devotee, can taste His own sweetness (Cc.Adi.6.107). Otherwise such ecstasies are the monopoly of Srimati Radharani (Cc.Mad.2.80). This intense mood (rasa) of devotion, called bhava, is especially attractive to Lord Krishna, and more influential than prema, regular loving devotion in which Krishna reciprocates His devotee's love. However, in bhava, Sri Krishna feels that He is incapable of adequately returning the deep loving sentiment and thinks He is indebted to such affectionate devotees. Therefore, among the Gaudiya Vaishnava devotees, the highest attainment is service to Lord Krishna in the manjari bhava. Such a mood is expressed as follows: "I dedicate myself to the service of Sri Rupa Manjari and Sri Rati Manjari under the guidance of Sri Lalita Sakhi and Sri Visakha Sakhi in trying to please Radha and Krishna. As a gopi of Vrindavana, I become most happy when Radha and Krishna come together and enjoy each other's company." Of course, this is all highly advanced in devotional understanding and realization, and such a mood must be gradually and practically attained through the process of sadhana-bhakti, regulated devotional service under the guidance of a similarly realized devotee spiritual master. Nonetheless, such a path and high mood is available only through this Gaudiya disciplic succession from Lord Caitanya. So to attain such a lofty position or sentiment in one's spiritual realization, one must somehow be connected with this disciplic line, or parampara. In fact, it is said that one can hear Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu through the parampara, and through the books of the pure Vaishnavas of the parampara. One person who was more than simply a devotee associate of Lord Caitanya was Srila Gadadhara Pandit. He is actually described as an incarnation of the pleasure potency of Lord Krishna, Srimati Radharani Herself (Cc. Adi.10.15 and Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika 147-53), as well as a combination with Lalita Sakhi. Gadadhara Pandit's descendants and followers were also important devotees (described in Cc.Adi-lila, 12.81 onwards). As many as 33

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Caitanya-candra personalities are described all together, many of which are identified as manjaris or sakhis. These included Sri Dhruvananda who was an incarnation of Lalita, and Sridhara Brahmacari, who was the gopi Chandralatika. Bhugarbha Gosani, a great friend of Lokanatha Gosvami, was Prema Manjari. Krishnadasa Brahmacari was one of the main eight sakhis (asta sakhis) named Indulekha. Sivananda Chakravarti was also said to be Lavanga Manjari. Lord Nityananda was the spiritual brother of Lord Caitanya and incarnation of Lord Balarama, the brother of Lord Krishna. Lord Nityananda was the leader of the Vaishnavas in Bengal, and through Him there were also many followers of the Vaishnava tradition. After His disappearance, however, Mother Jahnavi, His wife and eternal consort, and Virabhadra, His son by His other wife Vasudha devi, became the leaders there and had many followers. They continued the preaching in many ways, along with other prominent devotees and acharyas. Virabhadra Gosani is described as a disciple of Jahnavi devi, and an incarnation of Kshirodakashayi Vishnu. Lord Nityananda had many devotees and followers, out of which Sundarananda was identified as the incarnation of Lord Krishna's classmate Sudama. Another was Parameshavara dasa who was formerly the great warrior Arjuna, friend of Krishna and Balarama. Sadashiva Kaviraja and his son Purushottama dasa were also prominent devotees of Lord Nityananda. The Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (text 156) relates that the beloved gopi of Krishna, Candravali, took birth as Sadashiva Kaviraja, and that his father, Kamsari Sena, was formerly the gopi named Ratnavali in Krishna's pastimes. Purushottama dasa had many disciples and a son, Kanu Thakura, who was identified as the cowherd boy Dama during Lord Krishna's time. Many more personalities are described in Caitanya-caritamrita, Adi-lila, Chapters Ten and Eleven. Before the appearance of Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda, there was Srila Advaita Acharya. He had worshiped the Lord to descend and deliver the people of this age, since things were deteriorating so badly. It is Sri Advaita Acharya who is recognized as an incarnation or expansion of Lord Maha-Vishnu. He also had many followers. The Caitanyacaritamrita (Adi-lila, 12.17, purport) gives a history of Sri Advaita's sons. One of these, Achyutananda, is described in the Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (87-8) as the incarnation of Karttikeya, the son of Lord Shiva, and, according to others, formerly the gopi named Acyuta. Lord Caitanya, Lord Nityananda and Sri Advaita played the parts of devotees to instruct the importance for the conditioned souls to engage in devotional service to the Supreme, and to prevent people from accepting impersonalist philosophies. Next we come to Ishvara Puri, from whom Lord Caitanya took initiation. Ishvara Puri was such a great devotee and disciple of Madhavendra Puri that when Madhavendra Puri became an invalid at the end of his life, Ishvara would take care of him and clean him. Thus, Madhavendra Puri gave him his great blessings. This is one reason why Lord Caitanya accepted him as His spiritual master. (Cc.Adi-lila, 9.11) However, before initiating Lord Caitanya, Ishvara Puri had gone to Navadvipa and lived for a few months in the house of Gopinatha Acharya. That was when Lord Caitanya became acquainted with Ishvara Puri. Sometime thereafter, Lord Caitanya went to Gaya with the purpose of performing rites for his deceased father, but also became initiated by Ishvara Puri while there. After that, Lord Caitanya ceased involving Himself in so many debates with scholars and philosophers, and merely engaged in the congregational chanting of the Lord's holy names, giving out the ecstasy of love of God to all. Madhavendra Puri was is in the disciplic line from Madhvacharya and was the direct disciple of Lakshmipati. He had two principal disciples, Ishvara Puri and Sri Advaita. Madhavendra Puri established the worship of Radha and Krishna together in this sampradaya, before which

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Caitanya-candra time Krishna was worshiped alone. It is he who is accepted as the root of worship in ecstatic love. Therefore, unless one is connected to the disciplic succession of Madhavendra Puri, there is no possibility of awakening the symptoms of ecstatic love in one's devotional service to Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. We can ask, how was it that so many of the intimate associates of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna in the spiritual world descended into the material manifestation. It can be explained that before Lord Krishna descended as Lord Caitanya, He asked His associates to appear before Him in preparation for His descent. He never comes alone, just as a great king also appears with his huge entourage. Thus, numerous members of the Lord's associates came to help manifest the spiritual atmosphere on earth, and to participate in the Lord's pastimes. Even after the Lord's disappearance such associates have continued to appear on this planet, especially in this Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya, to benefit society with the facility to approach the portal through which one can return to the spiritual worlds. Without the gopis, the maidservants of Radha and Krishna, the ecstasy of the confidential pastimes of Their Lordships cannot be tasted or known. Only by their cooperation can such pastimes be broadcast. Otherwise, no one else can open them for our view. Only through their assistance can one enter into these pastimes. Only by following in their footsteps can one engage in the service of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna in the mood of the gopis in the groves of Vrindavana. There is no other procedure for understanding. Therefore, we have to take shelter of the gopis who have appeared in this sampradaya if we wish to enter such intimate and ecstatic love and service. From the evidence in this article, we can understand that for the most part all of the spiritual masters and personalities connected with the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya parampara from the time of Madhavendra Puri are all incarnations of great personalities, and mostly in the madhurya-rasa, the mood of the loving maidservants, manjari-bhava, for Lord Sri Krishna. That is the most unique characteristic about this line of disciplic succession. Therefore, we should take advantage of it by understanding this spiritual knowledge. Such a rare opportunity may never again avail itself for thousands of lifetimes. One additional conclusion of this article is to understand that this sampradaya is not only one for distributing the intimate love for Krishna in the mood of the intimate maidservants. It is also a preaching line, mostly through the process of writing and distributing books and publications, and through congregational chanting of the holy names of Sri Krishna. However, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta compared writing and publishing to the great mridanga drum used for congregational chanting. The idea is that rather than merely reaching people in the vicinity of one's voice, writing and publishing preserves one's words and gives the facility to reach many more people from many parts of the world. This is something that all of the acharyas spent much time focusing on. Therefore, we can especially stay connected to the previous acharyas by continuing this process of distributing this knowledge through their books, and by writing new publications that follow this line for the benefit of society. Much of the information regarding the spiritual identities comes from the Gaura-ganoddeshadipika by Sri Kavi-karnapura. Furthermore, many other associates of Lord Caitanya not mentioned in this article are also described as being incarnations of intimate gopis, sakhis and manjaris of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna in the Caitanya-caritamrita, Adi-lila, Chapters Ten and Eleven, in case you would like to continue this line of study. Although this article gives only brief glimpses into the lives of the great personalities connected with this sampradaya, there is much more information in separate books and biographies about the exemplary lives of all of them. Such books about these devotees are

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Caitanya-candra extremely insightful, enlightening and enlivening. I strongly suggest you use the links in this website to look into finding out how you can acquire some.

2.2 Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Sampradaya Disciplic Succession


By Jaya Tirtha Carana Das According to the Vedic scriptures one must take diksa, spiritual initiation from a guru who belongs to any of the above-mentioned four disciplc successions. Only then whatever mantra one chants will be effective. Also, especially in Kali-yuga, the Vedic scriptures must be understood only through the guru-sisya parampara and not through mental speculation as it is done today. This is because in the guru-sisya parampara system, the actual teachings and understandings of the Vedic literatures remain unchanged i.e. the knowledge is its purest form. One must guard against accepting an unauthorized person as ones guru and also hearing spiritual discourses from such a person. The International Society for Krsna Conciousness (Hare Krsna movement) belongs to the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya. The science of Krsna consciousness has been passed down through the following unbroken chain of gurus without any adulteration. The following is the list of the guru parampara as taken from the Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika(21): paravyomesvarasyasic chishyo brahma jagat-pati / tasya sishyo naradobhut vyasas tasyapa sishyatam // suko vyasasya sishyatva prapto janavabodhanat / vyasal labdha-krishna-diksho madhvacaryo mahayasa // tasya sishyobhavat padmanabhacaryo mahasaya / tasya sishyo naraharis tacchishyo madhava-dvija // akshobhyas tasya sishyobhut tac-chishyo jayatirthaka / tasya sishyo jana-sindhus tasya sishyo mahanidhi // vidyanidhis tasya sishyo rajendras tasya sevaka / jayadharma munis tasya sishyo yad-gana-madhyata // srimad-vishnu-puri yas tu bhaktiratnavali-kriti / jayadharmasya sishyobhud brahmanya purushottama // vyasatirthas tasya sishyo yas cakre vishnu-sahitam / sriman lakshmipatis tasya sishyo bhaktirasasraya // tasya sishyo madhavendro yad-dharmoya pravartita / tasya sishyobhavat sriman isvarakhya-puri-yati // kalayamasa sringara ya sringara-phalatmaka / advaita kalayamasa dasya-sakhye phale ubhe / isvarakhya-puri gaura urarikritya gaurave / jagad aplavayamasa prakritaprakritatmakam // Brahma, the master of this universe, was the disciple of the master of the spiritual world Supreme Lord Sri Krsna. His disciple was Narada and Vyasa became the disciple of Narada. Sukadeva became Vyasas disciple through the awakening of spiritual knowledge. Madhvacharya took initiation in the Krishna mantra from Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa. Madhvas disciple was Padmanabhacharya, whose disciple was Narahari, who was followed by Madhava Dvija. Madhavas disciple was Akshobhya, who was followed by

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Caitanya-candra Jayatirtha, Janasindhu, Mahanidhi, Vidyanidhi and Rajendra. Jayadharma Muni was one of Rajendras many disciples and Vishnu Puri, the author of Bhakti-ratnavali and Purushottama the lover of Brahmin culture became his disciples. Vyasa Tirtha, the author of Vishnu-sahita, was Purushottamas disciple. Lakshmipati Tirtha, a reservoir of devotion, was Vyasa Tirthas disciple. Madhavendra Puri was the disciple of Lakshmipati, and it is by him that this religion was founded. His disciple, the sannyasi Isvara Puri, took up the mood of conjugal devotion, while Advaita Acharya [also the disciple of Madhavendra] took up the moods of servitude and friendship. Lord Gaura accepted Isvara Puri as his guru, and then flooded the material and spiritual worlds [with divine love]. (1) Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Sri Krsna (2) Sri Caturmukha Brahma (3) Sri Devarsi Narada (4) Sri Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa (also known as Srila Vyasadeva, Badarayana and Vedavyasa) (5) Bhagavatapadacarya Srila Madhvacarya (also known as Srila Vasudeva, Sarvajna, Purnaprajna, Purnabodha, Gaudapurnananda, Sukha Tirtha and Ananda Tirtha), Sukadeva Goswami (6) Srila Padmanabha Tirtha (7) Srila Nrhari Tirtha (8) Srila Madhava Tirtha (9) Srila Aksobhya Tirtha (10) Tikacarya Srila Jaya Tirtha (11) Srila Jnanasindhu Tirtha (12) Srila Dayanidhi Tirtha (13) Srila Vidyadhiraja Tirtha (also known as Srila Vidyanidhi Tirtha) (14) Srila Rajendra Tirtha (15) Srila Jayadharma Tirtha (also known as Srila Vijayadhvaja Tirtha) (16) Srila Purusottama Tirtha (17) Srila Brahmanya Tirtha (also known as Srila Subrahmanya Tirtha) (18) Srila Vyasa Tirtha (also known as Srila Vyasa Raya) (19) Srila Laksmipati Tirtha (20) Srila Madhavendra Puri Goswami (21) Srila Isvara Puri Goswami (Sri Nityananda Prabhu, Srila Advaitacarya) (22) Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (23) Srila Rupa Goswami (Sri Svarupa Damodara, Srila Sanatana Goswami) (24) Srila Raghunatha das Goswami, Srila Jiva Goswami (25) Srila Krsnadas Kaviraja Goswami (26) Srila Narottama das Thakura (27) Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura (28) (Gaudiya Vedantacarya Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana) Srila Jagannatha das Babaji Maharaja (29) Srila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura

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Caitanya-candra (30) Srila Gaurakisora das Babaji Maharaja (31) Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Goswami Prabhupada (32) ISKCON Founder-Acarya : Jagadguru Srila Abhaya Caranaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (33) ISKCON Guru-vrnda : Srila Tamala Krsna Goswami Gurudeva, Srila Hrdayanada das Goswami Acaryadeva, Srila Gopala Krsna Goswami Bhagavatpada, Srila Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Goswami Sripada, Srila Satsvarupa das Goswami, Srila Mukunda Goswami, Srila Bir Krsna das Goswami, Srila Bhakticaru Swami, Srila Jayapataka Swami and other present ISKCON acaryas. At the beginning of the Bhagavad-gita As It Is by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada there is a list of disciplic succession. This list was first published by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura and enumerates the most prominent members of the guru-parampara. This accounts for some time gaps. Kavi Karnapura in his Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (22-) lists the gurus up to Lord Chaitanya. Here are their abridged biographies. 5. Srila Madhvacarya He was born in a Sivanni brahmana class family in the Pajakaksetra of Udupi village in the year 1040 Saka. His parents were Sri Madhyageha Bhatta and Srimati Vedavidya. His childhood name was Vasudeva. At the age of twelve he was initiated by Acyutapreksa. His sannyasa name was Purnaprajna Tirtha. He obtained the Deity of Udupi Krsna (Nrtya Gopala) from a boat full of gopicandana. The Deity is holding a curd-making stick in one hand and a string, used for
Figure 1Madhva recieves instruction from Vyasadeva

pasting curd, in the other hand. Though the Deity was very heavy, Madhvacarya carried it alone from Vadabhandesvara. The following are the names of the eight Udupi Mathas and their main heads: 1. Palimara - Sri Hrsikesa Tirtha 2. Adamara - Narahari 3. Krsnapura - Janardana 4. Puttige - Upendra 5. Siruru - Vamana 6. Sode - Visnu 7. Kanuru - Srirama 8. Pejavara - Adhoksaja The following are the names of the Deities in the above mentioned maths respectively: Sri Ramacandra, Sri Krsna, Caturbhuja Kaliya-mardana Sri Krsna, Vitthaladeva, Vitthaladeva, Bhuvaraha deva, Nrsimha deva, and Vitthala deva. In the Sri Krsna matha there is a Deity of Balakrsna, installed by Madhvacarya. The following are books written by Madhvacarya: 1. Gitabhasya 2. Brahma Sutrabhasya
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Caitanya-candra 3. Anubhasya 4. Pramana-laksana 5. Tattva-viveka 6. Rigbhasya 7. Upanisada bhasya 8. Gita Tatparya Nirnaya 9. Dvadasa Stotryas 10. Sri Krsnamaharnava 11. Srimadbhagavata Tatparya 12. Sri Mahabharata Tatparyanirnaya 13. Sri Krsna Stuti The major works of Madhvacarya are his commentaries on the Brahmasutras, Upanisads, and the Bhagavad-gita. Most of his thirty-four works are philosophical, although there are a few poems and devotional compositions. Yamaka Bharata is a poem narrating the story of Mahabharata in Yamaka verse. Bharata Tatparya Nirnaya are his learned critiques on the Bhagavata and the Mahabharata. He was also wrote commentaries on some hymns in the Rg Veda. He relied heavily on evidence from the Puranas, rather than on the Vedic texts or logic. (An Encyclopedia of South Indian Culture, pp. 278-279) 6. Padmanabha Tirtha He was a native of Uttara-Karnataka which in those days stretched to the area known as Andhra Pradesh. (This is confirmed by Hrsikesa Tirtha in his book Sampradaya Paddhati and Guru-acarya, where he states that Padmanabha Tirtha came from Uttara-Karnataka of the Telegu speaking people around the area where the Godavari River flows.) His previous name was Sobhanabhatta, but his change of name came upon meeting Madhva when Madhva returned to Udupi from his northern tour. He was a renowned and distinguished scholar of the day, but his proficiency in fourteen branches of learning were silenced in fourteen seconds by Acarya Madhva in 1265 AD. Soon he became one of the most trusted disciples of Madhva. Madhva always praised him, being the senior-most disciple among those outside the Tulu area, and his learning, preaching and seniority enabled Madhva to make him the first to sit on the Pitha after Madhva's disappearance pastime. Padmanabha Tirtha left this world at Navavrindavanas, near Hampi, on the sacred Tungabhadra River in 1324 AD. His samadhi tomb remains there to this day. 7. Nrhari (Narahari) Tirtha Narahari was a leading minister in Kalinga, Orissa, and was performing this task for around thirty years. The story follows that during his spell in office, the King of Kalinga died. The King's ministers, from time immemorial, had a tradition that the State send out the "State elephant" to find the Prince Regent. At that time the royal elephant walked out of the palace and through the city to the place where Narahari was. The elephant placed the coronation garland around his neck to the surprise of the accompanying state ministers. By the Lord's arrangement the elephant came across Narahari, and in due course he was placed on the throne. However, when the King's infant son and heir to the throne came of age after twelve years, Narahari gave it up. Out of gratitude, the new King wanted to bestow some gifts on Narahari. Narahari asked for the Deity of Mula Rama that had been kept by the descendants of the Gajapati Kings and Who was originally worshiped by Maharaja Iksvaku, then given to Maharaja Dasaratha, the father of Lord Rama. This Deity of Rama was then passed down to Laksmana and from him to Hanuman, who used to hang Him around his neck. Hanuman gave Him to Bhima during the time of Krsna's advent on this earth, and Bhima gave Him to

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Caitanya-candra the Gajapati King. This Deity of Mula Rama was then placed in the Uttaradi Mutt, secured in his day by Kavindra Tirtha, but now resides at the Raghavendra Tirtha Swami Mutt at Mantralayam. At the time of dividing the Mutts at Kanya Tirtha, Madhvacarya gave Narahari the Deity of Kaliyamardana Krsna with four arms. This Deity of Krsna is dancing on the head of the Kaliya serpent, with one leg lifted up dancing, one hand in a balancing, dancing pose, and the other holding his tail up. Two other hands hold a conch and cakra. Narahari Tirtha was initiated before 1264 AD. B.N.K. Sharma suggests that he was probably about 22 years of age when Narahari and Madhva first met, Madhva being 19 years of age. There are local inscriptions of the time preserved in the Srikurma and Simhacala areas of Orissa which glorify Narahari for many great feats, statesmanship and swordsmanship, but even whilst performing these kingly tasks, he preached Vaisnavism and made many devotees from the princes and aristocratic nobility in general at the time in the areas of Orissa and Andhra. Sometimes it is suggested that he was the disciple of Padmanabha Tirtha but this is not supported anywhere in the mutt listings, instead what is pointed out is that due to the seniority of Padmanabha Tirtha, Narahari Tirtha was more than willing to serve him as the representative of his spiritual master Sripada Madhvacarya, and so was considered like a siksa disciple of the Pitha Adi Patya Padmanabha Tirtha Swami. Once whilst Narahari Tirtha was on a preaching tour, he dreamt that a Deity of Lord Visnu was at the bottom of the town pond (tank). The very next day, by his influence, he made arrangements for the tank to be dredged, and there He was! A Deity was taken out and installed at that place. The town is now called by the name of the pastime, Narayanadevarkere (the tank of Lord Narayana). This is near Hospet Taluk of Bellary District, Karnataka. Narahari wrote fifteen books, but his Gita Bhasya and Bhavaprakasika are the only two of which any trace is kept. 8. Madhava Tirtha Previously known as Visnu Sastri, Madhava Tirtha was the third acarya to reside on the Pitha after Madhvacarya. Madhava Tirtha was quite often confused with, or known as Madhvacarya or Madhva, due to the similarity in name. He was the son of Mayana and Srimati and the elder brother of Sayana and at one time a minister of King Bukka of Vijayanagar. There is a story in this connection how Madhava Tirtha founded the city of Vijayanagar after the discovery of a huge amount of hidden treasure. Before this, however, Madhava Tirtha lived an austere life as an ascetic in the mountains of Karnataka, who once found himself being frequented by a shepherd of the name Bukka. This poor shepherd had heard that Madhava Tirtha, the great sannyasi, was there absorbed in thoughts of Lord Narayana, and so he decided to daily bring him some simple foodstuffs. Madhava Tirtha blessed him saying, "One day you shall be the King of all Industan." By this blessing, immediately all the local shepherds made him their head, and he became known as the King of that local country which governed five groups of communities - Canara, Taligas, Canguivaro, Negapatao and Badagas. In this kingdom he became known as Bukka Rao and reigned for thirty seven years by the blessings of the great Madhava Tirtha. Bukka conquered many kingdoms from the time he came to rule in 1343 AD. Madhava Tirtha was in office at the Vedanta Pitha from 1333 AD until 1350 AD, when he passed away. He made a commentary on the Parasara Smrti called Parasara Madhva-vijaya, and some other books have also been accredited to him, but as little is known of him there is much confusion misidentifying him with others. It is said that his bodily remains were

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Caitanya-candra entombed at Hampi, but have since been moved to Manur on the Bhima River of Bijapur District. 9. Aksobhya Tirtha Aksobhya Tirtha was the last of Madhva's direct disciples to sit on the Pitha. He did so from 1350 AD - 1365 AD. Previously his name was Govinda Sastri and he came from UttaraKarnataka. Madhvacarya gave him the Deity of Aja-Vitthal. (Krsna standing with His hands of His hips, accompanied by Sri Devi and Bhudevi, though some say this is Krsna with Rukmini and Satyabhama.) His main "claim to fame" was the way he refuted the philosophy of "tat tvam asi" - "you are the same as". There is an historic incident which is understood to have taken place at Mulbagal near Kolar. His victim was Vidyaranya, the big, big scholar and guru descendant of the Advaita line of Sankara. Aksobhya Tirtha smashed Vidyaranya so badly that in history this was considered the turning point in the new Madhva faith of Dvaitavada. To this day the philosophy of Dvaita (dualism) has not been defeated; even the Advaita Mayavadis, knowing they are wrong, with stubborn determination they have yearly been coming back to get smashed. Aksobhya Tirtha moved after this a little north to Pandharapur on the banks of the Bhimarathi River, which is where he met his future disciple Jayatirtha. In the years to follow Aksobhya spent his time training Jayatirtha in Dvaita philosophy. The relationship was so nice that Aksobhya gave his every breath to make Jayatirtha the most proficient and dynamic preacher since Madhva, hence Jayatirtha was called the Tikacarya. Aksobhya Tirtha taught him how to search out hidden significances in the words of Madhva which others missed, and how to write books on those points called tikas (short commentaries), which further demolished the hostile Advaita monism. He even pointed out the differences in the basic understandings of Advaita philosophy of their own leading Sankarites like Vacaspati, Vivarankara, Amalananda, Citsukha and Vijnanasana, giving further strength to the Vaisnava truths and making the Mayavadis all look foolish. 10. Jaya Tirtha Jayatirtha renounced the world and took sannyasa at twenty years of age. By this time no one could philosophically touch him. He was a genius, seeing through the foolishness of Mayavada, and even making commentaries on Ramanuja's works. He wrote about twenty books, eclipsing those of his forerunners like Trivikrama Panditacarya, Padmanabha Tirtha and Narahari Tirtha, but he was always humble, giving all credit to Aksobhya Tirtha, the servant of Madhvacarya. "Critique of Mithyatva" or "The Falsity Of The World" was one of his main works, where he describes how this world is temporary, not false, and the Mayavadi way as being really false. He points out the differences between real, unreal, temporary and permanent, concluding, "...The co-existing of both their negations, at the same time and with reference to the same locus is, therefore, most illogical and can never be accepted by sane men." I.e. the positive being this world is temporary though genuinely existing, the elements are real, and the action is real but done in connection with material nature causing reaction, which is also real but not permanent. Thus soundly defeating the Mayavadi philosophy around "brahma satyam jagan mithya", various works on subjects of Vaisnava studies and logic were written by Jayatirtha. Later a descendant in the parampara of the name Vyasatirtha wrote down Jayatirtha's life story, whereby we have found this information.

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Caitanya-candra Jayatirtha's previous name was Dhondo Pantraya Raghunatha (Dhonduraya, Raghunatha was his father's name) of either Visvamitra gotra or Bharadvaja gotra. He was the son of a high ranking military man and had two wives. Dhondo Pant, being like a local prince, was seen often dressed in full armour, breast plate, helmet and all, riding his mighty war horse around the area. He was a great horseman and would ride sometimes on journeys all over the district, accompanied by his men. On one such occasion, a hot summers day at noon, he stopped at a stream for fresh water, but his drinking of water was not an ordinary sight. Unlike most persons taking water, Dhondo Pant would enter into the river fully dressed (with armour, sword, shield, helmet, plume, etc), then, whilst still mounted upon his horse, he would drink water at water level directly into his mouth, being up to his neck in the water as an animal would. On this day an incredible meeting took place. On the other side of the stream was Aksobhya Tirtha, watching this extraordinary sight. Aksobhya called to the horseman, "Hey, you drink water just like a bullock," and these few words put the horseman into a strange, deep, allrevealing state. Suddenly philosophical questions, which made the young horseman's mind spin into thoughts of his previous births, came to mind. Dhondo Pant could now remember his time spent with Acarya Madhva, but he had been covered for so many years thinking that he was the son of a nobleman. Now he could remember all kinds of incidences that made his hair stand upon end. He gained some intense realizations which enabled him to see quite clearly how previously he was actually the bullock who was used to pull around Acarya Madhva's books as Madhva traveled and preached all over. He could actually remember Madhva, his commanding but sweet voice elaborating upon the various kinds of Vedic literature. There is an interesting story in this connection. Madhva would quite often glorify this bullock by saying to the assembly that actually this bullock listened better and assimilated the philosophy quicker than any of Madhva's students. Wherever Madhva would preach the bullock would turn up, ears pricked up and forward in an attentive mood; his faithfulness and loyalty knew no bounds. Madhva could sometimes be heard saying that simply by his attentive hearing this bullock was making great advancement. These kind of statements made some of Madhva's sannyasa disciples quite envious, so much so that they cursed the bullock to die from snake bite. Madhva heard about the curse and blessed the bullock that he would not be harmed. As per the curse, the snake came and bit the bullock, and amazingly the snake died! Everyone was awe struck, but could at once appreciate the motive and kindness of Madhva. He was protecting his dear devotee who had surrendered his life to the service of Madhva's preaching mission. After some years the bullock passed away of natural causes - old age. Tradition has it that in actuality this was no ordinary bullock in the first place. He was reputed to be a partial incarnation and joint expansion of both Indra, the King of the demigods and Lord Ananta Sesa. So again it was no ordinary thing what had happened - the bullock taking his birth in a family of greatly pious ksatriya kings in Karnataka and being further brought up to know the Vedic literature according to the teachings of Madhva. Obviously the Lord deemed it now the right time for his real self realization to again be invoked. Anyway back to the river, Dhondo Pant, standing in the water, addressed the humble and aged mendicant Aksobhya Tirtha as follows, "My dear sir, who are you, from where did you come, and how do you know me? Simply by the words emanating from your mouth my life has changed. You must be my guru; you have opened my eyes which were blinded for so long. O my guide, you have shed my ignorance of my real self. Please tell me more. Please

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Caitanya-candra instruct me so my life can become perfect. O Gurudeva, please save me from the clutches of repeated birth and death." He was so amazed and became so agitated from gratitude by this meeting that he asked to become Aksobhya Tirtha's formal disciple. The other horsemen joined Dhondo Pant in crossing the river and spent some time in discussion with him. Then they returned to the estate of his father without Dhondo. News soon reached the boy's father who personally went to reclaim his son and took him home. To save any further quarrel, Dhondo followed his father without any protest, but even though the enraged father came to collect him, Dhondo had his plan, on his return home, to start with he had his marriage consumed. An amusing story is revealed of the night that he returned to his wives. When Dhondo Pant's beautiful young wife entered the bed chamber to be with her husband, to her surprise there was an incredibly magnificent cobra sitting coiled up on the bed. The snake swayed mystically as though one absorbed in transcendental trance. Enchanted by the sight, she out of respect for the wondrous sight paid her prostrated obeisances before the serpent, but soon fear overcame her and she fled the room screaming and fainted on the floor just outside. Raghunatharaya, the father of Dhondo, feared that something would happen and so was close by. After also seeing the captivating sight and seeing the snake revert back to the form of his son, Raghunatharaya reluctantly allowed Dhondo to return to the aged mendicant Aksobhya Tirtha, knowing this not to be an ordinary situation. In due course, Dhondo Pant was initiated and given the order of sannyasa and the new name Jaya Tirtha. This happened in the year 1368 AD. Some do not agree with this story, saying that it would not have been allowed in the strict Brahmana society of the 14th century. But whether one accepts the story as explained by Srila Vyasatirtha or not, the link was there and soon he came back to Aksobhya Tirtha who accepted him as his sannyasa disciple and gave him the name Jaya Tirtha. He then started to study sastra from Aksobhya Tirtha intensively until Aksobhya Tirtha finally passed away, his mission completed. Jayatirtha toured several times all over India, destroying the philosophy of the impersonalistic rascals. He was undefeated and became well known as the pure Vaisnava acarya that he was. He spent his closing years at Malkhed (or Manyakheta), once the capital of the Rastrakuta kings of Karnataka, in the Gulbarga district, Mysore state. This is said by some to be the place where Jayatirtha passed away on the Pancami (fifth day) of the dark fortnight in the month of Asadha (June-July) 1388 AD. However, there is also a samadhi tomb of his in northern Karnataka. On this samadhi tomb at Anagoendi (Hampi) on the Tungabhadra river, next to the samadhi of Padmanabha Tirtha, there are carvings of him as a ksatriya prince, and next to that as a sannyasi mendicant. 11. Jnanasindhu Tirtha 12. Dayanidhi Tirtha 13. Vidyadhiraja (Vidyanidhi) Tirtha The Guru-acarya listings assign Vidyanidhi Tirtha a period of seven years, nine months and thirteen days as the next pontiff on the Vedanta Pitha. The only written work accredited to him was a commentary on the Bhagavad-gita. In the Madhva Mutts there is an air of vagueness and uncertainty of dates and even the lineage. Kavikarnapura's Sri Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika, Text 22 mentions "...Aksobhya's disciple was Jayatirtha. Jayatirtha's disciple was Jnanasindhu. Jnanasindhu's disciple was Mahanidhi. Mahanidhi's disciple was Vidyanidhi. Vidyanidhi's disciple was Rajendra..."

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Caitanya-candra However, in Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati's "Guru Parampara" he says, "...Madhava Tirtha accepted the great paramahamsa Aksobhya Tirtha as his disciple. The principle disciple of Aksobhya Tirtha was known as Jayatirtha. Jayatirtha's service was for his disciple Jnanasindhu. Dayanidhi received the science of devotional service from Jnanasindhu and the servant of Dayanidhi was Vidyanidhi (Vidyadhiraja Tirtha). Rajendra became the disciple of Vidyadhiraja Tirtha." Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura accepts the version of Kavikarnapura's Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika and they both say that Madhava Tirtha has taken Aksobhya Tirtha as his disciple. However, the Madhvas say that Aksobhya Tirtha was the direct disciple of Madhvacarya - this is stated in the Guru-acarya listings. In the Madhva Vijaya this is also recorded, that is, the incident of Madhvacarya calling eight of his sannyasa disciples around him at Kanya Tirtha during the Caturmasya. In Narayana Panditacarya's commentary on his own book, Madhva Vijaya, entitled "Bhava Prakasika," he also says how Madhva called his disciples in pairs and the fourth pair was Rama Tirtha of Kaniyur Mutt and Aksobhya Tirtha of Pejawara Mutt. These incidents are included in the "Sampradaya Paddhati" of Hrsikesa Tirtha, the foremost dear disciple of Madhvacarya. The descendants of Madhva are more strictly followers of a diksa line, whereas both Kavikarnapura and Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati lean more towards siksa lines, though still accepting both on their own validity. Seeing that Madhava Tirtha (Dvija) was a forerunner of Aksobhya Tirtha to the Vedanta Pitha, certainly he may have given some instruction. In the same way, Jayatirtha certainly had many disciples, and because his direct disciple Vidyadhiraja was the next to accept office at the Pitha, it doesn't necessarily mean other disciples of Jayatirtha, such as Jnanasindhu Tirtha and Daya(Maha)nidhi Tirtha didn't also give their worthy assistance. Actually, Vaisnavas are always grateful for their many siksa gurus. For myself certainly, as I have collected this information, everyone has stressed Madhvacarya's disciples and this parampara. In the humble attempt to compile this work I have accepted many as my instructing gurus and I am very grateful to them for their advice, otherwise how could the sampradaya be revealed. I do not, of my own accord, know anything about Vaisnavism or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna, but by the mercy of the Vaisnavas and of my diksa and siksa gurus, we are making an attempt at shedding some light on this subject. As we just stated, Vidyadhiraja Tirtha was the immediate disciple of Jayatirtha. Being of seniority in his learning and devotional understandings, he also became the successor on the Pitha. Previously his name was Krsnabhatta (though the Guru-acarya gives him the name Nrsimha Sastri). It is understood that he was a brahmacari, but his time on the Vedanta Pitha is not clearly established. The times of office range from three years, nine months and thirteen days, to four years, and lastly sixty four years, but the Mutt itself is silent on this matter. 14. Rajendra Tirtha Rajendra was his first disciple and their relationship was always very close. There is one story which tells of how the guru parampara divided at that time. Vidyadhiraja Tirtha was extremely sick so he sent word to Rajendra to come immediately, but he did not arrive in time. The Guru, feeling his life passing, ordained another disciple to guarantee that he would have a successor. This devotee's name was Kavindra Tirtha. Some say he called Kavindra due to a need for the preaching to spread, but one cannot guess the reasons why - a pure Vaisnava acts only to satisfy the Lord, that much we can ascertain. The line coming from Rajendra Tirtha is now represented by Vyasatirtha and Gosale Mutts and that line still continues.

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Caitanya-candra The other line (that from Kavindra Tirtha) continued on to Vagisa and Ramacandra Tirtha, but at the time of Ramacandra there again was some heavy disagreement that apparently nearly stopped the line at that time. Inevitably it caused a split and now those lines come down via his two disciples, Vibudhendra Tirtha of Raghavendra Swami Mutt and Vidyanidhi Tirtha of Uttaradi Mutt. Vidyadhiraja Tirtha passed away at Ergola near Malked. The old town of Ergola now lies in ruins and this is believed to be where the tombs of both Vidyadhiraja and Rajendra Tirtha are. 15. Jayadharma (Vijayadhvaja) Tirtha Between Rajendra and Vyasatirtha we have Vijayadhvaja Tirtha, alias Jayadhvaja, alias Jayadharma. He is listed in the Mutt genealogical tables as being a member of the Pejawara Mutt coming from Aksobhya Tirtha. The Deity of Sri Rama that was worshiped by Vijayadhvaja Tirtha is still in the Pejawara Mutt. Some say that Vijayadhvaja was ostracized by Raghunatha Tirtha of Uttaradi Mutt for the sin of crossing the ocean to visit Dvaraka and thus as a penance to atone for this he was commissioned to write a commentary on Srimad Bhagavatam, which he wrote under a pipal tree at Krsna Mutt, and which he became famous for. However many devotees, including B.N.K. Sharma, the Madhva scholar, says that this story is bogus and malicious, as it is well known that Vijayadhvaja's commentary on the Srimad Bhagavatam was purely out of love and spontaneous devotion. His commentary of Bhagavatam went under the title "Bhakti-ratnavali" and is said to have greatly influenced his disciple, Visnu Puri. In his commentary there are many references to the original compiler, the great Sridhar Swami of the Bhagavat School. Sridhar lived in a very dangerous time to be a Vaisnava, and so kept his meanings covered. Many, even to this day, say that Sridhar Swami was an impersonalist, but actually this is not so. As we have stated, he had to keep the real and personalistic understandings of the Bhagavatam covered for there were many devious Mayavadis ready to corrupt anything that glorified Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Vijayadhvaja (Jayadharma Muni as he is also known) clarified the meanings of Sridhar Swami, bringing out the dualist's point of view from the seemingly hidden meanings of Sripada Sridhar Swami. Looking at the many and wonderful ways the devotees have struggled, sacrificing their own reputations, even well being, to somehow or other ensure that these priceless gems of pure personalism could find their way down through the ages into our unworthy laps and beyond, we should be grateful to all of these great and devoted personalities. Srila Vijayadhvaja Tirtha was the sixth in the lineage of the Pejawara Mutt and he passed away on the Aksaya Tritya day, which falls on the third day of the light fortnight in the month of Madhusudana (Vaisakha - April/May). His samadhi (Vrndavana) is at Kanya Tirtha. Vijayadhvaja Tirtha and some details concerning the controversy regarding his complete and devotional commentary on the Srimad Bhagavatam: Practically speaking, the following is only details of Vijayadhvaja's early days, but it is an interesting story that brings out his conviction as a pure surrendered, unmotivated Vaisnava sannyasi. As with many sannyasis of the line, particularly on this west coast of Karnataka, Vijayadhvaja Tirtha took sannyasa as a very small boy. Constantly traveling, he would have to maintain himself by collecting alms (bhiksa), but alas, sometimes he would have to go without food for three or five days. Out of dire need and hunger, the young sannyasi, on one occasion, began to make some arrangements to cook very simply, using some simple forest spinach, a few rocks and twigs that he had found by the side of the road. One much older and senior sannyasi came by and was horrified seeing Vijayadhvaja Tirtha, a sannyasi, cooking, "making

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Caitanya-candra arrangements to enjoy" and by the side of the road. He severely chastised him saying that this kind of action was against sannyasa dharma or character. He then informed the boy that the only way to counter this kind of independent activity was suicide - then and only then would he be free from any reaction. So the humble and pure-hearted young Vijayadhvaja Tirtha Swami prepared to give up the world. At this time another sannyasi happened to come by, and upon seeing the preparations for death, could understand what was on Vijayadhvaja's mind. This second sannyasi then inquired from the boy why he had taken to this decision. Hearing the story, the second sannyasi, who some say was Rajendra Tirtha, instructed the boy to compile an edition of Srimad Bhagavatam and by this everything would be resolved. So doing, this highly devotional piece of literature was entitled "Pada-ratnavali." To this day followers of Madhva hold this devotional work as a standard text for reference. At the end of this commentary Vijayadhvaja Tirtha prayed earnestly to Lord Sri Krsna: vyakhya bhagavatasya krsna racita tvat priti kamatmana pretascet pradadasi tat pratinidhim tat trin varisye varan prana niskincanatam tava pratibhavam padaravindatmana samsaktim sukhatirtha sastra vijarajarasya param taya "Dear Lord Sri Krsna, I have written this commentary of Srimad Bhagavatam just to please You. If You are pleased, as an acknowledgement of the same, please grant me three boons that I should always remain a poor man in this and any future lives, that I may always have the opportunity to study Bhagavatpadacarya Madhva's devotional works on Krsna consciousness, and lastly by doing so, I may always rest in You and that I may attain You and always remain with You as Your foot servant." As we will read a little later, the influence of this edition of the Bhagavatam and the subsequent commentary by Visnu Puri, the celebrated compiler of Bhakti-ratnavali and disciple of Sri Vijayadhvaja Tirtha, assisted a great change to take place - not so much a change, but enhanced a natural loving progression to develop. This will be dealt with in connection with the next few acaryas who came. Everything was going on still, but as previously there had been some dissatisfaction with the struggle against the Mayavadis, now there had become struggles of another nature, that of position. Some were neglecting the pure teachings of Vaisnavism and were starting to get a little caught up in other circles, that 'I am a brahmana so I can know God. You are a sudra, therefore you cannot.' Certain sways started to take place and angles that had not been propounded externally were now to be taught. There were some very radical devotees around who were out to make a wonderful thrust to ensue. This devotee who we have just mentioned, Visnu Puri, is believed to have influenced many prominent personalities, amongst whom are Laksmipati Tirtha and Madhavendra Puri Goswami. This will be brought up again where the reasons for Madhavendra Puri Goswami accepting the title "Puri" instead of the traditional "Tirtha" are discussed in a short while. Dr. B.N.K. Sharma also mentions (History of Dvaita School of Vedanta, page 540) that there is a tradition which supports all these stories, and gives some detail to that point, saying that in the 15th century Rajendra Tirtha carried the message of Madhva to the far north and also into Bihar and Bengal where many of these great devotees were waiting to take up their particular missions. At this time amazing things were going on, much of which was unseen to the general populace. Various intimate associates of the Lord were taking their births in the families of the Vaisnavas for the purpose of setting back the flow of the Kali-yuga and smashing the illusory philosophies of the impersonalists.

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Caitanya-candra Sambidananda dasa brahmacari (the disciple of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura) has written in his book relating to medieval Vaisnava schools, that even the meeting of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and the Tattvavadi head of the time, Raghuvarya Tirtha, which came a little later, was not an ordinary thing. There he makes a statement very boldly saying that the reason for the difference of opinion over sadhya (spontaneous service - the raga marga performed on the liberated devotional platform) and vaidhi bhakti, devotional service in practice where full love of Godhead is not fully manifest, was due to the fact that at that time those particular Tattvavadis had deviated somewhat from the pure teachings presented by Madhva. However we see that after the visit of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to Krsna Mutt, the purity was again sought out. Primarily this was done by Vadiraja Tirtha who again reestablished many of Madhva's principals. It was Vadiraja who reintroduced kirtana (the chanting of the holy names) back into the Mutt. His guru, Vyasatirtha, who was practically a contemporary, did many great works also to re-establish the proper standards that were free from any material bodily conceptions of life. In "History of the Mutts" booklet it is mentioned that due to some problems around the time of Vagisa Tirtha the pure line was nearly lost, but due to the preaching and management of Vyasatirtha and especially Vadiraja Tirtha the desire of Madhvacarya was again instilled. 16. Purusottama Tirtha 17. Brahmanya Tirtha He was the third descendant from Rajendra Tirtha in the senior line of disciples coming from Vidyadhiraja Tirtha. I could find very little on his life, save and except where B.N.K. Sharma says that it was due to the blessings of Brahmanya Tirtha that the parents of Vyasatirtha (Brahmanya Tirtha's disciples), owed the birth of their children - notably of Vyasatirtha. As his permanent residence, Brahmanya Tirtha lived mostly at Cannapatna or Abbur in Karnataka State, as mentioned in the Vy-carita, Page 26. There he had a Mutt of his own which later he was to entrust to his disciple Sridhar Tirtha. His other disciple was the famous Vyasatirtha. It is so unfortunate that these great devotees' lives have slipped into obscurity, whether it was by their choice out of humility or just the influence of time. I guess now we will never really know. The Lord has his plan. 18. Vyasa Tirtha Otherwise known as Vyasaraya and Vyasaraja Swami, as we briefly mentioned, he was the disciple of Brahmanya Tirtha. Born around 1460 AD in the village of Bannur in Mysore district, his father's name was Rallanna Sumati and his gotra was Kasyapa. As previously stated, he took his birth by the blessings of Brahmanya Tirtha. Altogether, Vyasatirtha's parents had three children, a girl and two boys. In his childhood Vyasatirtha was known as Yatiraja. At the age of five he underwent the vidyarambha samskara to begin his formal education, starting with writing the alphabet, and at seven took upanayana (the sacred thread.) He stayed at gurukula for only four years after that. At eleven he went to his home and continued his studies of poetry, drama and grammar for about five years. Before Vyasatirtha's birth, his father promised his second son to Brahmanya Tirtha. He gave the boy the name Yatiraja to indicate his future as a renunciate, and in due course he was given to Brahmanya Tirtha as an assistant. After some time, however, Yatiraja, being unsure of Brahmanya Tirtha's intentions, slipped away and ran into the forest and headed for the direction of "home," away from the hermitage. One night whilst sleeping in the forest under a tree, Lord Visnu came to him and told him what to do. The teenager returned to the asrama

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Caitanya-candra hermitage that very same day and shortly after this, upon proving his dedication to his guru, young Yatiraja was formally initiated and given the name Vyasatirtha. Some time shortly after the two year famine of 1475 and 1476 Brahmanya Tirtha, his guru, left this world. Vyasatirtha came to the Vedanta Pitha about 1478 in his late teens. Due to his young age and little time spent with his guru, he didn't really know the conclusions of the Madhva sastras very well, so he went to Kancipuram to study, where, after a very short time, he became a renowned pandit. Whilst in that area he was entrusted with the worship of Srinivasa (Lord Visnu) at Tirupati. Vyasatirtha's Mutt is still at Tirupati on the hill (Tirumala). Before leaving that place, after about twelve years of being there, he gave the worship over to his disciples. In local history corresponding to the time, it is mentioned that the King of Bisnaga used to listen daily to a great Madhva Vaisnava sannyasi who had never married or touched a woman in his life. Though his name is not directly mentioned, history infers that this was Vyasatirtha. From Kancipuram he went to Vijayanagar and became known for his radical statements regarding Brahmanism, Vaisnavism, varnasrama, and who was worthy to worship the Lord. It was at this time and place where he was challenged to a debate by brahmana pandits from all over India. The pandits were led by the learned brahmana Basava Bhatta of Kalinga (Orissa). They all pinned their challenges to the pillars of the palace. After a thirty day discussion, Vyasatirtha emerged triumphant and his reputation earned him the respect of King Krsnadevaraya (1509) who regarded him as guru and gave him all honors. He awarded him the order of the camel on a green flag and a drum on the back of a camel as a mark of respect. This is still kept by the Vyasaraya Mutt at Gosale. Once the flag was taken by King Nrsimha in his attacks against the Muslim sultans who caused threats and violence to devotees and temples in South India, but between Krsnadevaraya, Sivaji and others, the sultans were stopped before getting very far. There are many nice stories telling of the great King Krsnadevaraya, who ruled the Vijayanagar kingdom on the Tungabhadra River in Karnataka in connection with his guru. Vyasatirtha gave the King formal initiation and then out of gratitude and love for his guru, Krsnadevaraya had made beautiful Deities of Vitthala (Krsna) and Rukmini and established the fine Vitthala Rukmini temple which still stands there today. On the temple wall there are inscriptions giving the date 1513 AD and refers to Vyasatirtha as the guru of Krsnadevaraya. There is also mention of Vyasatirtha ceremonially bathing Krsnadevaraya at his initiation, following in the method of Madhvacarya's puja manual entitled "Tantrasara" (Chapter 2.1011), in which the Tantrasara points out that the ceremonial bathing (abhiseka) of a disciple by the guru adds to the glory of the disciple. As we can see by the next brief story, this did make him glorious. Once a Gajapati King of Orissa tried to humiliate Krsnadevaraya by sending Advaita Mayavadi philosophical points to him to try to catch him out, but on the instructions and potency of his guru Vyasatirtha, Krsnadevaraya was, as usual, victorious. Out of gratitude Krsnadevaraya gave the village of Bettakonda to Vyasatirtha in 1526, and a huge lake was dug for the pleasure of guru called Vyasa samudra. The dates vary from 1523, 1524 and 1526 by various records, but all the points are substantiated by the writings of devotees of the time, including Purandara dasa. It is also recorded that Krsnadevaraya literally bathed Vyasatirtha in jewels as well, performing "Ratnabhiseka" (bathing him in jewels). Generally to install a person, an abhiseka is done with ghee, milk, yogurt, gaur, honey, sugar-water and tender coconuts in this part of the country, but this was done with priceless gems. After the death of Krsnadevaraya in 1530, Acyutaraya continued to honor Vyasatirtha for a few years until

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Caitanya-candra Vyasaraya's demise. Krsnadevaraya, by the way, is always referred to as probably the most spiritually enlightened of the Vijayanagar dynasty. He established many fine temples and Deities in this area under the guidance of Vyasatirtha. To this day there still stands the Deity of Laksmi Nrsimha standing twenty five feet tall in the banana fields. The Deity was carved from one stone under Krsnadevaraya's instructions. After his demise, the invading Muslims smashed many temples out of their envy of Vaisnava culture. Many Deities like Vitthala Rukmini and Krsnaswami were moved further south, but although the Muslims tried to smash the Deity of Lord Nrsimha, still He stands, though His temple lies in rubble around Him. This old and sacred place is the old Kiskinda mentioned in the Ramayana where Hanuman was born and where Rama killed Vali and put Sugriva on the throne. There are numerous glories of Srila Vyasatirtha to be sung. It is not unintentional that I have said "sung" in his connection, for the highly controversial and powerful preacher, the third moon of the Madhva line, was always absorbed in harinama sankirtan. Many say this was due to the influence of his teacher, Sripadiraja Swami, who is renowned for his poems and songs glorifying Lord Sri Krsna. Some say he was the instigator of the Hari dasa or Dasakuta Movement. Anyway, during his life Vyasatirtha established 732 temples of Hanuman all over South India and composed poems and songs based on the Srimad Bhagavatam, Mahabharata and Ramayana. One day after composing his famous work called "Krsna Ni Begane Baro" which, for the last four centuries has become a Bharat Natyam dance repertoire, a strange thing happened. Vyasatirtha was taking a little rest when Lord Sri Krsna appeared in his dream and proceeded to address him. "You are a sannyasi, you do not have any wife or children. On the other hand, I am very much married and leave a large family - so why is it that you only call Me Krsna?" From that day on in any further compositions, Vyasatirtha always referred to his Lord as Sri Krsna. Once Vyasatirtha was sitting upon the pitha amongst his many, many disciples, when out of nowhere one low-born farmer happened to come into the assembly requesting mantra diksa initiation from Vyasatirtha. The farmer humbly begged, but in his humility he was persistent. The many other disciples, who were mostly brahmana stock, viewed him as being completely unqualified due to his birth and education, or rather lack of it - not being born in a brahmana family like all the other disciples. Vyasatirtha however, being pure and free from bodily conceptions of birth, etc. was of a different mind and to everyone's amazement Vyasatirtha told the farmer to chant the name of Yamaraja's bull. Going away and coming back after some time after chanting that name, the farmer's voice was again heard. "Swamiji, Swamiji, he is here," the farmer exclaimed. When the devotees peaked outside the Mutt, to their surprise there was Yamaraja's bull Mahisa, big as a mountain, right there outside the door of the Mutt. "Now what shall I do Swamiji?" the farmer inquired from Vyasatirtha. Vyasatirtha instructed him to take the bull to the river where there was one huge boulder that hundreds of men couldn't move. The farmer went to the river and requested the bull to move the boulder out of the main stream of the river to allow the water to flow to reach the crop irrigation areas downstream. That rock, which was in itself like an island amidst the river, the bull submerged beyond sight simply with the lifting of his hoof and resting it upon it. To the delight of everyone the water again began to flow. Soon after this incident the bull returned to Yamaraja, his master. The farmer then asked Vyasatirtha for more service. Vyasatirtha, who was always compassionate, then engaged him in looking after the Mutt's gosala. Not long after that, an annual festival for the Deity came around on the calendar, and a huge festival was put on for the Lord. The high point was the abhiseka bathing ceremony in which the Deity was to be bathed in many different auspicious by-products of the cow. However,

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Caitanya-candra just as the bathing commenced, the Deity of Udupi Krsna suddenly disappeared right in front of everyone's eyes. Everyone was very confused except for Srila Vyasatirtha, who asked all the assembled devotees to conclude as to what had happened. The debating took some time and the disciples came to their conclusion that due to the offense of allowing the low-born farmer to look after the cows and procure the milk, yogurt, ghee, etc. for the puja, the Lord had disappeared. Indirectly they were blaming their guru, saying that this was his offense, for they were still on the bodily concept of life, thinking themselves as brahmanas and he a mere vaisya farmer. Vyasatirtha very tolerantly tilted his head and asked everyone to follow him for a moment. Everyone went to the gosala headed by Vyasatirtha. As they looked into the gosala they saw the farmer scrubbing down the cows, brush in one hand and a bucket of water in the other. In his total absorption of serving the Lord's cows, the farmer didn't even notice that the Deity had manifested His Gopal form and was standing beside him holding the bucket for him. Needless to say, all of his disciples were amazed that Udupi Krsna personally served this nonbrahmana farmer, but Srila Vyasatirtha explained that, "No, the Lord had come to serve His pure devotee. Previously he came for Acarya Madhva to have him glorified and now he has found another worthy soul." Srila Vyasatirtha later formally initiated the farmer as his disciple. Vyasatirtha passed away at Vijayanagar on the caturthi (fourth) day in the dark fortnight in the month of Phalguna (Jan-Feb), corresponding to Saturday 8th March, 1539 AD. His tomb remains on the island of Navavrindavanas in the Tungabhadra River, half a mile from Anegondi (Hampi). Vyasatirtha was, as some say, almost the second founder of the system of Madhvacarya, after the great Madhvacarya. Vyasatirtha influenced many, including the aristocracy, and many of his disciples traveled north preaching his glories to places which included Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharastra, and even Rajasthan and Uttara Pradesh. According to Kavikarnapura in his Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika, Vyasatirtha wrote the famous book, "Sri Visnu Samhita", and had a disciple by the name Laksmipati Tirtha who was originally from North India. The following is a story in connection with the disciple of Vyasatirtha who was given the name Laksmipati Tirtha, and who became the next to be recognized as the acarya in the line in which we follow. 19. Laksmipati Tirtha Once Lord Balarama (Krsna's elder brother) appeared to Laksmipati Tirtha to break the ground for a change in the regular line of the Madhva sampradaya. Big changes were to take place that would eventuate in a revolution in thought and deed. Lord Sri Krsna and His brother Lord Balarama were about to appear in the dress of devotees within the Madhva sampradaya. brajendra nandana yei saci-suta hoilo sei balarama hoilo nitai Narottama dasa Thakura sings in his "Ista Deve Vijnapti" in simple Bengali that "Lord Krsna, the son of Nanda Maharaja, the King of Vraja, became the son of Saci (Lord Caitanya) and Balarama became Nitai (Nityananda). We have discussed in brief some of the situations that arose around this time that warranted these changes. We have also introduced some of the Vaisnavas who performed this task for the Lord. The change itself to many meant seeing heart rendering devotion to the Lord, which was in many cases unable to be contained

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Caitanya-candra because of its intensity. Some objected to this as being mere sentimentalism, some even suggested that though the external sentiments were seen, other things were in the heart. This section from here on deals with some of those feelings. Obviously these situations are not to be imitated, as some cheaters do. As you will read shortly, these are insights to the personal relationships between the Lord and his pure devotees. This is not an ordinary thing, but by these personal dealings based on love is specifically how the Madhva sampradaya has come to be known all over the universe by the desire and preaching of it's members. One story which is quite heart rending is the following story of Laksmipati Tirtha, the best of the sannyasis, who on one occasion was sitting in a solitary place performing his bhajana throughout the night. He was singing the glories of Lord Balarama. His unalloyed devotion was so intense he would sometimes cry or call out, "O Baladeva, kindly show me Your favor. I am so fallen and wicked." Tears would come from his eyes and he lost all patience and composure due to his old age and intense desire to see the Lord. He would sometimes collapse on the floor, stunned. This day, due to the devotional traumas he had undergone, he slept. It is described that Lord Nityananda, in His usual prankish mood, appeared to Laksmipati in His original form as Lord Balarama. Lord Balarama, Krsna's brother, appeared before Laksmipati in a dream, telling him that a wandering brahmana, in the form of an avadhuta madman had arrived in town. "He will come to you. Initiate him into the Vaisnava diksa mantras and accept him as your disciple." Then Lord Balarama spoke the mantra into Laksmipati's right ear and Laksmipati awoke. After a short time Laksmipati saw the avadhuta brahmana and his mind became full with anxious anticipation. When they met, Laksmipati couldn't take his eyes off the beautiful form of the Lord, His aura and His moonlike face and unblinking eyes. Hearing the sweet words of Lord Nityananda, Laksmipati's eyes brimmed over with swelling tears. That very day Laksmipati fulfilled the order of Lord Balarama and Nityananda became the favorite of Laksmipati. nityananda prabhu vande srimad laksmipati priyam sri madhva-sampradaya vardhanam bhakta vatsalam "Respectful obeisances unto You, Nityananda Prabhu, the dear favorite of Laksmipati Tirtha. He (Nityananda) increases the bliss of the entire Madhva sampradaya and He has the innermost needs of the devotees foremost at hand." Laksmipati couldn't understand his intense attraction for Nityananda or the bliss he felt just being near Him. On Nityananda's absence from his sight for a moment, intense separation came over him. Laksmipati stayed awake that night pondering over things. He had dozed off slightly, when again in a dream the Lord appeared. He was whitish in complexion, dressed in a blue dhoti. It was Nityananda in his dream, but then Nityananda transformed into Lord Balarama. Laksmipati was amazed and he bathed the Lord's feet with ecstatic tears from his eyes. He prayed to the Lord, "Surely You have made a fool of me and put this fallen wretch into much distress. Please show me Your mercy. You are my Lord. I take shelter at Your lotus feet." That same Sri Nityananda Rama (Balarama) fulfilled all of Laksmipati's cherished longings, though He forbade him from telling a soul of His identity, and then disappeared from sight. When Laksmipati awoke in lamentation upon the Lord's disappearance, he saw that night had become the morning. Laksmipati changed from this day on. He didn't speak ever again, as his mind was always absorbed elsewhere. He looked terrible and his disciples became full of anxiety. Within a short while, without any warning, Laksmipati left this world. Who can

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Caitanya-candra understand properly the character and pastimes of the Lord and His pure devotee Laksmipati Tirtha? Just see the purity of Laksmipati, that the Lord appears directly to play with him. Usually it is accredited to Madhavendra Puri Goswami, the disciple of Laksmipati, as being the spiritual master of Lord Nityananda Prabhu, but here it is mentioned otherwise. Let us substantiate this story a little. In the Caitanya Caritamrta, Madhya lila (3.85) Srila A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada writes: "In Khadadaha, sometimes people misunderstood Nityananda Prabhu to belong to the sakta sampradaya whose philosophy is antah saktah bahih saivah sabhayam vaisnavo matah. According to the sakta sampradaya, a person called kaulavadhuta thinks materially while externally appearing to be a great devotee of Lord Siva. When such a person is in an assembly of Vaisnavas, he appears like a Vaisnava. Actually Nityananda Prabhu did not belong to such a community. Nityananda Prabhu was always a brahmacari of a sannyasi of the vaidika (Vedic) order. Actually He was a paramahamsa. Sometimes He is accepted to be a disciple of Laksmipati Tirtha. If He is so accepted, Nityananda Prabhu belonged to the Madhva sampradaya. He did not belong to the tantrika sampradaya of Bengal." In a conversation I had with HH Bhakti Hridoy Mangal Maharaja, Secretary General of the Sri Caitanya Gaudiya Mutt, he remembered hearing personally an instance that was related by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Goswami Maharaja Prabhupada (sometime in the late 1920's during a class), wherein Lord Nityananda walked off with a sannyasi who came to beg alms at His parent's house (as mentioned in Caitanya Bhagavata). The sannyasi asked Hadai Pandit, the father of Lord Nityananda, as is traditional, for some alms and so Hadai Pandit as a dutiful householder agreed. But when the sannyasi asked him to give him the boy (Nityananda) as alms, Hadai Pandit nearly died. Considering his life useless and a bad example to the boy if he didn't fulfill the desires of his saintly guest, he gave the boy to the sannyasi as his assistant - this sannyasi was Laksmipati Tirtha. It is interesting to note that the boy Nityananda simply walked off with the sannyasi without even so much as looking back, just as Lord Rama left His father, Dasaratha, to go to the forest. Though different circumstances, both Maharaja Dasaratha and Hadai Pandit died within a very short time due to intense separation. However in Caitanya Caritamrta, Madhya lila (8.128) purport, Srila Prabhupada says: "Sri Nityananda Prabhu was initiated by Madhavendra Puri, a sannyasi. According to others, however, He was initiated by Laksmipati Tirtha." Visnu Puri Around the same time was a great Vaisnava preacher by the name Visnu Puri. We briefly mentioned something about him in relation to his guru, Jayadharma Tirtha, in that section, so at this point let us look a little closer at his pastimes. Though he was directly one of the noted acaryas in the guru parampara, certainly it appears that he must have been a great devotee to have gained recognition by the great Kavikarnapura, the celebrated compiler of the Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika. If Kavikarnapura thinks his name worthy of mentioning, then who am I to deny him a mention? According to history he was a sannyasi of Tirhit district. One report is that Visnu Puri met Lord Caitanya at Kasi (Benares) while Lord Caitanya was on His way back to Nadia from Vrndavana. They were charmed with each other naturally. The following story is mentioned by B.D. Basu, in his presentation of Visnu Puri's book Bhaktiratnavali, which says that at their meeting a wonderful interaction took place. By the bhakti and learning of Visnu Puri, Lord Caitanya became inspired, and by the grandeur and personal magnetism of Lord Caitanya, the Personality of Godhead, Visnu Puri was inspired. Later a disciple of Visnu Puri left Benares for Jagannatha Puri to bring greetings to Lord Caitanya

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Caitanya-candra from his guru. Lord Caitanya sent him back to Kasi with a message, "Make Me a garland of jewels". Everyone was astounded when they heard the greatest renunciate asking for jewels, but they had not the boldness to ask Him why He asked for this. Actually he was referring to Visnu Puri's Bhakti-ratnavali - the necklace of priceless jewels of the Srimad Bhagavatam. There is another version of this story recorded, that Lord Jagannatha, in a dream came to Visnu Puri and told him to compose and send these prayers to Him in the form of Lord Caitanya. The date recorded on this book, Bhakti-ratnavali, is 1555 Saka era or 1633 AD, but it is humbly suggested that this is the date Bhakti-ratnavali was transcribed from the original, not the date of the actual composition. This was one year before Lord Caitanya passed from the devotees' physical presence. Visnu Puri was previously known as Visnu dasa. He was a learned brahmana who belonged to the Vaisnava school of Madhva and was a disciple of Jayadharma Tirtha. He first led his life as a householder with wife and children, but when the temper of his wife became too much for him, he left home and took the dress of a sannyasi. Everyone tried to pacify him but he would not return. He wandered and settled in Mithila at the shrine of Lord Siva (which is also known as Siva Puri). The Tirtha pandits say that in a dream Lord Siva told him to resume family life, so he returned and took a second wife. In the dream Lord Siva also gave him the Visnu mantra, so at Siva Puri it is suggested that this is when he added Puri to his name, to remember that holy place, as there is no mention of receiving the name from another source. To have been a disciple of Jayadharma who occupied the Pitha from 1448-1460 AD and to have met Lord Caitanya in Kasi, Visnu Puri must have lived for close on one hundred and fifty years. Of course that is presuming that the dates that we have are exactly correct. There is no doubt that his preaching from the Bhakti sastra, Srimad Bhagavatam, inspired many, among them the great Madhavendra Puri, who became the next in the disciplic succession. It is believed by many that Madhavendra Puri Goswami, though taking diksa initiation from Laksmipati, was given siksa (instruction and inspiration) from Visnu Puri, thus this is why the title "Puri" was added to his name instead of Tirtha, as with the previous parampara acaryas. In Dr. B.N.K. Sharma's "History of Dvaita Vedanta" he makes a point to say that up until this time this was the parampara which came to be known as the Vyasaraja Mutt line of the Madhva Mutts, following down to the disciples of Vyasatirtha, a strict Madhva line. Filling in the details over the past couple of generations, the Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika (Text 22) of Kavikarnapura says: "Rajendra's disciple was Jayadharma Muni. Among Jayadharma's disciples was Sriman Visnu Puri, the famous author of the Bhakti-ratnavali. Another disciple was Brahmanya Purusottama." But in the Kantimala, it states: iti sri purusottama-caranaravindakrpa makaranda-bindu pronmilitaviveka-tairabhukta-paramahamsasri visnu-puri grathita-sri bhagavatamrtabdhi labdhasri bhaktiratnavali kantimala samapata This indicates that Visnu Puri had some kind of disciple relationship with Purusottama Tirtha (Brahmanya); at least this confirms the time, if not his particular kind of guru-disciple relationship. Substantiating the facts presented here, B.N.K. Sharma points out that there is a traditional line stating that Rajendra Tirtha carried the message of Madhva north to Bihar and Bengal and that Rajendra Tirtha's disciple was Jayadhvaja Tirtha, who was the guru of Visnu Puri.

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Caitanya-candra In these days sometimes one would accept a particular mantra or philosophical point from someone and in that way he would become one's guru. So sometimes certain initiations held more importance than others. For example, one's acceptance into a particular philosophical line would stand as more important than one's family initiation into a mantra for charming snakes, or applying medicine from the Ayurveda. B.N.K. Sharma says that Visnu Puri was a contemporary of Jayadharma who followed the great Sridhar Swami and due to his dedication to the bhakti marga (devotional line) this could have been a great source of influence on Laksmipati Tirtha and Madhavendra Puri Goswami. Another thing is that there is no record of Visnu Puri's activities in South India, save and except that he headed to North India to preach. To conclude, we can say that Laksmipati and Madhavendra Puri were both from North India and were influenced by Visnu Puri to develop the spontaneous mood of bhakti. Later some of Visnu Puri's previously used verses of Sridhar Swami found in his Bhakti-ratnavali turned up in Rupa Goswami's "Padyavali" with reference to Bhakti-ratnavali. 20. Madhavendra Puri Srimad Krsnadasa Kaviraja has described Sri Madhavendra Puri as the root of all transcendental joy. When Lord Caitanya was absorbed in his childhood pastimes, Sri Madhavendra Puri was quite an old man. There is no mention of any meeting between Mahaprabhu and Sri Madhavendra Puri in CC or CBh. But in CBh., when Sri Vrndavana dasa Thakura describes the pilgrimage of Sri Nityananda Prabhu, he mentions that Nityananda Prabhu did meet Madhavendra Puri. He also states that Nityananda Prabhu spent a few days serving Sri Madhavendra Puri and accepted him as His spiritual master. Vrndavana dasa has also described Madhavendra Puri's delight upon having the company of Sri Nityananda. After spending a few days with Madhava Puri, Sri Nityananda returned to Vrndavana, and Madhava Puri left on pilgrimage for South India. Generally Madhavendra Puri was accompanied by Sri Isvara Puri, Sri Ranga Puri, Paramananda Puri and some other sannyasis. When Sri Madhavendra Puri left this material world, the following sloka was uttered by him (CC 2.17): ayi dinadayadaranatha hey mathuranatha kadavalokyase, hrdayam tvadlokakataram dayita bhramyati kim karomyayam The people of Gauda have accepted this stanza as the sum and substance of the mood of separation. Lord Caitanya was overwhelmed with joy upon remembering this sloka. Outwardly, Madhava Puri was a sannyasi belonging to the Dasanami Sankara sect. But in fact, he was the root of the tree of prema bhakti. Before the Lord appeared in this world he sent His personal associates beforehand, Sri Madhavendra Puri was one of them. Krsnadasa Kaviraja and Sri Vrndavana dasa Thakura have not mentioned anything regarding Madhavendra Puri's caste or creed. Sri Madhavendra Puri lived for many years, and taught love and devotion throughout the world. He visited many places throughout India, and the exact number of his disciples is not known. Some of his prominent disciples were Sri Advaita Acarya, Sri Pundarika Vidyanidhi, Sri Paramananda Puri, Sri Ranga Puri, Sri Brahmananda Puri, Sri Brahmananda Bharati, Sri Kesava Bharati, Sri Krsnananda Puri, Sri Ramacandra Puri, Sri Nrsimha Tirtha, Sri Nityananda Prabhu, Sri Isvara Puri, Sri Raghupati Upadhyaya, Sri Sukhananda Puri etc. (Bhaktiratnakara 5.2272-2274, 5.2330,2332; CBh. 1.9.158-188, 1.9.160, 1.9.175, 1.11.125, 3.3.59, 3.3.172, 3.4.433-507). Five padas composed by Madhavendra Puri have been included in Padyavali (nos. 79,96,164,286,330)

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Caitanya-candra His worshipable Deity, Gopalji, is presently residing at Nathdwar in Rajasthan, and is worshiped by the followers of Vallabhacarya. 21a. Isvara Puri He was the diksa-guru of Lord Caitanya. He was born in a brahmana caste of the Radha clan in Kumarahatta village, presently known as Halisahar. His father was Syamasundara Acarya. The family name of Isvara Puri is not known. He was instrumental in inspiriting Nityananda Prabhu to leave home (Premavilasa 7 and 23). The following are the references showing Isvara Puri in the biographies of Lord Caitanya: CBh. 1.9.161-170, 1.11.70-126, 1.17.46-162; CC 2.10.131-150, 2.8.26-30. Three slokas composed by Isvara Puri have been included in Padyavali (nos. 16, 62 and 75). Also see Bhaktiratnakara 12.2206-2209. 21b. Nityananda Prabhu See also Laksmipati Tirtha He was Halayudha in Krsnalila. According to Premavilasa 24, Nityananda was a disciple of Isvara Puri. Sri Jiva states that Nityananda was a disciple of Sankarsana Puri who was a disciple of Madhavendra Puri. But Bhaktiratnakara states that Nityananda took diksa from Laksmipati who was the guru of Madhavendra Puri. If this were the case then Nityananda would have been the great-guru of Lord Caitanya and a friendly relationship could not have existed between the two. According to CBh. Madhavendra Puri dealt with Nityananda as a friend, while the latter showed guru-like reverence to the former. After personally carrying out an investigation, Buchanan Hamilton has recorded a brief history of Nityananda's family in the Purnea Report. Nityananda Prabhu was born on the thirteenth day of the bright fortnight of Magha (Feb.-March) in the village of Ekacakra in the district of Birbhum in 1395 Saka (1473 AD). His father was Hadai Pandita (Hado Ojha) and his mother was Padmavati. His paternal grandfather, Sundaramalla Nakadi Baduri was a brahmana of the Radha clan. Nityanda's past name was Kuvera and He was an avadhuta. Steven Rosen (Satyaraja das) says in his book Panca-tattva, 3.13: "Nityananda was considered an avadhuta sannyasi, although it is said that He never formally adopted sannyasa order. Avadhutas (the pure ones, in SB 4.29.11 p. called "most free") are usually associated with the Saivite tradition but there is a little known branch of Vaisnava sannyasis known as turiyatit-avadhuta. They are described in the Narada-parivrajakaupanisad, Turiyatit- avadhuta-upanisad and the Brhad-avadhuta-upanisad." In the same book (3.40) he lists twelve gopalas, associates of Sri Nityananda, with their identity in Caitanya-lila: Sridama (Ramadasa Abhirama of Khanakul-Krsnanagar in Hooghly) Sudama (Sundarananda Thakura, brahmana ascetic) Vasudama (Dhananjaya) Subala (Gauridasa Pandita) Mahabala (Kamalakara Pipalai) Subahu (Uddharana Datta) Mahabahu (Mahesa Pandita)

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Caitanya-candra Stokakrsna (Purusottama) Arjuna (Paramesvara Dasa) Dama (Purusottama Nagara) Labanga (Kala Krsnadasa) Madhumangala, or Kusumasava (Sridhara) Sri Nitai is Isa prakasa (CC 1.1.7-11), the cherished goal of Gaudiyas (CC 1.1.18-19), and is depicted as the trunk of the tree of bhakti (CC 1.9.21, 1.10.115) His childhood sports up to twelve years of age are described in CBh. 1.9.12-99; His pilgrimage tours up to twenty years of ages in CBh. 1.9.100-136; His arrival in Navadvipa at the house of Nandana Acarya and his meeting Lord Caitanya is described in CBh. 2.3.1202.4.76. Premavilasa narrates the following information relating to Nityananda Prabhu: marriage of Nityananda; settled life at Khardaha with Vasudha-Jahnava; death of seven sons soon after birth when Abhirama conveyed his humble obeisances to each; birth of Viracandra and Ganga later; both stayed alive and healthy despite Abhirama's offering of obeisances; hymns sung by Abhirama in praise of Ganga devi. Nityananda tattva: Mahasankarsana, Sesa, etc. (Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 63-64). Sandhinisakti; inward descent of Anangamanjari (Anangamanjari Samputika), in the form of Prakrti indirectly and in the form of Purusa directly. See Dharanisesa Sanvad in Brahmanda Purana of Vrndavana dasa Thakura, (2) Aisvaryamrtakavya and (3) Rasakalpasara tattva. Nityananda mantra: see Brahmanda Purana and Dhyanacandra Gosvami's Paddhati (56-57). Dhyana and Gayatri dealing with Nityananda: see Paddhati (as above) 50, 72. Nityananda Astaka composed by (1) Sarvabhaumma and (2) Vrndavana dasa Thakura; Nama dvadasaka on Nityananda composed by Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya; Astottarasatanama (108 names) of Nityananda (1) in Brahmanda Purana and (2) by Sarvabhauma. The following are some primary works on Nityananda Prabhu: Nityanandoprabhoraisvaryamrtakavyam, Baranagar Pathavadi (Calcutta manuscript no. BA. copying date is 1260 BS (1853 AD). This Sanskrit text consisting of 128 slokas is said to have been written by Vrndavana dasa Thakura. The ms. deals with descriptions of various aisvarya and madhurya-lilas of Nityananda Prabhu, as well as a note on His true nature (prakrtisvarupa). Another manuscript with similar contents titled Rasakalpasaratattva is also attributed to Vrndavana dasa and is available at Pathavadi collection ms. no. B 46. Nityananda Vamsavistar, by Vrndavana dasa Thakura. The contents are as follows: Avatarahood of Viracandra; revelation of Viracandra; genealogy of Viracandra; Jahnava's pilgrimage to Vrndavana, in two parts - a total of six sections. Nityananda Bhasya written by Ramrayaji, a disciple of Nityananda. It forms a commentary to Siksastaka. He disappeared by merging with the body of Banka (Bankima) Raya Deity in Ekacakragrama, His appearance place. 21c. Advaita Acarya He is a disciple of Madhavendra Puri, and constitutes one of the figures amongst the Pancatattva. In an earlier incarnation he was Lord Siva. He was born in a varendra brahmana family on the seventh day of the bright fortnight in the month of Magha, 1355 Saka (1433 AD), in the village named Lauda in Srihatta. According to Bangabhasa O Sahitya, Advaita Prabhu was born in 1434 AD and met Vidyapati in 1458 AD. Advaita's former name was Kamalaksa (Kamalakanta) Vedapancanana. His two

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Caitanya-candra wives were Sita Devi and Sri Devi. His son Acyutananda was born of Sita Devi (1425 Saka 1503 AD), followed by Krsnadasa, Gopala, Balarama, Svarupa, and Jagadisa Misra. While Sri Devi gave birth to one son named Syamadasa (Premavilasa 24). From Lauda, Advaita Prabhu moved to the village of Navahatta and later to Santipura. He also had a house at Navadvipa. In 1480 Saka (1558 AD), at the age of 125 years (i.e. 25 years after the disappearance of Lord Caitanya) Advaita Prabhu passed away. (Advaita Vilasa) However, according to Premavilasa 24, Advaita Prabhu was born in Santipura. He studied the Vedas and other scriptures under a scholar named Santacarya in Phullavati village near Santipura, where he was awarded the title Acarya. The genealogy of Advaita Prabhu can be found in Premavilasa 24. Also books such as Valyalilasutra (in Sanskrit), and Advaitavilasa, Advaitamangala, Advaita Prakasa, Sitacarita (in Bengali) present detailed information on Advaita Prabhu. To verify the meeting of Advaita with Vidyapati, it is known that in 1330 Saka (1408 AD) Vidyapati received the endowment of Bisaphi village from Sivasimha. Vidyapati was born around 1307 Saka (1385 AD), and was a contemporary of Candidasa. Vidyapati mentions their meeting one another in songs he composed in 1325 Saka (1403 AD). One manuscript of the Bhagavata which was copied by Vidyapati is still available and carries the date of copying as 1379 Saka (1457 AD). Evidence shows that Vidyapati was alive until 1401 Saka (1479 AD). In 1485 AD Advaita Prabhu, at the age of fifty two, arrived at the room where Lord Gauranga was born. Much earlier he undertook a pilgrimage. Hence his meeting with Vidyapati should be taken as a fact. The foremost of all the Vaisnavas who reside at Navadvipa is Sri Advaita Acarya, whose virtuous presence has made all the worlds blessed. He is the most prominent preceptor in all fields including knowledge, renunciation and devotion. In explaining Krsna-bhakti he is like unto Lord Sankara himself, and whatever scriptures that exist within the three worlds he explains in the light of Krsna-bhakti. With the intense eagerness he continually worships Sri Krsna with Tulasi manjaris and Ganges water. By the momentum of his spiritual force, his loud shouts pierce the coverings of this universe and, resounding throughout Vaikuntha, reach the ears of Sri Krsna. Hearing this loving summons saturated with devotion, Sri Krsna advents Himself. jaya jaya advaita isvara avatara krsna avatari kaila jagat-nistara "All glories to Advaita Prabhu, the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He induced Krsna to descend and thus delivered the entire world." [CC Antya 8.4] "On the seventh day of the bright fortnight of the month of Magh, the great ocean of ecstasy swelled to its limits, being forcibly attracted by the moon of Advaita, Who appeared from the womb of Sri Nabhadevi as the moon appears in the autumn sky. His father, Sri Kuvera Pandit floated in that ocean of joy. In great happiness he gave many gifts in charity to the brahmanas (who voluntarily accept vows of poverty). Very quietly he approached the maternity room to get a glimpse of his newborn son. Then his own face began to shine by the reflected light of that moon-like personage. The residents of Navagram came running to see the child. Everyone remarked that they had never seen such a beautiful baby. What a pious activities his father must have been performed to get such a jewel of a son, and that in his old age?

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Caitanya-candra Thus Ghanasyama sings about this occasion." [Bhaktiratnakara 12.1759] The child was named Mongal and his other name was Kamalaksa. Advaita Acarya is the combined incarnation of Mahavisnu and Sadasiva (who resides in Goloka). His two consorts, Sita and Sri are manifestations of Yoga Maya. Once when Advaita performed worship, whatever gods and demigods He used to meditate upon He saw all gathered at Lord Caitanya's lotus feet, offering prayers. Raising up his two hands, Advaita exclaimed in great ecstasy, "Today all the days of my life have produced a successful result, as all my desires have been fulfilled. My birth and activities have finally born fruit. I have directly perceived Your two lotus feet, which are proclaimed throughout the four Vedas but are unattainable thereby. Now, by Your causeless mercy, You have revealed Yourself to Me." Mahaprabhu replied, "Acarya, now you should perform My worship." First Advaita Acarya washed the Lord's two lotus feet with water scented by flower petals and then with water scented with sandalwood. Then He placed on His lotus feet Tulasi manjari dipped in sandalwood paste along with arghya - an auspicious offering of rice, durva grass, yogurt etc. His eyes brimming with tears, he offered incense, ghee lamps, flowers, sandalwood paste, and some foodstuffs. After offering various prayers he loudly proclaimed the Lord's glories with auspicious shouts. "All glories to the Lord and maintainer of the universe, the Lord of all that lives. All glories to Gauracandra, the ocean of mercy. All glories to the most munificent incarnation of Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu, whose form is all-enchanting. All glories to He who is decorated with the ornaments of Srivatsa and Kaustubha. All glories to He who has revealed the Hare Krsna Maha-mantra. All glories to He who enjoys the pastimes of accepting devotion unto Himself. All glories to Mahaprabhu who reclines on the bed of Ananta Sesa. All glories to the refuge of all living entities. [CBh. Madhya 6.116] Hearing Advaita's prayer's Mahaprabhu replied, "My dear Acarya, I am very pleased by your prayers. Now you can ask from me any benediction you like." Then Advaita requested that, "My only request is that you distribute love of Krsna even to women, laborers and the ignorant fools as well. [CBh. Madhya 6.167] A Nrsimha-sila and Deities, fashioned after a picture of Sri Sri Madan-Gopal that were worshiped by Advaita Acarya are still residing at Santipur in Madan-Gopal Para. Santipur is a short distance from Krsnanagara. The place on the banks of the Ganga where Advaita Acarya worshiped salagram and called out to the Lord to please descend to the world is known today as Babla. A temple has been built in memory of Advaita Acarya's pastimes there. 22. Lord Caitanya The origin of Lord Caitanya's name is mentioned in CBh. 2.28.179,181: "You aroused everyone's spiritual consciousness (Caitanya) and inspired the entire world to chant the holy name of Krsna, thus Your are called Sri Krsnacaitanya." According to the Tantra tradition, the term 'Krsnavarna' mentioned in Srimad Bhagavatam refers to Krsnacaitanya. Ramabhadra Vaisnavacarya Gosvami has said, "yasya namadyavayave sah krsnacaitanyah"; just as Satya refers to Satyabhama, and Bhima refers to Bhimasena, similarly the term Krsnavarna indicates Krsnacaitanya (In this connection refer to the tika of the sloka 'sriya savarnena...'Bhagavatam 3.3.3). Some argue that the name Gauranga was uttered by Kesava Bharati at the time of Lord Gauranga's sannyasa initiation, thus the name 'Gaura' (referring to Him as a

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Caitanya-candra resident of Navadvipa) should be considered His foremost name. However this is not rationally tenable when considered from a theological viewpoint. Simply by looking at the titles of the major biographies of the Lord's life (i.e. Caitanya Bhagavata, CC, Caitanyamangala, etc.) it is evident that Sri Krsna Caitanya was His foremost name. Although Locana Thakura, the preacher of Gauraparatamyavada, dealt with the nama-gunalila etc. of Gaura in his composition Dhamali, nevertheless the biography he wrote was entitled Sri Caitanyamangala. Prabodhananda Sarasvati writes about the dhyana of Gauranagaravana in his Sri Caitanyacandramrta (132). In one continuous lila numerous names of the Lord have been mentioned, yet the most frequently used name is Caitanya. Thus we can conclude without any doubt that Caitanya was the foremost name. For details see the following biographies of Lord Caitanya: 1. Caitanya Bhagavata 2. Caitanya Caritamrta 3. Caitanyamangala 4. Caitanyacaritamahakavya 5. Caitanyacandrodaya 6. Murari Gupta's Kadaca 7. Gaurakrsnodaya The Gauramantra is mentioned in the following works: 1. Urdhvamnayatantra 3.14-16 (manuscript from the collection of the Madras Oriental Mss. Library) 2. Isanasamhita 3. Paddhati written by Dhyanacandra Gosvami 54-55 4. Sri Caitanyacandrodaya 9 5. Advaitaprakasa 10 and 12 6. CC. 3.2.31 7. Gaurakrsnodaya-mahakavya of 1680 Saka; sloka 18.22-34. 8. Gaudiya Vaisnava Abhidhana Vol. 1, p.250 9. Caitanya Bhagavata 1.1.3, 12.10.59-60. 10. Tika of Caitanyacandramrta (31) by Anandi The following are the astakas (eight lined hymns) composed in praise of Lord Caitanya: Sacisutastaka by Narahari Sarkara; Caitanyastaka by Rupa Gosvami; Gaurasudhakaracitrastaka by Prabodhananda; Sacisunvastaka by Dasa Gosvami. Caitanyastakam (1), by Rupa Gosvami; Caitanyastakam (2), by Rupa Gosvami; Caitanyastakam (3), by Rupa Gosvami; Gaurangastakam, by Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya; Gaura-Gadadhara-yugalastakam, by Acyutananda Gosvami (son of Advaitacarya); Maha-prabhor-astakam, by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura; Sacinandanastakam, by Narahari-sarakara Thakura; Sacinandana-vijayastakam, by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura; Sacisunvastakam, by Raghunatha-dasa Gosvami; (probably same as "Dasa Gosvami")

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Caitanya-candra Sacisutastakam, anonymous; Sacitanayastakam, anonymous; Astottarasatanama by Sarvabhauma; Namadvadasaka; Namavimsatistotra by Sarvabhauma. Sahasraka: one each by Narahari Sarkara, Kavikarnapura, and Rupa Gosvami. Sri-gauranga-sahasra-nama-stotra, from Moksarnava-tantra, Siva to Gauri; Sri-krsna-caitanya-candrasya sahasra-nama-stotra, by Sri-Caitanya-dasa Ciranjivi-sarvadhikari Stava: Navadvipacandrastavaraja by Raghunandana Thakura; Praty-anaga-varnanakhya-stavaraja by Advaita Prabhu; Gaurangastavakalpataru by Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami. Sataka: Caitanyasataka by Sarvabhauma; Gaurasataka by Ratikanta Thakura. Astakaliya sutra: Bhavadhyalila by Rupa Gosvami; Paddhati 72-77 by Dhyanacandra Gosvami; Smaranamangala by Visvanatha Cakravarti; and the Bengali work Gauracaritcintamani by Narahari Cakravarti. sriman-maha-prabhor asta-kaliya-lila-smarana-mangala-stotram by Rupa Gosvami:; sriman-maha-prabhor asta-kaliya-lila-smarana-mangala-stotram by Visvanatha C:; Sri-Gaura-premollasa-stotram, by Nanda-kisora Gosvami; Sri-Gauranga-lila-smarana-mangala-stotram, by Bhaktivinoda Thakura; Gauranga-stotram, by Sri Bhakti-desika Maharaja; Gauranga-virudavali, by Raghunandana Gosvami; Gaura-prema-stava-raja, by Ramaraya Gosvami; Godruma-candra-bhajanopadesa, by Bhaktivinoda Thakura; Gauranga-maha-prabhu-dhyanam; Gauranga-maha-prabhu-pranamah; Gauranga-maha-prabhu-vijnaptih; Gaura-Nityananda-pranamah; Books on Lord Caitanya: In Bengali: 1. Sri Gaurasundara by Syamalal Gosvami 2. Amiya-Nimai-Carita by Sisir Kumar Ghosh 3. Caitanyadeva by Sundarananda Vidyavinoda In Oriya: 1. Caitanyabhagavata of Isvara dasa 2. Caitanyavilasa of Madhava In Vrajbasa: 1. Caitanyacaritamrta of Suvalasyama In Hindi: 1. Amiya-Nimai-Carita 2. Caitanya Premasagara of Pandita Ramananda 3. Caitanya caritavali of Prabhudatta Brahmacari In Gurmukhi: 1. Caitanyacarita In Urdu: 1. Sri Nimaicand of Krsnaprasada Duggul

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Caitanya-candra In Telugu: 1. Sri Caitanyalilamrtasaram 2. Sri Caitanyasiksamrtam 3. Lord Gauranga In Tamil: 1. Life and Teaching of Gauranga by P.V. Pillai, Madras In English: 1. Lord Gauranga by Sisirkumar Ghosh 2. Sri Krsna Caitanya by N.K. Sanyal 3. Lord Caitanya by B.P. Tirtha 4. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu B.P. Tirtha 5. Caitanya by G. Tucci 6. Life of Sri Caitanya by C.S. Trilokekar 7. Caitanya and His Companions by D.C. Sen 8. Gauranga and His Gospel by M. Dhar 9. The Universal Religion of Sri Caitanya by N.N. Chaterjee 10. Caitanya's Pilgrimage and Teachings by J. Sarkar The famous Siksastaka was composed by Lord Caitanya. The commentator Vitthalesvara states that Sri Krsna premamrta stotra was orally propounded by Lord Caitanya. Although a number of other small astakas are considered to have been composed by Lord Caitanya, the Lord Himself did not write any theological treatises. This task was taken up by Jiva Gosvami, who compiled a number of philosophical works such as Satsandarbha, Kramasandarbha, Sarvasamvadini, etc. 23a. Rupa Gosvami, Sanatana Gosvami Gaudiya Vaisnava Abhidhana p. 1350-1351: Rupa Gosvami was one of the six Gosvamis associated with Sri Gauranga-lila. According to Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 180 he was Sri Rupa manjari in Krsna lila. He occupied a responsible post in the service of the Badshah Hussain Shah of Gauda. He later renounced everything and surrendered himself at the feet of Lord Gauranga. His fascinating biography is described in the CC, Bhaktamala, etc. Narottama Thakura has rightly praised him as "Sri Caitanyamanohabhista- stapaka" (the implementor of Lord Caitanya's desires). Rupa Gosvami was specifically commanded by Lord Caitanya to carry out two tasks: (1) to re-locate and preserve the lost pilgrimage places of Vrndavana, and (2) to write and preach Vaisnava theology. From Prayaga Rupa Gosvami went to Vrndavana. He then visited his native home where he settled his property concerns. Thereafter he traveled on to Nilacala to meet Lord Caitanya. While staying at Gauda, Rupa Gosvami developed the desire to write the Vidagdhamadhava and Lalitamadhava nataka. Initially he planned to present the Vraja-lila and the Pura-lila together in one drama with the view of calming the intensity of the Vrajaviraha by including the Dvaraka-lila. However, while in Satyabhamapura he was commanded by Satyabhamadevi to write two separate dramas. In Nilacala Lord Caitanya also gave him the same instruction. Only those who appreciate the true Vaisnava spirit will understand the immense pleasure which Lord Caitanya and His associates derived from listening to this drama. After surcharging and empowering Rupa Gosvami with divine energy, Lord Caitanya sent him back to Vrndavana.

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Caitanya-candra The following is a list of the most well-known books of Rupa Gosvami: Bhaktirasamrtasindhu; Ujjvalanilamani; Laghubhagavatamrta; Vidagdhamadhava; Lalitamadhava; Nikunjarahasyastava; Stavamala; Sri Radha-Krsna-ganoddesa- dipika; Mathura-mahatmya; Uddhava Sandesa; Hamsadutam; Danakelikaumudi; Sri Krsnajanmatithividhi; Prayuktakhyatamanjari; Natakacandrika. Kumara deva, the son of Mukunda, was an extremely religious man. When religious upheaval occurred in Naihati, Kumara deva moved to Bakla Candradvipa (in Jessore). He is said to have settled for some time at Fateyabad - located between Naihati and Bakla. The three most renowned sons of Kumaradeva were Sanatana, Rupa and Anupama (Vallabha). When their father died, these three sons went to their maternal uncle's home in Sakurma near the capital of Gauda where they continued their studies. Sri Sanatana Gosvami was born in 1488 A.D. (1410 Saka). Sri Rupa Gosvami was born in 1493 A.D. (1415 Saka). In order to complete their education they lived at their uncle's house in a small village named Sakurma near the capital of Gauda. Having heard the glories of Sri Rupa and Sanatana from many intelligent persons, Badshah Hussain Shah of Gauda appointed the two brothers as ministers in the court. Though reluctant to accept the Bhadshah's offer, out of fear of the Yavana King, they agreed to take the post. Hussain Shah happily offered them enormous amounts of wealth and riches. Sri Rupa and Sanatana thus lived in the village of Ramakeli, the capital of Gauda. Many great brahmana scholars from different parts of the country visited their house regularly, and the two brothers took great pleasure in serving and arranging accommodations for them. The brother of Sarvabhauma, the famous Vidyavacaspati, was the philosophy teacher of Sri Rupa and Sanatana. As mentioned in the Dasama Tippani of the Bhagavata, their other teachers were Sri Paramananda Bhattacarya and Sri Ramapada Bhadrapada. From their early childhood Rupa, Sanatana and Anupama, were very devotionally inclined. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu arrived at the beautiful village of Ramakeli the brothers met the Lord and were overwhelmed with joy. On the eve of the Lord's departure from Ramakeli, He blessed Sri Sanatana and Rupa by saying, "Very soon Krsna will free you from the entanglement of material life." After the Lord departed from Ramakeli Rupa and Sanatana began to devise means to get out of their government service. Both brothers appointed some brahmanas to perform purascarana ceremonies and chant the holy name of Krsna. Rupa Gosvami deposited ten thousand gold coins with a grocer, and the balance he brought in two boats to a place called Bakla Candradvipa. There he divided this money among the brahmanas, Vaisnavas and his relatives, and a portion he kept for emergency measures and personal needs. When Rupa Gosvami was informed that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was going to Vrndavana from Jagannatha Puri through the forest of Madhyapradesh, he sent two people to Jagannatha Puri to find out when the Lord would leave for Vrndavana. When Mahaprabhu started for Vrndavana, Rupa left home and sent news to Sanatana that he was leaving with his younger brother (Anupama Mallika) to meet Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Meanwhile, Sanatana Gosvami told the Nawab that he was sick and could not attend to his work. Giving this excuse, he sat home and studied Srimad Bhagavatam with learned brahmana scholars. The Nawab Hussain Shah first sent his personal physician to see what the real facts were; then he personally came to see why Sanatana was not attending to official business. Knowing that he wanted to resign his post, the Nawab had him arrested and imprisoned. The Nawab then went off to attack Orissa.

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Caitanya-candra Rupa Gosvami finally reached Prayaga. While Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was sitting in a solitary place in the home of a Deccan brahmana, Rupa Gosvami and Sri Vallabha (Anupama) came to meet Him. At the time of Mahaprabhu's visit to Prayaga, Sri Vallabhacarya was living in the village of Araila on the other bank of the Triveni. One day he invited the Lord to his house for lunch and Sri Rupa and Anupama accompanied Him. Due to the great crowds in Prayaga, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went to a place called Dasasvamedha-ghata. It was there that the Lord instructed Sri Rupa Gosvami for ten successive days and empowered him to understand the philosophy of devotional service. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu taught Rupa Gosvami the ultimate limit of the truth about Lord Krsna, the truth about devotional service and the truth about transcendental mellows, consummating in conjugal love between Radha and Krsna. Finally He told Rupa Gosvami about the ultimate conclusions of Srimad Bhagavatam. By entering the heart of Rupa Gosvami, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu empowered him to ascertain properly the conclusions of all truths. He made him an experienced devotee whose decisions correctly agreed with the verdicts of the disciplic succession. Thus Sri Rupa Gosvami was personally empowered by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. After giving so much instruction, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu advised Sri Rupa to go to Vrndavana. The Lord then departed for Varanasi. With a grievous heart due to separation from the Lord, Sri Rupa and Anupama started for Vrndavana. In Vrndavana, Rupa Gosvami began to write a drama. In particular, he composed the introductory verses to invoke good fortune. On his way to Gauda-desa, Rupa Gosvami had been thinking of how to write the action of the drama. Thus he had made some notes and begun to write. In this way the two brothers Rupa and Anupama reached Bengal, but when they arrived there Anupama passed away. After performing the funeral rites, Rupa Gosvami traveled on. In the province of Orissa, Rupa Gosvami rested for a night at Satyabhama-pura. That night he dreamed that a celestially beautiful woman had come before him and very mercifully gave him the following order. "Write a separate drama about me. By my mercy it will be extraordinarily beautiful." After having this dream, Rupa Gosvami considered, "It is the order of Satyabhama that I write a separate drama for her." Thus absorbed in thought, he quickly reached Jagannatha Puri. When he arrived, he approached the hut of Haridasa Thakura. Out of affectionate love and mercy, Haridasa Thakura told Rupa Gosvami, "Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has already informed me that you would come here." Shortly thereafter the Lord arrived and warmly embraced Rupa. They sat down together and inquired from one another about auspicious news. The Lord asked Rupa about Sanatana. Rupa explained that he had not met Sanatana and informed the Lord of Anupama's disappearance. On the next day, Caitanya Mahaprabhu again met Rupa Gosvami, and with great mercy the Lord introduced him to all the devotees. Every day the Lord would go to see Rupa Gosvami, and whatever prasada He received from the temple He would deliver to Rupa Gosvami and Haridasa Thakura. During the Ratha-yatra ceremony Rupa Gosvami heard a verse uttered by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu during the ceremony, and he immediately composed another verse dealing with the same subject. Only Svarupa Damodara Gosvami knew the purpose for which the Lord

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Caitanya-candra recited that verse. According to the Lord's attitude, he used to quote other verses to enable the Lord to relish mellows. Rupa Gosvami, however, could understand the intention of the Lord, and thus he composed another verse. After writing this verse on a palm leaf, he put it somewhere in his thatched roof and went to bathe in the sea. At that time, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went there to meet him, and when He saw the leaf pushed into the roof and saw the verse, He read it and was overwhelmed by ecstatic love. At that time Rupa Gosvami returned and offered his obeisances. The Lord slapped him mildly in love and said, "My heart is very confidential. How did you know My mind in this way?" Svarupa Damodara said, "I can understand that You have already bestowed Your causeless mercy upon him. No one could otherwise understand this meaning." One day while Rupa Gosvami was writing his book, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu came to the cottage of Haridasa Thakura. The Lord inquired, "What kind of book are you writing?" He held up a palm leaf that was a page of the manuscript, and when He saw the fine handwriting, His mind was very pleased. "The handwriting of Rupa Gosvami is just like rows of pearls," He said. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu ordered Rupa Gosvami to read from his book, Rupa Gosvami, because of great shyness, did not read it but instead remained silent. When the Lord persisted, Sri Rupa read, much to everyone's pleasure. After hearing from him, both Ramananda Raya and Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya said to the Lord, "Without Your special mercy, how could this Rupa Gosvami have understood Your mind?" Ramananda remarked to Sri Rupa, "This drama of yours is a mine of conclusive statements." After four months had passed and the Dola-yatra festival ended, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu bade farewell to Rupa Gosvami. The Lord empowered him and bestowed upon him all kinds of mercy. "Now go to Vrndavana and stay there," the Lord said. "You may send here your elder brother, Sanatana. When you go to Vrndavana, stay there, preach transcendental literature and excavate the lost holy places. Establish the service of Lord Krsna and preach the mellows of Lord Krsna's devotional service. I shall also go to Vrndavana once more." Having thus spoken, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu embraced Rupa Gosvami, who then placed the lotus feet of the Lord upon his head. When Sri Sanatana Gosvami and Sri Rupa Gosvami lived in Vraja, they won the heartfelt affection of all the residents there, who regularly brought the two brothers gifts of curd and milk. The Gosvamis also regarded the inhabitants of Vraja as the dear associates of Lord Krsna. They respected them in that way and were always concerned about their well being. When they visited different areas of Vraja, the inhabitants there did not want them to leave their village. If many days passed without a visit from the Gosvamis, the Vrajavasis would anxiously seek them out. Thus the Vrajavasis were the life of Sri Rupa and Sanatana, and Sri Rupa and Sanatana were the life of the Vrajavasis. The Books of Sri Rupa Gosvami: 1. Hamsaduta 2. Uddhava Sandesa 3. Sri Krsnajanmatithividhi 4. Sri Radha-Krsna-ganoddesa-dipika (Brhad and Laghu) 5. Sri Stavamala 6. Sri Vidagdha Madhava (drama) 7. Sri Lalita Madhava (drama) 8. Danakeli Kaumudi 9. Sri Bhaktirasamrtasindhu 10. Ujjvala Nilamani 11. Prayuktakhyatacandrika

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Caitanya-candra 12. Sri Mathura-mahatmya 13. Padyavali 14. Natakacandrika 15. Samkhepa Bhagavatamrta 16. Samanya Virudavali Laksmana 17. Upadesamrta Rupa Gosvami left this world in 1486 Saka era, 1564 A.D., on the day of Sukla Dvadasi in the month of Sravana (July-August). According to another view, he disappeared in 1490 Saka era, 1568 A.D. 23b. Svarupa Damodara Sri Svarupa Damodara is the eternal associate of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. His previous name was Sri Purusottama Acarya and he was born at Bhitadia to Padmagarbha Acarya. He lived at Navadvipa. He was always present with Mahaprabhu. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu accepted sannyasa, Svarupa Damodara became like a madman and, journeying to Varanasi he also accepted sannyasa from one sannyasi named Caitanyananda. His sannyasa guru ordered him that, "You should yourself study the Vedanta and also teach it to others." Sri Purusottama Acarya didn't accept the garments of sannyasa, but simply gave up his sikha and brahmana thread. Therefore his name became Svarupa (a brahmacari name). Thereafter, by the order of his guru, he came to Nilacala, where he again met Mahaprabhu. Though his scholarship was practically unlimited, he spoke very little with others and preferred to remain alone. Thus very few were aware of his actual position. He was completely conversant with the understanding of the mellows of devotion to Sri Krsna and his body was fully imbued with love for Him. He was as though a second Mahaprabhu. Whenever anyone wanted to present to Mahaprabhu some book, verse or song that they had composed, Svarupa Damodara would first hear what they had written before it could be presented to Mahaprabhu. If these compositions contained any points which were in contradiction to the superior position of bhakti, as concluded in scriptures, then hearing these writings would not be a source of transcendental pleasure for Mahaprabhu. Therefore Svarupa Gosai would first examine what had been composed and if it was untainted then it could be presented to Mahaprabhu. Usually he would recite Sri Gita Govinda, and the writings of Candidasa and Vidyapati, for the transcendental happiness of Mahaprabhu. In music and singing he was like a Gandharva and in knowledge of the sastras he was like Brhaspati. There was no one to compare with him in talent and intelligence. He was extremely dear to Sri Advaita and Nityananda Prabhu and was the life and soul of devotees like Srivasa and others. When Sri Svarupa Damodara arrived in Puri from Kasi (Varanasi) he recited this sloka in praise of Mahaprabhu: "Oh You, who are the personification of mercy - Sri Caitanya. That which very easily causes grief to retreat far away, and which is spotlessly pure; which causes the appearance of the highest happiness, and by whose appearance disputation over the intricacies of scriptural statements ceases; that which causes the spirit to become extremely agitated in ecstatic love, by a shower of grace and beauty; may that extremely expansive and auspicious mercy by its sweetness and dignity shine its rays upon me." (Sri Caitanya Candrodaya Nataka.) Seeing that Svarupa Damodara was offering his dandavats to Him, Mahaprabhu picked him up and as He embraced him he said, "I saw in a dream this morning that you had come. Just

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Caitanya-candra as a blind man finds unlimited happiness by regaining his eyesight, so I am feeling by regaining your association." Svarupa Damodara replied: "Prabhu, please forgive me. By leaving You and running off to Varanasi, I made a great mistake. I don't have even a hint of attachment to your lotus feet, and I have actually become a great sinner by leaving you and going to a distant country. I gave up your association, but You didn't give me up. Binding the rope of mercy around my neck You brought me again to Your lotus feet." [CC Madhya 10] Hearing these words spoken in such humility, Mahaprabhu again embraced him and said: "Krsna is very kind. He has very mercifully brought us together again." Mahaprabhu kept Svarupa Damodara close to Him. Whenever Mahaprabhu became immersed in a particular ecstatic emotion, Svarupa Damodara would perform a kirtan in that particular mood. During this period Raya Ramananda also arrived from Vidyanagara in South India. Thus the two of them, Svarupa Damodara and Ramananda Raya, would enhance the ecstatic moods of Mahaprabhu by singing different songs and reciting various poetic verses. During the day, Mahaprabhu would engage in his pastimes of sankirtan with His devotees, and at night He would taste the mellows of the ecstatic love of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna in the company of these two. As Lalita and Visakha were very intimate with Srimati Radharani, Raya Ramananda and Svarupa Damodara were similarly intimate with Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Mahaprabhu entrusted him to look after and instruct Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. Svarupa Damodara's place of residence in Puri was the "Satasan Math". This is located near Bhaktivinoda Thakura's Bhakti kutir, near the ocean at Svarga Dwar. Svarupa Damodara Gosvami disappeared on the second day of the bright fortnight in the month of Asar. 24. Raghunatha dasa Gosvami Sri Raghunatha dasa took his birth in the village of Sri Krsnapura in the district of Hooghly. His father's name was Sri Govardhana, whose elder brother was Sri Hiranya dasa. Both of them were respectable wealthy land-holders belonging to the Kayastha caste. Their title, which was given by the King, was "Majumdar". In his childhood Sri Raghunatha dasa studied at the house of the priest, Acarya Sri Balarama dasa. Haridasa Thakura was very merciful to Balarama dasa and occasionally visited his house. At these times Raghunatha dasa had the good fortune of relishing Thakura Haridasa's association and listened to philosophical discourses from him. Sri Raghunatha dasa was the only son in the family of Hiranya and Govardhana and there was no limit to the care and affection which was showered upon him. Though he was brought up just like the son of a king, by the powerful influence of saintly devotees, he realized at a very young age that material existence is temporary and a mood of detachment towards wealth, parents and relatives began to grow within him. Upon hearing the glories of Sri Gauranga and Nityananda, he became extremely eager to have darsana of Their lotus feet. When he heard that Sri Gaurasundara had taken sannyasa and was leaving Nadia forever, he rushed madly to the home of Advaita Acarya in Santipura to meet the Lord. Seeing Raghunatha fall at His feet, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu could understand that this was His dearmost eternal associate, and He embraced Raghunatha firmly. Crying, Sri Raghunatha appealed to the Lord, "I will also go with you." But the Lord replied that He

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Caitanya-candra would not take him along at that time, yet upon His return from Vrndavana, Raghunatha should, under any pretext, come to Nilacala to see Him. In CC Antya lila, Sixth Chapter, there is a narration of how Sri Raghunatha dasa was arrested by the Nawab's men and his subsequent release from the bondage of family life. In that chapter there is also a description of the Panihati festival, as well as Raghunatha's pastimes in Jagannatha Puri with Sri Gaurasundara. Sri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami passed his days in the highest happiness, continually bathing in the shower of Mahaprabhu's mercy. But upon the disappearance of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Raghunatha's world grew dark. In separation from their Lord, the devotees' hearts burned with anguish. Raghunatha dasa also burned in that fire of separation, but taking the order of Mahaprabhu on his head, he went to Sri Vrndavana. Previously Sri Sanatana, Sri Rupa, Sri Gopala Bhatta, Sri Raghunatha Bhatta, Sri Lokanatha, Sri Kasisvara, and Sri Bhugarbha Gosvami had already gone to Vrndavana and were living there by the order of the Lord. Though they all burned in the fire of separation, they pacified themselves by gathering together and discussing and writing the conclusions of the teaching of Mahaprabhu. It was the dawn of a golden age in Vraja. Sri Vallabha Acarya also visited Vrndavana at that time. Sri Raghunatha used to reside at Sri Radhakunda. At that time Radhakunda had not yet been excavated, though Raghunatha often meditated upon how to beautify the kunda. Once a wealthy merchant walked the long, difficult road to Sri Badarikasrama. With great devotion he worshiped Sri Badarinarayana and offered a large portion of his wealth in charity. That night Sri Badarinarayana appeared to him in a dream and said, "You should go to the village near Vraja named Arit-grama where you will find my devotee, Sri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. To him you should deliver all your wealth. If he refuses to accept it, tell him I sent you and remind him about restoring Radhakunda." The merchant happily returned to his home and then went on to Vraja where he met Sri Raghunatha and explained everything to him. Astonished, Raghunatha gave him permission to restore both Radhakunda and Syamakunda. On the banks of the kunda grew five trees, which were actually the five Pandavas. Once there was some talk of cutting the trees down, but that night the Pandavas appeared to Raghunatha and forbade the trees to be cut. To this day the trees still grow there. The devotees were overwhelmed with happiness to see the restoration of Sri Radhakunda and Sri Syamakunda. On the outskirts of these two ponds, groves of the Asta-sakhis were planted. Raghunatha did not have a fixed residence, but stayed either on the banks of Sri Radhakunda or on the banks of the Manasa Ganga. At that time both places were surrounded by a fearful jungle inhabited by ferocious tigers and other wild beasts. One day Sri Sanatana Gosvami arrived at the bhajan kutir of Sri Gopala Bhatta Gosvami on the banks of the Manasa Ganga where he would take his midday meal. When going for a bath at Pavan Ghat he saw a tiger very nearby who had just drunk water in the ghat. Just a little further on, Raghunatha dasa sat at the base of a tree deeply absorbed in his bhajan. Sanatana Gosvami was alarmed and requested Raghunatha to practice bhajan in a cottage or hut. From that day on Raghunatha performed his bhajan in his hut. Raghunatha dasa Gosvami was always engaged in worshiping Sri Radha-Govinda within his mind. One day, in his meditation he prepared and offered sweet-rice to Sri Radha and Krsna. In great happiness They and the gopis ate the sweet rice, and he accepted Their remnants. While he was honoring their Lordship's prasada, he was filled with intense love and ate slightly more than what he was accustomed to. The next day, from morning until late afternoon his door remained closed, causing the devotees some concern. After they knocked repeatedly on his door, it finally opened and they saw him lying down. "My health is not good," he explained to Sridasa. The devotees were unhappy and immediately sent word to

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Caitanya-candra Sanatana Gosvami in Mathura. At that time Sri Sanatana was staying at the house of Vallabha Acarya. Upon hearing the news, Vallabhacarya's son, Sri Viththal, sent two doctors to see Raghunatha dasa at Radha-kunda. Seeing his condition the physicians insisted that Raghunatha's illness was the result of eating too much sweet rice. The devotee were dumbfounded by such a suggestion, but eventually understood the mystery. The worship of Raghunatha dasa Gosvami was very wonderful. Kavi Karnapura has written in Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (186) that Sri Raghunatha was Rasamanjari in Krsna lila. According to some other persons he was Ratimanjari or Bhanumati. Raghunatha dasa wrote many books such as: Stavavali, Danacarita, Muktacarita, etc. He also composed many padas. He was born in the Saka era of 1428 and left the world in the Saka era of 1504, on the twelfth day of the bright fortnight in the month of Asvina. (CC 1.10.91-102, 3.6.35-154, Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 186, Premavilasa 16.127) His name has been mentioned in the following texts: Vaisnava Vandana of Jiva Gosvami (149150), of Devakinandana (55), and of Vrndavanadasa (49); Krsnacaitanyacaritam of Murari Gupta 4.17.21; Karnapura's Caitanya Candrodaya Nataka 10.3.; CC (R.G. Nath ed.) 2.1.269. 25. Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami Sri Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami was born in a Nadiya family of physicians at the village of Jhamatpur, within the district of Barddhaman, near Naihati, in 1496 A.D. His father was Sri Bhagiratha, and his mother was Sri Sunanda. He had a younger brother named Syama das. The deity of GauraNityananda installed by Sri Kaviraja Gosvami is still being worshiped there. It appears that his family line is no more. More information about the early life of Sri Kaviraja is available in a book called Anandaratnavali. In Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila chapter five, Sri Kaviraja relates the cause of his leaving family life. Lord Nityananda appeared in his dream and ordered him to go to Vrndavana. He accepted the Gosvamis Sri Rupa, Sri Sanatana, Sri Jiva, Sri Raghunatha, Sri Raghunatha Bhatta and Sri Gopala Bhatta as his instructing spiritual masters. From Sri Lokanatha Gosvami and Sri Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami he begged permission to write Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. Lokanatha directed Sri Kaviraja that he desired to be unmentioned in his book; that is why, in Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, hardly a reference about Lokanatha Gosvami is to be found. Sri Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami compiled the following books still extant: Sri Govindalilamrta, Krsna-karnamrta commentary (Saranga-rangada-tika) and of course, Sri Caitanyacaritamrta. His disappearance is on 12th day of bright fortnight in month of Asvin (the year is not known). 26. Narottama dasa Thakura Kayastha by caste, Narottama was the son of King Krsnananda Datta. Krsnananda was the Zamindar of Gopalpur Pargana in the Rajsahi district of Bangladesh. His capital was located at Kheturi, about a mile northeast of Prematali on the bank of the river Padma, about a distance of twelve miles northwest of Rampur Boalia. Narayani devi was Narottama's mother. Narottama was born about the middle of the fifteenth Saka century (Bhaktiratnakara 1.466468). From his childhood he was extremely attracted to Lord Caitanya. According to some,

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Caitanya-candra after the disappearance of his father, Narottama entrusted his elder paternal uncle's son, Santosa Datta, with the responsibility of the royal duties and left for Vrndavana. Premavilasa 8 narrates as follows: One day while dancing in kirtana at Kanair Natsala village, Lord Caitanya suddenly began calling out the name, "Narottama, Narottama." Tears streamed from the Lord's eyes and He appeared to be restless. After speaking with Nityananda Prabhu the Lord expressed His desire to visit Gaderhat on the bank of the Padma. Mahaprabhu explained to Nityananda that he wanted to deposit the treasure of love of Godhead on the bank of the Padma for Narottama to pick up later. The river Padma then asked the Lord how she would be able to identity Narottama, and the Lord explained that the person whose touch would make her surge up would be none other than Narottama. At the age of twelve Narottama had a dream in which Nityananda Prabhu appeared to him and commanded that he collect the prema which was left in the custody of the river Padma. Early in the morning Narottama went alone to the river Padma to take his bath. As soon as his feet touched her, the river surged forth. Remembering the words of Lord Caitanya the Padma now transferred the treasure to Narottama. Upon receiving this divine love Narottama's bodily complexion changed. His parents tried every means by which keep him with them, but Narottama was drunk with the nectar of Lord Caitanya and Nityananda and could not be kept in check. Leaving behind all worldly bondage Narottama rushed for Vrndavana. Premavilasa 11 explains how Narottama was comforted by the divine touch of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvami, and how he received the grace of his spiritual master Lokanatha Gosvami. After Narottama was initiated by Lokanatha Gosvami, he received all instructions regarding the practice of spiritual life. Narottama was spiritually named Campakamanjari. With the approval of the local Vaisnavas, Jiva Gosvami deputed Srinivasa, Narottama and Syamananda to carry the Gosvamis books to the devotees in Gauda. Although they were properly escorted by protected vehicles and guards, the books were stolen near Vanavisnupur. Srinivasa then sent Narottama to Kheturi and Syamananda to Utkala. Narottama is widely believed to be the incarnation of Nityananda Prabhu. Narottama established his asrama, named Bhajantuli, about two miles away from the capital of Kheturi. Sometime after his return from Vrndavana, Narottama installed six Deities; Lord Gauranga, Vallabhikanta, Lord Krsna, Lord Vrajamohan, Lord Radhamohan and Lord Radhakanta. On the occasion of this installation ceremony Narottama held a grand festival at Kheturi, which is famous amongst all Vaisnavas. Narottama was the first exponent of the Garanhati tradition of kirtana. He arranged this musical tradition in a way as to accommodate all parsada (associates) of both prakata and aprakata lila of Lord Gauranga, which gave immense pleasure to the audience. Narottama Thakura was always engaged in the singing the glories of Sri Gaura and Nityananda. Through his preaching many fallen souls were purified. Ramacandra Kaviraja was a very close companion of Narottama throughout his life (see Bhaktiratnakara and Narottamavilasa for details on Narottama's biography). Among the writings of Narottama, Prarthana and Premabhakticandrika are the most wellknown. The brief write-up titled 'Hatapaltana' is also attributed to Narottama but the contents do not seem to be in harmony with historical events and thus some believe that it is a fake work. From evidence in older manuscripts Haridasa dasa has concluded that the real author was one Ramesvara dasa. Some argue that Narottama wrote Siddhabhakticandrika,

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Caitanya-candra Sadhyapremabhakti, Camatkara candrika, etc., but these are not published works and the few mss. which are available do not seem to be in Narottama's writing style. Narottama did translate Smaranamangala into Bengali verse. In eleven slokas this work describes the pastimes of Radha Krsna in eight parts of the day (astakaliya). See the following Bengali books for further information on Narottama: 1. Narottama dasa O Tahar Racamavali by Niradprasad Nath, Calcutta University, Calcutta. 2. Narottama Dasa by Rammohan Mallik 3. Narottama Thakura Kheturir Nitai by Narendranath Cattopadhyay 4. Narottama-lila va Sri Gaura Premavatara by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami The following is a narration describing the disappearance of Thakura Mahasaya: After taking permission from Narottama, Sri Ramacandra Kaviraja went to Sri Vrndavana, a few months thereafter he breathed his last. When Srinivasa Acarya heard this he could not bear the shock and after a few days he too disappeared. When this news reached Srila Thakura, he was overwhelmed with grief and began singing in a choked voice. He gathered all the devotees around him in the temple of Sri Mahaprabhu and started sankirtana. Slowly the sankirtana party proceeded to the bank of the Ganga. With eyes full of tears, Narottama fell prostrate on the ground and entered into the Ganga to take bath. Sitting knee deep in the water he continued singing loudly, along with Sri Ramakrsna Acarya and Sri Ganganarayana Cakravarti. Narottama requested that they massage his body as he continued singing. As they massaged him, Thakura Mahasaya's body simply merged with the sacred water of the Ganga. Thus on the fifth day of the dark fortnight in the month of Karttika (Oct.-Nov.) he entered into the eternal pastimes of the Lord. 27. Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura The biography of Visvanatha has been translated from the following Bengali publications: Mihir Caudhuri Kamilya, Narahari Cakravarti: Jivani O Racanavali (Life and works of Narahari Cakravarti) Vol. 1: Biography and collected works. Burdwan, University of Burdwan, 1981, pp. 1-15 Narahari Cakravarti writes as follows in Bhaktiratnakara (Pathavadi ms. no. 2341-24, p. 154 ka, "My father, Vipra Jagannatha, was a disciple of the famous Visvanatha Cakravarti." Visvanatha stands as a remarkable example of Bengali intellect. His place in the Vaisnava world remains unsurpassed as far as erudition, theological knowledge, poetic talent and appreciation of rasa. He was worshiped by his contemporaries as an example of unblemished ascetic life and an ideal follower of Ragamarga. Scholars differ in their views regarding Visvanatha's period. According to Syamalala Gosvami it was 1626-1708 A.D. (quoted in the book Caitanyottara Yugera Gaudiya Vaisnava p. 98). Murarilal Adhikari writes in Vaisnava Digdarsani that the period was 1646-1754. Madhusudana Tattvavacaspati guesses that Visvanatha was born around 1633-1638 A.D. (1555-60 Saka) and disappeared around Saka 1625-30 (Sri Krsna Bhavanamrta, introduction p. 4, published in Bhaktiprabha 1335). Both Nikhilnath Roy and Bimanbihari Majumdar hold that Visvanatha was born toward the early part of the 17th century Saka (see Mursidavadera Itihasa p. 308). In Gaurapadatarangini 1st ed. 1310, p. 183, Jagadbandhu Bhadra argues that in 1664 A.D. (Saka 1586) Visvanatha was born. However proper evidence in support of the above arguments is lacking. Visvanatha completed Sararthadarsini in 1704 A.D. (1626 Saka), which he himself states at the conclusion of the book. Thus he must have been alive around 1704 A.D. According to Sukumar Sen, Visvanatha disappeared shortly after 1704 A.D. (see Vangala Sahityera Itihasa Vol. 1, Part 2, 2nd ed., 1965, p. 393)

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Caitanya-candra Visvanatha was born at Devagrama (see ms. of Narottamavilasa at Pathavadi no. 2336 (21), p. 31 kha). Some believe that this village belongs to Kasiganj police station of the Nadia district (Gaurapadatarangini, introduction p. 183; Vaisnava Digdarsani p. 120; Jivanikosa by Sasibhusana Vidyalankar, Vol. 5, p. 1773; Nadia: Svadhinata Rajatajayanti Smarakagrantha, Krsnagore 1973, p. 25). Others argue that Devagrama falls under Sagaradihi police station of the Mursidabad district (see 'Padakarta Harivallabha' by Harekrsna Mukhopadhyay in Ananda Bajara Patrika special Puja no. 1369, p. 276). None of the old mss. record the names of Visvanatha's parents. Pathavadi mss. of 'Narottamavilasa" state that Visvanatha's father's name was Ramanarayana Cakravarti. Visvanatha was the youngest child in the family. His eldest brother was Ramabhadra and the next oldest was Raghunatha. Ramabhadra was an accomplished theologian and a disciple of Gopikanta. This Gopikanta was the son of Hariramacarya, the disciple of Ramacandra Kaviraja who belonged to the spiritual lineage of Srinivasa. The second brother, Raghunatha, was also a great scholar (mss. of 'Narottamavilasa' of Pathavadi no. 2336.21, p. 31 kha). Visvanatha's family was brahmana by caste from the Radha clan, Sandilya gotra, and lineage drawn from Bhattanarayana (see Vaisnavacarya Visvanatha by Nanigopala Gosvami in Bharatavarsa 1351). In the said mss. of 'Narottamavilasa' p. 31 kha, an account is given relating to Visvanatha's birth. It is said that as soon as Visvanatha was delivered a strange halo of light appeared around his body. That light illuminated the entire delivery-room and then disappeared. This account seems to be an interpolation at a later date. Once a highly renowned scholar visited Devagrama and the local pandita's became unnerved upon meeting him. But Visvanatha, a mere adolescent, defeated this scholar in argument. As a child Visvanatha completed his studies at Devagrama and thereafter went to Saidavad. Some say that Visvanatha was educated under Ganganarayana Cakravarti of Saidavad (Premavilasa J.N. Talukdar ed. pp. 206-7), while others argue that Ganganarayana's adopted son Krsnacarana actually taught Visvanatha (H.K. Mukhopadhyaya 'Padakarta Harivallabha'). No evidence in support of these views has yet been found. Radharamana was the name of Visvanatha's diksa guru. Visvanatha himself writes about his spiritual lineage in one sloka of Sararthadarini. In chapters 2-7 of Stavamrtalahari Narahari also gives details on the spiritual lineage or guru-pranali of Visvanatha as follows: Lord Gauranga | Lokanatha | Narottama | Ganganarayana | Krsnacarana | Radharamana (alias Sri Rama) (son & disciple) | Visvanatha Visvanatha's guru and parama-guru belonged to the spiritual lineage of Narottama Thakura. From his childhood Visvanatha was of a detached temperament. At the command of his father, Visvanatha's brother Ramabhadra arranged for Visvanatha's marriage at an early age.

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Caitanya-candra However, through studying Srimad Bhagavatam Visvanatha developed a deep spirit of renunciation. After completing his studies he took spiritual initiation and gradually developed an intense love for Krsna. Finally, one day, he renounced home, took the vow of a renunciate and went to Vrndavana. After visiting several holy places Visvanatha finally sought the shelter of Mukundadasa, a disciple of Krsnadasa Kaviraja on the bank of the Radhakunda. The devotees present there urged this young renunciate to return home, which Visvanatha had to abide by (mss. Narottamavilasa pp. 31-32 ka). Possibly this was the time when Visvanatha went to Patadanja where he is said to have realized his spiritual goal. Visvanatha installed the deity of Gopala (Harekrsna Mukhopadhyaya p. 276) At the command of his guru, Visvanatha went home for one night to meet his wife. His wife, however, heard nothing other than Krsna katha from her husband throughout the night (see mss. Narottamavilasa p. 32 ka). Early the next morning Visvanatha left home and took shelter of his guru. As directed by his guru, Visvanatha began copying Srimad Bhagavatam. Visvanatha settled on the bank of the Radhakunda in Vrndavana. Regarding his spiritual practices Narahari writes as follows, "Being deeply immersed in singing kirtana of the Lord, Visvanatha narrated the pastimes of the Lord in a most fascinating manner. No one is competent enough to speak of his spiritual practices. Anyone who had the good fortune to set his eyes upon Visvanatha felt immediately soothed from the pangs of material existence. Visvanatha served the deity of Sri Gokulananda with great pleasure and devotion." When Visvanatha arrived in Vrndavana he noticed that with the disappearance of the six Gosvamis the beauty of that holy place was no longer visible. A large number of Mathas had been destroyed by the Muslims. Priests migrated from Vrndavana taking away the deities which were in their charge. A number of deities were left standing alone and received no service. And the devotees were in a state of constant fear. People in general were in no mood to devote attention to the study of the scriptures (see Madhurya Kadambini introduction, p. 4, by Satyendranatha Vasu). During his stay in Vrndavana many loyal workers and scholars such as Baladeva Vidyabhusana were deeply impressed upon seeing Visvanatha's devotion, strength of mind and hard working nature. Visvanatha became determined to bring back the lost glory of Vrndavana. The following are some of his achievements. 1. Visvanatha himself installed the Deity of Gokulananda and took charge of serving Govardhana sila. He reinstated different priests to begin the service of the Deities in various places. 2. It was through his initiative that the Sri Vardhana Matha of Kongala and some new Mathas at several other places were set up (Visvakosa V. 19, p. 42). Visvanatha also arranged to renovate a large number of temples. 3. At that time there was little access by the common people to the works of the Gosvamis. This was due to the fact that there were no proper analysis and interpretation of these theological treatises. What Visvanatha did was to prepare simple and lucid commentaries for these works, as well as presenting abridged forms of the original works. This enabled devotees of all types to understand and appreciate the essence of the Gosvamis' works. Visvanatha also arranged for the wide distribution of books which Vaisnavas needed for daily study and spiritual practices. He also organized classes to be held on them to impart instructions. Visvanatha was one of the most accomplished preachers of madhurya-bhava in ragamarga. Regarding sadhana (spiritual achievements), Visvanatha's name is placed after Raghunatha dasa Gosvami, Krsnadasa Kaviraja and Narottama Thakura (CC Sukumar Sen ed. 1.4. p.13).

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Caitanya-candra Visvanatha was an out and out parakiya-vadi. Both in prakata and aprakata lila Visvanatha considered Sri Radha and the gopis as the parakiya heroines of Lord Krsna. Visvanatha had deep faith in the astakaliya nitya-lila described by Kavi Karnapura and Krsnadasa Kaviraja (Padavaliparicaya 2nd ed. pp. 86-87). Apart from practicing smarana (remembrance), manana (contemplation) and sankirtana, Visvanatha remained deeply absorbed in the service of Radha Krsna with loyalty to the Vrajavasis. Due to his own success in practice and realization, Visvanatha was able to write beautifully describing the proper method for astakaliya nitya-lila, a unique analysis of ragamarga sadhana, detailed descriptions of Radha Krsna lila, details on the sadhana practiced by sakhi-manjari or kinkari, the mystic significance of bhajan and the method of bhajan. Another remarkable achievement of Visvanatha's was to establish Gaudiya Vaisnavism and its theology through Baladeva Vidyabhusana, Visvanatha's close follower, at the meeting of Vaisnavas held at Galta, Jaipur in 1718 A.D. (Saka 1640) (see CC introduction 4th ed. p. 396, also Baladeva Siddhantaratna, Gopinatha Kaviraja ed., introduction). As a youth in Saidavad Visvanatha set up a Sanskrit school and accepted a teaching career. In order to help the students to learn easily Visvanatha wrote a simplified commentary titled 'Suvodhini' on Kavi Karnapura's Alamkara Kaustubha. This is said to be Visvanatha's first literary work. Upon his arrival in Vrndavana, Visvanatha sought the refuge of Mukundadasa. This Mukunda dasa was a poet and disciple of Krsnadasa Kaviraja. Mukunda dasa had some books to be completed. Noting Visvanatha's devotion and erudition, he thus requested Visvanatha to complete those books. Pathavadi mss. Narottamavilasa p. 32 ka, refers to this but does not give the names of the works. In Vrndavana Visvanatha's literary talent blossomed and beautiful compositions began to flow like many streams of nectar. His complete works can be classified under four groups: 1) Commentary works (Tika Grantha): At that time most of the manuals and other books which Vaisnavas needed to consult daily were full of difficult theological concepts mostly written in Sanskrit. This made it difficult for the lay-devotee to study and understand the proper conclusions. To remove these obstacles Visvanatha wrote simple Sanskrit commentaries on many of the Gosvamis' works. Titles of such commentaries are as follows: 1) Sararthadarsini (1704 A.D.) - tika on Srimad Bhagavatam 2) Sararthavarsini - tika on Bhagavad-gita 3) Sri Caitanya-caritamrtera tika (the first commentary in Sanskrit on a Bengali book) 4) Brahmasamhitara tika 5) Anandacandrika - tika on Ujjvala-nilamani of Rupa Gosvami 6) Bhakti-sara-pradarsani - tika on Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu of Rupa Gosvami 7) Prema-bhakti-candrika-kirana - a Sanskrit tika on Narottama's Prema-bhakti-candrika 8) Sukhavartini - a tika on Kavi Karnapura's Ananda-vrndavana-campu 9) Mahati - tika on Danakeli Kaumudi of Rupa Gosvami 10) Bhakta-harsini - tika on Gopalatapani 11) Hamsaduta tika - tika on Rupa Gosvami's Hamsadutam 12) Tika on Rupa Gosvami's Vidagdha-madhava 13) Lalita-madhavera tika Some scholars argue that the tika on Lalita-madhava and Vidagdha-madhava were not works of Visvanatha. They say that Krsnadeva Sarvabhauma, a disciple of Visvanatha, was the writer of the Vidagdha-madhava tika, while Radhakrsna dasa, a disciple of Jiva Gosvami wrote the tika of Lalita-madhava (see Haridasa dasa Gaudiya Vaisnava Abhidhana, p. 1751-52, 1745) 2) Abridged Works:

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Caitanya-candra Visvanatha felt that many of the Vaisnava works were difficult for the lay-devotee to grasp. He therefore extracted the most relevant information and presented an abridged form of various selected books. Three of these are works of Rupa Gosvami as shown below: 1) Kirana i.e Ujjvala-nilamani-kirana on Ujjvala-nilamani 2) Vindu i.e Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu-vindu on Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 3) Kana i.e. Bhagavatamrta-kana on Laghu-bhagavatamrta 3) Original Works: Visvanatha's thoughts had originality and depth. He was gifted with the talent of communicating deep philosophical concepts in a simple way, while keeping the unique characteristics of Radha Krsna lila in tact. Most of his original works relate to sadhana-bhajan as follows: 1) Sri Krsna-bhavanamrta (1679 A.D.): describes astakaliya nitya-lila of Radha Krsna 2) Ragavartmacandrika: a guide to and an account of raganuga bhakti and its methods 3) Madhurya-kadambini: reveals the subtle concepts on rupa and madhurya of Lord Krsna 4) Aisvarya Kadambini: a scriptural account of Lord Krsna's aisvarya (opulence) 5) Camatkara-candraka: mystic sports of Radha Krsna 6) Gopipremamrta: reveals the love of the gopis and concepts regarding svakiya and parakiya 7) Mantrartha-dipika: explanation of kamabija and kamagayatri mantras 8) Vraja-riti-cintamani: describes the sites of Lord Krsna's Vraja-lila 9) Prema-samputa (1684 A.D.): describes madhurya of Radha 10) Sankalpa-kalpadruma (1678 A.D.): describes prayers to Sri Radha to grant sevavrtti 11) Nikunja-keli-virudavali (1678 A.D.): describes the sports of Radha Krsna in the kunja 12) Surata-kathamrta (1678 A.D.): description of the pastimes of Radha Krsna in the quiet of midnight. Some other works by Visvanatha are written like hymns. These reveal Visvanatha's genuine devotion and reverence for his superiors, cherished Deities, and the holy places of Lord Krsna's pastimes. The following is a list of these works: 1) Sriman Mahaprabhorastakaliya Smaranamangalastotram: A guide book describing Lord Gauranga's astakaliya lila. 2) Sri Gauranganoddesa-candrika: A brief account on the close associates of Lord Gauranga (a similar manuscript of Visvanatha's dealing with the associates of Lord Gauranga is available in the collection of Barahanagar--Sri Gauranga Granthamandir--the title of the said mss. is Gauraganasvarupa-tattvacandrika, no. 230 B 17) 3) Stavamrta-lahari: This is one of the best works of hymns. It consists of a total of 28 hymns which deal with the guru, the poet's own guru, paramaguru, paratparaguru, Narottama, Lokanatha, Sri Caitanya, Vaisnava acaryas, etc. Then invocation of the mercy of the famous Deities Gopaladeva, Madanagopala, Govindadeva, Gopinatha, Gokulananda and Lord Krsna; invocation of the grace of Radha and Vrnda devi; hymns in praise of various lila sites such as Vrndavana, Nandisvara, Krsnakunda, etc. 4) Padavali Samkalam (compilation of Vaisnava poems) 5) Ksanada-gita-cintamani (known briefly as 'Ksanada' or 'Gitacintamani'). [Ksanada-gita-cintamani mss. Pathavadi no. 2615 (24 ga), 2613 (24 ka), oldest edition 1282 (1875 A.D.). See Vangala Sahityera Itihasa V. 1, Pt. 1, p. 393] 2nd edition 1315 Vrndavana Kesighat (Krsnapada dasa Babaji) 3rd edition (?) Nitaipada Dasa 4th edition (1332) Nityasvarupa Brahmacari, Calcutta 5th edition (1369) Bimanabihari Majumdar, General Library

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Caitanya-candra While compiling this Ksanada-gita-cintamani containing selected Vaisnava poems Visvanatha had in mind that devotees of raganuga marga may every night perform or listen to nama-guna etc. of their cherished Deities. Earlier some attempts were made to prepare compilations of Vaisnava poems to some extent by Ramagopala dasa of Srikhanda in his 'Sri Sri Radhakrsnarasa-kalpavalli', by his son Pitamvaradasa in 'Rasamanjari' and Mukundadasa, a disciple of Krsnadasa Kaviraja in 'Siddhantacandrodaya'. However it was Visvanatha who first prepared this first compilation. In fact Ksanada is considered "the first perfect Padavali compilation" (Vangala Sahityera Itihasa V. 1, Pt. 2, 2nd ed., p. 102 b 393). The first part of Ksanada is available, but it is thought that Visvanatha disappeared before the later part was completed. Dr. Sukumar Sen argues that this compilation was done before 1704 A.D. (see Gaudiya Vaisnava Sadhana by Harekrsna Mukhopadhyay, 1st ed. p. 136). In this book Visvanatha used the bhanita of 'Harivallabha' or 'Vallabha' on those poems composed by him. Recently the second part of Ksanada, compiled by Manohara dasa, was found and published (Ksanada-gita-cintamani: Manoharadasa, published by Radhakrsna dasa, Kusumsarovar, P.O. Radhakunda, Mathura). This mss. contains the first to the seventeenth section of Ksanada. It was available from Advaitacarana Gosvami, the priest of Radharamana of Vrndavana. Haridasa dasa gives information in Gaudiya Vaisnava Abhidhana Vol. 3, p. 1484 that a similar manuscript is available in the collection of Nimbarka sampradaya. Bimanbihari Majumdar argues as follows: "Since Visvanatha compiled Vaisnava poems for the Bengalis to enjoy he titled them 'Purva Vibhaga' (eastern section) and his contemporary, Manohara dasa, the writer of Anuragavalli, compiled for the readers of western India and hence titled it 'Pascima Vibhaga' (western section)." In the second compilation there are twenty one poems of Manohara dasa, along with those of Haridasa Svami etc. Several of Manoharadasa's poems deal with Lord Gauranga. This compilation consists of Hindi poems. In the 'Pascima Vibhaga' there are six Hindi poems written by Visvanatha, who gave the bhanitas of Harivallabha or Vallabha. The Purva Vibhaga of Visvanatha consists of a total of thirty Ksanada or themes. These themes are fitted each for thirty nights from the first night of the dark fortnight of one lunar month till the day of the new moon and from the first day of the bright fortnight till the night of the full moon. Varying in size, eight have small and sixteen have big padas. A total of 308 pada are found in Purva Vibhaga containing the bhanita of 48 known and unknown poets (of these the compiler has 53 padas - 40 with the bhanita of Harivallabha and 13 with the bhanita of Vallabha). Some hold that Harivallabha was the name of Visvanatha's guru. Some argue that Harivallabha was the sannyasa name of Visvanatha. However neither of these ideas is supported by evidence. In 'Gitavali' part of the book Stavamrta-lahari of Visvanatha, out of eleven Sanskrit padas two have bhanita of Harivallabha and four have the bhanita of Vallabha. In 'Mantrartha-dipika' Sri Radha addresses Visvanatha in a state of dream as Harivallabha. Narahari, the son of Visvanatha's disciple, clearly writes that Harivallabha was the name of Visvanatha. Each Ksanada or section is arranged in such a manner as it could be sung for one night. First there is Gaura Vandana, then follows Nityananda Vandana and concludes with poems of milana (comedy) or sambhaga. In between there are poems/lyrics dealing with abhisara, or aksepanuraga and rasa. All these compositions relate to madhurya rasa. None of these deal with sakhya, vatsalya or even themes relating to Mathura. This compilation was made with a view to serving aspirants with manjari-bhava eager to enjoy Vrajarasa. Though Visvanatha was a highly imaginative poet he was a perfect erudite too. He never liked to compose poems in a simple, unadorned manner. Sanskrit expression,

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Caitanya-candra rhetorically rich language, chiming words and waves of rhythm enriched his poems which were equally rich with fascinating themes and deep rasa. Visvanatha had an extraordinary command of Vrajvuli, Hindi and Sanskrit. In all three languages Visvanatha composed a total of seventy padas of which the ones in Sanskrit are the best. It seems that Visvanatha's poems were not appreciated by his contemporaries. Hence in later compilation not many of Visvanatha's poems are found. In Padamrtasamudra of Radhamohana Thakura, almost a contemporary of Visvanatha, there was not any pada of Visvanatha's. The reason for this was that Radhamohana compiled the poems in Bengal while Visvanatha was in Vrndavana. Neither can any pada of Visvanatha's be found in Sankirtanamrta, a compilation by Dinabandhu dasa belonging to a bit later period. Among other compilations of padas there are five padas of Visvanatha's in the total 1169 pada in Gitacandrodaya compiled by Narahari Cakravarti, one pada of Visvanatha's out of a total of 1119 pada compiled in Kirtanananda of Gaurasundara dasa, and three pada of Visvanatha's out of 3101 total pada compiled in Vaisnava dasa's Padakalpataru. When critically evaluated as poetry Visvanatha's works do not rank in the first category although critics have praised most of his padas (see introduction by Bimanbihari Majumdar ed. Ksanadagitacintamani). Judged from the standpoint of the preceding Vaisnava acaryas and the quality of rasa, Visvanatha undoubtedly contributed immensely in leading Gaudiya Vaisnavism and sadhana bhakti forward. Most of the difficult treatises of Rupa Gosvami were presented by Visvanatha to devotees sometimes by adding simple commentaries and sometimes by preparing abridged editions. Devotees hailed Visvanatha as 'the second svarupa of Rupa' or as 'avatara of Rupa'. Among the devotees of Visvanatha nothing much is known about others except Krsnadasa (see mss. N. Vilasa p. 33 kha), Kanudasa, Nandakisora (see Rasakalika ed. Haridasa dasa, p. 82, p. 154). Some think that Krsnadeva Sarvabhauma was a disciple of Visvanatha. Baladeva Vidyabhusana, a disciple of Radhadamodara, revered Visvanatha deeply as his guru. Visvanatha stands as a remarkable outcome of Bengali intellect in 17th-18th century as poet, musician, thinker, theologian, scholar and above all a devotee and preacher. 28a. Baladeva Vidyabhusana Baladeva Vidyabhusana was a highly renounced, pure devotee, who had not even a fraction of desire for name or fame. He compiled many books in order to benefit mankind. However he never mentioned his birth place or anything about his family background and therefore the details are not known for sure. Historians have estimated that he was born sometime in the eighteenth century, most probably in Orissa (possibly near Remuna). At a very early age he finished his studies of grammar, poetry, rhetoric and logic and then went on pilgrimage. During this time he spent some time with the Tattvavadis in South India and thus became conversant with the teachings of Sri Madhvacarya. He became a powerful exponent of this philosophy throughout India. During his travels he again came to Utkaladesa (Orissa) and met with a grand-disciple of Sri Rasikananda Deva, Sri Radha-Damodara Deva by name, with whom he discussed philosophy. Sri Radha-Damodara Deva explained the conclusions of Gaudiya Vaisnava philosophy as expounded by Sri Gaurasundara and requested him to consider the unlimited mercy of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. These talks penetrated his heart and awakened divine love within. Thus, after a few days he was initiated with Radha-Krsna mantra and began to study the Satsandarbha of Sri Jiva Gosvami.

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Caitanya-candra In a very short time he became very expert in Gaudiya Vaisnava philosophy. With the permission and blessings of his guru, he moved to Sri Vrndavana dhama to further study these teachings under Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura. Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura was extremely pleased to see the humble and gentle nature and the renunciation and profound mastery of the Vedas that characterized Baladeva. He carefully instructed him in acintya-bhedabheda-tattva. Baladeva fully accepted the Gaudiya Vaisnava philosophy and began to preach it with great vigor. Around this time, the members of the Sri sampradaya began to raise some arguments in the court of the king at Jaipur. They complained that as the Gaudiya Vaisnavas had no commentary on the Vedanta-sutra, they were not qualified to worship the Deity and therefore the worship should be turned over to the Sri sampradaya. They also objected to the worship of Srimati Radharani along with Sri Sri Govinda-Gopinatha as not being authorized anywhere in the sastras. The king, Sadacari Raja, was initiated within the Gaudiya sampradaya. Thus he quietly sent word to Vrndavana, informing the devotees there of what had happened. But at the same time the king was obliged to remove Radharani from the Deity room as well as suspend the Bengali Gaudiya Vaisnava pujaris from partaking in the Deity worship. At that time Visvanatha Cakravartipada was very aged, so it was not possible for him to make the journey to Jaipur. In his place he sent his student, Sri Baladeva, who was fully conversant with the sastras and thus able to competently face the challenge. In a great assembly he posed such forceful arguments to the followers of Ramanuja that they could not reply to them. He further explained to them, "The originator of the Gaudiya Vaisnava sampradaya, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, has accepted Srimad Bhagavatam as the natural commentary on the Vedantasutra, as composed by Srila Vyasadeva Himself. This is proven in the Sat-sandarbha." The scholars in the assembly, however, refused to accept anything other than a direct commentary on the sutra. Having no other recourse, Baladeva promised to present them with one. Feeling very aggrieved, Sri Baladeva came to Sri Govindaji's mandira and after offering his prostrated obeisances, informed Sri Govinda of everything that had happened. That night the Lord appeared to him in a dream and instructed him to write a commentary on the Vedantasutra. "I will dictate to you what to write and therefore no one will be able to refuse to accept it." Having seen such a wonderful dream, Baladeva was totally enlivened and felt renewed strength flow into his heart. Thus he began to write, and within a few days completed the commentary which was titled 'Sri Govinda Bhasya'. Bringing the commentary with him, Sri Baladeva again came to the assembly of the Ramanandi scholars. After reading the commentary they were simply speechless. Thus the victory of the Gaudiya sampradaya was announced far and wide and the king, as well as the other devotees, began to float in the ocean of bliss. The scholars then bestowed upon Sri Baladeva the title 'Vidyabhusana'. vidya rupam bhusanam me pradaya kyatim nitya tena yo mamudarah sri govinda svapna nirdista bhaso radha bandhubandhurangah sa jiyat "May He Who so mercifully and munificently was kind towards me, and bestowed His favour by ordering me in a dream to write down His own commentary, which He would compose, and which attained such renown amongst the learned circles that they bestowed upon me the

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Caitanya-candra title 'Vidyabhusana'; may that dear friend of Srimati Radharani, who holds Him dearer than Her own life, be glorified. May that Sri Govinda be glorified." This assembly took place in the year 1640 Sakabda (1718 A.D.), at Galta near the present city of Jaipur. Baladeva Vidyabhusana installed the Deity of Vijaya Gopala there at Galta Mandira, but the whereabouts of this Deity are at present not known. From this day the Maharaja of Jaipur announced that Sri Govinda's arati would be performed first and then the other temples could perform their aratis. After accepting defeat, the Ramanandi scholars expressed their desire to accept initiation from Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana. However, he declined their request by stating that amongst the four authorized sampradayas, the Sri sampradaya was highly respectable and the foremost adherent of dasya-bhakti (devotion in servitorship). If there was any cause of loss of respect to the sampradaya this might be considered an offense. Returning from Jaipur to Vrndavana, Sri Baladeva presented the certificate of victory to Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura and narrated all of the events that had transpired. All of the devotees were in great ecstasy to receive this news and Cakravartipada bestowed his full blessings on Sri Baladeva. At this time, Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana began to write a commentary on Jiva Gosvami's Sat-sandarbha. Sri Jaya and Sri Vijaya Govinda, residing at Gokulananda Mandira in Vrndavana, were worshiped by Baladeva Vidyabhusana personally. According to the opinion of some devotees, the Deities of Syamananda Prabhu, Sri Sri Radha-Syamasundara, were installed by Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana. After Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura finished his pastimes in this world, Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana became the next acarya of the Gaudiya Vaisnava sampradaya. At the end of Vedanta-syamantaka, Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana acknowledges his spiritual master thusly: "I have been sent here to Vrndavana by one brahmana guru, Sri RadhaDamodara Deva, to present a composition named Vedanta-syamantaka, composed by his mercy for the pleasure of Srimati Radharani." Baladeva Vidyabhusana became known later as Sri Govinda dasa. He had two well-known disciples: Sri Vidya dasa and Sri Nandan Misra. He is the compiler of the following books: Sri Govinda-bhasya, Siddhanta-ratna, Sahityakaumudi, Vedanta-syamantaka, Prameya-ratnavali, Siddhanta-darpana, Kavya-kaustubha, Vyakarana-kaumudi, Pada-kaustubha, Isadi-upanisad bhasya, Gitabhusana-bhasya, Sri Visnunamasahasra-bhasya, Sanksepa-bhagavatamrta-tippani-saranga-rangada, Tattvasandarbha-tika, Stava-mala-vibhusana-bhasya, Nataka-candrika-tika, Candraloka-tika, Sahitya-kaumudi-tika, Krsna-nandini, Srimad-Bhagavata-tika, Vaisnava-nandini, Govindabhasya-suksma-tika, Siddhanta-ratna-tika, Stava-mala-tika, Bhasya-pithaka, commentaries on Gopala Campu, Krsna-bhavanamrta, Samsaya-satini, etc. 28b. Jagannatha dasa Babaji Jagannatha dasa Babaji was born in the Mayamanasimha district of West Bengal. Gaudiya Vedanta-acarya Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana had a disciple named Uddhava dasa. His disciple was Sri Madhusudana dasa Babaji who lived in Suryakunda. Madhusudana dasa Babaji's disciple was Jagannatha dasa Babaji. Jagannatha dasa Babaji was very austere; he never hesitated to fast without taking any water for three days at a stretch. He used to sit up the entire night chanting the holy name and at early dawn finish his ablutions. In the morning he took prasada of curd and flat rice.

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Caitanya-candra The following is a list of disciples of Siddha Jagannatha dasa Babaji: 1. Biharidasa Babaji 2. Bhagavata dasa Babaji 3. Gaurahari dasa Babaji 4. Ramahari dasa Babaji 5. Ramadasa Babaji 6. Nityananda dasa Babaji, a resident of Varsana 7. Harekrsna dasa Babaji, a resident of Kadamakhandi Jagannatha dasa Babaji lived in Vrndavana and performed his bhajan there for quite some time. Once he asked his servant Biharidasa to locate a Deity to install there. Biharidasa personally approached a weaver-caste Zamindar to help him in this regard. The Zamindar thus arranged to bring Deities of Gaura-Nitai from Dainhata and gave them to Biharidasa. Nitai-Gaura looked so beautiful when They were installed that it appeared as if They were made of gold. On the occasion of the installation ceremony a sum of Rs. 3,000 was spent to feed the Vaisnavas of Suryakunda and Radhakunda. One day a band of dacoits approached him with the motive of stealing the Deities which they thought were made of gold. He told them that he possessed nothing and they might look into the temple for booty. The dacoits broke open the temple door and quickly gathered up everything they could find, including the Deities. However, in rushing to make their escape they stumbled on the door step and dropped the Deities. Seeing that the sun had risen outside the dacoits left the Deities and rushed off with the rest of the booty. After this incident he asked Biharidasa to arrange for the Deities to be cared for by someone else. Biharidasa carried the Deities to Vrndavana where he handed Them over, along with Rs. 2,000, to Mother-Gosvamini, a resident of Gayespur in the district of Maldaha. At present these Deities are residing at Dhopapada in Gopalbag and are known as "Sonara Gaura". Sometime later he again asked Biharidasa to locate another Deity for him. Biharidasa found a Deity of the six-armed Lord Caitanya which had been kept hidden in a bag of cattle-feed. This Deity belonged to Dinu Babaji, a Manipuri Vaisnava residing in Mathura near Radhakunda. Biharidasa brought the Deity to Vrndavana where he cleansed and decorated Him, then carried the Deity, along with all items for worship, to Suryakunda. For ten years thereafter Babaji Maharaja worshiped this Deity until one day he said, "Bihari, please put this Deity in the care of someone else in Vrndavana. I would like to go to Navadvipa. Let my body be offered at the lotus feet of Lord Gauranga." Biharidasa brought the Deity to Vrndavana and after receiving a donation of Rs. 25 from Mother-Gosvamini of Gayespur handed over the Deity as well as the money to Narottama dasaji, the head of the Gopalaguru Matha. At present this Deity is being served at the lane of Nidhuvana. In 1880 Bhaktivinoda Thakura went to Vrndavana and saw him for the first time. While there, he received many instructions on Hari-bhakti from Jagannatha dasa. Some time later, Babaji Maharaja visited the Barddhaman district during the month of Phalguna. He stayed at a town called Amalajora. At that time, Bhaktivinoda Thakura again had the good fortune to take his darsana. Seeing Bhaktivinoda Thakura's enthusiasm for preaching the holy name of Krsna, Babaji Maharaja was very happy. He stayed in Amalajora during ekadasi, and that night there was kirtan and Hari-katha. Later, at Amalajora, Bhaktivinoda Thakura established his Prappanaasrama.

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Caitanya-candra In 1893 Babaji Maharaja went from Koladvipa to Surabhi-kunja in Godrumadvipa. There he took his seat. His arrival in Surabhi-kunja was a wonderful event. Jagannatha dasa Babaji revealed many lost holy places in Mayapura, including the Yogapitha, Srivasa Angana, and others. It is said that when he came upon the holy place of Mahaprabhu's birth he danced, although he was very old and walked with difficulty. For some time he remained in Nadia and performed his bhajan on the banks of the Ganges. His bhajan kutir and samadhi mandir are still there at present. He ordered Bhaktivinoda Thakura to build a hut so devotees could stay near his bhajan kutir, and Bhaktivinoda did so. When Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura was twelve years old, he was an expert in the Jyotisastras explaining Vedic astrology. Hearing this, Babaji Maharaja one day called upon him to prepare the Vaisnava calendar in accordance with the proper siddhanta. He did so and Babaji Maharaja was very pleased. With this, the Navadvipa Panjika, the Vaisnava calendar recording the dates of the appearance and disappearance of important Vaisnava saints and the celebration of important festivals, began. Babaji Maharaja always had great enthusiasm for kirtan and Vaisnava seva. Even when he was nearly 135 years old, he went on preaching the message of Sri Caitanya throughout the world for the benefit of the fallen masses. In his old age, although he was almost paralyzed by infirmity, whenever it was time for kirtana he would still raise his arms in ecstasy. Jagannatha dasa Babaji was the vesa, or Babaji, guru of Bhagavata dasa Babaji Maharaja. Bhagavata dasa in turn gave the dress of a babaji to Gaurakisora dasa Babaji. Jagannatha dasa Babaji's servant's name was Biharidasa. He was extremely strong and powerful. In his old age, Babaji Maharaja could not walk and Biharidasa used to carry him in a basket on his shoulders. When he went to Calcutta, Babaji Maharaja would stay at the house of Bhaktivinoda Thakura on Manikatala Street. Bhaktivinoda was always very eager to invite him to his house for prasada, but Babaji Maharaja was very renounced and would come only occasionally. When he was in his old age, Babaji Maharaja was nearly blind. Many people would come to see him and to offer him donations for the service of Sri Krsna. His servant Biharidasa would keep all these donations in a bag. One day, Babaji Maharaja said, "Bihari! How many rupees have I got?" Biharidasa had put some rupees aside for some service he had planned to render Babaji Maharaja. When asked about how many rupees were on hand, Bihari placed some rupees in his hand and kept twelve rupees aside. Even though his eyesight was failing, however, Babaji Maharaja detected the discrepancy. "Bihari!," he said, "Why have you kept twelve rupees aside? Give me all the rupees!" Smiling at this fun, Bihari surrendered the remaining coins to his guru. At that time, Babaji Maharaja made his wishes known as to how the money should be spent. The total came to two hundred rupees. Babaji Maharaja ordered Biharidasa to take the money at once and buy sweetballs, rasagulas, and feed all the cows in Navadvipa dhama. Once Babaji Maharaja was on the banks of the Ganges, living under a makeshift canvas tent. Nearby that place there lived a dog with five puppies. Whenever Babaji Maharaja would take prasada, the dogs would come around and lick the food from his plate. When Biharidasa caught hold of one of the dogs to drive it off, Babaji Maharaja told him: "Bihari! If you wish to drive these dogs off, you may take my plate away as well. I shall not eat today." When Bihari complained, "But guru maharaja, these dogs are unclean!" Babaji Maharaja remarked, "No. These dogs are residents of the holy dhama. You may not abuse them." Many people used to come and beg alms from Jagannatha dasa Babaji. He did not want to give them alms, but told them to do service. One day a man named Sri Gaura Hari dasa came and asked Jagannatha dasa Babaji for alms, but Babaji Maharaja would give him nothing.

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Caitanya-candra When the man persisted for three days, fasting outside Babaji Maharaja's tent, Babaji Maharaja finally relented. He tore off a piece of his kaupina (undergarment) and gave it to Biharidasa, his servant, with the instruction to present it to the beggar as alms, thereby informing the beggar that he must first learn to control his senses before taking up the profession of a saint. One day Babaji Maharaja remarked about the professional readers of Srimad-Bhagavatam, "This kind of professional Bhagavata kirtana is simply prostitution. Those who make their living by reading Srimad-Bhagavatam are offenders to the holy name of Krsna. No one should listen to the kirtana and Bhagavatam readings that they produce. And one who listens to such offensive readings and thus commits offenses against the holy name of Krsna certainly goes to hell. Those who are involved in this professional reading should immediately give it up. Such a person should worship the residents of Vrndavana with great care and attention, considering himself most fallen, and thus pray for forgiveness." In Navadvipa Jagannatha dasa Babaji preferred to live beneath a tree where now the bhajan kutir of Biharidasa stands. Later Biharidasa bought ten cottahs of land from Madhava Datta for Rs. 40. That plot had a huge ditch in it which Bihari filled up by carrying earth from the Ganges at night after Jagannatha dasa went to bed. Sometime later Kedaranatha Datta Bhaktivinoda arrived there and both he and Biharidasa sought bhiksa from Nafar Pal Chowdhury of Mahesaganj and raised two shades. Awhile later, with the approval of Jagannatha dasa, Rajarsi Banamali Raya Bahadur built three small rooms and fenced them in with a surrounding wall. The aged Manamohini dasi, a resident of Kaigrama, arranged to dig a well. He lived here for 32 years until his disappearance at the age of 147 years. Srimad Bhaktivinoda Thakura remarked of Jagannatha dasa Babaji Maharaja that he was the topmost general among Gaudiya Vaisnavas. 29. Bhaktivinoda Thakura Bhaktivinoda Thakura was born on Sunday, Sept. 2, 1838 in Biranagara (Ulagrama) in the Nadia district of Bengal. He was the seventh son of Raja Krsnananda Datta, a great devotee of Lord Nityananda. He was also known as the great grandson of Madana Mohana and the third son of his Godfather Anandacandra. He would be known as daitya-kulera prahlada (Prahlada in the family of demons). This was because Vaisnavism was not very much respected in his family; on his mother's side, there was no respect for Vaisnavism at all. He was named Kedaranatha Datta by his Godfather. His childhood was spent at the mansion of his maternal grandfather Mustauphi Mahasaya, in Biranagara. His environment at this time was very opulent. He got his elementary education at the primary school started by his grandmother. Later he attended an English school in Krsnanagara, started by the King of Nadia; he left that school when his older brother died unexpectedly of cholera. When he was 11 years old, his father passed away. Subsequently, the grant of land that had been conferred upon his grandmother changed owners; at this time the family fell into a condition of poverty - their great wealth proved to be illusory. Still, Kedaranatha Datta passed over these difficulties with great endurance. His mother arranged a marriage for him when he was 12 (in the year 1850) to the 5 year old daughter of Madhusudana Mitra Mahasaya, a resident of Rana Ghata. Around this time Kedaranatha's uncle Kasiprasada Ghosh Mahasaya Thakura, who had mastered British education, came to Ulagrama after the death of his maternal grandfather. He

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Caitanya-candra schooled young Kedaranatha at his home in Calcutta; this was at first resisted by the boy's mother, but by the time he was 13 he was allowed to go to the big city. His uncle's house was situated in the Heduya district of central Calcutta. Kasiprasada was the central figure of the literary circle of his time, being the editor of the Hindu Intelligencer newspaper; many writers came to him to learn the art of writing in correct English. Kedaranatha assisted Kasiprasada by judging manuscripts submitted to the newspaper. Kedaranatha studied Kasiprasada's books and also frequented the public library. He attended Calcutta's Hindu Charitable Institution high school and became an expert English reader, speaker, and writer. Kedaranatha became ill from the salty water of Calcutta. He returned to Ulagrama and was treated by a Muslim soothsayer who predicted that the village of Biranagara would soon become pestilence-ridden and deserted. The Muslim also predicted Kedaranatha would become recognized as a great devotee of Lord Krsna. In the year 1856, when he was 18, Kedaranatha entered college in Calcutta. He started writing extensively in both English and Bengali; these essays were published in local journals. He also lectured in both languages. He studied English literature at this time extensively, and taught speechmaking to a person who later became a well-known orator in the British Parliament. Between the years 1857-1858 he composed a two part English epic entitled "The Poriade", which he planned to complete in 12 books. These two books described the life of Porus, who met Alexander the Great. Dvijendranatha Thakur, the eldest son of Maharsi Devendranatha Tagore and brother of the Nobel Prize winning poet Rabindranatha Tagore, was Kedaranatha's best friend during these years. He assisted Kedaranatha in his studies of Western religious books. Kedaranatha used to call Dvijendranatha "baro dada", or big brother. He was very taken by Christian theology, and found it more interesting than Hindu monism. He would spend many hours comparing the writings of Channing, Theodore Parker, Emerson and Newman. At the end of 1858 Kedaranatha returned to Biranagara and found that the Muslim soothsayer's prediction about that place had come true: it was ruined and deserted. Kedaranatha brought his mother and paternal grandmother with him to Calcutta. Soon after he went to Orissa to visit his paternal grandfather, Rajavallabha Datta, formerly an important Calcutta gentleman who was now living as an ascetic in the Orissan countryside. His days were coming to a close, and he wanted Kedaranatha to be with him when he departed this world. After receiving his grandfather's last instructions, he traveled to all the monasteries and temples in the state of Orissa. Kedaranatha began to consider the question of the means of his livelihood. He was not interested in business, as he'd seen how the "necessary dishonesty" of the trade world had morally weakened the merchant class. He decided to become a school teacher. He established a school for English education in the village of Kendrapara near Chutigrama, in Orissa, thus becoming a pioneer in English teaching in that state. He also could see the oppressive power wielded by the landowners of Chutigrama. After some time he went to Puri and passed a teacher's examination; he got a teacher's post in a Cuttack school and later became headmaster of a school in Bhadraka and then in Madinipura. His work was noted by the schoolboard authorities. In Bhadraka, his first son Annada Prasada (Acyutananda) was born, in 1860. He published a book that year in English that described all the asramas and temples in the state; this book received favorable mention in the work called "Orissa" by British historian Sir William Hunter. Hunter praised Kedaranatha's moral and religious character. As the headmaster of the Medinipura high school, Kedaranatha studied many popular Bengali religious sects, particularly their philosophies and practices. He concluded they were all cheap. He came to understand that the only real religion that had ever been established in

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Caitanya-candra Bengal was that of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; unfortunately, His movement was not wellrepresented. Kedaranatha could not even get a copy of the 16th century Bengali biography of Lord Caitanya's activities on earth called Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, despite searching in bookshops, libraries and monasteries all over Bengal. Kedaranatha's first wife passed away, so in the town of Jakapura he married Bhagyavati De. In 1861 Kedaranatha accepted the post of Deputy Magistrate in the Government of Bengal. Then he became Collectorate Officer after seeing the corruption of the government workers. He established an organization called the "Bhratr Samaja". He wrote an English book in 1863 called "Our Wants." At this time he also constructed a home in Rana Ghata. Later in 1863 he stayed at Burdwan, where he composed two novel poems in Bengali: "Vijinagrama" (deserted village) and "Sannyasi." Volume 39 of the 1863 Calcutta Review praised these poems, saying, "We hope the author will continue to give his countrymen the benefit of his elegant and unassuming pen, which is quite free from those objectionable licenses of thought and expression which abound in many dramas recently published. The want of the day is the creation of a literature for Hindu ladies, and we trust that many more educated natives will have the good sense to devote their time and abilities to the attainment of this most desirable aim." The rhyme and style of these two poems were original; they gave birth to a new way of writing poetry in the Bengali language. In the year 1866 Kedaranatha took the position of Deputy Registrar with the power of a Deputy Collector and Deputy Magistrate in the district of Chapara. He also became quite fluent in Persian and Urdu. In a place called Saran in Chapara, a clique of tea planters made unjust demands of him; he successfully opposed them. And while at Saran he visited the Gautama Asrama at Godana. Desiring to establish a school for teaching nyaya-sastra, he delivered a speech there (in 1866) which was well-received. The school was successfully established, the foundation-stone being laid in 1883 by Sir Rivers Thomson, after whom the school was named. Though Kedaranatha had no further part in the project after his speech, the talk he gave was instrumental in securing public aid for the school. Also in 1866 he translated the Balide Registry Manual into Urdu, which was circulated by the government throughout the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh; this manual was used by the registration departments of those areas. Kedaranatha was transferred to Purniya from Chapara where he took charge of the government and judicial departments; he was then transferred to Dinajapura (West Bengal) in 1868, becoming the Deputy Magistrate. At this time he received copies of the Srimad Bhagavatam and Sri Caitanya-caritamrta from Calcutta. He read Caitanya-caritamrta repeatedly; his faith in Krsna developed until he was absorbed in Krsna consciousness day and night. He incessantly submitted heartfelt prayers for the Lord's mercy. He came to understand the supreme majesty and power of the one and only Absolute Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna. He published a song about Lord Caitanya entitled Saccidananda- premalankara. In 1869, while serving as deputy magistrate under the government of Bengal in Dinajapura, he delivered a speech in the form of a treatise he had written on the Srimad-Bhagavatam to a big congregation of many prominent men of letters from many parts of India and England. He was transferred to Camparana, during which time his second son, Radhika Prasada, was born. In Camparana people used to worship a ghost in a banyan tree which had the power to influence the mind of the local judge to decide in the favor of the worshiper. Kedaranatha engaged the father of Pandita Ramabhai, a famous girl scholar, to read Srimad-Bhagavatam under the tree; after one month, the tree crashed to the ground, and many people found faith in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. From Camparana he went to Puri which engladdened his heart because the holy city of Puri, the site of the famous Krsna temple of Jagannatha, was where Caitanya Mahaprabhu had resided for 18 years as a sannyasi.

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Caitanya-candra Near Puri, in the town of Kamanala, there lived a yogi named Bisakisena, who became popular by exercising mystic powers. He had two companions going by the names Brahma and Siva; Bisakisena himself claimed to be Mahavisnu. Some wealthy landowners of Orissa came under his sway and were providing funds for the construction of a temple. They also sent him women with whom he engaged in "rasa-lila" enjoyments. Bisakisena declared he'd drive the British rulers out of Orissa and make himself king. Such inflammatory statements were circulated all around Orissa. The British thought him a revolutionary, so the District Governor of the National Government of Bengal drew up arrest orders; but nobody in Orissa dared to act upon these orders, as they all feared the yogi's power. Mr. Ravenshaw, district commissioner for Orissa, requested Kedaranatha to bring Bisakisena to justice. Kedaranatha went personally to Bisakisena, who showed some powers and informed Kedaranatha that he knew well who he was and his mission. He warned Kedaranatha that since he (Bisakisena) was the Lord, he'd better not interfere with him. Kedaranatha replied by acknowledging Bisakisena's accomplishments in yoga and invited him to come to Puri where he could see the Jagannatha temple. Bisakisena haughtily said, "Why should I come to see Jagannatha? He's only a hunk of wood; I am the Supreme in person." Instantly furious, Kedaranatha arrested the rogue, brought him to Puri and threw him in jail, where he was guarded by 3 dozen Muslim constables and 72 policemen from Cuttack day and night. "Brahma" and "Siva" avoided arrest by claiming they'd been forced by Bisakisena to do as they'd done; but Mr. Taylor, subdivision officer at Kodar, later prosecuted them. Kedaranatha tried Bisakisena in Puri. The trial lasted 18 days, during which time thousands of people gathered outside the courtroom demanding Bisakisena's release. On 6th day of the trial Kedaranatha's second daughter Kadambini (age 7) became seriously ill and nearly died; but within a day she had recovered. Kedaranatha knew it was the power of the yogi at work. He remarked, "Yes, let us all die, but this rascal must be punished." The very next day in court the yogi announced he'd shown his power and would show much more; he suggested that Kedaranatha should release him at once or face worse miseries. On the last day of the trial Kedaranatha himself became ill from high fever and suffered exactly as his daughter had done for one whole day. But Kedaranatha pronounced the man guilty and sentenced him to 18 months for political conspiracy. When Bisakisena was being readied for jailing, one Dr. Walter, the District Medical Officer, cut off all the yogi's long hair. The yogi kept his mystic power in his hair and hadn't eaten or drunk during the whole trial, so when his hair was shorn he fell to the floor like a dead man and had to be taken by stretcher to jail. After 3 months he was moved to the central jail at Midnapura where he took poison and died in the year 1873. In Puri, Kedaranatha studied the Srimad-Bhagavatam with the commentary of Sridhara Svami, copied out the Sat-sandarbhas of Jiva Gosvami and made a special study of Rupa Gosvami's Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. Between the years 1874 and 1893, Kedaranatha spent much time in seclusion chanting the holy name (though he still executed his worldly duties perseveringly). He wrote several books in Sanskrit such as Tattva-sutra, Dattakaustubha and Tattva-viveka and many other books in Bengali such as the Kalyana-kalpataru. While in Puri he established a Vaisnava discussion society known as the Bhagavat-samsad in the Jagannatha-vallabha gardens, where the famous saint Sri Ramananda Raya stayed in meditation hundreds of years before. All the prominent Vaisnavas joined this group except for Raghunatha dasa Babaji, known as Siddha Purusa. He thought that Kedaranatha was unauthorized, as he did not wear kanthi-mala (neckbeads) or tilaka (clay markings on 12 places of the body). Moreover, he advised other Vaisnavas to avoid Kedaranatha's association. But soon thereafter Raghunatha dasa Babaji contracted a deathly illness. Lord Jagannatha appeared to him in a dream and told him to pray for the mercy of Kedaranatha if he at all

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Caitanya-candra wanted release from the illness and death. He did so; Kedaranatha gave him special medicines and cured him. Raghunatha dasa Babaji was blessed with a true awareness of Kedaranatha's spiritual position. A well-known saint named Svarupa dasa Babaji did his worship at Satasana near the ocean in Puri. Svarupa showed much affection for Kedaranatha and gave him many profound instructions on the chanting of the holy name of Krsna. A popular upstart holy man named Caran dasa Babaji preached and printed books advising a perverted style of kirtana (congregational chanting of the holy names of God), advising that one should chant the Hare Krsna Mantra in japa and Nitai Gaura Radhe Syama Hare Krsna Hare Rama in kirtana. Kedaranatha preached long and hard to him; after a long time Caran dasa Babaji came to his senses and begged forgiveness from Kedaranatha, admitting his fault in spreading this nonsense fashion of chanting all over Bengal. Six months later Caran dasa went mad and died in great distress. Kedaranatha became manager of the Jagannatha temple. He used his government powers to establish strict regularity in the worship of the Deity. In the Jagannatha temple courtyard he set up a Bhakti Mandapa, where daily discourses of Srimad Bhagavatam were held. Kedaranatha would spend long hours discussing Krsna and chanting the holy name, especially at the important sites of Sri Caitanya's pastimes like the Tota Gopinatha temple, the tomb of Haridasa Thakura, the Siddha Bakula tree and the Gambhira room. He made notes on the Vedanta-sutra which were used by Sri Syamalala Gosvami in the edition of the Govinda Bhasya by Baladeva Vidyabhusana that he published. Near the Jagannatha-vallabha gardens, in a large house adjacent to the Narayana Chata Matha, on the 5th day of the dark fortnight of Magha in the year 1874, the fourth son of Kedaranatha took birth. He was named Bimala Prasada (and would later be known as Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada, the spiritual master of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, founder-acarya of the International Society for Krsna Consciousness). Two years earlier, Kamala Prasada, his third son, had taken birth. In 1874 Kedaranatha discovered the Raja (king) of Puri had misappropriated 80 thousand rupees for his own sense pleasures. This money belonged to the temple, so Kedaranatha forced the Raja to pay for the offerings of food to Lord Jagannatha. The raja was angry at Kedaranatha and therefore, with the help of 50 brahmin priests, began a yajna (fire sacrifice) meant for killing Kedaranatha which went on for 30 days; when the last oblations were offered into the fire, the king's own son and not Kedaranatha died. Kedaranatha left Puri on special business, returning to Bengal where he visited the holy towns of Navadvipa, Santipura and Kalana. He was put in charge of the subdivision Mahisarekha in Haora. After that he was transferred to Bhadraka. In August 1878 he was made head of the subdivision Naraila in the Yashohan district. While in Naraila he published two books on Krsna that became famous around the world: Sri Krsna-samhita and Kalyana-kalpataru. In a letter dated April 16, 1880, Dr. Reinhold Rost wrote to Kedaranatha: "By representing Krsna's character and his worship in a more sublime and transcendental light than has hitherto been the custom to regard him, you have rendered an essential service to your co-religionists, and no one would have taken more delight in your work than my departed friend Goldstuecker, the sincerest and most zealous advocate the Hindus ever had in Europe." In 1877 Varada Prasada was born, his fifth son, and in 1878, Viraja Prasada, the sixth son, both at Rana Ghata. Kedaranatha took formal Vaisnava initiation from Bipin Bihari Gosvami, who was descended from the Jahnava family of Baghnapara. At the same time, his seventh son, Lalita Prasada, appeared at Rana Ghata. Within a few years after his initiation, Kedaranatha was awarded by the Vaisnavas the title "Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura" in appreciation for his tireless propagation of the philosophy of devotion (bhakti) to Sri Krsna. In Naraila, many people had formally adopted Vaisnavism,

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Caitanya-candra but they were not trained in scriptural conclusions and thus were easily misled by upstarts who exploited their devotional sentiments. Bhaktivinoda Thakura gave these simple devotees of Krsna shelter and instructed them in Vaisnava-siddhanta (the essential truths of Vaisnavism) most exactingly. In 1881 Bhaktivinoda began publishing the Sajjanatosani, his Vaisnava journal. Bhaktivinoda Thakura had previously pilgrimaged to the holy cities of Benares, Prayaga, Mathura and Vrndavana in 1866. At the close of his stay in Naraila he desired to again see Vrndavana, the land of Krsna. He took three months for this purpose. He met Jagannatha dasa Babaji there, who moved every 6 months between Navadvipa (in Bengal) and Vrndavana. Bhaktivinoda Thakura accepted Jagannatha dasa Babaji as his eternally worshipable siksa guru (instructing spiritual master). During his pilgrimage at this time he dealt with a gang of dacoits (highway robbers) known as the Kanjharas who robbed and killed many pilgrims; he gave evidence to the government and a commission was formed to wipe out this scourge. From Vrndavana he came to Calcutta and bought a house at 181 Manikatala Street, now called Ramasha Datta Street, near Bidana Park. He called the house Bhakti-bhavan (place of devotion) and started daily worship of Sri Giridhara. He was appointed head of the subdivision of Barasat where the well-known novelist Bankim Candra met him. Bankim Candra showed him a book he'd written about Krsna to Bhaktivinoda, who preached to Bankim Candra for four days, taking little food and hardly any sleep; the result was Bankim Candra changed his ideas (which were mundane speculations about Krsna) and his book to conform with the teachings of Sri Caitanya. Bhaktivinoda Thakura used to say that knowledge is power. During the last year of his stay at Barasat (1886), Bhaktivinoda Thakura published an edition of the Bhagavad-gita with the Sanskrit commentary of Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura, which he translated into Bengali (the "Rasika-ranjana" translation). He had undertaken this task at the request of Babu Sarada Carana Mitra, ex-judge of the Calcutta High Commission. Bankim Candra wrote the preface, acknowledging his own indebtedness to Bhaktivinoda Thakura; he noted that all Bengali readers would be indebted to Bhaktivinoda for his saintly work. From Barasat, Bhaktivinoda Thakura was transferred to Sriramapur. At nearby Saptagram he visited the residence of the great Vaisnava saint Uddharana Datta Thakura, a great associate of Lord Nityananda, and the places of another great Vaisnavas of that time, Abhirama Thakura, at Khanakula, and Vasu Ramananda, at Kulinagrama. At Sriramapura he composed and published his masterly writing, Sri Caitanya Siksamrta, Vaisnava-siddhanta-mala, Prema-pradipa and Manah-siksa. He was also publishing Sajjanatosani magazine on a regular basis. In Calcutta he set up the Sri Caitanya Yantra, a printing press at the Bhakti Bhavana, upon which he printed Maladhara's Sri Krsna-vijaya, his own Amnaya-sutra and the Caitanyopanisad of the Atharva Veda. Finding the Caitanyopanisad was a difficult task. Hardly anyone in Bengal had heard of it. Bhaktivinoda Thakura traveled to many places in Bengal looking for it; finally, one devoted Vaisnava pandita named Madhusudana dasa sent him an old copy he'd been keeping with him at Sambalapura. Bhaktivinoda Thakura wrote a Sanskrit commentary on the book and called it Sri Caitanya-caranamrta. Madhusudana dasa Mahasaya translated the verses into Bengali; this translation was called Amrta-bindu. It was a sellout when published. In Calcutta Bhaktivinoda Thakura started the Sri Visva-Vaisnava Sabha, dedicated to the preaching of pure bhakti as taught by Lord Caitanya. To publicize the work of the society, Bhaktivinoda Thakura published a small booklet entitled Visva-Vaisnava-kalpavi. Also he published his own edition of the Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, with his Amrta-prabhava Bhasya commentary. And he introduced the Caitanyabda or Caitanya-era calendar, and gave assistance to the

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Caitanya-candra propagation of the Caitanya Panjika, which established the feast day of Gaura Purnima, the day of Lord Caitanya's appearance in the material world. He lectured and gave readings on Vaisnava books in various religious societies. In the Hindu Herald, an English periodical, he published a detailed account of Sri Caitanya's life. In the year 1887 Bhaktivinoda Thakura resolved to quit government service and go to Vrndavana with Bhaktibhringa Mahasaya for the rest of his life. One night in Tarakesvara, he had a dream in which Sri Caitanya appeared to him and spoke, "You will certainly go to Vrndavana, but first there is some service you must perform in Navadvipa. When will you do that?" When the Lord disappeared, Bhaktivinoda awoke. On the advice of Bhaktibhringa Mahasaya he thereupon applied for a transfer to Krsnanagara, where the government headquarters for the Navadvip district is situated. He turned down offers of big posts in Assam and Tripura. He even tried to retire at this time, but his application was not accepted. Finally, in December of 1887 he managed to trade posts with Babu Radha Madhava Vasu, Deputy Magistrate of Krsnanagara. During his stay at Krsnanagara, Bhaktivinoda Thakura used to go to Navadvipa and search for the birthsite of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the exact location of which had been lost in time. One night he was sitting on the roof of the Rani Dharmasala in Navadvipa chanting on his beads, when he spotted in the distance a very tall tala tree; near the tree was a small building that gave off a remarkable effulgence. Soon afterwards, he went to the Krsnanagara Collectory where he began to study some very old manuscripts of Caitanya Bhagavata, Navadvipa Dhama Parikrama by Narahari Sarkara, and some old maps of the Navadvipa area. He went to the village of Ballaladibhi and spoke with many elderly people there, and uncovered facts about the modern-day Navadvipa. In the year 1887 he discovered that the place he'd seen from the dharmasala rooftop was in fact the birthplace of Mahaprabhu. This was confirmed by Jagannatha dasa Babaji, the head of the Gaudiya Vaisnava community in Navadvipa. A great festival was held there. Bhaktivinoda published the Navadvipa Dhama Mahatmya, which elaborated the glories of the birthsite of Sri Caitanya. Also in 1887, Bhaktivinoda renovated the house of Jagannatha dasa Babaji at Ravasghata. He took leave from office for two years and acquired a plot of land at Sri Godadrumadvipa, or Svarupa Ganga. He built a retirement house there called Surabhi Kunj. In 1890 he established the "Nama Hatta" there. Sometimes Jagannatha dasa Babaji would come there and have kirtana. Lord Nityananda had established His Nama Hatta at the same place and Bhaktivinoda considered himself the street sweeper of the Nama Hatta of Nitai. When the birthplace was uncovered, Bhaktivinoda and Jagannatha dasa Babaji would worship Lord Caitanya there. Once one of Bhaktivinoda's sons contracted a skin disease and Jagannatha dasa Babaji told the boy to lie down at the birthsite of Lord Caitanya for the night. He did so, and the next morning he was cured. In 1888 Bhaktivinoda took charge of the village of Netrakona in the district of Mayamanasimha, because he could not keep good health in Krsnanagara and had requested transfer to a more healthful region. From Netrakona he came to Tangaila and from there he was transferred to the district of Vardhamana. There he would hold kirtana with the devotees from a place called Amalajora, headed by Ksetra Babu and Vipina Babu; they would sing poems like Soka-satana written by him. He was put in charge of the Kalara subdivision in 1890, and from there would often visit such holy places as Godadrumadvipa, Navadvipa, Campahati, Samudragana, Cupi, Kasthasali, Idrakapura, Baghnapara, Pyariganga (the place of Nakula Brahmacari) and the place of Vrndavana dasa Thakura at Denura. Soon Bhaktivinoda Thakura was transferred for a few days to Ranighata, from where he came to Dinajapura again. Sailaja Prasada was born there, his youngest son. In Dinajapura Bhaktivinoda wrote his Vidva-ranjana commentary and

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Caitanya-candra translation of the Bhagavad-gita; it was published in 1891 with the commentary of Baladeva. 1891 was the year Bhaktivinoda Thakura took leave from the government service for two years. He desired to preach the chanting of the Hare Krsna mahamantra. From his base at Svarupa Ganga he used to visit such places as Ghatala and Ramajivana to lecture in clubs, societies and organizations. This he'd also often do in Krsnanagara. In March of 1892 he traveled and preached with a party of Vaisnavas in the Basirahata District. All the while he was writing also. He opened many centers of Krsna worship (Nama Hatta) in different districts of Bengal. The Nama Hatta became a self-sustaining success which continued to spread even after his return to government service. From Basirahata he set out on his third trip to Vrndavana; he stopped off at Amalajora to celebrate the Ekadasi day with Jagannatha dasa Babaji. In Vrndavana, he visited all the forests and places of pastimes and he continued to give lectures and readings on Hari Nama in various places in Bengal when he returned to Calcutta. In February 1891 he gave a lecture on his investigation into the whereabouts of the exact birthsite of Sri Caitanya; his audience included highly learned men from all over Bengal, who became very enthusiastic at the news. Out of this gathering the Sri Navadvipa Dhama Pracarini Sabha was formed for spreading the glories of the Yogapitha (the birthsite). That year, on Gaura Purnima, a big festival was held that witness the installation of GauraVisnupriya Deities at the Yogapitha. All the learned pandits, having deliberated fully on Bhaktivinoda Thakura's evidence, agreed that the Yogapitha was the true birthsite of Mahaprabhu. In 1892, Bhaktivinoda Thakura published the book Vaisnava-siddhanta-mala from his headquarters in Bengal. Later he printed its individual chapters as separate booklets for public distribution. In 1900 he published Hari-nama-cintamani in Bengali poetic form. In October 1894, at age 56, he retired from his post as Deputy Magistrate, though this move was opposed by his family and the government authorities. He stayed at Svarupa Ganga to worship, lecture and revise his old writings. Sometimes he went to Calcutta; there he begged door to door for funds to construct a Yogapitha temple. In July 1896 Bhaktivinoda Thakura went to Tripura at the request of the the king, who was a Vaisnava. He stayed in the capital for 4 days and preached the chanting of the holy name of Krsna. His lecture on the first day amazed all the local panditas; on the next two days the royal family and general public thrilled to his talks on the pastimes of Mahaprabhu. Back in Svarupa Ganga, Bhaktivinoda Thakura printed a small booklet written in Sanskrit under the title Sri Gauranga-lila-smaranamangala-stotram, with a commentary by Sitikantha Vacaspati of Nadia. The introduction in English was called "Caitanya Mahaprabhu, His life and Precepts". This book found its way into the library of the Royal Asiatic Society in London, the library of McGill University in Canada and other respectable institutions. It was reviewed in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society by Mr. F.W. Fraser, an erudite British scholar. In the rainy season of 1896, requested by the Maharaja of Tripura, he went to Darjilim and Karsiyam. In 1897 he went to many villages such as Medinipura and Sauri to preach. Sisir Kumar Ghosh was the founder of the Amrta Bazar Patrika and the author of the Sri Amiya Nimai-carita. He had great respect for Bhaktivinoda Thakura; he also took up the preaching of the holy name throughout Calcutta and in many villages in Bengal. He published the Sri Visnu Priya O Ananda Bazar Patrika under the editorship of Bhaktivinoda. In one of his letters to Bhaktivinoda he wrote, "I have not seen the six Gosvamis of Vrndavana but I consider you to be the seventh Gosvami." Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati had been residing at Puri as a strict renunciate and was engaged in worship at the Gandharvika Giridhari Matha, one of seven Mathas near the samadhi tomb of Haridasa Thakura. Bhaktivinoda Thakura, desiring to help his son, had the monastery

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Caitanya-candra cleaned and repaired when he came to Puri himself at the beginning of the 20th century. After Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati left Puri for Sri Navadvipa Mayapura, Bhaktivinoda Thakura constructed his own place of bhajana on the beach, calling it Bhakti Kutir; Krsnadasa Babaji, Bhaktivinoda Thakura's devoted assistant and disciple, joined him there at this time. He was his constant attendant up to the end of Bhaktivinoda Thakura's life. He began solitary worship (bhajan) at this time; he had many visitors at this place. Some of them simply wanted to disturb him, whereas others were sincere and benefited greatly from his spiritual inspiration. In 1908, 3 months before Bhaktivinoda Thakura renounced the world, one of his sons who was working in a Calcutta government office came home to inform his father that Sir William Duke, chief secretary to the government, was in Calcutta. Bhaktivinoda Thakura had served under him as a magistrate. Bhaktivinoda Thakura made an appointment to meet him the next day at the government building. Sir William Duke greeted Bhaktivinoda Thakura on the street outside the building and personally escorted him into his office. With folded hands, he asked forgiveness for having once planned to remove Bhaktivinoda Thakura from his post of district magistrate; this was because he thought that if such qualified Indians held such important posts, the British would not last much longer in India. Formerly Sir William Duke used to visit to Bhaktivinoda's house and would even take his meals there. Such familiarity between British nobility and the native people of India was uncommon. Now that Sir William was getting old, he wished to clear his conscience of guilty feelings from the past, and so confessed to Bhaktivinoda Thakura that he'd thought ill of him despite their close relationship. Bhaktivinoda Thakura answered, "I considered you to be a good friend and a well-wisher all along." Pleased with Sir William, he gave him his blessings. Later Bhaktivinod Thakura admitted he was astonished that Duke wanted to harm him in some way. In 1908 Bhaktivinoda Thakura took vesa (the dress of babaji) at Satasana in Puri. Until 1910 he would move between Calcutta and Puri, and continued to write; but after that he stopped all activity and remained in Puri, absorbed in the holy name of Krsna. He shut himself up and entered samadhi, claiming paralysis. On June 23, 1914, just before noon at Puri, Bhaktivinoda Thakura left his body. This day was also the disappearance day of Sri Gadadhara Pandita. Amidst sankirtana his remains were interred in Godruma after the next solstice; the summer solstice had just begun when he had left his body. About Bhaktivinoda Thakura, Sarada Carana Mitra, Calcutta High Court Judge, wrote: "I knew Thakura Bhaktivinoda intimately as a friend and a relation. Even under the pressure of official work as a magistrate in charge of a heavy district he could always find time for devotional contemplation and service, and whenever I met him, our talk would turn in a few moments to the subject of devotion, dvaitadvaita-vada philosophy and the saintly work that lay before him. Service of God is the only thing he longed for and service under the government, however honorable, was to him a clog." In executing his government service, Bhaktivinoda Thakura would wear coat and pants to court, with double-size tulasi neckbeads and tilaka. He would shave his head monthly. Very strong in his decisions, he would decide immediately. He did not allow any humbug in his court; no upstart could stand before him. He was always charitable to brahmanas, and equally befriended other castes. He never showed pride, and his amiable disposition was a characteristic feature of his life. He never accepted gifts from anyone; he even declined all honors and titles offered by the government to him on the grounds that they might stand against his holy mission of life. He was very strict in moral principles, and avoided the luxurious life; he would not even chew betel. He never allowed harmonium and he never had any debts. He disliked theaters because they were frequented by public women. He spoke Bengali, Sanskrit, English, Latin, Urdu, Persian

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Caitanya-candra and Oriya. He started writing books at age 12, and continued turning out a profuse number of volumes up until his departure from this world. He always consulted a pocket watch, and kept time very punctually. His schedule: 7:30-8:00 PM - take rest 10:00 PM - rise, light oil lamp, write 4:00 AM - take rest 4:30 - rise, wash hands and face, chant japa 7:00 - write letters 7:30 - read 8:30 - receive guests, or continue to read 9:30-9:45 - take rest 9:45 - morning bath, breakfast of half-quart milk, couple capatis, fruit 9:55 - go to court in carriage 10:00 - court began. 1:00 PM - court finished. He'd come home and bathe andrefresh. 2:00 PM - return to office. 5:00 PM - translate works from Sanskrit to Bengali Then take evening bath and meal of rice, couple of capatis, half-quart of milk. 30. Gaurakisora dasa Babaji He was the guru of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami, the founder of the Caitanya Mathas and Gaudiya Mathas. This Vaisnava saint's life was an example of utter humility and poverty, the true attributes of a Vaisnava. Gaurakisora never accepted any material object from anyone. For his clothing he used the discarded loin cloths from corpses left on the bank of the Ganges. For food, he would collect rice by begging, soak it in river water, and garnish it with salt and chilly. He never asked favors from anyone and lived a fully detached life, devoid of all possessions. Very little information is available about the past life of Gaurakisora except that he was born in a Vaisya family in the village of Bagjana near Tepakhola on the bank of the Padma. As a householder, Gaurakisora was known by the name Vansidasa. At that time he was engaged in some agricultural trade and from the income took care of his wife and family honestly. After the passing away of his wife, Gaurakisora renounced his home and went to Vrndavana, where he was initiated into Vairagi Vesa by Bhagavata dasa Babaji, one of the foremost disciples of Jagannatha dasa Babaji. Gaurakisora lived on madhukari and slept beneath a tree. He would lie prostrate, offering his humble obeisances to the residents of Vraja, considering them as embodiments of Lord Krsna. He even offered his obeisances to the flowers, trees, and land around him. He spent about thirty years at Vrajamandala serving the deities there. Afterwards he left for Navadvipa. During his stay at Navadvipa, Gaurakisora underwent various transformations of spiritual moods. Sometimes he danced on the bank of the Ganges chanting, "Gaura, Gaura", while at other times he would lie on the ground in an unconscious state. He joyfully moved throughout the groves located on the bank of the Ganges, considering them sites of the divine sports of Radha-Govinda. His only clothing was a strip of cloth around his waist and often went totally naked. He chanted japa on beads or sometimes knotted a cloth and used that as a

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Caitanya-candra substitute for japa beads. Occasionally, he went to Godruma to listen to Bhaktivinoda Thakura recite Srimad Bhagavatam. Every virtuous person looked forward to rendering service to Gaurakisora. However, he rarely allowed anyone the chance to serve him. Once Manindracandra Nandi, the Maharaja of Kasimbazar, sent a distinguished messenger to escort Gaurakisora to the former's palace. Gaurakisora, however, did not accept the Maharaja's invitation saying that if he visited the palace he may feel tempted by the wealth of the Maharaja which may result in a strained relation between the two. Hence, Gaurakisora suggested that instead of him visiting the palace, let the Maharaja free himself completely from the shackles of wealth by donating everything he owned to his relatives and then come to live with Gaurakisora in a specially prepared shed where both of them could practice Hari Bhajan in peace. Gaurakisora was very selective about accepting invitations for food knowing it could adversely affect the spiritual life. Once a devotee name Harenbabu partook of prasada offered at the festival held at bhajan kutir at Navadvipa. For this Gaurakisora stopped communicating with Haren for three days. On the fourth day Gaurakisora explained that the prasada of the above festival had been financed by a woman of questionable profession. Once, on the eve of Sanatana Gosvami's disappearance day, Gaurakisora decided to celebrate the occasion. The devotee attending him asked who would provide them with the materials for the celebration. Gaurakisora replied: "Remember not to speak to anyone about it. We shall miss a meal and continue around the clock chanting the holy name. This could be the typical festival for those of us who have taken the vow of poverty." Narendra Kumar Sen, a resident of Agartala (Tripura), once approached Gaurakisora to learn about guru-pranali or siddha pranali. Gaurakisora told him, "The Supreme Lord cannot be realized through worldly knowledge. Only through the chanting of the holy name can the true nature of the Lord be revealed. As the Lord is revealed from the letters comprising the Nama, the devotee gradually begins to understand his own nature and becomes acquainted with seva. Once a physician told Gaurakisora that he intended to move to Navadvipa and take up charitable practices. Gaurakisora advised the physician that if he truly desired to live in Navadvipa then he should give up the plan for a charitable practice because it would only encourage materially minded people to save money. Those who sincerely practiced Hari bhajan should never get distracted by the chains of welfare activities. A young seeker wearing a kaupina once stayed with Gaurakisora for some days. Later he arranged, through the agency of an employee of a female estate owner, to obtain five kathas of land as a donation from the woman. When Gaurakisora heard about this he was extremely annoyed: "Navadvipa dhama is beyond this material world. How can a worldly land-owner dare to hold land here and even think he can donate five kathas out of it? A mere grain of sand of the transcendental Navadvipa is more valuable than all the precious gems in this world put together. Moreover, how advanced could this young kaupina-clad devotee be if he dares to collect so much land in lieu of his bhajan merit?" Once a devotee offered some sweets to Lord Gauranga and then took the offering to Gaurakisora, urging him to partake of it. Gaurakisora told the devotee, "Those who are nonvegetarian, those who commit adultery, or offer food to Lord Gauranga with a particular motive, their offerings never reach Lord Gauranga and are never sanctified as prasada." Gaurakisora regularly begged for rice, after which he would cook the rice, offer it, and partake of the prasada. He never touched any foodstuff offered by someone else. Once during monsoon, Gaurakisora stayed in the rest-house at Phulia Navadvipa. Some prasada was left in a vessel for him to respect later. Meanwhile a snake passed by the vessel and a woman there

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Caitanya-candra happened to notice it. When Gaurakisora sat down to take prasada the woman appeared there and informed him about the snake. Gaurakisora, however, firmly stated that he would not touch the prasada until the woman left. After the woman left, Gaurakisora said, "Look how maya works! Taking the form of compassion, maya attempts to hit deep into her target slowly. Maya can assume countless forms. She always prevents a mortal being from practicing Hari bhajan." Giribabu and his wife once ardently requested Gaurakisora to stay in their house at Navadvipa. Gaurakisora was moved by their sincere devotion and finally agreed to oblige them on the condition that he would live only in their toilet room where he would perform Hari bhajan. Giribabu tried to persuade him to change his mind but Gaurakisora remained firm. Giribabu reluctantly arranged to have the toilet thoroughly cleaned and Gaurakisora used it for Hari Bhajan. A realized soul can practice Hari bhajan anywhere in an unconcerned manner, and wherever he resides, that place becomes Vaikuntha. Gaurakisora was a highly spiritually advanced soul. He never allowed deceitful practices or any discussion which was not within the purview of the holy books. One day when a devotee questioned Gaurakisora about a well-known reciter of Srimad Bhagavatam who was in the habit of chanting "Gaura, Gaura", Gaurakisora remarked, "He doesn't say "Gaura, Gaura". Rather what he means to say is, 'Money, Money.' Those who recite Srimad Bhagavatam for payment are not entitled to chant the name of the Supreme Lord." Gaurakisora never delivered discourses openly, yet his spotless character drew everyone to him. Upon meeting Gaurakisora, even a staunch materialist would become inclined take up Hari bhajan. In November 1915 AD on Ekadasi day, Gaurakisora dasa Babaji breathed his last. Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati himself arranged to bury the mortal remains of his revered guru in samadhi. 31. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati was one of ten children born to Bhaktivinoda Thakura, a great Vaisnava teacher in the disciple-line from Lord Caitanya Himself. While living in a house named Narayana Chata, just near the temple of Lord Jagannatha in Puri, Bhaktivinoda Thakura was engaged as a prominent Deputy Magistrate and also served as the superintendent of the temple of Lord Jagannatha. Yet in spite of these responsibilities, he served the cause of Krsna with prodigious energy. While working to reform Gaudiya Vaisnavism in India, he prayed to Lord Caitanya, "Your teachings have been greatly depreciated and it is not in my power to restore them." Thus he prayed for a son to help him in his preaching mission. When, on February 6, 1874, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati was born to Bhaktivinoda and Bhagavati Devi in Jagannatha Puri, the Vaisnavas considered him the answer to his father's prayers. He was born with the umbilical cord wrapped around his neck and draped across his chest like the sacred thread worn by brahmanas. Six months after the child was born, Bhaktivinoda arranged for his son to undergo the annaprasana ceremony with the prasada of Vimala Devi, and thereafter named the boy Bimala prasada. Around the same time the carts of the Jagannatha festival stopped at the gate of Bhaktivinoda's residence and for three days could not be moved. Bhaktivinoda Thakura's wife brought the infant onto the cart and approached the Deity of Lord Jagannatha. Spontaneously, the infant extended his arms and touched the feet of Lord Jagannatha and was

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Caitanya-candra immediately blessed with a garland that fell from the body of the Lord. Seeing this the priests chanted the name of Hari and told the child's mother that the boy would certainly become a great devotee one day. When Bhaktivinoda Thakura learned that the Lord's garland had fallen on his son, he realized that this was the son for whom he had prayed. Bimala Prasada stayed in Puri for ten months after his birth and then went to Bengal by palanquin on his mother's lap. His infancy was spent at Nadia District's Ranaghat hearing topics of Sri Hari from his mother. Bhaktivinoda and his wife were orthodox and virtuous; they never allowed their children to eat anything other than prasada, nor to associate with bad company. One day, when Bimala Prasada was still a child of no more than four years, his father mildly rebuked him for eating a mango not yet duly offered to Lord Krsna. Bimala Prasada, although only a child, considered himself an offender to the Lord and vowed never to eat mangoes again. (This was a vow that he would follow throughout this life.) By the time Bimala Prasada was seven years old, he had memorized the entire Bhagavad-gita and could even explain its verses. His father then began training him in proofreading and printing, in conjunction with the publishing of the Vaisnava magazine Sajjana-tosani. In 1881, in the course of excavating for the construction of the Bhakti bhavana at Rambagan in Calcutta, a Deity of Kurmadeva was unearthed. After initiating his seven year old son, Bhaktivinoda entrusted Bimala with the service of the deity of Kurmadeva. On April 1, 1884, Bhaktivinoda was appointed the senior Deputy Magistrate of Serampore, where he admitted Bimala in the Serampore High School. When Bimala was a mere student in class five, he invented a new method of writing named Bicanto. During this period he took lessons in mathematics and astrology from Pandita Mahesacandra Cudamoni. However, he preferred to read devotional books rather than the school texts. In 1892, after passing his entrance examination, Bimala was admitted into the Sanskrit College of Calcutta. There he spent considerable time in the library studying various books on philosophy. He also studied the Vedas under the guidance of Prthvidhara Sarma. As a student he contributed many thoughtful articles to various religious journals. However he did not continue with his college studies for long. In 1897 he started an autonomous Catuspathi (Sanskrit school) wherefrom monthly journals entitled "Jyotirvid", "Brihaspati", and many old treatises on astrology were published. In 1898, while teaching at Sarasvata Catuspathi, he studied Siddhanta Kaumudi under Prthvidhara Sarma, at Bhakti bhavana. By the time he was twenty-five he had become well versed in Sanskrit, mathematics, and astronomy, and he had established himself as the author and publisher of many magazine articles and one ancient book, Surya-siddhanta, for which he received the epithet Siddhanta Sarasvati in recognition of his erudition. In 1895 Sarasvati Gosvami accepted service under the Tripura Royal Government as an editor for the biography entitled Rajaratnakara, the life histories of the royal line of the independent Tripura Kingdom. Later he was entrusted with the responsibility of educating the Yuvaraja Bahadur and Rajkumar Vrajendra Kisore, in Bengali and Sanskrit. After a short period of time, Siddhanta Sarasvati took up the responsibilities for inspecting various ongoing activities in the royal palace for the state of Tripura. However, after finding envy, malice and corruption surfacing in every corner of his inspection, Siddhanta Sarasvati very quickly developed an aversion to state affairs and gave notice of his intention to retire to Maharaja Radhakisore Manikya Bahadur. The Maharaja approved of Siddhanta Sarasvati's plans for renunciation and awarded him full-pay pension. However, after three years Siddhanta Sarasvati also renounced his pension. With his father, he visited many tirthas and heard discourses from the learned panditas. In October 1898 Siddhanta Sarasvati

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Caitanya-candra accompanied Bhaktivinoda on a pilgrimage of Kasi, Prayaga, Gaya and other holy places. At Kasi a discussion was held with Ramamisra Sastri regarding the Ramanuja sampradaya. After this talk Siddhanta Sarasvati's life seemed to take a turn, his inclination towards renunciation increased, and he quietly continued to search for a guru. When Siddhanta Sarasvati was twenty-six his father, understanding the mind of his son, guided him to take initiation from a renounced Vaisnava saint, Gaurakisora dasa Babaji. Gaurakisora dasa Babaji was the embodiment of vairagya and was very selective about giving diksa. He lived beneath a tree near the bank of the Ganga and wore the abandoned clothes of dead bodies as a waist band (kaupina). Generally he ate plain rice soaked in Ganga water garnished with chili and salt. Sometimes he utilized discarded earthen pots, after properly washing them he would cook rice in them, offer it to Krsna, and then take prasada. Following the advice of his father, Siddhanta Sarasvati went to Gaurakisora dasa and begged to be accepted as his disciple. Gaurakisora replied that he would not be able to give diksa unless he received the approval of Lord Caitanya. However, when Siddhanta Sarasvati returned again, Gaurakisora said that he had forgotten to ask Lord Caitanya. On the third visit, Gaurakisora stated that Lord Caitanya had said that erudition is extremely insignificant in comparison to devotion to the Supreme Lord. Hearing this Siddhanta replied that since Gaurakisora was the servant of Kapatacudamani (the Supreme deceiver) hence he must be testing Sarasvati by withholding his consent. However Siddhanta Sarasvati remained firmly determined and remarked that Ramanuja Acarya had been sent back eighteen times before he finally received the grace of Gosthipurna, thus he too would wait patiently until the day that Gaurakisora would bestow his benedictions upon him. Seeing the commitment of Sarasvati, Gaurakisora was impressed and gave him diksa in the blissful grove of Godruma and told him, "to preach the Absolute Truth and keep aside all other works." In March 1900 Sarasvati accompanied Bhaktivinoda on a pilgrimage of Balasore, Remuna, Bhuvanesvara, and Puri. As instructed by Bhaktivinoda, Sarasvati gave lectures from CC with profound purports. Through the initiative of Bhaktivinoda Thakura the flow of pure bhakti again began to inundate the world. After Lord Caitanya's disappearance a period of darkness ensued in which the river of bhakti had been choked and practically dried up. The end of the period was brought about by the undaunted preaching of Bhaktivinoda Thakura. He wrote a number of books on suddha-bhakti siddhanta and published numerous religious periodicals. He inspired many to take up the service of Lord Gauranga and instituted various Nama Hatta and Prapanna-asrama (Gaudiya matha centers). In 1905 Siddhanta Sarasvati took a vow to chant the Hare Krsna mantra a billion times. Residing in Mayapur in a grass hut near the birthplace of Lord Caitanya, he chanted the mantra day and night. He cooked rice once a day in an earthen pot and ate nothing more; he slept on the ground, and when the rainwater leaked trough the grass ceiling, he sat beneath an umbrella, chanting. In 1912 Manindra Nandi, the Maharaja of Kasimbazar, arranged to hold a large Vaisnava Sammilani at his palace. At the specific request of the Maharaja, Sarasvati Gosvami attended the Sammilani and delivered four very brief speeches on suddha-bhakti on four consecutive days. However, he did not take any food during the Sammilani because of the presence of various groups of sahajiyas. After fasting for four days Sarasvati Gosvami came to Mayapura and took the prasada of Lord Caitanya. Later when Maharaja Manindra Nandi realized what had happened he was deeply aggrieved and came to Mayapura to apologize to Siddhanta Sarasvati.

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Caitanya-candra During that time Bengal was full of sahajiya sects, such as Aul, Baul, Kartabhaja, Neda-nedi, Daravesa, Sain etc., who followed worldly practices in the name of spiritualism. Siddhanta Sarasvati launched a severe attack against those irreligious sects and did not spare anyone who deviated from the teachings of Lord Caitanya. Even some well-known persons bearing the surname of Gosvamis patronized these sahajiya sects during that period. Siddhanta Sarasvati was deeply grieved to see these groups of prakrita sahajiyas, in the garb of paramahamsa Gosvami gurus, misleading the people. Thus he completely dissociated himself and resorted to performing bhajana in solitude. During this period of solitude, one day Lord Caitanya, along with the six Gosvamis, suddenly manifested before Siddhanta Sarasvati's vision and said: "Do not be disheartened, take up the task of re-establishing Varnasrama with new vigour and preach the message of love for Sri Krsna everywhere." After receiving this message, Sarasvati Gosvami was filled with inspiration to preach the glories of Lord Caitanya enthusiastically. In 1911, while his aging father was lying ill, Siddhanta Sarasvati took up a challenge against pseudo Vaisnavas who claimed that birth in their caste was the prerequisite for preaching Krsna consciousness. The caste-conscious brahmana community had become incensed by Bhaktivinoda Thakura's presentation of many scriptural proofs that anyone, regardless of birth, could become a brahmana-Vaisnava. These smarta brahmanas, out to prove the inferiority of the Vaisnavas, arranged a discussion. On behalf of his indisposed father, young Siddhanta Sarasvati wrote an essay, "The Conclusive Difference Between the Brahmana and the Vaisnava," and submitted it before his father. Despite his poor health, Bhaktivinoda Thakura was elated to hear the arguments that would soundly defeat the challenge of the smartas. On the request of Madhusudana dasa Gosvami of Vrndavana and Visvambharananda deva Gosvami of Gopiballabhapur, Siddhanta Sarasvati traveled to Midnapur, where panditas from all over India had gathered for a three-day discussion. Some of the smarta panditas who spoke first claimed that anyone born in a sudra family, even though initiated by a spiritual master, could never become purified and perform the brahminical duties of worshiping the deity or initiating disciples. Finally, Siddhanta Sarasvati delivered his speech. He began quoting Vedic references glorifying the brahmanas, and at this the smarta scholars became very much pleased. But when he began discussing the actual qualifications for becoming a brahmana, the qualities of the Vaisnavas, the relationship between the two, and who, according to the Vedic literature, is qualified to become a spiritual master and initiate disciples, the joy of the Vaisnava-haters disappeared. Siddhanta Sarasvati conclusively proved from the scriptures that if one is born as a sudra but exhibits the qualities of a brahmana then he should be honored as a brahmana, despite his birth. And if one is born in a brahmana family but acts like a sudra, then he is not a brahmana. After his speech, Siddhanta Sarasvati was congratulated by the president of the conference, and thousands thronged around him. It was a victory for Vaisnavism. Bhaktivinoda Thakura passed away in 1914 on the day of Gadadhara Pandita's disappearance. On the eve of his disappearance Bhaktivinoda instructed his son to preach the teachings of the six Gosvamis and Lord Caitanya far and wide. He also requested that Siddhanta Sarasvati develop the birthsite of Lord Gauranga. Mother Bhagavati Devi disappeared a few years later. Before her passing away, she held the hands of Sarasvati Gosvami imploring him to preach the glories of Lord Gauranga and His dhama. Accepting the instructions of his parents as his foremost duty, Sarasvati Gosvami took up this task of preaching with intense enthusiasm and vigour.

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Caitanya-candra With the passing away of his father, and his spiritual master a year later, Siddhanta Sarasvati continued the mission of Lord Caitanya. He assumed editorship of Sajjana-tosani and established the Bhagwat Press in Krsnanagar. Then in 1918, in Mayapur, he sat down before a picture of Gaurakisora dasa Babaji and initiated himself into the sannyasa order. At this time he assumed the sannyasa title Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Maharaja. Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati was dedicated to using the printing press as the best medium for large-scale distribution of Krsna consciousness. He thought of the printing press as a brhat mrdanga, a big mrdanga. The mrdanga drum played during kirtana could be heard for a block or two, whereas with the brhat mrdanga, the printing press, the message of Lord Caitanya could be spread all over the world. Rohinikumar Ghosh, a nephew of Justice Candramadhava Ghosh of Calcutta High Court and originally a resident of Bhola in Barisal (now in Bangladesh), decided to renounce the world and engage himself in Hari bhajana. With this purpose in mind he came to Kulia in Navadvipa where he led the life of a Baul. However, he despised the practices of the sevadasis prevalent amongst the Baul sect. One day Rohini Ghosh happen to come to the Yogapitha when Sarasvati Gosvami was lecturing there. Rohini was delighted to see the luminous appearance of Sarasvati Gosvami and fascinated by his words. Late that night, after spending the whole day listening to Sarasvati Gosvami's teachings, Rohini returned to his Baul guru's asrama at Kulia. Without taking any prasada, Rohini took rest contemplating the lessons on suddha-bhakti which he had heard that day. In his dream Rohini saw a Baul and his consort appear before him in the form of a tiger and tigress which were about to devour him. Trembling in fear Rohini desperately called out to Lord Caitanya. Suddenly Rohini found himself being rescued from the clutches of the tigers by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. From that day Rohini left the Baul guru forever and took shelter at the feet of Sarasvati Gosvami. Annadaprasad Datta, the elder brother of Sarasvati Gosvami, suffered with severe headaches shortly before his disappearance. On the day of Annada's disappearance Sarasvati Gosvami remained by his side all through the night, chanting Harinama. Before Annada passed a way he briefly regained consciousness and began apologizing to Sarasvati Gosvami, who simply encouraged him to remember the holy name of the Lord. Suddenly the tilak mark of the Ramanuja sampradaya became clearly visible on Annada's forehead. Annada explained that in his past birth he had been a Vaisnava belonging to the Ramanuja sect. But due to committing an offense at the feet of Sarasvati Thakura, Annada had to be reborn. However, as a result of his past merit he was fortunate enough to be born into Bhaktivinoda's family. After finishing his account Annada breathed his last. Once on the day preceding Janmastami in the Bengali month of Bhadra, Sarasvati Gosvami was engaged in bhajana at Mayapura but was feeling disturbed as he was unable to arrange for milk to be offered to the deity. As soon as he began to think in this way he chastised himself: "Have I thought like this for my own sake? That is wrong." Because it was the monsoon season, Lord Caitanya's birth site was covered with water and was totally inaccessible except by boat. However, that afternoon, one milkman turned up there wading through water and slush carrying a large quantity of milk, ksira, butter, cottage-cheese etc. Apparently a zamindar named Harinarayana Cakravarti, guided by Lord Caitanya, had sent the milkman with all the items. After offering everything to the deity the devotees partook of the prasada joyfully. Sarasvati Thakura was surprised to see so much prasada and the devotees explained what had happened. After taking prasada Siddhanta Sarasvati humbly appealed to the Lord: "I am very sorry to have caused You so much trouble. Why did I have such an uncalled for thought? To fulfill my desire You have inspired another person and arranged to send these things."

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Caitanya-candra The world was amazed to see the supernatural power of Sarasvati Gosvami. Many educated persons from highly respectable families were attracted to him and thus dedicated themselves to the service of Lord Gauranga. Between 1918 and 1937 Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati founded sixty-four suddha bhakti Mathas at the following places: Navadvipa, Mayapura, Calcutta, Chaka, Mymensingh, Naryanaganj, Chittagong, Midnapore, Remuna, Balasore, Puri, Alalanatha, Madras, Covoor, Delhi, Patna, Gaya, Lucknow, Varanasi, Hardwar, Allahabad, Mathura, Vrndavana, Assam, Kuruksetra, and outside India in London, and Rangoon. Sarasvati Gosvami instituted Gaurapadapitha at Nrsimhacala on the top of the Mandara hill, and at several places in South India. He initiated twenty five highly educated persons into Bhagavata Tridandi sannyasa. He published the following periodicals on Suddha Bhakti in different languages: 1. Sajjanatosani (a fortnightly Bengali 2. The Harmonist (an English fortnightly) 3. Gaudiya (a Bengali weekly) 4. Bhagavata (a Hindi fortnightly) 5. Nadiya Prakasa (a Bengali daily) 6. Kirtana (an Assamese monthly) 7. Paramarthi (in Oriya) In addition he published a large number of Vaisnava books. In fact, he heralded a new era in the spiritual world. He deputed well-disciplined tridandi sannyasi's to preach the message of Lord Gauranga all over the world. For six years he continued to supervise this preaching work and when he found that his mission had attained its goal, to a reasonable extent, he decided to pass into the eternal service of Lord Gauranga. He recommended to all Vaisnavas to read these books: Caitanya Bhagavata (by Vrindavana dasa Thakura), Dasamula Siksa (by Bhaktivinoda Thakura), Sri Krsna Bhajanamrta (by Narahari Sarkara) and Prema Bhakti Candrika (by Narottama dasa Thakura). According to others, they were Prema Bhakti Candrika, Prarthana (by Narottama dasa Thakura) and Upadesamrta (by Rupa Gosvami) A few days before his disappearance Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati called his foremost disciples and showered his blessings upon all his devotees. He gave them the following instructions: "With the utmost enthusiasm preach the message of Rupa Raghunatha. Our ultimate goal is to become a speck of dust touching the lotus feet of the followers of Rupa Gosvami. All of you remain united in allegiance to the spiritual master (asraya-vigraha) in order to satisfy the senses of the Transcendental Entity of Non-Dual Knowledge. Do not give up the worship of Hari even amidst hundreds of dangers, hundreds of insults or hundreds of persecutions. Do not become unenthusiastic upon seeing that the majority of people in this world are not accepting the message of Krsna's sincere worship. Never give up the glorification of the topics of Krsna, they are your own personal bhajana and your very all and all. Being humble like a blade of grass and tolerant like a tree, constantly glorify Hari." In the early hours of the day on January 1, 1937 Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami passed away. 32. Srila Abhaya Caranaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Srila Prabhupada (1896-1977), the God empowered personality appeared in this world in 1896 in Kolkata, India. After finishing his studies, in 1933 he got initiated as a disciple by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Goswami into Brahma Madhva Gaudiya sampradaya the disciplic succession coming down from Lord Krsna Himself.

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At their first meeting, in 1922, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati requested Srila Prabhupada to broadcast Vedic knowledge in English, which eventually became his mission. In 1950 he retired from material life and travelled to Vrindavana to devote more time to his studies of Vedic scriptures and writing of books. In 1959 he accepted the renounced order of life (sannyasa) and in 1965 he departed for America to fulfill the mission of his spiritual master and preach the message of Lord Caitanya i.e. to teach the science of Krsna consciousness to the whole world. Upon his arrival in America in 1965 within a short span of 12 years he established 108 temples, ashrams, farms, gurukulas, translated Vedic literatures in English like Bhagavad-gita, Srimad Bhagavatam, initiated tens of thousands of disciples. He circled the globe 14 times on lecture tours that took him to six continents and authored more then 80 books on Vedantic philosophy, religion, literature and culture. He established the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, which is now one of the biggest book publishing houses in the world, which distributes transcendental literatures at a rate unparalleled. He successfully established the Vedic religion in the western countries and changed the lives of thousands of people by introducing Krishna consciousness in their lives with its rich culture and tradition. His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder Acarya of ISKCON was the first acarya, spiritual leader of the Vedic lineage who had ever travelled out of India and made so many devotees all over the world. He had presented in his numerous purports the true essence of the teachings of all the four Vaisnava sampradayas. He had been the greatest acarya of the modern age, because he had accomplished what no one else has done in a most difficult environment and very tenuous circumstances. He distributed the love of Godhead to everyone without any discrimination, which is the goal of human life because the vedic religion is not only for Indians, but for the benefit of the entire human race. When Lord Krsna appeared in Kali-yuga as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu approximately 500 years ago He predicted the appearance of a great senapati bhakta who would preach Krishna consciousness all over the world: "Prthivite ache yadi nagaradi grama, sarvatra pracara hoibe more nama" ("My holy name will be chanted in every town and village"). Furthermore He said: "Taking the sharp sword of the congregational chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, (nama-sankirtana) I will root out & destroy the demoniac mentality in the hearts of all the conditioned souls. Yadi papi chadi dharma dure dese jaya mora senapatibhakta jaibe tathaya: If some sinful people escape and giving up religious principles go to far off countries, then my Senapati Bhakta will come at that time to give them Krsna consciousness. That Senapati bhakta was none other than Srila Prabhupada who fulfilled these predictions by his factual accomplishments.

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Caitanya-candra In the Bhavisya Purana, Pratisarga Chapter 20 verses 71-73; it is mentioned: "Lord Jagannath, the Supreme Lord Sri Hari Himself, spoke these attractive words for the welfare of all: The mlecchas who are born from mixed countries ruled by descendants of Kasyapa (demons) and the sudras will become brahmanas by initiation. They will wear sikhas and brahmana threads and will become well versed in the uncontaminated fruit of the Vedas (Srimad Bhagavatam). They will worship Me by the Yajna prescribed by the Lord of Lords, the protector of Sacidevi, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Srila Prabhupada fulfilled this prediction by initiating thousands of nonbrahmanas as brahmanas and sannyasis as per scriptures, which no one ever did. In Bhagavat Mahatmya (Uttara khanda of Padma Purana) Bhaktidevi personified says to Narada Muni: "idam sthanam parityajya videsham ganyate maya" - "I will leave this country, India, and go abroad." It was certainly none other than Srila Prabhupada who fulfilled these predictions of the scriptures and the acaryas by spreading the teachings of the Vedas throughout the world. Srila Prabhupadas unique position has been very well summed up by HH Vishvesh Tirtha, the pithadipati of Sri Krsna Matha in Udupi in the following way: The river Ganga is famous for her purifying effect. At one time, however, this Ganga did not flow through the earth planet. It is Bhagiratha who brought the Ganga from the celestial planets down to the earth planet. That is why Bhagiratha is celebrated. Swami Prabhupada, like Bhagiratha, spread this devotion, the bhakti-ganga, all over the world. In this way, Swami Prabhupada has done something which is much greater than what Bhagiratha had done. Another acarya of the Ramanuja sampradaya remarked in 1976 after viewing one of Srila Prabhupadas books and witnessing the preaching of some of his young disciples: This person is the summum bonum of all the acaryas.

3 SRI GAURA PURNIMA MAHOTSAVA


caitanyera-simhera nava-dvipe avatara simha-griva, simha virya simhera-hunkara sei simha vasuk jivera hrdaya-kandare kalmasa-dvirada nase yanhara hunkare Thus the lion like Lord Caitanya has appeared in Navadvipa. He has the shoulders of a lion, the powers of a lion, and the loud voice of a lion. May that lion be seated in the core

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Caitanya-candra of the heart of every living being. Thus with His resounding roar may He drive away one's elephantine vices. (Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-Lila, 3.30-31) The divine appearance of Shri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is celebrated on the full moon of the month of Phalguna (February-March) which is known as Gaura Purnima. It is the most sacred and special festival to glorify the appearance in this world of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna Caitanya in the year 1486. Every year on the Phalguna-shukla paksha purnima tithi, Holika Dahana is also celebrated together with Gaura Purnima. On the Gaura Purnima day devotees fast for the day till moonrise and engage in active devotional service throughout the day and prepare for the grand celebration in the evening. Devotees have followed the teachings of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and have resultantly become maddened with the love of Sri Krsna. Elsewhere most people have heard of Lord Caitanya, but do not understand in totality who He is. On the Gaura Purnima day, there is an exceptional boon to be present in Maayaapura-Navadvipa( the birthplace of Lord Caitanya ). On this day one who fasts, takes bath in the Ganges and worships Lord Caitanya will cross over the material ocean and attain Goloka, the Lords highest spiritual planet, along with 1000 ancestors no matter where he dies.

4 PREDICTION OF SRI CAITANYA MAHAPRABHUS APPEARANCE IN THE VEDAS


The appearance of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahapabhu, the Yuga-Avatara is described in many Vedic literatures like the Padma Purana, Bhavisya Purana, Vayu Purana, Garuda Purana, Ananta Samhita, and etc.

4.1 Sri Caitanya Upanisad from the Atharva Veda


In the beginning of creation Lord Krsna imparted all branches of knowledge to Brahma,a spiritually exalted living being. Brahma is the engineer in charge of the creation of the universe. Among Brahmas many sons,one of them was Pippalada. Thousands of years ago a discussion took place between Brahma and his son, Pippalada. This is recorded in the Atharva Veda in a portion called Caitanya Upanisad. This Upanisad was published by the great pioneer of the Krsna Consciousness movement, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura. The Thakura searched the length and breadth of Bengal to procure an original copy of the manuscript of this rare Upanisad, which describes the unique position and advent of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. It also describes the glorious position and importance of the Maha-mantra, or the chanting of the divine name of Sri Krsna. He was finally provided a copy of the original handwritten manuscript from one pandita, Madhusudana Maharaja, of Sambala-Pura. Upon the request of many Gaudiya Vaishnavas of the time, He wrote a lucid sanskrit commentary called Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta, or the the nectar of the lotus feet of Lord Caitanya. The first edition of this book was originally printed in Calcutta, Bengal by the Sri Caitanya Press in 1887. It is to be noted that the great Sampradaya Acarya of the Gaudiya Vaishnavas and of the Krsna Consciousness movement, His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada,

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Caitanya-candra has cited from this Upanisad in His Sri Caitanya-Caritamrta Bhasya [purport] of Adi-Lila 2.22. to explain the sacred divinity of Sriman Mahaprabhu: "... Apart from the relevant scriptural evidence forwarded by Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Goswami, there are innumerable statements regarding Lord Caitanya's being the Supreme Lord Himself. The following examples may be cited: (1) From the Caitanya Upanisad: Gaurah sarvatma maha puruso mahatma maha yogi tri gunatitah sattva rupo bhaktim loke kasyati. Lord Gaura who is the all pervading Supersoul, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appears as a great saint and powerful mystic, who is above the three modes of nature and is the emblem of transcendental activity. He disseminates the cult of devotion throughout the world...". The current english translation of this rare gem was done in 1977 in Vrindaban by a disciple of His Divine Grace Srila Prabhupada. Presented below is the complete translation of Sri Caitanya Upanisad from the Atharva Veda, with the commentary of Srila Sacidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura - Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya. Harih Aum Text 1 atha pippaladah samit panir bhagavantam brahmanam upasanno. bhagavan me subham kim atra caksvasveti atha-thereafter; Pippaladah-Pippalada; samit- panih-with sacrificial fuel [sacred wood] in hand; bhagavantam-the opulent; brahmanam-Lord Brahma; upasannah-approached; bhagavanO My Lord; me-unto me; subham-auspicious; kim-what; atra-in this world; caksasva-please tell; iti-thus. TRANSLATION Thereafter, Pippalada, with sacrificial fuel in hand, approached Lord Brahma and said, O My Lord, in this world, please tell me what is the real auspiciousness? Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: panca-tattvanvitam natva caitanya-rasa-vigraham caitanyopanisad-bhasyam karomyatma-visuddhaye After offering obeisances unto the Panca-Tattva, I am writing this commentary on the Caitanya Upanisad, which is the form of the mellow of Lord Caitanya, for self-purification. This Caitanya Upanisad which is included within the eternal Atharva-Veda, and which is full of all bliss, has thus far not been manifest due to being beyond the vision of persons who have become blinded by the influence of the illusory energy and whose minds are directed towards external matters. Then, when Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the moon of Navadvipa, appeared, by the endeavor of the pure devotees, it became known. According to the authority 1 of the Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.9.38), even the sastras are in a covered form concerning the Supreme Lord Sri Caitanya who is to be worshipped in Kali-Yuga [or Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appears in a covered form according to the sastras]. Therefore it is not

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Caitanya-candra surprising that, due to misfortune, the fools who are engaged in karma and jnana have no faith in this connection. After examining many sastras1 and performing much worship, Pippalada Muni, desiring his own welfare, approached the guru, the four faced Lord Brahma with fuel in hand and asked, What is best for me? Text 2 sa hovaca. bhuya eva tapasa brahmacaryena sasvat ramasva mano vaseti sah-He, Lord Brahma; ha-indeed; uvaca-said; bhuyah-very; eva-only; tapasa-with austerity; brahmacaryena-and celibacy; sasvat-always; ramasva-be pleased; manah-the mind; vasacontrol ; iti-thus. TRANSLATION Lord Brahma said, Always be very pleased with only austerity, celibacy and control of the mind. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Lord Brahma said to him: After spending one year acting for the purification of mind and body by pure behavior in renunciation, by celibacy, by yoga practice and austerity, come again. Text 3 sa tatha bhutva bhuya enam upasadyaha-bhagavan kalau papac channah prajah katham mucyeran iti sah-he, Pippalada; tatha-so; bhutva-becoming; bhuyah-very; enam-thus; upasadyaapproaching, aha-said; bhagavan-O my Lord; kalau-in Kali; papat-due to sin; channahcovered; prajah-people; katham-how; mucyeran-can be liberated; iti-thus. TRANSLATION He, Pippalada, becoming pure in mind, again approached his father and said: O my Lord Brahma, in the age of Kali Yuga, people are covered due to sin. How can they obtain liberation? Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: After practicing purification of the body and mind by celibacy and austerity, Pippalada again approached his guru and inquired, In Kali-Yuga, how can those who are sinful by nature obtain liberation from the material condition?
1

Vedic literatures

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Text 4 ko va devata ko va mantro bruhiti. kah-which; va-or; devata-deity; kah-which; va- or; mantrah-mantra; brohi-Please tell (me); itithus. TRANSLATION Please tell me which deity or which mantra is worthy of service. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Oh, my Lord, for the living beings whose minds are contaminated by Kali-yuga, please tell me which deity should be worshipped or which mantra should be chanted in order to be delivered. Text 5 sa hovca rahasya te vadiymi. jhnav-tre navadvpe golokkhye dhmni govindo dvi-bhujo gaura. sarvtm mah-yog tri-gutta sattva-rpo bhakti loke kyatti. tad ete lok bhavanti. sah-he, Lord Brahma; ha-indeed; uvaca-replied; rahasyam-confidential truth; te-unto you; vadisyami-I will tell; jahnavi-tire-on the bank of the Jahnavi; navadvipe-in Navadvipa; golokaakhye- which is known as Goloka; dhamni-abode; govindah-Lord Govinda; dvi-bhujah-with two arms; gaurah-golden complexion; sarva-atma-the Supersoul; maha-purusah-the greatest Personality; maha-atma; the Supreme Being; maha-yogi-the greatest yogi; tri-guna-atitah-who is transcendental to the modes of nature; satva-rupah-the form of truth; bhaktim-devotional service; loke-in the world; kasyati-will manifest; iti-thus; tat-that; ete-these; slokah-verses; bhavanti-are. TRANSLATION Lord Brahm replied: Listen carefully, for I will tell you the confidential truth. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, the supreme enjoyer, whose form is transcendental, who is beyond the touch of the three modes of material nature, and who is the all-pervading Supersoul residing in the hearts of all living entities, will appear again in Kali-yuga. Appearing as the greatest devotee, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will assume a two-armed form of golden complexion in His abode of Goloka manifested on the bank of the Ganges in Navadvpa. He will disseminate pure devotional service in the world. This is described in the following verses. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: In the eleventh canto of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, (11.5.33-34 ) the state of being of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Caitanya, the savior of Kali-yuga is proven.

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Caitanya-candra dhyeyam sada paribhava-ghnam abhista-doham tirhaspadam siva-virinci-nutam saranyam bhrtyarti-ham pranata-pala bhavabdhi-potam vande maha-purusa te caranaravindam O Supreme Person, O Protector of the devotees, I offer my respectful obeisances unto Your lotus feet which are worthy of being constantly meditated upon, which destroy misery, yield all desire, which are the abode of all holy places of pilgrimage, which are praised by Lord Siva and Lord Brahma, which are the shelter of all, which dispel the distress of the devotees and which are a boat for crossing over the ocean of material existence. tyaktva sudustayja-surepsita-rajya-laksmim dharmistha arya-vacasa yad agad aranyam maya-mrgam dayitayepsitam anvadhavad vande maha-purusa te caranaravindam O Mahapurusa, I offer my respects and humble obeisances unto Your lotus feet, upon whom one should meditate. You left Your household life, leaving Laksmi, the goddess of fortune Your adorable consort and all her opulence, which is most difficult to renounce, who is worshipped even by the great demigods. Being the most faithful follower of religion,You thus left for the forest in obedience to a brahmanas curse to deliver the fallen conditioned souls, who are always in pursuit of the false enjoyment of illusion. At the same time You engaged in searching for Your desired object, the Supreme Lord. Text 6 eko devah sarva-rupi mahatma gauro rakta-syamala-sveta-rupah caitanyatma sa vai caitanya-saktir bhaktakaro bhakti-do bhakti-vedyah ekah-one; devah-Lord; sarva-rupi-the form of all; maha-atma-greatest Personality; gaurahGaura; rakta-red; syamala-blackish; sveta-white; rupah-whose form; caitanya-Caitanya; atmaHimself; sah-he; vai-indeed; caitanya-saktih-the embodiment of the spiritual potency; bhaktaof a devotee; akarah-the form; bhakti-dah-bestower of devotional service; bhakti-by devotional service; vedyah-He can be known. TRANSLATION The one Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appears in a variety of transcendental forms, is also knows as Gaura. He has also appeared in various complexions such as red, blackish and white. He shall appear in the form of Gaura. He Himself is Caitanya, the embodiment of cit-sakti. He shall appear in the form of a devotee, to bestow devotional service to the Lord and He is also to be known by devotional service. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: In the Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.13), the Lords characteristics are described by Gargamuni: suklo raktas tatha pita idanim krsnatam gatah. He has been white, red, and yellow and now

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Caitanya-candra (in Dvapara-Yuga), he is blackish. In Kali-Yuga, He takes the form of a devotee. The confidential truth is that the Lord has descended with His own abode, Goloka-Dhama, to the supremely sanctified land of Gauda, in the form of a devotee as Sri Krsna Caitanya Himself and desiring to deliver love of God, He has exposed the transcen- dental secret of madhurarasa which enlivens all the devotees in the material world, headed by Sathakopa, Ramanujacarya, Visnuswami, Madhvacarya, Nimbarkacarya, etc., for the purpose of quickly bestowing auspiciousness unto the living beings in Kali-yuga. Bhakti vedyah means that the living entities can know the Lord by the practice of devotional service and not by the practice of dry philosophical speculation. Text 7 namo vedanta vedyaya krsnaya paramatmane sarva-caitanya-rupaya caitanyaya namo namah namah-obeisances; vedanta-by vedanta; vedyaya- who can be known; krsnaya-unto Krsna; paramatmane-who is the Supersoul; sarva-of everything; caitanya-conscious; rupaya-whose form; caitanyaya-unto Caitanya Mahaprabhu; namah namah- obeisances again and again. TRANSLATION I offer my respectful obeisances unto He who is to be understood by Vedanta, who is Krsna, the Supersoul, whose form is conscious of everything. Obeisances again and again unto Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Even Lord Brahma offers his obeisances unto Sri Caitanya after considering His unlimited mercy upon Lord Brahmas own Brahma Madhva sampradaya. Text 8 vedanta vedyam purusam puranam caitanyatmanam visva-yonim mahantam tam eva viditva ti-mrtyum eti nanyah pantha vidyatetyanaya vedanta-vedyam-who can be known by vedanta; purusam-person; puranam-the oldest; caitanya-Caitanya; atmanam-Himself; visva-yonim-the source of the universe; maha-antam-the greatest; tam-Him; eva-certainly; viditva-upon knowing; ati-mrtyam-beyond death; eti-one goes; na-not; anyah-another; pantha-means; vidyate-there is; ayanaya-for going. TRANSLATION By knowing Him, who is to be known by Vedanta, who is the oldest personality, who is Himself, Caitanya, the source of the universe and the greatest, one can overcome death. There is no other means for going beyond Maya.

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Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Vedanta-vedyam means, he speaks to Pippalada after reflecting upon the conclusion of all the Vedas. Sri Caitanya, although in the form of a devotee can be known by Vedanta, as being directly Sri Krsna. For the living beings who have given up the material world, without the shelter of the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya, there is no other means for entering into the spiritual world. According to the evidence of Ramanuja, etc., by the mellow of servitorship, dasyarasa, there is no direct path. The destination of those who practice dasya rasa etc., is limited to Vaikuntha. This is apparent in their books, etc. This is because Sri Caitanya is the source of the universe and the only teacher in the matter of instructing vraja-rasa. Text 9 sva-nama-mula-mantrena sarvam hladayati vibhuh. sva-His own; nama-name; mula-whose source; mantrena-by the mantra; sarvam-everything; TRANSLATION By the mantra, whose source is His own name, the Lord pleases everything. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Because there may be an incongruity with, by the mantra whose source lies in His Form, Bhaktivinoda explains that sva nama, His own name, means the name of Krsna, not the name of Caitanya. Moreover, it can also mean Hari, but specifically it means Krsna. Vibhuh means the Lord who possesses all opulence. And sarvam means all moving and non-moving living beings. Text 10 dve sakti parame tasya hladini samvit eva ca, iti dve-two; sakti-potencies; parame-superior; tasya-His; hladini-hladini (bliss); samvit-samvit (knowledge); eva-certainly; ca-and; iti-thus. TRANSLATION His superior energies are hladini (bliss), and samvit (knowledge). Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Two energies are acquainted with the Supreme Lord - hladini and samvit. By hladini is meant, by the manifestation of devotional service (bhakti) and love of God (prema), He pleases everything. By samvit is meant, by the manifestation of knowledge of the Absolute Truth which is approved of by the pure conclusions of the Vedas, He destroys the varieties of religion and irreligion which are similar to ignorance and darkness within of the heart of the conditioned soul.

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Text 11 sa eva mula-mantram japati harir iti krsna iti rama iti sah-He, Sri Caitanya; eva-certainly; mula-mantram-the original mantra; japati-chants; harihHari; iti-thus; krsnah-Krsna; iti-thus; ramah-Rama; iti- thus. TRANSLATION He chants the original mantra consisting of Hari, Krsna and Rama, in other words, the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: The Supreme Lord in the form of Gaura instructs the conditioned souls by chanting the supremely powerful, original mantra: Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare Text 12 harati hrdaya-granthim vasana-rupam iti harih. krsih smarane tac ca nastad ubhaya-melanam iti krsnah. ramayati sarvam iti rama ananda-rupah. atra sloko bhavati. harati-He removes; hrdaya-in the heart; granthim- the knot; vasana-of material desire; rupamin the form; iti-thus; harih-Hari; krsih-the root krs; smarane-by the remembrance; tat-that; caand; nastat-the affix na; ubhaya-of both; melanam-the union; iti-thus; krsnah-Krsna; ramayatiHe pleases; sarvam-everything; iti-thus; ramah-Rama; ananda- rupah-the form of bliss; atrahere; slokah-a verse; bhavati-is. TRANSLATION He who removes the knot in the heart in the form of material desire, is called Hari. The union by the remembrance of the root krs- and the affix -na, is the hymn of praise-Krsna. He who gives pleasure to everything is the form of bliss-Rama. Here is such a verse. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: The meanings of the above three names are explained. Hrdaya-granthi, means the inclination of the living entity whose factual constitutional position is to be a servant of Krsna, which takes its form in the desire for other mundane interests which is produced from the forgetfulness of the service of the Lord. In this connection, the words of the Vedas and the Srimad-Bhagavatam are noteworthy: bhidyante hrdaya-granthis chidyante sarva-samsayah. He severs the knot within the heart and all doubts are cut to pieces. (Mundaka-Upanisad 2.2.8 and Srimad Bhagavatam 1.2.21) He who takes away that knot is Hari. Krsna is to be remembered in His pastimes as the Supreme Lord, the Lord of Vrindavana, with beauty like a blackish tamala tree, sucking the breast of Mother Yasoda. This is the conventional meaning,

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Caitanya-candra which is equivalent to another meaning from the statements of the Sandarbhas. Rama pleases everything. By this mantra is meant, that when the spirit soul gives up the conditioned state of existence, he attains the state of assisting in the transcendental Vrindavana pastimes, and the attainment of the Supreme enjoyment of rasa, etc. Thus, the verse is to be reflected upon in this way. Text 13 mantro guhyah paramo bhakti vedyah mantroh-the Hare Krsna Maha-Mantra; guhyah-confidential; paramah-transcendental; bhaktiby bhakti-yoga; vedyah-can be known. TRANSLATION The Maha-Mantra is confidential, transcendental and can be understood only by devotional service, (bhakti-yoga). Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: The confidential truth of this mantra can be understood only by those who have attained the prescribed method and not by those who are adherents of fruitive work (karma) and philosophical speculation (jnana). sa vai pumsam paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhoksaje ahaituky apratihata yayatma suprasidati The most perfect occupation for all humankind is what is conducive to the attainment of devotional service of transcendence to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such devotional service must be unmotivated and undeterred so that the same shall completely satisfy the self. (Srimad-Bhagavatam 1.2.6) Text 14 namany astav asta ca sobhanani. tani nityam ye japanti dhiras te vai mayam atitaranti nanyah paramam mantram parama-rahasyam nityam avartayanti namani-names; astav asta ca-eight plus eight; sobhanani-beautiful; tani-those names; nityamregularly; ye-those who; japanti-chant; dhirah- sober persons; te-they; vai-certainly; mayamthe illusory energy; atitaranti-cross over; na-not; anyah -another means; paramamtranscendental; mantram-mantra; parama-rahasyam-the supreme secret; nityam-regularly; avartayati-one should repeat.

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Caitanya-candra TRANSLATION These sixteen names are supremely beautified. Those who chant them regularly are sober persons who are able to cross beyond the illusory energy. There is no other means. One should repeat this maha-mantra which is the supreme secret, regularly. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: This mantras quality of yielding fruits to the devotees is apparent. By regularly chanting this mantra consisting of sixteen names, the devotees transcendentally cross beyond the state of being overcome by the illusory, material energy. There is no other means than this. Even the eternally perfect souls regularly repeat this mantra for the sake of their own dharma. It is the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra that the Vedic literature particularly recommends for the current age. Documentation for this may be found in the Brahmanda Purana(Uttara-khanda,6.55), the Kalisantarana Upanisad(5;6), and in many other Vedic texts as well. For instance the Hare Krsna maha-mantra has been prescribed by Brahma as stated in the Kalisantarana Upanisad(5;6): hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare iti sodasakam namnam kali kalmasa nasanam natah parataropayah sarva vedesu drsyate Lord Brahma instructs his son and disciple, Narada: The sixteen words of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra-(Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare)-are especially meant for counteracting the sins of Kali-yuga.To save oneself from the contamination of Kali-yuga there is no other alternative, but to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.After searching through all the Vedic scriptures one cannot find a method of religion for this age (Kali-yuga) so sublime as the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. Text 15 caitanya eva sankarsano vasudevah paramesthi rudrah sakro brhaspatih sarve devah sarvani bhutani sthavarani carani ca yat kincit sad-asat karanam sarvam, tad atra slokah. caitanyah-Sri Caitanya; eva-indeed; sankarsanah- Sankarsana; vasudevah-Vasudeva; paramesthi-the Supersoul; rudrah-Rudra (Siva); sakrah-sakra (Indra); brhaspatih-Brhaspati; sarve-all; devah- the demigods; sarvani-all; bhutani-the living entities; sthavarani-non-moving;

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Caitanya-candra carani-moving; ca-and; yat-which; kincit-anything; sat-eternal; asat-temporary; karanam-the cause; sarvam-everything; tat-that; atra-herein; slokah-the verses. TRANSLATION Caitanya is Sankarsana, Vasudeva, and the Supersoul. He is the cause of Rudra (Siva), Sakra (Indra), Brhaspati, all the demigods, all moving and non-moving entities, and everything which is temporary and external. Herein are the celebrated verses. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: For the devotees of Sri Caitanya, what need is there for worshipping other demigods. Text 16 yat kincid asad bhunkte ksaram tat karyam ucyate. yat-that which; kincit-whatever; asat-temporary; bhunkte-one enjoys; ksaram-perishable; tatthat; karyam-effect; ucyate-is called. TRANSLATION Whatever one enjoys which is temporary is known as an effect and is perishable. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: This universe is temporary, due to its quality of being an effect. Text 17 sat karanam param jivas tad aksaram itiritam. sat-eternal; karanam-the cause; param-beyond; jivah-the spirit soul; tat-that; aksaramperishable; iti-thus; iritam-it is said. TRANSLATION It is said that the spirit soul is eternal. He is the cause of that which is perishable and also beyond that which is perishable. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: The spirit soul is eternal and the cause of that which is perishable. Due to forgetfulness of his occupational duty because of the influence of the illusory energy, he imagines himself to be the doer. Therefore, he is perishable. Text 18 ksaraksarabhyam paramah sa eva

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Caitanya-candra purusottamah caintanyakhyam param tattvam sarva-karana- karanam. ksara-from the perishable; aksarabhyam-and imperishable; paramah-beyond; sah-He; evacertainly; purusa-uttamah-the Supreme Person; caitanya-Caitanya; akhyam-is called; paramtattvam-the Supreme Truth; sarva-karana-karanam-the cause of all causes. TRANSLATION He who is beyond that which is perishable and imperishable is the Supreme Person. The name of the Supreme Truth, the cause of all causes is Sri Caitanya. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: The universe is perishable. The spirit soul is imperishable. The supreme truth beyond both of these, the cause of all causes is called Caitanya, whose nature is that of the Supreme Person. By this, the three truths of Vedanta are confirmed. Text 19 ya enam rasayahti bhajati dhyayahti sa papmanam tarati sa puto bhavati, sa tattvam janati, sa tarati sokam, gatis tasyaste nanyasyeti yah-one who; enam-this Caitanya Mahaprabhu; rasayati-develops love for; bhajati-worships; dhyayati-meditates upon; sah-he; papmanam-sin; tarati-crosses over; sah-he; putah-purified; bhavati-is; sah-he; tattvam-truth; janati-knows; sah-he; tarati-overcomes; sokam-lamentation; gatih-destination; tasya-of him; aste-there is; na-not; anyasya-another; iti-thus. TRANSLATION Anyone who develops love for Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, worships Him or meditates on Him is freed from sin, becomes purified, understands the Supreme Truth, and overcomes lamentation. For him, there is no other destination. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: One who is a devotee develops love for Sri Krsna Caitanya. This means he devotes himself to Sri Caitanya due to His being the bestower of the conjugal mellow of Vrindavana. Bhajati, or he worships, means that after accepting his own constitutional position, he renders service. Dhyayati means that he meditates. He overcomes sin in the form of ignorance. Having overcome that, he is purified by the spiritual nature. Tattvam means that he understands the truth in terms of inconceivable oneness and difference between the energy and the energetic. (acintya bheda-abheda-tattva). And finally he overcomes lamentation. Thus ends the Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya, commentary on Sri Caitanya Upanisad.

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4.2 Specific Reference In The Vedas As To When And Where Sri Caitanya Was Scheduled To Appear?
In the Atharva-Veda (Purusa-Bodini-Upanisad), it is stated: atharva-vede-purusa-bodi'ny-upanisad saptame gaura-varna-visnor itya ena sva-saktya caikyam etya prante pratar avatirya saha svaih sva-manum siksayati. In the seventh manvantara, in the beginning of the Kali-Yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will, accompanied by His own associates, descend in a golden form to the earth. He will teach the chanting of His own names. In the Atharva Veda, the Supreme Person Sri Krsna says: itoham krta-sannyaso'vatarisyami sa-guno nirvedo niskamo bhu-girbanas tira-stho lakanandayah kalau catuh-sahasrabdhopari panca-sahasrabhyantare gaura-varno dirghangah sarva-laksana-yukta isvara-prarthito nija-rasasvado bhakta-rupo misrakhyo vidita-yogah syam. I will descend on the earth after the passage of four thousand years in the Kali-Age, [kalau catuh sahasrabdhopari] and before the passsage of five thousand years [panca sahasra abhyantare]. I will come on the earth on the bank of the Ganges, [tira-sthah alakanandayah]. I will be a tall and saintly Brahmana devotee. I will have all the auspicious symptoms of an exalted person [dirghangah sarva-laksana-yuktah]. I will exhibit renunciation. I will have all auspicious signs. I will be a devotee, practicing bhakti yoga. I will taste the rasa of My own devotional service. In the Sama Veda, the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna says: tathaham krta sannyaso bhu-girvano vatarisye tire'lakanandayah punah punah isvaraprarthitah sa-parivaro niralambo nirdhuteh kalikalmasa-kavalita-janavalambanaya. I shall come to the earth, accompanied by My associates, in a place by the bank of the Ganges. I will advent to save the people who are afflicted and devoured by the sins of the age of Kali. I will manifest as an avadhuta Brahmana sannyasi.

4.3 Other Relevant Scriptural References Describing The Appearance Or Qualities Of Sri Caitanya?
In the Krsna Upanisad it is stated: sa eva bhagavan yuge turiyepi brahma-kule jayamanah sarva upanisadah uddidirsuh sarvani dharma96

Caitanya-candra sastrani vistarayisnuh sarvan api janan santarayisnuh sarvan api vaisnavan dharman vjtmbhayan sarvan api pasandan nicakhana In the Kali-yuga, Lord Krsna will appear in a brahmanas family. He will teach the message of the Upanisads antd the dharma-sastras. He will defeat the atheists and offenders and He will establish the truth of Vaisnava-dharma. The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.7) describes the qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Caitanya: tam isvaranam paramam mahesvaram tam devatanam paramam ca daivatam patim patinam paramam parastad vidama devam bhuvanesam idyam O Supreme Lord, you are the Supreme Mahesvara, the worshipable deity of all the demigods and the Supreme Lord of all Lords. You are the controller of all controllers, the Personality of Godhead, the Lord of everything worshipable. The Svetasvatara Upanisad (3.12) states: mahan prabhur vai purusah sattvasyaisa pravartakah sunirmalam imam praptim isano jyotir avyayah Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who disseminates transcendental enlightenment. Just to be in touch with Him is to be in contact with the indestructible brahmajyoti. In the Mundaka Upanisad (3.13) it is stated: yada pasyah pasyate rukma-varnam kartaram isam purusam brahma-yonim sada vidvan punya-pape vidhuya niranjanah paramam samyam upaiti One who sees that golden-coloured Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Lord, the Supreme actor, Who is the source of the Supreme Brahman, is liberated. Thus it is clearly established from the writings of the great Acaryas of the Gaudiyaparampara, that Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, whose appearance and birthplace were predicted and whose activities were also foretold.

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4.4 Prediction in the Srimad-Bhagavatam Describing The Appearance Of Lord Caitanya.


In the seventh canto of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, Prahlada Maharaja directly hints at the hidden nature of the Supreme Lords appearance. Because the Supreme Lord is also called TriYuga, or one who appears in only three yugas (Satya, Dvapara, Treta), He is sometimes said to appear in a concealed form, in the age of Kali. In the Srimad Bhagavatam 7.9.38, Sri Prahalada Maharaja said: ittham nr-tiryag-rsi-deva jhasavatarair lokan vibhavayasi hamsi jagat pratipan dharmam maha purusa pasi yuganuvrttam channah kalau yad abhavas tri-yugo 'tha sa tvam My Lord,You kill all the enemies of the world in Your multifarious incarnations in the families of men, animals, demigods, rsis, aquatics and so on. Thus You illuminate the worlds with transcendendal knowledge. In the age of Kali, O Mahapurusa, You sometimes appear in a covered incarnation. Therefore You are known as Triyuga [one who appears in only three yugas]. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is known as Triyuga, which means that He is manifest in three yugas. However, this means that in the age of Kali the Lord appears not directly, but in disguise; that is ,He doesnnt assert Himself as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And this was the special feature of Lord Caitanya, for He appeared in the role of a devotee. Not as the Supreme Lord. Srila Sridhara Svami2 has also verified that Lord Hari incarnates for two purposes; paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam. That is, He comes to engage in pastimes with His devotees and to annihilate the demons. These purposes are visible in Satya, Treta and Dvapara yugas, but in Kali-yuga the Lord appears disguised. He does not directly kill demons and give protection to the faithful. Because the Lord is not directly perceived in Kali-yuga, but is directly known in the other three yugas, His name is Triyuga. In the age of Kali there is no lila-avatara of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore He is known as Triyuga. That is one of His holy names. A lila-avatara is an incarnation of Lord who performs a variety of activites without making any special endeavor. He always has one pastime after another, all full of transcendental pleasure, and these pastimes are fully controlled by the Supreme Person. In his book Laghu-bhagavatamrta, Srila Rupa Gosvami has enumerated the following twenty-five lila-avataras: Catuh-sana, Narada, Varaha, Matsya, Yagna, Nara-Narayana, Kapila, Dattatreya, Hayasirsa (Hayagriva), Hamsa, Prsnigarbha, Rsabha, Prthu, Nrsimha, Kurma, Dhanvantri, Mohini, Vamana, Parasurama, Raghavendra, Vyasa, Balarama, Krsna, Buddha, Kalki. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is not mentioned as a lilaavatara because He is an incarnation in disguise (channa-avatara).
2

a great acarya of the Rudra Visnuswami sampradaya who wrote the commentary on Srimad Bhagavatam known as Bhavartha dipika which is well received by all Vaisnava sampradayas.

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4.4.1 The Yuga-Avataras And More Direct References In The Srimad Bhagavatam In the tenth canto of the Srimad Bhagavatam, chapter eight, Gargamuni the family priest of the Yadu dynasty, explains that the young boy Sri Krsna has three colors - white, red and yellow - when He appears in His transcendental form in different ages. In the current incarnation of Krsna, He has appeared ...as black. asan varnas trayo hy asya grhnatotnvyugam tanuh suklo raktas tatha pita idanim krsnatam gatah This child formerly had three colors according to the prescribed color for different millenniums. Formerly He was white, red and yellow, and now He has assumed a blackish color. (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.13) Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Gosvami, the celebrated author of the Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, explains that the three colors of white, red and yellow are the three bodily colors which the Supreme Lord assumes in the ages of Satya, Treta and Kali respectively. sukla rakta pita-varna-ei tina dyuti satya-treta-kali-kale dharena sri-pati In the four yugas-Satya, Treta, Dvapara and Kali-the Lord incarnates in four colors: white, red, black and yellow respectively. These are the colors of the incarnations in different millenniums. In each millenium the Supreme Lord incarnates, and each incarnation has a different colour according to the yuga. In the Satya-yuga, the colour of the incarnation of Supreme Lord is white; in the Treta-yuga the colour is red ; in the Dvapara-yuga the colour of the incarnation is blackish; and in the Kali-yuga the colour is also blackish, but sometimes in a special Kaliyuga, his colour is yellowish (as in case of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu). The Bhagavatam explains in the conversation between Karabhajana Muni and King Nimi: krte suklas catur bahur jatilo valkalambarah krsnajinopavitaksan bibhrad danda-kamandalu In the Satya-yuga, the Lord appeared in a body colored white with four arms and matted hair. He wore tree bark and bore a black antelope skin. He wore a sacred thread and a garland of rudraksa beads. He carried a rod and a waterpot, and He was a brahmacari. In Satya-yuga the Hamsa avatara of the Lord was white, and austerity was the yuga-dharma. According to the yuga, the Lord appears in a particular colour. Such incarnations which reestablish religion are called yuga-avataras.

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In the Satya-yuga the people were generally advanced in spirtual knowledge and could meditate upon Krsna very easily. They were peaceful, non-envious, friendly to every creature, and steady in all situations. They worshipped the Supreme Lord by austere meditation and by internal and external sense control. In Satya-yuga the Lord was glorified by the names Hamsa, Suparna, Vaikuntha, Dharma, Yogesvara, Amala, Isvara, Purusa, Avyakta and Paramatama. As the white incarnation, the Supreme Lord taught religion and meditation. He offered benediction to Kardama Muni, and in this way He showed His causeless mercy. In Treta-yuga: tretayam rakta-varnosau catur-bahus trimekhalah hiranya-kesas trayy-atma sruk-sruv-ady-upalaksana In the Treta-yuga, the Lord appeared in a body that had a reddish hue and four arms. There were three distinctive lines on His abdomen, and his hair was golden. His form manifested the Vedic knowledge, and He bore the symbols of a sacrificial spoon and so on. The peoples occupational duty in Treta-yuga was to perform great sacrifices. This was induced by the Personality of Godhead in His reddish incarnation. In Treta-yuga, those members of human society who are fixed in religiosity and are sincerely interested in achieving the Absolute truth, worshipped the Supreme Lord Krsna who contains within Himself all the demigods. The Lord is worshipped by the rituals of sacrifice taught in the Vedas. In Treta-yuga the Lord is glorified by the names Visnu, Yajna, Prsnigarbha, Sarvadeva, Urukrama, Vrsakapi, Jayanta, and Urugaya. However in some Treta-yuga, the Lord is glorified by the names Rama, Ramacandra, Raghavendra, Raghupati, Raghunatha, Kausalya-nandana and Sitapati. Incarnations like Rama and others who come to destroy the demons are called karya-avataras. In Treta-yuga, the Lord takes a red-coloured form to teach the religion of yajna, sacrifice. In some Treta-yugas, however, the Lord appears as Lord Ramacandra. His transcendental body is the colour of fresh green grass. Lord Rama forms alliance with the forest monkeys to vanquish the demon Ravana. Many Treta-yugas have passed but they are not the same. In Dvapara-yuga: dvapare bhagavan syamah pita-vasa nijayudhah sri-vatsadibhir ankais ca laksanair upalaksitah

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Caitanya-candra In the Dvapara-yuga the Personality of Godhead appears in a blackish hue. He is dressed in yellow, He holds His own weapons,and He is decorated with the Kaustubha jewel and marks of Srivatsa. This is how His symptoms are described. The syama color mentioned in the above verse is not exactly blackish. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakur compares it to the colour of the atasi flower. It is not that Lord Krsna Himself appears in a blackish color in all the Dvapara-yugas. In other Dvapara-yugas, previous to Lord Krsnas appearance, the Supreme Lord appeared in a greenish body by his own personal expansion. This is mentioned in the Visnu Purana, Hari-vamsa and Mahabharata. Although Sri Krsna, the darling son of Nanda Maharaja, came alone, all the other incarnations and expansions of Godhead are contained within Him. For this reason Lord Krsna is known as the purna-brahma, the most perfect form, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Also, Sri Krsna is the transcendental paramour lover of the Vraja gopis. When the Krsna avatara, the crest jewel and the essence of all incarnations, appears in a particular Dvapara, that Dvapara-yuga is the best of all the Dvaparas. In other Dvapara-yugas, two incarnations appear called karya and yuga avataras. Lord Krsna does not appear in every Dvapara-yuga. Lord Gauranga Mahaprabhu appears to preach Krsna consciousness in that particular Kaliyuga directly following the Dvapara-yuga in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Krsna appears. The two special yugas wherein Lord Krsna and Lord Caitanya appear are called svatantra. Lord Krsna and Lord Caitanya dont appear in every Dvapara and Kali-yuga. In other Dvapara-yugas, Krsna appears in expanded forms, but not in his original forms. People receive great fortune in the Dvapara and Kali-yugas wherein both Krsna and Gauranga appear. Krsna and Gauranga perform their transcendental pastimes only once in a day of Lord Brahma. During the reign of Vaivasvata manvantara, Lord Syamasundara came as Lord Gauranga. Lord Gauranga worships Lord Krsna, the Lord of Dvapara, by doing hari-nama sankirtana. Kali-yuga is glorious, the topmost among yugas, because everyone can easily perform the yuga-dharma of chanting the holy names in the sankirtana. Lord Caitanya delivers the lame, blind, and invalid by inducing them to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. When the Lord appears as a yuga avatara He serves a particular purpose according to the needs of that specific yuga. In Dvapara-yuga Lord Krsna comes as a yuga avatara. By what activites did he establish the yuga-dharma? Scriptures say that temple worship is the religious process for Dvapara-yuga. When and where did Lord Krsna establish temple worship? The Lord Himself, the completely independent Supreme Being, decides whether Hell establish the yuga-dharma or simply enjoy pleasure pastimes. The wonderful thing is that He did everyhing at once. In order to perform pastimes in the form of Radha and Krsna, the Lord manifested His form as Gauranga. Radharani is the form of Krsnas divine hladini-sakti. She is individual, independent and separate from Krsna. Radha and Krsna have only one body, but They have separated as two

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Caitanya-candra persons in order to perform pastimes. Lord Gauranga takes the name of Radha and joins with the gopis to serve Krsna. Radharani and the gopis, who are her personal expansions, serve Sri Krsna with pure transcendental love. However, Srimati Radharani alone is the personification of Krsnas svarupa-sakti. Radha feels that Her love is always fresh, new and ever increasing. The Srimad Bhagavatam declares that this mood of loving service is hard to understand. In other Dvapara-yugas the Lord established religion by encouraging vows, charity and meditation. The people, though failed to capture the essence of religion whichis pure love of God. In the age of Kali, Lord Krsna came as Lord Gauranga specifically to give pure love of God to everyone. Assuming the molten gold colour of Srimati Radharani and Her mood of pure love within His heart, Krsna Himself appeared as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in this Kaliyuga. Covered by Radhas mood, Lord Caitanya cries ouy in love. His body continually exhibits ecstatic symptoms like horripilation, and changing body color from gold to pink. Sometimes Gaura roars to awaken the sleeping souls of Kali-yuga. People experience real joy when they embrace Mahaprabhus sankirtana movement. After accepting the transcendental names of Radha and Krsna, they begin chanting, dancing, crying and laughing in ecstacy. Soon they emerge from the darkness of ignorance, and see the transcendental reality of blissful spiritual life. The Supreme Lord came in form of Gauranga to make the world Krsna-conscious. Adopting a humble mood, He teaches the science of loving Krsna. Lord Gaurasundara takes pleasure in giving Himself to others. Even without being asked, He gives away Krsna-prema to eveyone without discrimination. For this reason this yuga-avatara is called a complete incarnation of the Supreme Personality Godhead. In previous Kali-yugas the Supreme Lord came in the form of Lord Narayana. The two-syllable word Krsna is the name of the avatara who appeared with the colour of a parrots wing feathers [bright yellow]. Great sages say that this person is also the colour of blue sapphires. The Gauranga avatara contains all the unlimited incarnations of God within Him. No other incarnation matches Gauras compassion. The sastras say that in Kali-yuga the Lord takes a golden form and spreads the sankirtana movement. This Lord is none other than Sri Visvambara. In Dvapara-yuga the peoples occupational duty was to worship the lotus feet of Krsna. Therefore Lord Krsna, appearing in a blackish body, personally induced people to worship Him. In Dvapara-yuga men who desired to know the Suprme Personaliy of Godhead, who is the supreme enjoyer, worshipped Him in the mood of honoring a great King, folowing the prescriptions of both the Vedas and the Tantras. In Dvapara-yuga the Supeme Lord was worsipped in the following way: namas te vasudevaya namah sankarsanaya ca pradyumna aniruddhaya tubhyam bhagavate namah. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personalty of Godhead, expanded as Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.

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The great sage continues his instruction to King Nimi by saying that people in general in the age of Dvapara-Yuga worshiped the Lord of the Universe [iti dvapara urvisam stuvanti jagad isvaram]. In the age of Kali, they worship the Supreme Person by the regulation of the scriptures [tantra vidhana]. In Kali-yuga(11.5.32): krsa-vara tvika sgopgstra-pradam yajai sakrtana-pryair yajanti hi sumedhasa In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the holy name of Krsna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krsna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions. 4.4.2 How Does This Krsna Varnam Verse Refer To The Advent Of Lord Caitanya? Just as the symptoms and characteristics of the various previous incarnations are mentioned in the scriptures, similarly the symptoms of the appearance of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu are described. Krsna-varnam indicates that He belongs to the category of Krsna. Krsna varnam also means one who constantly repeats and sings the name of Krsna. The main business of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was the chanting of the holy name of Krsna. Thus the words Krsna varnam and Krsna Caitanya are equivalent. Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Goswami has elucidated the two meanings of the words krsna varnam by stating: krsna ei dui varna sadayanra mukhe athava krmake tinho varne nija sukhe Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu always sings the two syllables Krs-na [Krsna ei dui varna sada yanra mukhe], or He always relishes great transcendental pleasure while describing Lord Krsna [athava krmake tinho varne nija-sukhe]. His bodily complexion is not black [tvisa akrsnam]. Lord Caitanya appeared in a very light, golden like complexion. His complexion was yellow [akrma-varane kahe pita-varana]. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very beautiful. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is often described as Gaurasundara. Gaura means fair and sundara means beautiful. Sometimes He is also called Gauranga or one who has a very fair golden complexion.

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Caitanya-candra Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada was one of the chief associates of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He was personally trained by Mahaprabhu Himself in the science of bhakti both in PuriDhama and Prayaga. He personally witnessed many intimate pastimes of Lord Caitanya at Jagannatha Puri. In his Stava- Mala, Caitanya-Astakam, He vividly describes the bodily color of Sriman Mahaprabhu. kalau yam vidvamsah sphutam abhiyajante dyuti-bharad akrmangam krsnam makha vidhibhir utkirtanamayaih In the age of Kali [kalau], great scholars [vidvamsah] worship Lord Krsna by performing the sankirtana [makha-vidhibhih utkirtanamayaih]. Lord Krsna is now non-blackish [akrmaangam], because of the feelings of ecstatic love of Srimati Radharani. This is the actual description of His bodily hue. Srila Kaviraja Goswami elucidates the above verse of Rupa Goswami: pratyaksa tanhara tapta-kancanera dyuti yanhara chataya nase aNnana tamastati Anyone can vividly see the golden complexion of Lord Caitanya [tapta kancanera dyuti]. This beautiful golden color dissipates the darkness of ignorance. Thus, the meaning of the words 'tvisa akrsnam' has been explained by the great acaryas, Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada and Srila Krsna Dasa Kaviraja Goswami. 4.4.3 Did He Come With Associates Or Intimate Companions? Lord Caitanya is always accompanied by His associates. His main associates are Lord Nityananda, Advaita Acarya, Srivasa, Gadadhara, Haridasa Thakura, etc. Whenever Lord Caitanya was present, they would assemble around Him and engage in hari-nama sankirtana. So in the incarnation of Lord Caitanya He comes with His soldiers and His associates [caitanya-krsnera sainya anga-upange]. Thousands upon thousands of persons would come and participate in the congregational chanting of the Hare Krsna maha mantra. sangopangastra parsadam (sa-anga upa-anga parsadam) Thus, Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu's characteristics and symptoms are described [krsnavarnam], and His bodily color is indicated [tvisa- akrsnam]. This famous verse from the Srimad-Bhagavatam also indicates that the incarnation for this age would also advent with His associates [sa-anga upanga astra parsadam]. The word anga is defined as a bodily limb [anga sabde amsa] and it is also sometimes called a part. A part of a limb [angera avayana] is defined as a partial part [upanea vyakhyana].

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Caitanya-candra Krsna dasa Goswami also defines the word anga as referring to a plenary portion. Such divine portions are full of knowlege and bliss [sat cid ananda maya]. Sri Advaita Prabhu and Sri Nityananda Prabhu are the angas or plenary portions of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu [advaita nityananda-caitanyera dui anga]. They are the angas (limbs) of Sri Caitanya. The sub-parts of these two limbs are called the upangas or the constituent parts of the two major limbs. 4.4.4 How Is This Yuga-Avatara Or Incarnation Of The Age Of Kali-Yuga To Be Worshipped? This form of the Personality of Godhead, Sri Caitanya, is meant to be worshipped by the intelligent class of men [yajanti hi su-medhasah]. The word su means very good and medhasah means one who is intelligent, one who has good brain substance. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the propounder, also sometimes called the initiator, of the sankirtana movement of congregational chanting of the Divine Name of Krsna [sankirtana pravartaka Sri Krsna Caitanya]. Anyone who worships Lord Caitanya through the medium of sankirtana is fortunate [sankirtana yajne tanre bhaje sei dhanya]. Anyone who worships Lord Caitanya, by making a sacrifice of His life, wealth, time, and intelligence and words is very fortunate and is recognized by the Lord and gets the blessings of Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu. 4.4.5 How Do The Six Goswamis Explain This Famous Verse? Srila Jiva Goswami has explained the above verse in his commentary on the Bhagavatam known as Krama Sandarbha, wherein he says that Lord Krsna also appears with a golden complexion. That golden Lord Krsna is Lord Caitanya, who is worshipped by intelligent men in this age of Kali. Srila Jiva Goswami explains that krsna-varnam means Sri Krsna Caitanya. Krsna-varna and Krsna Caitanya are equivalent. The name Krsna appears with both Lord Krsna and Lord Krsna Caitanya. Lord Caitanya is the same Supreme Personality of Godhead, but He always engages in describing Krsna and thus enjoying transcendental bliss by chanting and remembering His name and form. Lord Krsna Himself appears as Lord Caitanya to preach the highest gospel. Varnayati means utters or describes. Lord Caitanya always chants the holy name of Krsna and describes it also, and because He is Krsna Himself, whoever meets Him will automatically chant the holy name of Krsna and later describes it to others. He injects one with transcendental Krsna consciousness, which merges the chanter to transcendental bliss. In all respects, therefore, He appears before everyone as Krsna, either by personality or by sound. Simply by seeing Lord Caitanya one at once remembers Lord Krsna. One may therefore accept Him as visnu-tattva. In other words, Lord Caitanya is Lord Krsna Himself. Sangopangastra-parsadam further indicates that Lord Caitanya is Lord Krsna. His body is always decorated with ornaments of sandalwood and with sandalwood paste. By His superexcellent beauty He subdues all the people of this age. In other descends the Lord sometimes used weapons to defeat the demoniac, but in this age the Lord subdues them with

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Caitanya-candra His all-attractive figure as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Srila Jiva Goswami explains that His beauty is His astra, weapon, to subdue the demons. Because He is all-attractive, it is to be understood that all the demigods lived with Him as companions. His acts were uncommon and His associates wonderful. When He propagated the sankirtana movement, He attracted many great scholars and acaryas, especially in Bengal and Orissa. Lord Caitanya is always accompanied by His best associates like Nityananda, Advaita, Gadadhara and Srivasa. Srila Jiva Goswami cites a verse from the Vedic literature which says that there is no necessity of perfoming sacrificial demonstrations or ceremonial functions. He comments that instead of engaging in such external, pompous exhibitions, all people, regardless of caste, color or creed, can assemble together and chant Hare Krsna to worship Lord Caitanya. Krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam indicates that prominence should be given to the name of Krsna. Lord Caitanya taught Krsna consciousness and chanted the name of Krsna. Therefore to worship Lord Caitanya we should chant together the maha-mantra. Srila Jiva Goswami Prabhupada has commented upon the verse krsna varnam tvisakrsnam, in the introduction of his Bhagavata-Sandarbha. He composed the famous verse antah krsnam bahir gauram. antah krsnam bahir gauram darsitangadi vaibhavam kalau sankirtanadyaih sma krsna-caitanyam asritah I take shelter of Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who is outwardly of a fair complexion but is inwardly, Krsna Himself. In this age of Kali, He displays His expansions [His angas and upangas] by performing congregational chanting of the holy name of the Lord. Srila Prabhupada explains the meaning of the above verse: He [Srila Jiva Goswami ] has placed the verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam quoted in text 52 (krsna varnam tvisakrsnam ...) as the auspicious introduction to his Bhagavata-Sandarbha or Sat-Sandarbha. He has composed this text, which is, in effect an explanation of the Bhagavatam verse of the same work. The verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam was enunciated by Karabhajana, one of nine great sages, and it is elaborately explained by the Sarva- Samvadini, Jiva Goswamis commentary on his own Sat-Sandarbha. Antah-Krsna refers to one who is always thinking of Krsna. This attitude is a predominant feature of Srimati Radharani. Even though many devotees always think of Krsna, none can surpass the Gopis, among whom Radharani is the leader in thinking of Krsna. Radharani's Krsna consciousness surpasses that of all other devotees. Lord Caitanya accepted the position of Srimati Radharani to understand Krsna; therefore He was always thinking of Krsna in the same way as Radharani. By thinking of Lord Krsna, He always overlapped Krsna. Sri Krsna Caitanya, who was outwardly very fair, with a complexion like molten gold, simultaneously manifested His eternal associates, opulences, expansions and incarnations. He preached the process of chanting Hare Krsna, and those who are under His lotus feet are glorious.

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Caitanya-candra 4.4.6 Other Verses From The Srimad-Bhagavatam Which Describe The Advent Of Sri Caitanya There are two other verses often cited by Srila Prabhupada and the previous acaryas which describe the appearance of Lord Caitanya. In the Srimad Bhagavatam (11.5.33) Sri Karbhajana Muni says: dhyeyam sada paribhava-ghnam abhista-doham tirthaspadam siva-virinci-nutam saranyam bhrtyarti-ham pranata-pala bhavabdhi-potam vande maha purusa te caranaravindam O my dear Lord, You are the Mahapurusa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and I worship Your lotus feeet, which are the only eternal object of meditation. Those feet destroy embarrasing conditions of material life and freely award the greatest desire of the soul,the attainment of pure love of Godhead. I bow to Your lotus feet Which are always fit to be meditated upon without the least restrictions of time and place, which destroy all impediments like, karma, jnana, yoga to the practice of unalloyed devotion to you, Which are the wish wielders, and holy because of their being the resort of the holy river Ganga. You destroy insults to Your devotees. You remove the distresses of Your devotees and satisfy their desires. My dear Lord, Your lotus feet are the shelter of all holy places and of all saintly authorities in the line of devotional service and ae honoured by powerful demigods like Lord Siva and Lord Brahma. My Lord You are so kind that you willingly protect all those who simply bow down to You with respect, and thus You mercifully relieve all the distress of Your servants. In conclusion, my Lord, Your lotus feet are actually the suitable boat for crossing over the ocean of birth and death, and therefore even Lord Brahma and Lord Siva seek of Your lotus feet. In the Srimad Bhagavatam 11.5.34 Sri Karabhajana Muni further says: tyaktva su-dustyajya-surepsita-rajya-laskhmim dharmistha arya-vacasa yad agam-aranyam maya-mrgam dayitayepsitam anvadhavad vande maha-purusa te caranaravindam O Mahapurusa, I offer my respects and humble obeisances unto Your lotus feet, upon whom one should meditate. You left Your household life, leaving Laksmi, the goddess of fortune Your adorable consort and all her opulence, which is most difficult to renounce, who is worshipped even by the great demigods. Being the most faithful follower of religion,You thus left for the forest in obedience to a brahmanas curse. Out of sheer mercifulness You chased after the fallen conditioned souls, who are always in pursuit of the false enjoyment of illusion. At the same time You engaged in searching for Your own desired object, the Supreme Lord Sri Syamasundara. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has a very young and beautiful wife, Sri Laksmidevi, and His mother, Sri Sacidevi, was very affectionate. At the age of 24 years old, He took the order of sannyasa and left home to go and preach.

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By examining His characteristics, the great Acaryas have pointed out that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is described in those verses of the Bhagavatam. NOTE: In the above verse from the Srimad Bhagavatam 11.5.34 it is mentioned that Lord Caitanya left for the forest in obedience to a brahmanas curse means that the Lord was unable to enjoy family life, which resulted in Him taking sannyasa. This verse does not refer to Lord Ramacandra as He also left for the forest and gave up the association of Sri Sitadevi later. In Sri Caitanya Mangala there is an incident where a brahmana cursed Lord Caitanya. The story is narrated below. 2.4 A Brahmana curses Lord Caitanya A brahmana once came to Srivasa Pandits house while Gauranga and all his devotees were joyfully dancing inside. Althouugh the Brahmana wanted to, he wasnt allowed to see the Lords dancing. Feeling depressed, he returned home. Being totally absorbed in the company of his devotees, Lord Gauranga was unaware of the Brahmanas visit. The next day when Lord Gauaranga was bathing in the Ganges, that Brahmana saw the Lord and said in an angry tone, Yesterday, I wanted to see Your dancing, so I went to your house. But some sinful brahmana checked me at the door and kept me outside. Then that Brahmana, almost fainting due his extreme anger, snapped his sacred thread as he cursed Lord Gauranga. The brahmana said, You will also be kept outside your house, and youll never be able to enjoy family life. Completely undisturbed, the Lord said , the curse of this Brahmana is a great boon to me. Hearing this, the Brahmana became afraid and said, What can I do? You caused me to speak the way I did. You are the complete whole, the supersoul within the heart of everyone. You deliver the false logicians and mental speculators. You will take sannyasa and distribute love of god. People will address you as guru. Gaurahari, you are the crest-jewel of all brahmanas. You will break open the treasure-chest of krsna-prema and give it to everryone. You promise to flood the entire universe with krsnaprema. Without discrimination you will give mercy to everyone, be he a miscreant or a pious man. Only I am being deprived of your love. O saviour of the fallen souls, without your mercy, what will be my destination? Lord Gauranga said, Your curse is a great boon to me. If you fulfill my desire, then youll have no more fear. The the Brahmana fell at the Lords lotus feet. Lord Gauranga lifted him up and embraced him receiving the Lords mercy, the Brahmana melted in the ecstasy of krsna-prema. Lord Gauranga fulfilled the Brahmanas desire by awarding him his own love, which even Lord Brahma cannot attain.

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4.5 Description Of Lord Caitanyas Future Advent In Other Vedic Literatures


Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Goswami has cited a verse from the Mahabharata (Dana-Dharma, Visnu- Sahasra-Nama Stotra) to point out the divine characteristics of Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhus appearance. suvarna varna hemango varangas candanangadi sannyasa krt-chamah santo nistha santi parayanah In His early activities Lord Caitanya comes as a householder. He has a golden complexion [suvarna varnah]. His limbs are very beautiful [vara-anga] and are smeared with sandalwood pulp [candana- angadi]. He has the appearance of molten gold [hema-anga]. The Supreme Lord Caitanya accepts the renounced order of life [sannyasa-krt]. He is fully sense-controlled or equipoised [sama], and is completely peaceful [santa]. He is completely fixed in the chanting of the holy name of Lord Krsna, [nistha]. He is the highest abode of devotion and transcendental peace. He silences the mayavadi impersonalists [nistha santi parayanah]. Srila Prabhupada has explained that Sripada Baladeva Vidyabhusana has written a Gaudiya Vaishnava commentary on the Visnu-Sahasra-Nama, called the Namartha Sudhabhidha, in which he has explained the meaning of the relevant verses from the Sahasra-Nama. Note: The above verse cited from the Sri Caitanya-caritamrta (CC Adi-Lila 3.49) is actually cited from 2 different verses of the Visnu-Sahasra-Nama. The first part of the text, suvarna varna hemango varangas candangadi is from text 79 of the Visnu-Sahasra-Nama Stotra (suvarna varna hemango varangas candanangadi-viraha visamah sunyo ghrtasir acalas calah.) The second part of the text cited in the Caitanya-Caritamrta (sannyasa-krt samah santo nistha santi parayanah) is from text 62 of the Visnu- Sahasra-Nama. The full text [62] is trisama samagah sama nirvanam bhesajam bhisak-sannyasa krt chamah santo nistha santah parayanam. In this famous commentary he states that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is supported by evidence from the Vedic Upanisads. The sanskrit words suvarna-varna indicate one who has gold-like complexion. The vedic text to support this point is: yada pasya pasyate rukma-varnam kartaram isam purusam brahma-yonim The words rukma-varnam kartaram isam refer to the Supreme Person [Sri Caitanya] who has a complexion like molten gold. The verse refers to Lord Caitanya as sannyasa-krta, indicating that He will appear as a sannyasi.

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Caitanya-candra Note: Lord Caitanya was the only incarnation of the Lord to accept sannyasa, the renounced order of life. Similarly in Sri Visnu-Sahasra Namavali it is stated: aum sri suvarnavarnaya namah aum sri hemangaya namah aum sri varangaya namah aum sri chandanangadine namah aum sri sannyasa krte namah aum sri samaya namah aum sri santaya namah aum sri nisthayai namah aum sri santyai namah aum sri parayanaya namah (737)I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who has a golden complexion. (738)I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who has a body like molten gold. (739)I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead whose body is very beautiful. (740)I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead whose body is smeared with sandalwood pulp. (580)I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who accepts the fourth order of life[sannyasa]. (581)I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is very self controlled. (582)I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is completely peaceful. (583)I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is firmly fixed (in chanting the holy name of Sri Krsna). (584)I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who brings peace (by propagating the Hare Krsna maha-mantra). (585)I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is always in the ecstatic mood of devotional service. Prediction of His advent as a sannyasi. In the Upa-Puranas, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna speaks to Srila Vyasadeva: aham eva kvacid brahman sannyasa asramam asritah hari bhaktim grahayami kalau papa-hatan naran

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Caitanya-candra O Brahmana, I occasionally take the Sannyasa Asrama [sannyasa asrama asritah] in an attempt to bring the fallen people of Kali Yuga to take up the path of Bhakti or devotional service to Lord Krsna [hari bhaktim grahayami]. Prediction of His advent in the form of a brahmana. In the Adi-Purana, the Supreme Person says: aham eva dvija-srestho nityam pracchanna-vigrahah bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokam raksami sarvada I shall advent in the form of a Brahmana devotee [aham eva dvija-srestho] and I shall hide my factual identity [prachanna vigrahah]. I shall deliver all the worlds [lokam raksami sarvada]. Prediction of His actual time of incarnation. In the Kurma-Purana, it is stated: kalina dahyamanam uddhararaya tanu-bhrtam janma prathama sandhyayam bhavisyati dvijalaye The Supreme Person will appear in the first part of the age of Kali [janma prathama sandhyayam]. He will appear in the home of a Brahmana [bhavisyati dvijalaye], to save the embodied conditioned souls [uddharaya tanu-bhrtam] burning in the troubles of KaliYuga. Description of the purpose of Sri Caitanya's incarnation. In the Garuda-Purana, the Supreme Person says: kalina dakyamananam paritranaya tanu-bhrtam janma prathama sandhyayam karisyami dvijatisu In the first part [prathama sandhya] of the age of Kali, I will come among the brahmanas [karisyami dvijatisu] to save the fallen souls, [paritranaya tanu- bhrtam] who are being burned by the troubles of the age of Kali [kalina dahyamananam]. Prediction of the name of His mother and the actual name of His future birthplace. In the Garuda-Purana, the Supreme Lord says:

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Caitanya-candra aham purno bhavisyami yuga-sandhyau visesatah mayapure navadvipe bhavisyami saci sutah I will take birth as the son of Saci [bhavisyami saci sutah], in Mayapura-Navadvipa [mayapure navadvipe]. I will come in my complete spiritual form in the first part of KaliYuga. Prediction of the name of His future first wife and His future assumption of the sannyasa order. In the same Garuda-Purana, it is also stated: kaleh prathama sandhyayam lakshmi- kanto bhavisyati daru-brahma-samipa-sthah sannyasi gaura-vigrahah In the first part of Kali-yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will come in a gold-like form. First He will become the husband of Laksmi [Srimati Lakshmidevi and Srimati Visnupriya, both Lord Caitanya's consorts are incarnations of Laksmi, the godess of fortune]. Then He will become a sannyasi, near Lord Jagannatha who will appear in a divine wooden form. In the Garuda-Purana, it is also stated: yad gopi-kuca-kumbha-sambhrama-bhararambhena samvarditah yad va gopa-kumara-sara-kalaya range subhandi-krtam yad vrndavana-kanane pravilasac chridama-damadibhis tat prema-prakatam cakara bhagavan caitanya-rupah prabhuh The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who enjoyed glorious pastimes with Sridama, Dama, and other gopa boys in Vrndavana forest, and whose eyes glanced at the gopis breasts, will again come to this world to reveal the nature of pure spiritual love. At that time His name will be Caitanya. The Garuda-Purana, further states: yo reme saha-ballavi ramayate vrndavanehar-nisam yah kamsam ni jaghana kaurava-rane yah pandavanam sakha soyam vainava-danda-mandita-bhujah sannyasa vesah svayam nihsandeham upagatah ksiti-tale caitanya-rupah prabhuh The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who enjoyed pastimes with the gopis, who day and night filled the people of Vrndavana with happiness, who killed Kamsa, and who in the war between the Kauravas made friendship with the Pandavas, will come again to the

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Caitanya-candra earth. Of this there is no doubt. His arm decorated with a bamboo danda, He will be a sannyasi and His name will be Caitanya. In the Garua Pura it is said: sdhava kali-kle tu tyaktvnya-trtha-sevanam vndraye 'thav ketre nava-khae vasanti v In the age of Kali the devotees will abandon the service of other holy places and live in either Vndvana or Navadvpa. In the Saura-Purana it is stated: su-pujitah sada gaurah krsno va veda-vid dvijah The Supreme Personality of Godhead appears in two forms. He is either dark Lord Krsna, who is always worshiped by all, or He is fair Lord Gaura, a brahmana who knows the meaning of all the Vedas. In the Visnu-Purana, it is said: nihsvadhyaya-vasat-karo svadha-svaha-vivarjite tatah pravir asau viprah kvacil loke bhavisyati When in the world there is no Vedic study, and no yajnas with the chanting of vasatkara, svadha and svaha, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear as a brahmana. In the Skanda-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Krsna declares: antah krsno bahir gaurah sangopangastra-parsadah saci-garbhe samapnuyam maya-manusa-karma-krta Outwardly of a fair complexion, but inwardly Krsna, I will take birth in Sacidevis womb. Accompanied by My associates, servants, weapons, and confidential companions, I will assume the role of a human being. Prediction of the bodily color of Sri Caitanya and the nature of His future activities. In the Nrsimha-Purana, it is said: satye daitya-kuladhi-nasa-samaye

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Caitanya-candra simhordhva-martyakrtis tretayam dasa-kandharam paribhavan rameti namakrtih gopalan paripalayan vraja-pure bharam haran dvapare gaurangah priya-kirtanah kali-yuge caitanya-nama prabhuh The Supreme Personality of Godhead who in the Satya-yuga appeared as a half-man, halflion to cure a terrible disease that had ravaged the daityas, and who in the Treta-yuga appeared as a person named Rama [Lord Ramacandra], a person who defeated the tenheaded Demon Ravana, and who in the Dvapara-yuga removed the earth's burden, and protected the Gopa [cowherd men] people of Vraja-pura, will appear again in the Kaliyuga. His form will be golden, He will delight in chanting the Lord's holy names, and His name will be Caitanya. Prediction of the future advent of Sri Caitanya by His direct name. In the Padma-Purana, it is said: yatrayogesvarah saksad yogi-cintyo janardanah caitanya vapur aste vai sandranandatmakah The Supreme Personality, Janardana, who is the object of the yogis meditation [yogicintyo- janardanah], who saves the devotees from various sufferings, and who is the master of all yogic practices [yogesvarah], who is always full of divine transcendental ecstasy and bliss [sandra-ananda- atmakah], will advent in His own divine form of Sri Caitanya [caitanya-vapah]. Description of the tune and place Sri Caitanya's future advent. In the Padma-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself states: kaleh prathama-sandhyayam gaurangotham mahi-tale 39 Caitanya-candra bhagirathi-tate ramye bhavisyami saci-sutah I shall appear on this earth [mahi-tale] in the first part of Kali-yuga [kaleh prathama sandhyayam] in a beautiful place on the bank of the Bhagirathi [bhagirathi-tate ramye]. I shall have a golden form [gaurangah], and I shall take birth as the son of Saci [bhavisyami saci-sutah]. Prediction of the purpose of Sri Caitanya's advents. In the Narada-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says:

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aham eva kalau vipra nityam prachanna-vigrahah bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokan raksami sarvada O Vipra, in the age of Kali, I will come disguised [nityam prachanna vigraha] as a devotee [bhagavad- bhakta-rupena] and I will save all the worlds [lokan raksami sarvada]. Prediction of His mother's name and the nature of His specific preaching method [sankirtana]. In the Narada-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead states: divija bhuvi jayadhvam jayadhvam bhakta rupinah kalau sankirtana rambhe bhavisyami saci-sutah O Divija (demigods), please come and advent as devotees on this earth [bhuvi jayadhvam jayadhvam] in the age of Kali-Yuga. I will incarnate as the son of Saci [bhavisyami sacisutah] to inaugurate the congregational chanting of the name of Krsna [kalau sankirtana arambhe]. Prediction of His advent in the form of a brahmana. In the Narada Purana, the Supreme Person says: aham eva dvija-srestho nityam pracchanna-vigrahah bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokam raksami sarvada I shall advent in the form of a Brahmana devotee [aham eva dvija-srestho] and I shall hide my factual identity [prachanna vigrahah]. I shall deliver all the worlds [lokam raksami sarvada]. Prediction of the revelation of Sri Caitanya's form. In the Brahma-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says: kaleh prathama sandhyayam gaurangotham mahi-tale bhagirathi-tate bhumni bhavisyami saci-sutah I will reveal my eternal golden form [gaurangotham mahi-tale] in the first part of Kaliyuga [kaleh prathama sandhyayam]. I will advent on the earth on the bank of the Bhagirathi [bhagirathi- tate bhumni].

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Prediction of the future sannyasi role and ecstasy of Sri Caitanya. In the Bhavisya-Purana, the Supreme Lord says: anandasru-kala-roma harsa-purnam tapo-dhana sarve mama eva draksyanti kalau sannyasa-rupinam O austere sage, you should know that in the age of Kali, everyone will see my transcendental form as a sannyasi [kalau sannyasa rupinam]. I will be exhibiting symptoms of ecstasy like shedding tears of bliss and hairs standing in ecstasy [anandasrukala-roma- harsa-purnam]. Prediction of the Lord inaugurating the sankirtana movement In the Bhavisya Purana, Lord Krsna says: ajayadhvamaja yadhvam na sansayah kalau sankirtana arambhe bhavisyami saci sutah In Kali-yuga, I will appear as the son of Saci, and inaugurate the sankirtana movement. There is no doubt about this. Prediction of the color of Sri Caitanya and the nature of His future associates. In the Agni-Purana, it is said: nttm lamba-kaha ca gaurga ca survta The Supreme Personality of Godhead will come in a golden form [gaura-anga], full of peace [prasantatma], and a beautiful long neck [lamba-kanthah]. He will be surrounded by many saintly devotees [sura-avrtah]. Note: This is an indirect prediction of the future advent of the members of the Panca-Tattva. Prediction of the characteristics of Sri Caitanya. In the Matsya-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says: mundo gaurah su-dirghangas tri-srotas-tira-sambhavah dayaluh kirtana-grahi bhavisyami kalau-yuge

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In the age of Kali, I shall advent [bhavisyami kalau yuge] where the three rivers meet [trisrotas- tira-sambhavah]. I shall have a shaven head [mundah]. I shall have a golden complexion [gaurah]. I will be very kind and always chant the holy name of Krsna [dayaloh kirtana-grahi]. Prediction that the Supreme Lord will leave Goloka and corne in a golden form. In the Markandeya-Purana, the Supreme of Godhead declares: golokam ca parityajya lokanam trana-karanat kalau gauranga-rupena lila-lavanya-vigrahah In the Kali-yuga, I will leave Goloka and, to save the people of the world, I will become the handsome and playful Lord Gauranga. Prediction of one of the purpose of Sri Caitanya's appearance. In the Varaha-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares: aham eva dvija-srestho lila-pracurya-vigrahah bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokan raksami sarvada I shall come as the best of the brahmanas [aham eva dvija-srestha]. I will exhibit many pastimes [lila- pracurya-vigrahah] in the form of a devotee [bhagavad-bhakta-rupena]. I shall deliver the people of the world [lokan raksami sarvada]. Prediction of the name of the mother of Sri Caitanya and His future role as the deliverer of the darkness of Kali-Yuga. In the Vamana-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares: kali-ghora-tamas-channat sarvan acara varjitan sacigarbhe ca sambhuya tarayisyami narada O Narada Muni, I will take birth in the womb of Saci [saci-garbhe ca sambhuya]. I shall save the people, who will give up all proper good conduct [sarvan acara varyitan], from the terrible darkness of the age of Kali-yuga [kali-ghora-tamas-channan]. In the Devi-Purana it is stated: nama-siddhanta-sampatti-

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Caitanya-candra prakasana-parayanah kvacit sri-krsna-caitanyanama loke bhavisyati The Supreme Personality of Godhead will again appear in this world. His name will be Sri Krsna Caitanya and He will spread the chanting of Lord Haris holy names. Prediction of Sri Caitanya's birthcity, the name of the river close to His birthsite, the name of His rnother, His close associates and their divine roles in His lila, His divine reason for incarnating as well as different narnes by which Sri Caitanya will be known. In the Narayana-samhita it is said: dvapariyair janair visnuh pancaratrais tu kevalaih kalau tu nama-matrena pujyate bhagavan harih In Dvapara-yuga, devotees of Lord Hari rendered devotional service according to the principles of pancaratrika. In this age of Kali, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is worshipped simply by chanting His holy names. In the Narada-pancaratra, (Bala-Krsna-Sahasra-Nama-Stotram), it is said: bhakti-priyo bhakti-data damodara ibhas-patih indra-darpa-haronanto nityananda-cid-atmakah caitanya-rupas caitanyas cetana-guna-varjitah advaitacara-nipuno dvaitah parama-nayakah nilah svetah sitah krsno gaurah pitambara-cchadah saci-suta-jaya-pradah The Supreme Personality of Godhead is known by the names Bhakti-priya, Bhakti-data, Damodara, Ibhas-pati, Indra-darpa-hara, Ananta, Nityananda, Cid-atmaka, . . . . . .Caitanya-rupa, Caitanya, Cetana, Gunavarjita, Advaitacara-nipuna, Advaita, Paramanayaka, . . . . . . Nila, Sveta, Sita, Krsna, Gaura, Pitambara-cchada, Saci-suta, and Jaya-prada. In the Tantras it is said: evam anga vidhim krtva mantri dhyayed yathacyutam kalaya-kusuma-syamam druta-hema-nibham tu va

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O dear one, a person following the rules of scripture should meditate on the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has two forms: one dark like a kalaya flower, and the other like molten gold. In the Urdhvamnaya-tantra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares: sandhau krsno vibhuh pascad vevakyam vasudevatah kalau purandarat sacyam gaura-rupo vibhuh smrtah In the sandhya at the end of Dvapara-yuga, I appeared as dark Lord Krsna, the son of Vasudeva and Devaki. In Kali-yuga I will appear as golden Lord Gaura, the son of Purandara [Jagannatha] Misra and Saci-devi. In the Urdhvamnaya-tantra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead further declares: avataram imam krtva jiva-nistara-hetuna kalau mayapurim gatva bhavisyami saci-sutah In order to deliver the conditioned souls in Kali-yuga, I will go to Mayapura and become the son of Saci-devi. In the Kapila-tantra, it is said: kvacit sapi krsnam aha srnu mad-vacanam priya bhavata ca sahaikatyam icchami bhavitum prabho mama bhavanvitam rupam hrdayahlada-karanam parasparanga-madhya-stham krida-kautuka-mangalam paraspara-svabhavdhyam rupam ekam pradarsaya srutva tu preyasi-vakyam parama-priti-sucakam svecchayasid yatha purvam utsahena jagad-guruh premalingana-yogena hy acintya-sakti-yogatah radha-bhava-kanti-yuktam murtim ekam prakasayam svapne tu darsayam asa radhikayai svayam prabhuh

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Then Sri Radha said to Lord Krsna: O beloved, please hear My words. I yearn to become one with You. Please show a form where You and I embrace and Our two bodies become one, a form filled with the love I bear for You, a form filled with auspicious and blissful pastimes, a form that brings bliss to the heart, a form that unites Our two natures. Hearing His beloveds words, which were filled with joy and love, . . . . . . Lord Krsna passionately embraced Her. Then, bythe touch of His inconceivable potency, . . . . . . Their two forms joined and became one,a single form endowed with Sri Radhas divine love and glorious splendor. In a dream Lord Krsna showed all this to Sri Radha. In the Kapila-tantra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares: jambudvpe kalau ghore mypure dvijlaye janitv pradai srdham krtana karayiyati During the horrible Kali-yuga, in Jambudvpa, in Mypura, in a brhmaa's home, the Supreme Lord will take birth and with His associates He will start the sakrtana movement. In the Kulrnava-tantra it is stated: tata kale ca samprpte klau ko 'pi mah-nidhi hari-nma-prakya gag-tre janiyati During the Kali-yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is a great treasure house of transcendental glories, will take birth by the Ganges shore in order to teach the chanting of Lord Haris holy names. In the Vivasra Tantra Lord iva said to Ca: gagy dakie bhge navadvpe manorame kali-ppa-vinya ac-garbhe santana janiyati priye mirapurdara-ghe svaya phlgune pauramsy ca niy gaura-vigraha O beloved, in the southern part of the Ganges, in charming Navadvpa, in the home of Purandara Mira, on the full-moon night of the month of Plguna, in the womb of ac-

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Caitanya-candra dev, the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear in a fair-complexioned form to destroy the sins of the age of Kali. In the Krsna-Yamala, Lord Krsna says: puya-ketre navadvpe bhaviyami ac-suta I shall appear in the holy land of Navadvipa as the son of Sacidevi. In the Krsna-Yamala, the Supreme Personality of Godhead further declares: aham purno bhavisyami yuga-sandhau visesatah mayapure navadvipe varam ekam saci-sutah During the first sandhya of Kali-yuga I will descend, with all My powers and glories, to Mayapura in Navadvipa and become the son of Saci-devi. In the Krsna-Yamala, it is stated: iti matva krpa-sindhur amsena krpaya harih prasanno bhakta-rupena kalav avatarisyati gaurango nada-gambhirah sva-namamrta-lalasah dayaluh kirtana-grahi bhavisyati saci-sutah matva tan-mayam atmanam pathan dvy-aksaram uccakaih gata-trapo madonmattagajavad viharisyati bhuvam prapte tu govinde caitanyakhya bhavisyati amsena tatra yasyanti tatra tat-purva-parsadah prthak prthan namadheyah prayah purusa-murtayah Thinking in this way, Lord Krsna, who is an ocean of mercy, mercifully decided to appear as a devotee in Kali-yuga. His limbs will be golden and His voice deep. He will be very merciful. He will yearn to taste the nectar of His own holy name. He will be attached to chanting His own holy name. He will be the son of Sacidevi. Loudly chanting the two syllables of His own holy name, the Lord will enjoy pastimes like a maddened elephant, without giving any thought to ordinary, peaceful decorum.

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Caitanya-candra In this way Lord Krsna will have the name Caitanya. His eternal associates will also come to this world and will also have different names. For the most part, they will have male forms. In the Visnu-Yamala, it is stated: krsna-caitanya-namna ye kirtayanti sakrn narah nanaparadha-mutas te punanti sakalam jagat They who once chant the name Krsna Caitanya become free of all offences and purify all the worlds. In the Brahma-Yamala, Lord Krsna says; athavha dhardhme bhtv mad-bhakta-rpa-dhk myy ca bhaviymi kalau sakrtangame Sometimes I personally appear on the surface of the world in the garb of a devotee. Specifically, I appear as the son of Saci in Kali-yuga to start the sankirtana movement. In the Brahma-Yamala, it is also stated: gaurangam gaura-diptangam pathet stotram krtanjalih nanda-gopa-sutam caiva namasyami gadagrajam With folded hands one should recite the following prayer before Lord Gauranga, whose limbs are splendid like gold: I bow down before He who is the son of gopa Nanda, before He who is the elder brother of Gada. In the Brahma-Yamala, it is also stated: kalau prathama-sandhyayam hari-nama-pradayakah bhavisyati navadvipe saci-garbhe janardanah jiva-nistaranarthaya nama-vistaranya ca yo hi krsnah sa caitanyo manasa bhati sarvada In the first sandhya of Kali-yuga, Lord Krsna will appear in Navadvipa, in Sacidevis womb. In that incarnation He will teach the chanting of Lord Haris holy names.

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Caitanya-candra In this way, to preach the glories of the holy names and to deliver the conditioned souls, Lord Krsna will appear as Lord Caitanya. In the Brahma-Yamala, the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares: bhavisyami ca caitanyah kalau sankirtanagame hari-nama-pradanena lokan nistarayamy aham In Kali-yuga I will appear as Sri Caitanya and I will start the sankirtana movement. Giving them the chanting of Lord Haris holy names, I will deliver the people of the world. In the Jaimini-bharata, it is stated: bhakti-yoga-prakasaya lokasyanugrahaya ca sannyasasramam asritya krsna-caitanya-rupa-dhrk To show mercy to the people by teaching them the science of devotional service, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will descend to the earth. He will accept the sannyasaasrama and His name will be Sri Krsna Caitanya. In the Jaimini-bharata, it is further said: anyavatara bahavah sarve sadharana matah kalau krsnavataras tu gudhah sannyasa-vesa-dhrk Lord Krsna descends to the world in many different forms. However, in Kali-yuga, His incarnation is hidden. Then He appears disguised as a sannyasi. In the Yoga-vasistha, it is stated: kaleh prathama-sandhyayam gaurango sau mahi-tale bhagirathi-tate ramye bhavisyati sanatanah In the first sandhya of Kali-yuga, on the earth, by the beautiful shore of the Ganges, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear in His eternal golden form.

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5 LORD KRSNA REVEALS DETAILS OF HIS GAURA INCARNATION AS STATED IN THE VAYU-PURANA
In the Vayu-Purana the Supreme Lord reveals the following most confidential truth: Presented below is conversation that took place between Sri Satananda and Sri Gautama Muni which is recorded in the Vayu-Purana sri-satananda uvaca bruhi tata krpa-sindho bhaktanugraha-katara paritranaya lokanam hetum kalmasa-cestsam na tapas ca na cejya ca na dhyanam jnanam avyayam na danam sattva-samyuktam kalau na dirgha-jivanam kenopayena nistaro bhavisyati kalau yuge Sri Satananda said: O father, O ocean of mercy, O saint overcome with mercy for the devotees, to protect the people please tell why the hearts of the people in Kali-yuga have become dirtied with sin. In the Kali-yuga there is no austerity, worship, meditation, eternal knowledge, charity, truth, or long life. How may the people in Kali-yuga be delivered? sri-gautama uvaca sadhu prstm tvaya putra guhyad guhytamam mama samahita-mana bhutva srnu tat paramadbhutam Sri Gautama Muni said: My son, your question is very good. Please attentively hear from me a wonderful answer, an answer that contains the most secret of all the secrets. etad guhyatamam vakyam brahma loka-pitamahah vaikuntham nagaram gatva sendrair deva-ganaih saha vakta sri-loka-natham vai karunamaya-vigraham Accompanied by Indra and the demigods, Lord Brahma, the grandfather of the worlds, went to Vaikuntha and spoke to Lord Narayana, the master of the worlds. sri-satananda uvaca katham vai brahmana tata
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Caitanya-candra prstah sri-purusottamah karanam tatra va kim vai kathyatam muni-pungava Sri Satananda said: What question did Brahma present before the Supreme Lord? O best of sages, please tell. sri-gautama uvaca srnu putra prayatnena kalau kalmasa-sam jnake sarve papa-rata lokas canda mithya-vivadinah Sri Gautama Muni said: O son, please listen carefully. In the contaminated Kali-yuga everyone is a sinner. Everyone is passionate, hot-tempered, and a liar. svadhyayadina rahita devata-tithi-vancakah parasva-lolupah kecit para-darabhigaminah The people do not worship the demigods, obseve the holy days, or study the Vedas. Some are eager to snatch the property of others. Some are adulterers. iti viksya samudvigna dharani bhara-sankula dhenu-rupa-dhara dina krpana malinanana Seeing this, the earth-goddess became unhappy with the burden she bore. She assumed the form of a cow. She was filled with lamentation. Her face was filled with sorrow. gatva vai brahma-sadanam rodamana punah punah sa-gadgada-vaco bhutva stutva brahmanam isvaram She approached the demigod Brahma. Weeping again and again, with words choked with grief she said to him: sarve kali-mala-grastah papistha lobha-tat-parah maha-pataka-samyukta deva-dvija-vinindakah Everyone in Kali-yuga is a great sinner, a materialist, a blasphemer of demigods and brahmanas.

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Caitanya-candra tesam pada-praharena kampate mamaki tanuh tasmat loka-paritranam prthivyam kena jayate My body trembles when they walk. How can these people of the earth be delivered? tad eva kuru devesa yena santair bhaven mama ity uktvadho-mukhi-bhuya sthita bhur asurakula O master of the demigods, please do something to make them peaceful and saintly. After speaking these words, the earth goddess, troubled by the presence of so many demons, lowered her face. tatah sancitya devesm brahma loka-pitamahah vaikuntha-nagaram gatva stutva tam purusottamam After thinking for some time,Lord Brahma, the grandfather of the worlds, went to Vaikuntha and offered prayers to the Supreme personality of Godhead. sri-brahmovaca jaya krsna jagannatha jaya vaikuntha-nayaka jaya deva krpa-sindho jaya laksmyah pate prabho Sri Brahma said: O Krsna, O master of the worlds, glory to You! O master of Vaikuntha, glory to You! O ocean of mercy, glory to You! O husband of Laksmi, glory to You! jaya nilambuja-syama nila-jimuta-saubhaga kandarpa-koti-saudarya jaya srivatsa-lanchana O Lord dark like a blue lotus, O Lord dark like a monsoon cloud, glory to You! O Lord more handsome than millions of Kamadeva, O Lord marked with Srivatsa, glory to You! jaya pitambara-dhara jaya kaustubha-bhusana jaya padma-palasaksa jaya padmanana prabho

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Caitanya-candra O Lord dressed in yellow garments, glory to You! O Lord decorated with the Kaustubha jewel, glory to You! O Lord whose eyes are lotus petals, glory to You! O Lord whose face is a lotus flower, glory to You! jaya padma-dvandva tila-puspa-su-nasika jaya natha jagad-bandho vinatasuta-vahana O Lord whose feet are lotus flowers, glory to You! O Lord whose graceful nose is a sesame flower, glory to You! O friend of the worlds, glory to You! O Lord carried by Garuda, glory to You! jaya cakra-gada-padmasanka-hasta catur-bhuja jaya padma-dharitribhyam nisevita-padambuja O Lord who hold a disc, club, lotus, and a conchshell in Your four hands, glory to You! O Lord whose lotus feet are served by the goddesses Padma and Dharitri, glory to You! sri-gautama uvaca iti samstuyamanopi sri-krsnah karuna-nidhih brahmanam deva-deveso jagada krpayanvitah Sri Gautama Muni said: After hearing these prayers, Lord Krsna, who is an ocean of mercy and the master of the demigods, kindly asked the demigod Brahma: kim vrttam jagati-natha bruhi kim karavami te ity uktva padma-yonis ca provaca sri-gadagrajam O master of the universe, how are things with you? What may I do for you? Please tell. Hearing these words, Brahma spoke to Lord Krsna: sribrahmovaca kalau papa-rata lokah svadhyaya-vidhi-varjitah sudra-vrtti-dvijah sudra brahmana-dvesa-karinah Sri Brahma said: In Kali-yuga the people are sinners. They neither study the Vedas nor follow their rules. The brahmanas act like sudras, and the sudras hate the brahmanas.

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Caitanya-candra dvijanam gunato nicah sudra mantra-pradayinah sisnodara-para vipra vipratve sutra-dharinah The brahmanas are degraded and addicted to pleasing their bellies and genitals. Brahminical status is determined only by possession of a sacred thread. The sudras are now gurus and give mantras. mahaharah kharva-kaya alasa manda-buddhayah janas tvad-vimukhah sarve para-dravyabhilasinah The people are gluttonous, short in stature, lazy, foolish, greedy after others property, and averse to You. asat-patha-ratah sarve agamyagaminas tatha tyakta-sva-dharma-karmano deva-dvija-vinindakah Everyone follows the wrong path. They abandon their prescribed duties, commit adultery, and blaspheme the demigods and brahmanas. iti tad-bhara-magna sa dharani rudati punah tasmal loke-paritranam prthvivyam kena jayate tat kurusva jagannatha dina-durgati-nasana Troubled by the burden of these sins, the earth goddess weeps again again. How may the people of the earth be delivered? O master of the worlds, please do something to deliver them. sri-gautama uvaca iti samjnapito deva brahmana prabhur acyutah sa devan aha visnur guhyad guhyatamam vacah Hearing Brahmas words, Lord Visnu, the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead, spoke to the demigods words that revealed the most secret of secrets. He said: ditija bhuvi jayadhvam jayadhvam bhakta-rupinah kalau sankirtanarambhe

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Caitanya-candra bhavisyami saci-sutah O demigods, please take birth as devotees on the earth. I will take birth as Saci-devis son and I will start the sankirtana movement, a movement of chanting the holy names. krte japair mama pritis tretayam homa-karmabhih dvapare paricaryabhih kalau sankirtanair api In Satya-yuga I am pleased by japa of my holy names, in Treta-yuga by yajna and karma, in Dvapara-yuga by deity worship, and in Kali-yuga I am pleased by the chanting of my holy names. brahmovaca bruhi me karuna-sindho kirtanam kim svarupakam katham vatra bhagavatah para pritir bhavisyati The demigod Brahma said: O ocean of mercy, please describe to us the nature of this movement of chanting the Lords holy name. How should it be performed so that Your Lordship will be pleased. sri-bhagavan uvaca srnu brahman pravaksyami sankirtanam atah param samahita-mana bhutva sarat sarataram hi yat The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O Brahma, please listen carefully and I will describe to you the most exalted sankirtana movement. mrdangaih karatalais ca svara-bhava-samanvitaih raga-raganvitam ganam yatah syat tulya-kirtanam In the sankirtana movement are the sweet singing and the music of mrdangas, karatalas, and other musical instruments. te sabdenocyate radha na sabdenocyate janah teneti sruti-matrena yathaivardratarobhavam

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Caitanya-candra Whenin the sankirtana there is the word tena, the syllable te means Radha, and the syllable na means person. In this way the word tena means O Lord Krsna, O master of Radha! tatha catra bhavisyami bhaktyanugraha-kamyaya sahasrasovatara me gita brahman yuge yuge O Brahma, yuga after yuga I kindly appear in many thousands of incarnations. bana-margair veda-margai ripunam tatra sanksayam bhaktanam taranam krtva khyapitam sva-yasah ksitau Walking either on the path of arrows or the path of the Vedas, I deliver the devotees, destroy their enemies, and place My glory on the earth. kalau nasta-drsam esa mat-padyarka udesyat hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare For they who have become blinded by Kali-yuga, a verse with My holy names will rise like a glorious sun. This verse is: Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. sakrd dvis trir yatha-sakti yavaj jivam athapi va vyaharan svapacopi syan mama bhakto na samsayah One should chant this mantra once, twice, thrice, as many times as one is able, or again and again for as long as one lives. By chanting this mantra even a dogeater may become My devotee. Of this there is no doubt. sarva-veda-vido viprah puranagama-paragah na cen mad-bhakta-bhaktas te dure tisthanti varitah Even if they are learned in all the Vedas and even if they have traveled to the farther shore of the Agamas and the Puranas, they who are not my devotees of My devotees cannot approach Me. They must stay far away from Me.

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Caitanya-candra api cet su-duracarah pukkasah svapacothava mad-bhakta-bhakti-krt sa syan mama kaustubha-sannibhah Even a barbarian, a dogeater, or a person who has performed the most abominable action may come very close to Me, almost touching My Kaustubha jewel, if he has devotedly served My devotee. bhakta-rupam aham dhrtva bhaktajna-paripalakah mat-paran uddharisyami ghora-samsara-sagarat Fulfilling My devotee request, I will accept the form of a devotee and I will deliver My devotees from the terrible ocean of repeated birth and death. tilakancita-bhalah sritulasi-kanthikasritah sankha-cakra-lasad-bahumulah kaupinah vasasah In that form of a devotee My forehead will be decorated with tilaka, My neck with Tulasi beads, and My hands with the marks of a disc and conchshell. I will accept the dress of a sannyasi. mad-bhakta vicarisyanti kalau bhagavatottamah In Kali-yuga My devotees will work to convince the people to become devotees also. svarnadi-tiram asthaya navadvipe janalayah tatra dvija-kulam prapto bhavisyami janalaye I will take birth in a brahmana family in Navadvipa, by the Ganges shore. bhakti-yoga-pradanaya lokasyanugrahaya ca sannyasa-rupam asthaya krsna-caitanya-nama-dhrk To show mercy to the people and give them devotional service, I will become a sannyasi. My name will be Sri Krsna Caitanya. anandasru-kala-purnah pulakavali-vihvalah

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Caitanya-candra bhakti-yogam pradasyami hari-kirtana-tat-parah Devoted in chanting the holy names of Lord Hari, My eyes filled with tears, and the hairs of My bodily erect, I will give to the people the gift of devotional service. tenaiva sarva-lokanam nistaro vai bhavisyati man-nama-smaranat kincit kalau nasty eva vaidikam By remembering My holy names everyone will be delivered. In Kali-yuga it is not possible to follow the path of the Vedas. mad-bhakta yatra gayanti tatra tisthami niscitam tat svayam bhuvi bhakta vai jayadhvam bhakti-tat-parah I stay wherever My devotees sing My glories. All of you please become My devotees on the earth. yena lokasya nistaras tat kurudhvam mamajnaya dharitri bhavita cabhir mayaiva dvija-dehinah By My order please act in such a way that the people of the world will become delivered. In this way I will accept the form of a brahmana and relieve the earth of her fears. sadyas tatra sva-gopanam santa tu kamalalaya namna gadadhara iti vikhyato dharani-tale The cowherd people of My Vraja village will also take birth on the earth. She who is the resting place of the goddess of fortune will be known on earth as Gadadhara. balaramo mamaivamsah so pi mat-prstham esyati nityananda iti khyato nyasi-cudamanih ksitau Lord Balarama, who is My incarnation, will stay on My side. On the earth His name will be Nityananda. He will be the crest jewel of sannyasis. krtvavadhuta-vesam sa dharman bhagavatan bahun

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Caitanya-candra grahayitva janan ittham grhinam asramam tatah He will giveto the people the gift of devotional service to the Lord. First He will be a sannyasi, but then He will be a householder. jahnavy-adibhir atmanam darsayisyati manavan Accompanied by Jahnavidevi and many other associates, He will reveal His transcendental form to the people. kamadeva iti gatva dhruvanandeti samjnitah jahnavi-sisyatam etya lokan nistarayisyati The demigod Kamadeva will be known as Dhruvananda. He will become a discipleof Jahnavidevi and he will deliver many people. naicim tanum samasthaya loka-siksartha-tat-parah vikhyato hari-daso yo mama bhaktim karisyati To teach the people what is genuinely important, the demigod Brahma will accept the form of a low-caste man. His name will be Haridasa and he will diligently engage in My devotinal service. rudro vatirya mad-bhaktim srimad-advaita-samjnakah grahayisyami lokams ca yatnat karunikah prabhuh Merciful Lord Siva will accept the form of Sri Advaitacarya. He will give devotional service to many people. naradah srinivaseti ramanandeti tumburuh vikhyatim prapya mad-bhaktau kurutam bhaktim avyaye Narada will become Srinivasa, and Tumburu will become Ramananda. They will diligently engage in My service. brahaspatir vasavah-guruh sarvabhaumo bhavisyati nanante vasinas tatra

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Caitanya-candra sastrany adhyapayisyati Indras guru, Brahaspati, will become Sarvabhauma. He will teach the truth contained in many scriptures. punah siromanir bhutva nyasadin prathayisyati The crest jewel of teachers, he will deiver many sannyasis and many others. candro bhaved vardhamano yas tu dayalutavadhih evam anye bhavisyati devah svamsena bharatah Many other demigods will expand by their parts and appear on the earth. As the moon increases day by day, so their mercy and other virtues will also increase. tatraiva bhavita brahman vyasah kesava-bharatih sannyasasyopadesena bhavisyati gurur mama O Brahma, Vyasa will appear as Kesava Bharati. He will become My sannyasa guru. indro vatirya matiman prthivyam prthivi-patih prataparudro vikhyato mad-bhaktanam samasrayah Indra will descend to the earth as King Prataparudra. He will take shelter of My devotees. anye deva-ganah sarve mad-bhaktah mat-parayanah kurvanti mamakim bhaktim srnu brahman samahitah All the other demigods will also become My devotees. They will diligently engage in My devotional service. O Brahma, please hear this with great attention. sarve samagamisyamah sva-sthanam punar acyutam prakasam mama devadyah bhaktah krsna-parayanah After manifesting these pastimes as devotees of Lord Krsna to assist in My incarnation on the earth, the demigods and others will return to their respective abodes.

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Caitanya-candra idam ye srnuyan nityam bhaktitah parikirtayet koti-janmar jitam papam tat-ksanat tasya nasyati They who with devotion regularly hear or recite these words become free of sin. The sins they committed in ten million births are at once destroyed. sri-gautama uvaca tato deva-ganah sarve brahma loka-pitamahah pranamya deva-devesam gantarah sva-puram yatha Sri Gautama Muni said: Accompanied by all the demigods, Lord Brahma, the grandfather of the worlds, bowed down before Lord Krsna, the master of the demigods, and then returned to his own abode. Prediction of the name of the river where Sri Caitanya will take his birth and other characteristics. In the Vayu-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead states: suddho gaurah-su-dirghango ganga-tira-samudbhavah dayaluh-kirtana-grahi bhavisyami kalau yuge In the age of Kali-yuga, I shall come [bhavisyami kalau yuge] in a place on the bank of the Ganges [ganga-tira-samudbhavah]. I will be very pure [suddhah], have a fair complexion [gaurah], and be very tall [su-dirghangah]. I will be very merciful and always chant the holy names of Krsna [dayaluh-kirtana-grahi]. In the Vayu-Purana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead says: paurnamasyam phalgunasya phalguni-rksa-yogatah bhavisye gaura-rupena saci-garbhe purandarat svarnadi-tiram asthaya navadvipe janasraye tatra dvija-kulam prapto bhavisyami janalaye bhakti-yoga-pradanaya lokasyanugrahaya ca sannyas-rupam asthaya krsna-caitanya-nama-dhrk tena lokasya nistaras

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Caitanya-candra tat kurudhvam mamajnaya dharitri bhavita cabhir mayaiva dvija-dehina I shall advent in the month of Phalguna, when the star Phalguni is conjoined with the full moon. I shall incarnate in a golden complexion in the womb of Saci and Purandara[Jagannatha] Misra. I will be born in the city of Navadvipa, on the Gangess shore, in a Brahmanas family. I shall take the renounced order of life [sannyasa] and show kindness to the people in general and engage them in Bhakti. I will be known as Sri Krsna Caitanya. All of you should follow My order and deliver the people of the world. I shall appear as a Brahmana. I shall make this earth fearless. In the Vayu Purana, the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna says: svaya bhagavateritam kalau sakrtanrambhe bhaviymi ac-suta svardi-tram sthya navadvpe janraye tatra dvija-kula-reho bhaviymi dvijlaye In the age of Kali, when the sakrtana movement is inaugurated, I shall descend as the son of ac-devi. By the Ganges' shore, in Navadvpa, the shelter of the living entities, in a brhmaa's home, I will become the best of brhmaas.

6 LORD SIVA DESCRIBES LORD CAITANYAS APPEARANCE IN ANANTASAHIT


(Chapter 2, part 2 of the Sri Caitanya Janma-khanda of the Ananta-sahit) Text 1 r-prvaty uvca ko v sa ka-caitanyo ki v tac-carita ubham ananta-sahit k v katha kena prakit rmat Prvat said to Lord Siva: Who is Ka Caitanya? What are His auspicious activities? What is the scipture Ananta-sahit? By whom and under what circumstances was it spoken? Text 2 vior vividha-nmni rutni tava vaktrata
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Caitanya-candra gaurga-ka-caitanyau na kadpi prakitau I have heard from your mouth many names of Lord Viu, but I have never heard the names Gaurga and Ka Caitanya. Text 3 dadhrordhva-mukhe kasmn nmedam sarva-magalam samhit ca ubhdhr pra-ntha vadasva tat Why is this so? O lord of my life, with clear words please speak both this all-auspicious name and the Ananta-sahit, which is a great ocean of auspiciousness. Text 4 r-mahdeva uvca aho 'ti-bhgya tava aila-putri rdh-sam tvam hi jagda viu r-ka-caitanya-kathsu knte yogysi krpita-deha-buddhi O daughter of the mountains, you are very fortunate. Lord Viu Himself has said that you are equal to r Rdh. O beloved, because you have surrendered your body and intelligence to Lord Ka you are qualified to hear about Lord Ka Caitanya. Text 5 yasysti bhaktir vraja-rja-putre r-rdhiky ca hare samym tasysti caitanya-kathdhikro harer abhaktasya na vai kadcit A person who is devoted to Lord Ka, the prince of Vraja, and to r Rdh, who is equal to Lord Hari, is qualified to hear about Lord Ka Caitanya. A person not devoted to Lord Ka is never qualified. Text 6 ya di-devo 'khila-loka-ntho yasmd idam sarvam abht partm laya punar ysyati yatra cnte ta ka-caitanyam avehi knte O beloved, know that Lord Ka Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all the worlds, the Supersoul, the source from which everything has come and into which it will again enter at the end.
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Text 7 brahmeti ya veda-vido vadanti vidvsam dya khalu kecid hu a tathnye jagad-eka-ntha payanti kecit puruottama ca They who know the Vedas say He is the Supreme Brahman. Others say He is the first among the wise. Others say He is the master of the universes. Others say He is the Supreme Person. Text 8 kecit karma-phala prhu kecit hu pitmaham kecid yajevara prhu sarvajam apare jagu Some call Him the fruit of karma. Some say He is the grandsire of everything. Some say He is the master of all sacrifices. Others say He is omniscient Lord. Text 9 ya eva bhagavn ko rdhik-pra-vallabha sydau sa jaganntho gaura sn mahevari O Mahesvari, the Supreme Person, Sri Ka Himself, who is the life of Sri Rdhrni and Lord of the universe, appeared at the time of creation as Gaura. Text 10 kevala uddha-caitanya tad evsd varnane tasmt ta ka-caitanya pravadanti mania O beautiful faced Parvati, because at that time He manifested a form made only of supremely pure consciousness (caitanya), the wise call Him Ka Caitanya. Text 11 dhrasya ki abdo na ca vivasya vcaka vivdhra tu yad brahma tad vai ka vidur budh

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Caitanya-candra The word k means "support" and the word na means "the universe". The wise know that the name Ka means "the Supreme Brahman who supports the universe." Text 12 vistarn me nigadita ruto ya ka vara vivdau gaura-kntitvt gaurga vaiav vidu Previously you hear from me in detail about Krsna. Because He appeared at the beginning of the creation of the universe in a golden form, the Vaiavas know Him as Gaurga. Text 13 na tad praktir dev raja-sattva-tamo-may yay visjyate viva uta ki mahad-daya At that time Prakrtidevi, the goddess of the three modes of material nature, and who creates the material universe, was not present, so the mahat-tattva and material elements were not yet manifest. Text 14 partmane namas tasmai sarva-kraa-hetave di-devya gaurya sac-cid-nanda-rpie Let me offer my obeisances unto Lord Gaura, whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, who is the Supersoul, the cause of all causes, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Text 15 ekad bhagavn devi nga-rjo mah-man vetadvpa yayau yatra viur aste tri-loka-pa O goddess, one day noble-hearted Lord Ananta, the king of serpents, went to vetadvpa, where Lord Viu, the protector of the three worlds, resides. Text 16 ta praamya mah-bhu sahasra-vadano vibhum
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Caitanya-candra stutv purua-sktena vyapcchad vihitjali Bowing down before the all-powerful mighty-armed Lord, and glorifying Him with the purua-skta prayers, with folded hands the thousand-headed Ananta asked the following question. Text 17 r-ngarja uvca nryaa day-sindho sarvaja bhakta-vatsala anugrahea te ntha bibhrmi pthivm imm The king of the serpents said: O Lord Nryaa, O ocean of mercy, O omniscient one, O Lord who loves Your devotees, it is by Your mercy only that I support this world. Text 18 kpay tava devea da sarva carcaram rdh-mdhavayor ll draum icchmi smpratam O master of the demigods, by Your mercy I have been able to see and understand all moving and non moving things. Now I desire to see the pastimes of r r RdhMdhava. Text 19 prasdc carabjasya kroda-tanay-pate sarvatrgm aha deva ramya vndvana vin O Lord, O husband of the goddess of fortune, by the mercy of Your lotus feet I have gone to all places, except for beautiful Vndvana. Text 20 tad aha gantum icchmi dhma-reha mah-vanam katha gantu hi aknomi kpay tad vadasva me I desire to go to this great forest, the best of all spiritual abodes. By Your mercy please tell me how I may go there.

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Caitanya-candra Text 21 r-mahdeva uvca ngarja-vaca rutv vetadvpa-patir hari prahasya kicin madhura uvca madhusdana Lord iva said: When he heard Ananta's words, Lord Hari, the master of vetadvpa and the killer of the Madhu demon, mildly smiled and sweetly said: Text 22 r-bhagavn uvca ngarja mah-buddhe katha te matir d una-epha samrtya bhavbdhi tartum icchasi The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O intelligent king of the serpents, how did You get this idea? You wish to swim the ocean of birth and death by holding on to the tail of a dog. Text 23 ki v tvay kta puya tapo va dhara-dhara r-rdh-kayor dhma gantum icchasi sundaram O holder of the worlds, have you performed austerities or pious deeds that You now wish to go to r r Rdh-Ka's beautiful abode? Text 24 gantu samartho no yatra brahm loka-pitmaha aha ca plako viur na ca devo mahevara Neither Brahm, the grandfather of the worlds, nor I, the protector Viu, nor Lord iva, can go there. Text 25 na ca ytu samartho 'bhd garbhodaka-patir vibhu na samartho maha-viu krabdhi-pati svayam
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The powerful Lord of the Garbhodaka Ocean was not able to go there, and neither was Lord Mah-Viu, the Lord of the Kraa Ocean able to go there. Text 26 na yatra vasate my sarva-loka-vimohin tad eva cin-maya dhma kasya rdhik-pate The illusory potency My cannot stay there. It is the spiritual abode of Ka, the Lord of Rdh. Text 27 cin-may padap yatra patra pupa phaldikam srag kuhukahdy mgdy paavas tath There the trees, leaves, flowers, fruits, cuckoos and other birds, and deer and other animals are all spiritual. Text 28 tatraiva cin-may bhmi sarita parvat hrad na ca prakti-ja tatra sarva-vastv eva cin-mayam There the ground, rivers, hills, and lakes are all spiritual. They are not born from matter. There everything is spiritual. Text 29 tad eva sarva-lokn vara dhama jagu sur goloka yatra reme sa kah r-rdhay saha The demigods proclaim this place, Goloka, where Lord Ka enjoys with r Rdh, is the best of all worlds. Text 30 yasya daranam icchanti brahmdy sraya sad

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Caitanya-candra tasya priyatama dhma vndraya mahat-padam This place, Vndvana, which Brahm and the demigods always yearn to see, is the Lord's favorite transcendewntal abode. Text 31 yasyaika-dej jyante sthnni nga-sattama vaikuhdyni sarvi loka-priya-kari ca O best of serpents, from this place were born Vaikuhaloka and all other beautiful places. Text 32 katha tasmin pare dhmni tava tta sph bhavet svapnenpi na payanti yad dhma munaya param O dear one, how is it that You desire this supreme abode the great sages cannot see even in their dreams. Text 33 yayoh pdbja-rajas pur kmanay vibhu padmaja pukara-ketre tapo 'karc chata sam Desiring to attain the dust of r r Rdh-Ka's lotus feet, Lord Brahm performed austerities at Pukara-ketra for a hundred years. Text 34 sra-bht mah-ll r-rdh-kayos tayo drau na yogya kasmt tva draum icchasi clpa-dh You are not qualified to see r r Rdh-Ka's sublime transcendental pastimes. How have You become so unintelligent that You wish to see them? Text 35 tathpi sdhu-varya tva manye ngdhipa hy aham
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Caitanya-candra r-rdh-ka-llym d te rucir bhavet O king of serpents, I think You are the best of saintly devotees. That is why You are attracted to r r Rdh-Ka's transcendental pastimes. Text 36 koi-kalprjitai puyair vaiava syn mah-mate tata syd rdhik-kallsu rucir uttam O great-hearted one, after accumulation pious deeds for millions of kalpas one may become a pure devotee. Only then will one be attracted to r r Rdh-Ka's transcendental pastimes. Text 37 syd yasya rdhik-kally param mati jvan-mukta sa vijeya pjya syd daivatair api A person who fixes his pure heart on r r Rdh-Ka's pastimes is liberated even as he continues to live in this world. Even the demigods worship him. Text 38 vin r-gopik-saga kalpa-koi-ata param ravat krtand vior na rdh-kam pnuyt Without the association of the gops, even by hearing and chanting Lord Viu's glories for hundreds of millions of kalpas, one will not attain s r Rdh-Ka. Text 39 gop-saga na cpnoti r-gaura-carad te tasmt tva sarva-bhvena r-gaura bhaja sarvad Without the feet of Lord Gaura one cannot attain the gops' association. Therefore, with all Your heart You should always worship Lord Gaura. Text 40

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Caitanya-candra gaurga-carambhojamakaranda-madhuvrat sdhanena vin rdh ka prpsyanti nicitam They who become bumblebees tasting the honey of Lord Gaurga's lotus feet certainly attain r r Rdh-Ka without following any Vedic rituals. Text 41 yhi tra navadvpa bhaja gauram kp-nidhim yadi vndvane ramye r-rdh-ka-sannidhau dsatva durlabha loke bhakti-sra yam icchasi If You desire the best of all kinds of devotional service: direct service to r r RdhKa in beautiful Vndvana, then go at once to Navadvpa and worship Lord Gaura, who is an ocean of mercy. Text 42 rdhik-vallabha ko bhaktn priya-kmyay rmad-gaurga-rpea navadvpe virjate Desiring to please His devotees, Rdh's beloved Ka is splendidly manifest in Navadvpa as Lord Gaurga. Text 43 gop-bhva-pradnrtha bhagavn nanda-nandana bhakta-vea-dhara nto dvi-bhujo gaura-vigraha In order to give to others the love the gops' felt, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the son of Mahrja Nanda, has appeared as a peaceful devotee, manifesting a faircomplexioned, two-handed form. Text 44 jnu-lambita-bhuja cru-dk rucirnana keti magala nma gyan uccair nijasya ca

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Caitanya-candra His long arms reach to His knees. His eyes are charming. His face is handsome. Chanting "Ka!", He sings His own auspicious name in a loud voice. Text 45 gop gopti gopti japann eva kvacit kvacit kvacit sannysa-kd devo bibrad daa kamaalum jvn jnada kvpi mah-bhvnvita kvacit Sometimes the Lord chants "Gop! Gop! Gop!" Sometimes, holding a daa and waterpot, He accepts sannysa. Sometimes He gives transcendental knowledge to the living entities. Sometimes He is overcome with ecstatic love. Text 46 eva virjamna ta r-gaurga daycalam prpsyasy rdhya bhakty tvam rdh-kau mah-vane By devotedly worshiping Lord Gaurga, who is splendidly manifest in this way, and who is an ocean of mercy, You will attain r r Rdh-Ka in the great forest of Vndvana. Text 47 r-mahdeva uvca evam ukto bhagavat nga-rjo mah-man r-gaura-tattva vijya navadvpa jagma ha Lord iva said: Hearing the Supreme Lord's words, the noble-hearted king of the serpents understood the trut about Lord Gaura. Then He went to Navadvpa. Thus ends the second Chapter of the second part of r Caitanya-janma-khaa of r Anantasahit Chapter 3, part 2 of the r Caitanya-janma-khaa of the Ananta-sahit Text 1 r-prvaty uvca kutra vai sa navadvpo yatra gauro virjate

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Caitanya-candra nga-rjo gatas tatra ki cakra mah-mati r Prvat said: Where is this Navadvpa, the abode where Lord Gaura resides with great splendor? What did the noble-hearted king of the serpents do when He went there? Text 2 tat sarva kathyat ntha mah-yogin kp-nidhe gaureti magala nma mama citta hta balt O Lord, O great yog, O ocean of mercy, please tell me everything. My heart has been stolen by the auspicious name "Gaura". Text 3 vndrayasya mhtmyam ruta vistarato may navadvpasya mhtmyam vada deva digambara I have heard the glories of Vndvana in great detail. O Lord Digambara, now please tell me the glories of Navadvpa. Text 4 r-nrada uvca iti devy vaca rutv deva-deva pinka-dhk devm ligya ta dorbhym avocat sdara vaca r Nrada said: When He heard goddess Prvat's words, Lord iva, who holds a trident and is the master of the demigods, embraced her in His arms and respectfully said: Text 5 r-mahdeva uvca u gauri pravakymi sarva-ppa-praanam navadvpasya mhtmya sa-prema-bhakti-da nm Lord iva said: O Gaur, please listen and I will speak Navadvpa's glories, which destroy all sins and bring devotional service and spiritual love.

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Caitanya-candra Text 6 yath vndvana dhma r-kasya kp-nidhe navadvpas tath knte satya satya vadmy aham The glories of Navadvpa are like the glories of Vndvana, the abode of Lord Ka, who is an ocean of mercy. O beloved, I speak the truth. Text 7 yadvad vndvane ramye r-ko rdhay saha reme bhaktnanda-karas tadvad dvpe nave sad Lord Ka, who delights the devotees, eternally enjoys pastimes with Rdh in Navadvpa, just as He does in beautiful Vndvana. Text 8 gaga-yamunayor madhye dvpa parama-obhana yasya smaraa-mtrea r-rdh-kayo rati In the middle of both the Ganges and Yamun is a very beautiful island. Simply by remembering it one attains pure love for r r Rdh-Ka. Text 9 yadi trtha-sahasri paryaanti nar kitau navadvpa vin devi na rdh ka pnuyt O goddess, people who travel to thousands of holy places in this world but do not travel to Navadvpa will not attain r r Rdh-Ka. Texts 10 and 11 dvpasysyaika-dee ca tirthni sakalni ca ayo munayo devas tath siddhrami ca ved ri sarvi mantrdni mahevari

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Caitanya-candra vasanti satata durge r-rdh-ka-tuaye O goddess Durg, at a certain place on this island all holy places, sages, saints, demigods, siddha-ramas, and all Vedic scriptures and mantras eternally reside for the pleasure of r r Rdh-Ka. Texts 12 and 13 avamedha-sahasri vajapeyadhikni ca nn-vidhni karmi ktv bhakty muhur muhu yat phala labhate martyo yogbhysena yat phalam navadvpasya smarat te koi-gua labhet ki puna darana csya phala vakymi prvati The result a human being attains by performing thousands of avamedha-yajas, as well as vjapeya-yajas, and many other pious rituals again and again with great devotion, or by diligently practicing yoga, is attained millions of times over by meditating on Navadvpa. O Prvat, how will I be able to describe the result attained by directly seeing Navadvpa? Text 14 sakd yadi navadvpa sasmareyur nardham sdhavas te tadaiva syu satya satya hi prvati If the lowest of men remember Navadvpa for a single moment, they become great saints. O Prvat, this is the truth. This is the truth. Text 15 te dine dine bhaktir vardhate ntra saaya te pada-rajah-pt sapta-dvp vasundhar Every day their devotion increases. Of this there is no doubt. The earth with its seven continents is purified by the dust of their feet. Text 16 ye vasanti navadvpe mnav gaura-devat
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Caitanya-candra na ca te mnava-jney r-gaurasya ca prad They who live in Navadvpa and think Lord Gaura their worshipable Lord should not be considered ordinary human beings. They are the spiritual associates of Lord Gaura. Text 17 te smaraa-mtrea mah-patakino 'pi ca satya udhhanti vai durge ki punar darandibhi O Durg, simply by remembering them great sinners become purified. How much more are they blessed by directly seeing them or associating with them? Text 18 navadvpasya mhtmya pacabhir vadanair aham ki varaymi nnanta sahasrair vadanair alam What can I say of Navadvpa's glories with My five mouths? Even Lord Ananta, with His thousands of mouths, cannot properly glorify it. Text 19 dhma-srasya kasya vndrayasya ailaje rohanasya sopna navadvpa vidur budh O Prvat, the wise know that Navadvpa is a staircase leading to Vndvana, Lord Ka's supreme abode. Text 20 tatra gatv navadvpe nga-rjo dhta-vrata pjaym sa gaurgam api varyuta priye O beloved, the king of serpents then went to Navadvpa. Following strict vows, He worshiped Lord Gaurga for ten thousand years. Text 21

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Caitanya-candra tata prasanno bhagavn r-gauro jagad-vara dasaym sa sva rpam anantya mahtmane Pleased by this, Lord Gaura, the master of the universes, revealed His transcendental form to the great soul Ananta. Text 22 nga-rja samlokya ta deva paramevaram nanma daa-vad bhmv utthya vihitjali Seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the king of serpents fell to the ground as a stick. When He rose His hands were folded together. Texts 23-28 tapta-jambunada-prkhya cru-padma-pada-dvayam kondu-pda-nakhara koy-ditya-samujjvalam vana-ml-bhitga rvatsojjvala-vakasam kauma-vastra-dhara deva koi-kandarpa-mohanam ase nyastopavta ca candangada-bhanam jnu-lambita-bhuja tulas-mlya-dhriam kambu-grva cru-netra sa-smera-vadanmbujam mai-makara-samyuktaravaa cru-kualam su-bhruva su-nasa santa bhaktrcita-padmbujam tpa-traya-vidagdhn jvn tra-krakam gaurga sac-cid-nanda sarva-kraa-kraam vc gadgadaynanta tuva dharai-dhara To Lord Gaurga, who was splendid as molten gold, whose two lotus feet were very handsome, whose toenails were millions of moons, who was decorated with forest-flower garlands, whose chest was splendid with the rvatsa, who wore silken garments, who was

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Caitanya-candra more enchanting than millions of Kmadevas, who wore a sacred thread on His shoulder, who was anointed with sandal paste, who wore armlets, whose arms reached down to His knees, who wore a tulas garland, whose neck was a concshell, whose eyes were charming, whose smiling face was a lotus flower, on whose ears were handsome jewel shark earrings, whose nose and eyebrows were handsome, who was peaceful, whose lotus feet were offered to the devotees, who is the savior of the living entities burning in the three-fold material miseries, who is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, who is limitless, and who is the cause of all causes, Ananta prayed in a faltering voice. Text 29 r-ananta uvca tvam di-devo jagad-eka-kraa svar daylu purua santana agner sphulig iva te mahtmano bhavanti jiv sura-mnavdaya You are the Supreme Lord, the sole cause of the universes, independent, merciful, the eternal supreme person. You are like a fire and the demigods, human beings, and other living entites are like sparks. Text 30 anantam anta prkti santan ste na sarvajna yad-ikaa vin tasmd bhavanta bhava-dukha-nana vrajmi satya araa santanam O omniscient one, without Your glance neither Lord Ananta nor the eternal material energy would be manifest. For this reason I take shelter of You, the eternal Supremew Truth, the destroyer of the sufferings of repeated birth and death. Text 31 tyaktv partman bhavata padmbujasev mahnanda-kari ubha-pradam jnnya ye vai satata parirama kurvanti te rama eva kevalam O Supreme Soul, they who reject the blissful and auspicious service of Your lotus feet and instead struggle to attain transcendental knowledge attain only fatigue as the fruit of their labors. Text 32 vihya dsya atapatra-locana tvayy aikyam icchanti yamdi-sdhanai

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Caitanya-candra na te prthivy paripakva-buddhayo yasmd bhavad-dsya-sukhena vacita They who reject service to You, O lotus-eyed one, and desire to become one with You by controlling their senses and living a spiritual life are not intelligent. In this world they are cheated of the happiness of serving You. Text 33 vidhehi dsya mayi dna-bandho na kicid icchmi bhavat-padmbujt tvat-pda-padmsava-tpta-mnasair na ki su-labhya kiti-pvana kitau O friend of the poor, please give me service to You. I do not want anything other than Your lotus feet. O purifier of the worlds, what is not easily attained in this world by they whose hearts are satisfied with the honey of Your lotus feet? Text 34 vaya dhanyatam loke jnnibhyo 'pi surottama yasmt tu da rpa payma prakte param O Supreme Lord, because we are able to see Your form, which is above the world of matter, we are more fortunate than even the great philosophers. Text 35 namas tubhya bhagavate sac-cid-nanda-mrtaye bhakta-labhya-padbjya tapta-jambunada-tvie Obeisances to You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, who is splendid as molten gold, and whose lotus feet only the devotees may attain! Text 36 punas tva draum icchmi r-gaurga day-nidhe yena rpea devea vndraye virjate O Lord Gaurga, O master of the demigods, O ocean of mercy, I desire to see You again in the form You manifest in Vndvana.

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Caitanya-candra Text 37 r-bhagavn uvca tuo 'ha sevaynanta tva me bhaktottamottama yato 'smin mahati dvpe prabhavasydi-sevaka The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O Ananta, I am pleased by your service. You are the greatest of My great devotees. For this reason, when I appear in Navadvpa, You will appear as My best servant. Text 38 ayam eva navadvpo vndvana-samo 'nagha anugrahya jvn rdhay nirmita pur O fortunate one, Navadvipa is equal to Vrndavana. Long ago it was created by Radha to bestow mercy on the living entities. Text 39 yath mama priy rdh tath vndvana mahat tadvad aya navadvpa iti satya vadmy aham As Rdh is dear to Me, so Vndvana and Navadvpa are also dear to Me. I speak to You the truth. Text 40 vndvane yathnanta vasmi rdhay saha rdhay militgo 'ha tathaivasmin sad vase O Ananta, as I stay in Vndvana with r Rdh, so I also stay eternally in Navadvpa, My transcendental form embraced by r Rdh. Text 41 yath vndvana tyaktv gacchmi na ca kutracit tath deva navadvpa na tyajmi kadcana

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Caitanya-candra O Lord, as I do not leave Vndvana to go to any other place, so I do not ever leave Navadvpa. Text 42 aha vndvane sdho kalpe kalpe sat mude virbhya kariymi ya ll loka-pvanm navadvpe ca ngendra t sarv parivaraya O saintly one, I appear in Vndvana during every kalpa, and I perform pastimes for the pleasure of the devotees and to purify the world. O king of the serpents, please describe those same pastimes as they occur in Navadvpa. Text 43 yad prdurbhaviymi svaya loka-hitya vai tadaiva tva mah-bhga nitya prdurbhaviyasi O fortunate one, whenever, for the benefit of the world, I appear there, You will also appear with Me. Text 44 tv santyajya kaam api na ca tihmi mnada kalpntare kariymi jyeha vndvane hy aham O glorious one, I will never leave You for even a moment. In another kalpa I will make You My elder brother in Vndvana. Text 45 asmin dvpe mah-ketre yadha prrthita surai avatrya dvija-vse haniye kalija bhayam When the demigods appeal to Me with prayers I will descend in this sacred island of Navadvpa in the home of a brhmaa and I will kill the fears created by the age of Kali. Text 46

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Caitanya-candra nitynando mah-kyo bhtv mat-krtane rata vimhn bhakti-rahitn mama bhaktn kariyasi You will then become Nitynanda. Your body will be very tall and large, You will be absorbed in the bliss of glorifying Me, and You will transform many bewildered fools who have no devotion into My pure devotees. Text 47 mamaiva nitya lln sram uddhtya sammate ktv su-sahit jvn sarvn bhaktottamn kuru Consider the eternal essence of My pastimes, write it down in a beautiful scripture, and in this way make all living entities into My pure devotees. Text 48 r-mahdeva uvca ity upamantrito 'nanta pranmya jagad-varam kart sahit devi mahat prema-bhakti-dm Advised in this way, Lord Ananta offered respectful obeisances to the Lord of the universes. O goddess, He then wrote the great Ananta-sahit, which gives prema-bhakti to its readers. Text 49 tm eva sahit sdhvi jaganntha-padmbuje nivedya paray bhakty ktrtho 'bhn mah-mati O saintly Prvat, with great devotion placing this sahit at Lord Jaganntha's lotus feet, noble-hearted Ananta became perfect. Text 50 ananta-vadanotthatvt sva-llay hy anantata ananta-sahit nma cakre 'sy paramevara

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Caitanya-candra Because this book arose from the mouth of Lord Ananta, and also because it is filled with limitless (ananta) pastimes, the Supreme Lord gave it the name "Ananta-sahit". Text 51 tam eva sahit knte vaikuhe paramevara sarva-loka-hitrthya pradadau brahmae pur O beloved, to benefit all living entities the Lord of Vaikuha originally gave the Anantasahit to the demigod Brahm in ancient times. Text 52 kpay t maheni dadau ca sahit parm via-pnd viannya mahya kalpntare sati O pious, chaste goddess, in another kalpa, when I was depressed because of drinking poison, the Lord gave this transcendental Ananta-sahit to Me also. Text 53 viea dahyamnena mukhenordhvena sundari dadhra sahitm et udha-sra-pravarim O beautiful one, in My mouth burning with poison I held the shower of nectar that is the Ananta-sahit. Text 54 dharaymy rdhva-vadane devei sahitm imm mantra ca gauracandrasya nmeda sarva-magalam O queen of the demigods, in My mouth I hold both this sahit and the all-auspicious mantra of Lord Gauracandra's names. Texts 55 and 56 snigdha pavitra sambhtam aha bhagavatottama mohanya ca jvn mukhennena sundari
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Caitanya-candra myvdam asat-stra yat kta ka-nindanam tat ppebhyo vimukto 'ha ktrtho 'ha varnane O beautiful one, in this way My mouth, which was used to speak impious pseudoscriptures filled with blasphemous lies defaming Lord Ka, became clean and pure. O girl with the beautiful face, in this way I became free from My sins and I became perfect. Text 57 tubhya mad-anuraktyai prak-kalpe pradadv imm strtvt jnnamay vpi na samarth mahevar To you, My lover, I gave the Ananta-sahit in the previous kalpa, but because you are a woman you do not remember. Text 58 asy ca varaym sa ka-ll manoramm rmad-gaurga-carita rdh-kntika-pradam In the Ananta-sahit were described Lord Ka's beautiful pastimes and Lord Gaurga's pastimes, which bring one to r r Rdh-Ka. Texts 59-61 yasya ravaa-mtrea pahnt phant ive gaurga sac-cid-nanda bhaktnugraha-krakam samlokya navadvpe bahu-kalpdika priye uitv tat-prasdena gop bhtv mahevari vndvane nikujdau r-rdh-ka-sannidhau sakhi-bhvena nivaset satya satya na saaya O auspicious one, simply by hearing, reading, or teaching this scripture one will directly see Lord Gaurga, whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss and who is very kind to the devotees. After seeing Him, O beloved, and after residing in Navadvpa for many kalpas, by His mercy one will become a gop, O goddess, and will reside in the

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Caitanya-candra groves of Vndvana as a friend of r r Rdh-Ka. This is the truth. This is the truth. Of this there is no doubt. Text 62 gaura-mrter bhagavata pda-sev vin sati bahu-janmrjitai puyair na rdh kam pnuyt Without service the feet of this fair-complexioned form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead one will not attain r r Rdh-Ka, even with many births of pious deeds. Text 63 tasmd gaurga-carita u knte div-niam kuruva mahat sev tasya devasya prvati Therefore, O beloved, please hear Lord Gaurga's pastimes day and night. O Prvat, please diligently serve Lord Gaurga. Text 64 r-nrada uvca mah-devya puna po mah-devo daycala jagda gaura-caritam rdhva-vaktrea gautama r Nrada said: O Gautama, again asked by goddess Prvat, merciful Lord iva eagerly spoke the pastimes of Lord Gaura. Thus ends the third Chapter of the second part of r Caitanya-janma-khaa of r Anantasahit Chapter 4, part 2 of the r Caitanya-janma-khaa of the Ananta-sahit Text 1 r-gautama uvca puna ca prvat dev yad apcchan mahevaram tan me vada muni-reha yadi me syd anugraha

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Caitanya-candra r Gautama said: O best of sages, if you wish to show kindness, then please tell me what Prvat then asked Lord iva. Text 2 r-nrada uvca navadvpasya mhtmya rutv dev santan utpatte kraa jatu tasyovca mahevaram r Nrada said: Having heard the glories of Navadvpa, and wishing to hear how Navadvpa had come into existence, the eternal goddess said to Lord iva: Text 3 r-prvaty uvca kad vya navadvpo nirmito rdhya mahn ki artha v mahena tattvata kathayasva me r Prvat said: When did r Rdh create Navadvpa? Why did She create it? O great Lord, please tell me in truth. Text 4 r-mahdeva uvca nimaya mah-bhage dvpasyotpatti-kraam ananta-sahity ca nryaa-mukhc chrutam Lord iva said: Listen, O fortunate one, to the account of Navadvpa's creation, which I have heard both in the Ananta-sahit and also directly from the mouth of Lord Nryaa. Texts 5 and 6 yad vndvane ramye r-ka paramevara reme virajay srdha padminy apado yath tath candra-mukh dev rdhik mga-locan rutv sakh-mukht sarva yatra ko druta yayau

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Caitanya-candra When, as a bumblebee enjoys a lotus flower, the Supreme Lord, Ka, enjoyed with Viraj-gop in beautiful Vndvana, then moon-faced, doe-eyed Goddess Rdhik, hearing everything from the mouth of a friend, rushed to the place where Ka was. Text 7 yta rdhik dv r-ka cru-locana tatraivntardadhe sadyo viraj cbhavan nad Seeing Rdhik coming, charming-eyed r Ka at once disappeared and Viraj transformed herself into a river. Text 8 puna kena viraj ramyamn niamya s na tatra gatv dade ka virajay saha Although She heard that Ka was enjoying with Viraj, when She went there She did not see Ka with Viraj. Text 9 cintayitv mah-dev manas ka-devat gag-virajayor madhye sakhbhi sama yayau Thinking in Her heart for some time, the Goddess, for whom Lord Ka was Her only worshipable Deity, entered the area between the Ganges and Yamun river with Her friends. Text 10 tatra gatv mahat sthna cakra ka-sundar latbhi padapai kra sa-strka-bhramarair vtam There Lord Ka's beautiful lover created a transcendental abode filled with vines, trees, and bumblebee-couples, . . . Text 11 mg-mga-gaair yukta mithunnanda-da param
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Caitanya-candra mallik-mlat-jtiprabhti-pupa-rjitam . . .blissful with the amorous happinesses of deer-doe couples, splendid with mallik, mlat, jti, and other flowers, . . . Text 12 tulas-knanair yukta nanda-sadana varam cid-nandamayai kujair vividhair pariobhitam . . .filled with tulas forests, beautiful with many forest-groves filled with spiritual bliss, a blissful transcendental abode where. . . Text 13 gag ca yamun caiva parikheva nirantaram bhti tad-jay yatra su-snigdha-jala-saikatam . . . the Ganges and Yamun became like a moat, where, by Her order the waters and shores shone with great splendor, . . . Text 14 nitya virjate yatra vasanto makaradhvaja sad paki-ga yatra keti magala jagu . . .where springtime and Kmadeva eternally shine with great splendor, and where the birds eternally sing the auspicious sounds "O Ka!" Text 15 tatra r-rdhik dev vicitrmbara-bhua govinda-citta-haraa veun madhura jagau There, dressed in wonderful and colorful clothing and ornaments, Goddess Rdhik began to play sweet music on a flute that charmed the heart of Lord Govinda. Text 16

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Caitanya-candra tad-gta-mohita-mati r-ko rdhik-pati virbabhva devei sthne tatra manorame O queen of the demigods, His heart enchanted by Her music, r Ka, the Lord of Rdhik, appeared in that charming place. Text 17 dv ta rdhik-knta r-rdh ka-mohin praghya pin pi mahnanda jagma ha Seeing Her lover, r Rdh, who enchants Lord Ka, took Him by the hand and became very happy. Text 18 bhva vilokya rdhy r-rdh-pra-vallabha uvca t mah-dev prema-gadgaday gir Seeing Rdh's love for Him, He who is more dear to Rdh than Her own life, with words choked with love said to the great Goddess: Text 19 r-ka uvca tvat-tuly nsti me knte priy kutra varnane na tyajmi kaa api tva pra-sd mama r Ka said: O beloved, for Me no one is equal to You. O girl with the beautiful face, where is anyone as dear to Me as You? I will never leave You, even for a single moment. You are as dear to Me as My own life. Texts 20 and 21 etad eva para sthna mad-artha yat kta tvay sakhbhir navabhir yukta nava-kuja-samanvitam nava-rpa kariymi tvay srdha varnane

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Caitanya-candra nava-vndvana tasmn mad-bhaktair gyate sad In this transcendental abode of nine forests You and nine of Your friends have created for My sake I will manifest a new form and enjoy new pastimes with You, O girl with the beautiful face. For this reason My devotees will eternally proclaim that this place is a new Vndvana. Text 22 etasya dvpa-tulyatvn navadvpa vidur budh atra sarvni trthni nivasantu mad-jay Because this place is like a group of islands, the wise know this place as Navadvpa (Nine Islands). By My order all holy places reside here. Text 23 mat-prty-artha yata knte nirmita sthna uttamam nivasmi tvay srdha nitya atra varnane O girl with the beautiful face, I will eternally stay with You here in this transcendental place You have created to please Me. Text 24 asmin gatya ye martys tvay ma paryupsate sakhtva vayor nitya prpnuvanti su-nicitam Human beings who come here and worship You and Me will certainly become Our eternal gop-friends. Text 25 etad eva para sthna yath vndvana priye sakd gamana-mtrea sarva-trtha-phala labhet avayo prti-janan bhakti ca pralabhed dhruvam

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Caitanya-candra O beloved, this transcendental abode is like Vndvana. Simply by going here one attains the result of all other pilgrimages. Here one attains pure devotional service, which is very pleasing to Us. Text 26 r-mahdeva uvca ity uktv rdhik-knto rdhya priyay saha ek-bhya mah-bhge tatrst satata priye Lord iva said: O beloved, O fortunate one, after speaking these words, Rdh's beloved Ka became one with Rdh. In that form He stays in that place eternally. Texts 27 and 28 anta ka bahir gaura sac-cid-nanda-vigraham ekam advayam lokya tatraiva lalit sakh vihya rama-rpa r-gaura-prti-bhjanam jagrha paurua rpa tat-sevrtha mahevari O goddess, seeing that They had both joined to become a single spiritual form of eternal bliss and knowledge, a form that was dark-complexioned Ka within and faircomplexioned Gaura without, Their friend Lalit left her form of a beautiful girl and, to serve Them, accepted a male form full of love for Lord Gaura. Text 29 lalit ca tath-bhta vikhdy vilokya t babhvu sahas devi puruktayas tad O goddess, when Vikh and the other gops saw Lalit transformed in this way, they at once accepted male forms. Text 30 jaya gaura-hare deva dhvanir sn mahn tad ta rdh-ramaa tasmd bhakt gaura-hari jagu

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Caitanya-candra Then there was a great sound of Jaya Gaura-Hari!" The devotees were calling Rdh's lover Gaura-Hari. Text 31 gaur r-rdhik dev hari ka prakrtita ekatvc ca tayo skd iti gaura-hari vidu Fair Goddess r Rdhik is known by the name Gauri and the dark Lord Sri Krsna is known by the name Hari. The wise know that because They both have become one in the form of Sri Caitanya, They are now known as Gaurahari. Text 32 tat-klam rabhya su-padma-locana kas tri-bhago mural-dharo 'vyaya cakra yugma nija-vigraha para rdh ca dev nava-padma-locan From that time on eternal lotus-eyed Lord Ka, whose form gracefully bends in three places and who plays the flute became joined with new-lotus-eyed Goddess Rdh in a single form. Text 33 vndvane sad ka nanda-sadane mud tad-vme rdhik-dev sthitv ramayate priye O beloved, eternally staying in the blissful abode of Vndvana, Lord Ka eternally and happily pleases Goddess Rdhik, who stays at His left side. Text 34 navadvpe ca sa ka dya hdaye svayam gajendra-gamana rdh sad ramayate mud In Navadvpa Lord Ka takes into His heart r Rdh, who is graceful as a regal elephant, and happily pleases Her there. Text 35 lalitdy ca ya sakhya r-rdh-kayo ive
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Caitanya-candra sevante nija-rpea vndraye ca tau sad navadvpe tu t sakhyo bhakta-rpa-dhar priye ekga r-gaura-hari sevante satata mud O auspicious one, O beloved, Lalit and the gops who in their own forms eternally serve r r Rdh-Ka in Vndvana forest, accept the forms of devotees in Navadvpa where they eternally and joyfully serve Lord Gaura-Hari, who is r r Rdh-Ka joined in a single form. Text 37 ya eva rdhik-ka sa eva gaura-vigraha yac ca vndvana devi nava-vndvana ca tat r r Rdh-Ka are the form of Lord Gaura and Vndvana is the beautiful nine forests of Navadvpa. Texts 38 and 39 vndvane navadvpe bheda-bhuddhi ca yo nara tathaiva rdhik-ke r-gaurge partmani mac-chla-pta-nirbhinnadeha so 'pi nardhma pacyate narake ghore yvad hta-samplavam With my trident I will cut into pieces anyone who thinks that Vndvana and Navadvpa are different, or that r r Rdh-Ka and Lord r Gaurga are different, or that Lord r Gaurga is not the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such a person is most degraded. He will burn in a terrible hell until the time when the universe is flooded with water. Text 40 etat te kathita devi dvpasyotpatti-kraam sarva-ppa-hara puya bhakti-da satata nm O goddess, I have described to you the creation of Navadvpa. This sacred narration removes all sins and gives eternal pure devotional service to the people.

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Caitanya-candra Text 41 prtar utthya yo martya r-gaura-gata-mnasa prapahet uyd vpi sa gaurga avpnuyt A human being who rises early in the morning and, his mind fixed on Lord Gaura, reads or hears this narration, ultimately attains Lord Gaurga. Text 42 adypi sac-cid-nanda r-gaurga mahprabhum navadvpe prapayanti tad-bhakt na ca nstik In Navadvpa even now they directly see Lord Gaurga Mahprabhu, whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. They who are atheists cannot see the Lord at all. Text 43 aha vndvane ramye gaurga davn pur rse rsevara deva skn manmatha-mohanam I myself, long ago, in Vndvana, in the circle of the rsa dance, saw Lord Ka, who is more enchanting than Kmadeva and who is the master of the rsa dance, appear as Lord Gaurga. Text 44 sa eva ka-caitanya kalpe kalpe varnane virbhya navadvpe prema-bhakti-prado bhavet O girl with the beautiful face, kalpa after kalpa r Ka Caitanya appears in Navadvpa and gives to the people pure love and devotion to Lord Ka. Text 45 etad rahasya kathita tava priye mhn abhaktn na ca jtu varaya bhaktya deya pariuddha-buddhaye rotu kim anyan mama sampratcchasi

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Caitanya-candra O beloved, please never speak this secret to fools or non-devotees. This narration should be given to a devotee whose intelligence is pure. What more would you like to hear from me? Thus ends the fourth Chapter of the second part of r Caitanya-janma-khaa of r Anantasahit In the Ananta-Samhita, it is said: svarnadi-tiram asritya navadvipe dvijalaye sampradatum bhakti-yogam lokasyanugrahaya ca To show mercy to the people and give them devotional service, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear in a Brahmana's home in Navadvipa by the Gangess shore. In the Ananta-Samhita, it is said: avatirno bhavisyami kalau-nija-ganaih saha saci-garbhe navadvipe svardhuni-parivarite aprakasyam idam guhyam na prakasyam bahir mukhe bhaktavataram bhaktakhyam bhaktam bhakti-pradam svayam man-maya-mohitah kecin na jnasyanto bahir-mokhah jnasyanti mad-bhakti-yuktah sadhavo-nyasinotmalah krmavatara-kale-yah striyo ye purusah priyah kalau tevatarisyanti sridama-subaladayah catuh-sasti-mahantas te gopa dvadasa balakah dharma-samsthapanarthaya viharisyami tair aham kale nastam bhakti-patham sthapayisyamy aham punah gacchantu bhuvi te putrah jayantam bhakta-rupinah dharma-samsthapanam kale kurvantu te mamajnaya krsnas caitanya-gaurango gauracandrah saci-sutah prabhur gauro gaura-harir

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Caitanya-candra namani-bhakti-dani me In Kali-Yuga, I will descend to the earth with My associates. In Navadvipa, which is surrounded by the Ganges, I will take birth in Sacidevis womb. They who are bewildered by My illusory potency will not understand the great secret of the appearance in this world of Me in My personal form, in My form as the incarnation of devotion, in My form as the incarnation of a devotee, in My form bearing the name of a devotee, in My form as a devotee, and in My form as the giver of devotional service. This secret is not to be revealed to them. Only the saintly, pure, renounced devotees, diligently engaged in My devotional service, will be able to understand Me in these five forms. My dear male and female associates, headed by Sridama and Subala, who came to this world at the time of My advent as Lord Krsna, will come again during the Kali-Yuga. The Gopas will become the sixty-four mahantas and the twelve gopalas. To establish the truth of religion, I will enjoy many pastimes with them. In this way I will again reveal the path of devotional service, which has been destroyed in the course of time. My sons should also descend to the earth, assume the forms of devotees, and, by My order, also work to re-establish the principles of true religion. At this time My names will be: Krsna Caitanya, Gauranga, Gauracandra, Sacisuta, Mahaprabhu, Gaura and Gaurahari. Chanting these names will bring devotion to Me. Note: Lord Krsnas cowherd friends namely Sridama and Subala in the krsna-lila became Ramadasa and Gauridasa respectively as Lord Caitanyas confidendial associates in the caitanya-lila.

7 DESCRIPTION OF THE LORDS ADVENT AS DESCRIBED IN CAITANYAMANGAL


7.1 Krishna's Decision to Descend as a Devotee
All glories to Sri Krishna Caitanya and Sri Nityananda. All glories to Sri Advaita Acarya, the abode of bliss and happiness. All glories to Sri Gadadhara Pandita. All glories to Narahari Sarakara. All glories to Srivasa, the authority on devotion. With all my heart, I worship the feet of the dear devotees of Lord Caitanya. Please listen carefully to the following topics about the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krishna Caitanya. Previously, Damodara Pandita and Murari Gupta, two most intimate eternal associates of Lord Caitanya, discussed the appearance of the golden avatara, Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. For the benefit of everyone, that most important discussion is retold here. Damodara Pandita asked Murari Gupta, "Please explain why Lord Gauranga appeared. I will become blissful by hearing these topics from you. Why did the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krishna, leave his syarna-varna [cloud-blue color] and assume a golden form? Why did He remove His dress as a gallant lover to adopt the dress of a sannyasi? Why did He travel so .widely to preach? Why did He cry when chanting "Radha-Govinda!" Why did He distribute prema-bhakti in each and every home? I, Locana Dasa, will tell you all these most confidential topics. By hearing them, .the ignorant people of the world will get salvation.

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Caitanya-candra After hearing these questions, Murari Gupta replied, "Pandita Damodara, listen to me. I will explain these truths to you. In Satyayuga, the scriptures say that dharma has four limbs: mercy, cleanliness, austerity, and truthfulness. Treta-yuga has three qualities- mercy, cleanliness, and truthfulness. Dvapara-yuga has two- cleanliness and truthfulness. Kali-yuga has one---truthfulness. "In Kali-yuga, irreligiosity replaces religion. People reject the rules of Varnasrama-dharma. Under the dense darkness of Kali, everyone becomes sinful and addicted to irreligious acts. "Narada Muni, the greatest among the sages, feeling compassion for humanity, decided to rout Kali, the personification of sin, from the earth. Seeing that the snake-like Kali had swallowed everyone in sin, Narada appeared to re-establish religion. "Narada Muni thought to himself, 'Somehow or other, I must immediately bring the Supreme Lord Krishna to the earth. Only He can re-establish religion in this sinful age of Kali. The Vedas and the Agama scriptures concur that the desire of Lord Govinda is one with the desire of His pure devotee.' "Narada continued his contemplation, 'If I am actually a true servant of Lord Krishna, I will be able to bring Lord Yadu Raya, [Krishna] into this Kali-yuga. First let me observe the activities of the people in Kaliyuga. Then I will summon Sri Krishna, the embodiment of religion. I' 11 also bring the demigods, and Krishna's intimate friends and followers who will act as His weapons and associates. "' Murari Gupta said to Damodara Pandita, "So, great demigods like Brahma, great sages like Narada Muni, and even Katyayani Devi took birth on earth when the Lord descended. From Dvaraka, members of the Yadu family expanded themselves to also appear on earth. "Listen carefully. Now I will explain the appearance of Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu, the essence of all incarnations. He displayed more compassion than any other avatara. Narada Muni, who always.relishes and sings Krishna's names and qualities, became greatly distressed by the sufferings of others. He was eagerly traveling throughout the universe giving out the holy names of Krishna. But unfortunately, being too attached to material existence, the people of Kali-yuga refused to accept the holy name. "While chanting the holy names of Krishna, sometimes Narada would cry or laugh loudly. Sometimes he became choked in ecstasy. Glorifying Krishna with his vina, Narada sometimes became submerged in the mellows of Krishna-prema. Torrents of tears would rush from his eyes as he chanted Hare Krishna. Although that love filled Narada's body with ecstatic joy, the people of the world could not appreciate it. "Amazed, he felt sorry for their fallen condition, and he thought of how to deliver them. The venomous snake Kali had bitten everyone, infecting them with the poison of maya. Totally forgetting Krishna, people were madly pursuing sense enjoyment. Their hearts found delight in the endless waves of lust, anger, greed, envy, illusion, and madness. Living the philosophy of "I" and "mine", they wasted the valuable human form of life without ever inquiring about their real friend, the Supreme Lord ."

7.2 Narada Muni Visits Dvaraka


Murari Gupta continued, "Thus the great sage Narada, seeing the miserable condition of the people in Kali-yuga, thought deeply about their deliverance. Knowing that only the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Krishna Himself, could rectify the situation, Narada Muni set out for Dvaraka, in the spiritual world.

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Caitanya-candra "At that time, Lord Dvarakadisa, having just spent the night with Queen Satyabhama, decided to visit the palace of Queen Rukmini. As soon as Rukmini learnt that Krishna was coming to see her, she became filled with ecstasy. Her body trembled in anticipation. "Although the palace was already spotlessly clean, Rukmini, in the ecstasy of receiving Lord Krishna in her palace, dressed nicely and personally cleansed her private chambers. Musicians filled the air with sweet vibrations to greet the Lord. Placing pots full of xi, ater near the door, she lit ghee lamps and fragrant incense to provide an auspicious welcome for her Lord.

7.3 Rukmini's Lamentation


"The good-natured, topmost Queen Rukmini, along with Mitravinda and Nagnajiti, joyfully received Lord Krishna. Rukmini washed His lotus feet with scented water and offered arati. Taking Krishna's feet as her only property, Rukmini held them to her breasts. While looking lovingly at the Lord, Rukmini cried uncontrollably. "Cakrapani [Krishna, the wielder of the disc], becoming astonished, asked Rukmini, 'O Devi, I can't understand why you are weeping. Please tell me why you are crying so profusely. The whole world knows that you are My favorite. Who is more dear to Me than you?' "Krishna continued, 'Have I disobeyed any of your orders, or done anything wrong, My dear? Are you still disturbed over that time I joked with you? Feeling guilty about that, I tried to pacify you in many ways, but I couldn't soften your heart.' "Remembering that time when Krishna spoke cruel words to her, Rukmini spoke in an angry tone mixed with affection, 'My heart may be hard, but still I am most fortunate in that You are my life and soul.' "Rukmini continued, 'My Lord, Your lotus feet are more dear to me than even You Yourself. After drinking madhvika [an intoxicat'mg celestial drink], Lord Siva dances continually, hoping to attain Your lotus feet. Prabhu, You know everything there is to know, but how is it that You don't understand the heart of one who loves Your lotus feet? You will understand the intensity of the love I feel if you cultivate Radha-bhava, the mood of Srimati Radharani's selfless love, within Your heart.' "Becoming astonished by hearing these words' of His dearmost Queen Rukmini, Lord Krishna asked her to explain it again. Lord Krishna said, 'O Devi, I didn't understand exactly what you just said. What is it that remains unknown to Me? Your words have captivated My heart. I have never heard before that there was something which I did not understand. What is that rare substance which is most valuable in the three words? Though I cannot perceive the meaning of Your words, My mind has become blissful just by hearing them. O Devi, I beg You, please tell only, "Me." ' With complete faith in the lotus feet of the Lord, I, Locana Dasa, describe these transcendental pastimes.

7.4 The Power of Krishna's Lotus Feet


Murari Gupta cont'mued, "Rukmini Devi, the goddess of fortune, replied to Lord Krishna, 'My dear Lord, You are the crest-jewel of all transcendental qualities. Within Your heart You can't know why I'm crying, even though everything else is known to You. You don't know the power of Your lotus feet. My heart weeps because soon You'll leave my palace and go away.' 'The fragrance of Your lotus feet spreads in all directions. Simply smelling that fragrance frees anyone from old age and death. One who drinks the nectar of Your lotus feet becomes transcendental to day, night, and the passing seasons. The pure devotees who lovingly clasp

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Caitanya-candra Your reddish lotus feet are worshiped by the whole world. And the world becomes auspicious by worshiping the feet of such pure devotees.'

7.5 The Power of Radharani's Pure Love


"Rukmini Devi continued, 'My dear Lord, You control everyone in the three worlds. No one can control You. Now please listen. I'm going to tell You something from the bottom of my heart. Whoever has intense attachment to serving Your lotus feet will definitely taste transcendental ecstasy. Because I am completely devoted and surrendered to You, I can experience the ecstasy of worshiping Your lotus feet. 'You, however, are the Supreme Lord, so how can you understand this ecstasy? Besides me, only Srimati Radharani knows how to relish the mellows of love and taste the highest transcendental pleasure. Although devotees discuss these topics throughout the day and night, they are always amazed by the unique quality of Radharani's pure love for You. 'Laksmi Devi, the goddess of fortune; Lord Brahm^, the demigods, and the demigoddesses are all eager to serve Your lotus feet. By receiving the nectar of Your feet, they all attained spontaneous devotional service. Kamala, the goddess of fortune, who always lies on your bed enjoying Your kisses and loving embraces, always desires to attain Your lotus feet. Who can estimate the unlimited glories of Your lotus feet? 'Even after enjoying so much happiness, the goddess of fortune longs for the mercy achieved by serving Your lotus feet. Only Radharani who enjoyed with You in Vrndavana, can understand this completely. No one can compare with Radharani. It mystifies me how Radharani binds You so completely with Her transcendental qualities. Even today, Your heart pines for Her, and tears pour from Your eyes whenever You chant the name of Radha. Just see the power of Radha's pure love. 'Now I'm ecstatic to have Your lotus feet in my home. Fearing our inevitable separation, I can't help but cry. The taste of serving Your lotus feet overpowers my attraction to You. In transcendental love, Your devotees always hanker for Your lotus feet, meditate upon You, and absorb themselves in Your pastimes. You are the only shelter of the pure devotees. 'Laksmi Devi always serves Your lotus feet with a desire to love You. Although You are Her Lord and master, You fail to reciprocate with Her desire and give pain to Her heart. Whoever wants to taste an unlimited supply of nectar will find it by serving Your lotus feet. Laksmi and Sarasvati think themselves most fortunate to have surrendered at Your feet, even if You neglect them. 'Whoever tastes the ecstasy of Your love considers the four kinds of liberation, and even residence on Vaikuntha, to be most insignificant. It is a quality of Your lotus feet that they manifest pure ecstatic love of God in those who serve them. With folded hands, I pray to You, my dear Lord. Your feet are sweeter than lotus nectar. Please give me this benediction. May I become a honeybee forever attached to Your lotus feet. Fearing separation from You, my heart trembles in lamentation. Grant me the boon that You' 11 never leave my home.'" In reality, this was not a prayer of Rukmini Devi, but rather an outburst of love, gushing from Her heartof pure devotion. Thus, I, Locana Dasa, sing the nectarcan glories of the Lord. Murari Gupta continued narrating the story to Damodara Pandita. Murari said, "After hearing Rukmini Devi's wonderful words, Krishna's heart danced in ecstasy. His lotus eyes, reddish like the rising sun, filled with tears of compassion. Sitting on His throne, Lord

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Caitanya-candra Krishna gently placed Rukmini on His lap and consoled her. He held Rukmini's chin with His right hand and lovingly looked at her. Waves of nectar overflowed from the ocean ofprema within their hearts. "Lord Krishna said to Rukmini, 'O My beloved, I've never heard such an amazing and wonderful description. Until today, no one has ever suggested to Me that I should personally taste the love that My pure devotees have for Me.'

7.6 Lord Krishna Reveals the Form of Gauranga


"Suddenly, just at that moment, the great sage Narada Muni arrived in Dvaraka. His heart was full of anxiety and he appeared disturbed. RUkmini Devi stood up respectfully, and welcomed the sage with sweet words. Krishna offered an asana to Narada, bathed his feet, and then affectionately embraced him. In a happy mood, the Lord inquired about Narada's wellbeing. "Narada's eyes were reddish and brimming with tears of divine love. His voice was choked up and his body was shaking'. Narada was so overwhelmed from seeing Krishna that all He could do was cry. Though trying repeatedly, Narada couldn't speak due to the effect of transcendental ecstasy. "Lord Krishna said to Narada Muni, '0 great sage, please tell us clearly why you are so unhappy and disturbed. You are dearer to Me than My own life. I know also that I am your very life and soul. It devastates Me to see you in such a condition.' "Narada Muni replied, 'My dear Lord, what shall I say? You are the lord of everything that exists. You are the Supersoul in all living entities. Singing Your holy names and qualities is my nectarean foodstuff. Enchanted by Your transcendental qualities, I traverse the unlimited universes, preaching Your glories. 'However, when I can't hear Your names being chanted, and when I see the conditioned souls intoxicated by pride, absorbed in materialistic activities, and devoid of Krishna consciousness, it gives me great pain. I don't see any means of deliverance for these people. Therefore, my mind is always disturbed thinking about this. I have now revealed to You whatever sorrows I had in my mind. In Your presence, by the mercy of Your lotus feet, I feel greatly relieved.' "Hearing the words of Narada, Lord Krishna smiled compassionately and said, 'Listen, great sage, somehow you have forgotten about a previous event. Narada, don't you remember the time you gave My rnaha-prasada remnants to Lord Siva. After Parvati Devi ate some, she promised to distribute My rnaha-prasada to all living entities.' "Lord Krishna continued, 'Listen Narada, I just heard a wonderful description from Rukmini. As a result of that, I want to promise you, Narada, that in the age of Kali, I will manifest a form filled with humility. I shall become a devotee of Myself in order to taste the happiness relished by My pure devotees. Not only will I experience the bliss of premabhakti, but I will give it out 'to everyone in the world. 'Although I am the Supreme Lord, I will appear as My own devotee. In the association of other devotees, I will freely distribute My love by performing Hari-nama sankirtana, congregational chanting of My holy names. I will appear in the transcendental abode of Navadvipa in Sridhama Mayapur, within the home of Sacimata.' "'Then Krishna explained the qualities of His incarnation in Kaliyuga by which He would attract the conditioned souls. Lord Krishna said, 'Narada, My transcendental body will be tall, molten gold in color, and My arms will be long and beautiful. The incomparable beauty of My golden form will defeat the beauty of Mt. Sumeru.'

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Caitanya-candra "While absorbed in this ecstasy, Lord Krishna suddenly showed His form as Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu! Narada Muni fainted in divine rapture, upon beholding this most beautiful form of Lord Krishna which would appear in the coming age." Locana Dasa says this was the first time that Lord Krishna revealed the transcendental form of Lord Gauranga, the beautiful golden Lord, saturated with pure love of God. Murari Gupta continued his story, "Beholding such a wonderfully beautiful form, Narada Muni's heart burst with love and tears rushed from his eyes in a thousand streams. Gauranga's brilliant golden complexion was more effulgent than millions of suns. The shining beauty of millions of moons and millions of Cupids would have been put to shame by His inconceivably beautiful face. Blinded by Gauranga's dazzling effulgence, the sage closed his eyes and trembled in ecstasy. "Seeing Narada's stunned condition, Lord Krishna withdrew His glowing effulgencc and called out in a loud voice. Returning to external consciousness, Narada saw Lord Krishna before him, but he was very eager to see the Lord's beautiful form as Gauranga once again. "Lord Krishna said, '0 Narada, most fortunate sage, you will be loved wherever you go. Please go throughout the universe and tell the residents of Brahmaloka and Sivaloka that I will soon incarnate in Kaliyuga as Lord Gauranga. In this form of personified mercy, I will establish the yuga-dharma of sankirtana-yajna. 'Revealing the glories of Krishna's fioly names, I Will personally preach the glories of devotional service and give the bliss of Krishnaprema freely to all. Although over the ages, many branches of religion have appeared in the world, I will preach pure love of God to unite all people. I will appear on earth, along with My intimate friends and followers. With them I will satisfy My cherished desire to relish the pure love that My devotees taste by serving My lotus feet.' "Narada's miseries and anxieties disappeared on hearing these divine words from the beautiful mouth of Krishna. Having his heart's desire fulfilled by the Lord, Narada, playing his vina and singing Krishna's names, left Dvaraka."

7.7 Narada Visits Uddhava in Naimisaranya


"While traveling through the airways, Narada reflected on this wonderful pastime. Narada thought, 'Oh, what unparalleled beauty have I just seen in the golden form of Lord Gauranga, whose compassionate eyes appeared reddish like the rising sun. Oh, what a profuse expression of nectar I have seen. I saw the sweetest smile on Gaura's beautiful lotus face. He is superior to all the Lord's previous incarnations. Before today, I have never seen such a reservoir of love. My eyes and my life have attained perfection simply by seeing such an embodiment of the ocean of mercy. My heart can never forget Him. My^ eyes long to see Gauranga again and again.' "While meditating in this way, the sage arrived in Naimisaranya where he met with the great devotee Uddhava. Seeing Narada Muni, Uddhava immediately stood up, offered dandavats to the great sage, and then bathed his feet. "Then Uddhava said to Narada, 'This day is most auspicious. I consider myself fortunate, because at an auspicious moment you have come to Naimisaranya.' "Narada gave Uddhava a deep embrace, kissed his forehead, and smelled his head. Narada expressed a mood of parental affection for the younger Uddhava. After offering an asana to Narada, Uddhava revealed his mind to the sage. "Uddhava said to Narada, 'Today is very special, for I have now attained perfection. There is something that has pained me for a long time, which I must tell you..Previously, Vyasadeva

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Caitanya-candra lived here in Naimisaranya compiling the Vedas; but he wasn't satisfied. Then by your confidential instructions Vyasadeva wrote the Srimad-Bhagavatam in order to deliver the people in gereral. 'Narada, you know the absolute truth and the science of Krishna consciousness. Since you can understand the mind of Lord Krishna, please tell me about the future. The people of Kaliyuga are blinded by total absorption in sinful activities. In the previous ages of Satya, Treta, and Dvapara, people were religious. In Kali-yuga, the darkest of ages, however, people know nothing but impiety. Please dispel my doubt, for no one surpasses your kindness. Can you tell me how people in the age of Kali will be delivered? ' "Narada Muni smiled compassionately, and with a delighted heart said to Uddhava, 'O Uddhava, you are a pure devotee of Lord Krishna, and your question fills me with joy. Now I will reveal a most confidential subject to you. Not long ago, I felt the same anxiety that you do. 'By the mercy of Lord Krishna, I now understand the unique position of Kali-yuga. Quite to the contrary, people in this age are the most fortunate. In previous ages it was always very difficult to follow the particular yuga-dharma [religious practices for perfection]. But in Kalio yuga, the process of self-realization is easy --- to simply chant Lord Krishna's holy names. In the age of Kali, people can attain freedom from the cycle of birth and death by dancing joyfully and happily singing the Lord's names and qualities. 'Uddhava, listen carefully and I' 11 tell you about a wonderful pastime I saw in Dvaraka, in the spiritual world. When I arrived in Dvaraka, Lord Krishna was sitting on His throne with Queen Rukmini. The Lord was telling Rukmini about His desire to distribute His own love to people in general. Seeing I was in a disturbed state, the Lord asked about my condition. Then I expressed my heart to the Lord. 'With a smiling face Lord Krishna said, "Narada, just now, Rukmini is telling Me about the glories of pure love. I'm becoming overwhelmed with ecstasy simply to hear about it. In Kaliyuga, I will manifest a humble mood in order to taste the love of My beloved. I will give that love to the people. "Of course, in the age of Kali, everyone will be fallen, sinful, and irreligious. So, to explain the principles of religion I will present a meek and humble personality. That humble form, the embodiment of divine love, will be the epitome of beauty. He will be tall, molten gold in color, powerfully built with a broad chest, and long, graceful arms." 'Uddhava, while describing this, the Lord suddenly manifested the golden form of Lord Gauranga. At that time, He promised to distribute His love. This is everything that happened to me in Dvaraka. Now, I'll travel throughout the world to broadcast the wonderful news of Gauranga's appearance. Eager to taste the prema-bhakti of His beloved, the Supreme Lord, in a transcendental form of unlimited mercy and beauty, will descend on earth in Kali-yuga.' "Listening to Narada's description, Uddhava became stunned with happiness, started crying, and fell down at Narada's feet. Uddhava said, 'Narada, I feel completely rejuvenated by your exciting news.' Then, Narada Muni, playing his vina, went to inform the devotees about the Lord's incarnation in the age of Kali." By reading the conversation of Narada Muni and Uddhava taken from the Jaiminiya Bharata [Asvamedha Parva], I, Locana Dasa lose myself in transcendental bliss. If you don't understand my words, then you can read the story yourself in the thirty-second chapter of Jaiminiya Bharata.

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7.8 Narada Muni Visits Lord Siva in Kailasa


Murari Gupta continued his narration to Damodara Pandita. "While playing his vina and continually singing the glories of Gauranga; Narada Muni traveled around the world informing the demigods about Lord Caitanya's appearance. "Overwhelmed with spiritual rapture, 1Narada would fall down on the ground again and again. One moment he would cry; the next moment he would laugh loudly. His whole body would tremble, and he would speak in a faltering voice. Hiking up his dhoti, Narada would sometimes jump around excitedly, loudly roaring, "Gaura! Gaura! Gaura!" It was impossible for Narada to forget the nectarean love of Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu, and the beautiful transcendental body, more dazzling than the sun, that he had just seen. "Narada's heart was so full of ecstatic love that sometimes he couldn't move. Nevertheless, within the twinkling of an eye, Narada Muni came to Lord Siva's abode on Mt. Kailasa. Narada felt excited about his upcoming meeting with Mahesa [Lord Siva]. He was eager to tell him all about his recent experiences with Lord Krishna. "Narada was thinking to himself, 'Krishna-bhakti is the most nectarean subject in the three worlds. In Kali-yuga, the Lord will reveal the treasure of Sri Vrndavana-dharna. Ananta, Siva, and Brahma are ever desirous of the pure love that the Lord will freely distribute to the fallen miscreants of Kali-yuga. Mahesa will feel great happiness when he hears the good news. By the mercy of Goddess Katyayani, I will .take the dust of Lord Siva's feet. By his grace I'll get strength to chant the holy name.' "Thinking in this way, Narada Muni approached the door of Lord Siva's home. Nandi, Lord Siva's bull, was guarding the door of the powerful Lord Mahesa. After offering respects to the great sage, Nandi informed Siva and Parvati about Narada's arrival. "In a happy mood, Siva and Parvati came out to greet the sage. Narada Muni, that most intelligent devotee, fell down at the feet of Lord Siva and Parvati. Feeling ecstatic in the presence of such a Vaisnava, Lord Siva immediately lifted Narada up and embraced him. "In the mood of a loving mother, Katyayani said to Narada, 'O great sage, please tell me. Is everything all right with you? All the truths in the fourteen worlds are known to you. On this most auspicious day, where have you come from?' "Narada Muni said, 'Goddess Katyayani and Mahesa, please listen to my wonderful story. You are like the mother and father of this universe. You always desire the deliverance of the fallen souls. Now, touching your feet, I will remind you of a confidential subject which you have forgotten. If you listen to my narration, then surely I will receive your mercy. ' 'Once upon a time, Uddhava inquired of Lord Krishna, "My Lord, what will happen to the earth after Your disappearance? Will any devotees remain here? How will the conditioned souls in the age of Kali attain liberation?" 'Replying to Uddhava's question, Lord Krishna taught the science of self-realization. He taught Uddhava a philosophy by which a person could attain liberation by seeing the Supreme Lord everywhere and in everything.' 'Lord Krishna said, "Uddhava, always remember that I am the water, the land, the earth, and the tree. I am the demigod, the Gandharva, and the Yaksa. I am the creator and I am the annihilator. I am the life of all living beings. I am within everything, and at the same time, I am outside of everything." 'After hearing Lord Krishna, Uddhava, striking his chest, expressed his feelings to the Lord. "Krishna, I am convinced that You are allpervading. Your lotus feet are more dear to me than You Yourself. I can't find the proper words to glorify the devotees who take shelter of the moonlike nails of Your lotus feet."

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Caitanya-candra 'At that time, Uddhava spoke this verse from the SrimadBhagavatam ( 11.6.46): "Simply by decorating ourselves with the garlands, fragrant oils, clothes and ornaments that You have already enjoyed, and by eating the remnants of Your meals, we, Your servants, will indeed conquer Your illusory energy." 'Uddhava continued, "Krishna, the ability of this Haridasa to conquer Maya comes from eating Your rnaha-prasada remnants. Therefore, I always desire to receive Your food remnants."

7.9 Narada Waits Twelve Years for Maha-prasada


"Narada 'continued speaking to Parvati and Lord Siva. 'Hearing this conversation between Lord Krishna and Uddhava, I became dumbstruck. Although I myself have been on the path of devotion for a long time, and have been constantly chanting the holy name of the Lord, still I had no idea about the potency of Lord Krishna's maha-prasada. Simply on the strength of the Lord's maha-prasada, Haridasa [Uddhava] had' become a powerful, pure devoteepreaCher of the Supreme Lord. In the presence of the Lord, Uddhava praised that mahaprasada. 'Within my heart, however, I felt deprived because I had never tasted the Lord's mahaprasada. Then I thought of how to please the Lord with my actions, so that He would give me a taste of His maha-prasada. With this idea, I visited Vaikuntha and rendered various services to Laksmi Devi. 'Being satisifed with me, Laksmi Devi affectionately said, "Tell Me, Narada, what do you want? I will give you a boon." 'After hearing Her offer, I decided to reveal my heart 's desire. With folded hands, I told Laksmi Devi. "For a long time, I have been feeling pain within my heart. Everyone knows that I am your servant. But somehow, I never got the chance to taste the Lord's maha-prasada. Please glance favorably upon me and give me the booh of receiving a handful of Lord Narayana's maha-prasada. This is my only desire. 'Laksmi Devi became astonished and surprised to hear my request. Then she submissively said, "Narada, Lord Narayana ordered Me not to distribute His maha-prasada remnants to anyone. How can I break the order of the Lord, my dear Narada? But listen, I will disobey His order and give you some. Considering my predicament, however, you must wait for some time. Then I'll collect His maha-prasada for you." 'Fully understanding my situation, Laksmi Thakurani appropriately responded with such sweet and compassionate words. Sometime later, the Lord, in a jolly mood, took Laksmi Devi by the hand and sat her down beside Himself. At that time, Laksmi Devi wanted to ask the Lord about the maha- prasada but she feared His reaction. 'In a very submissive voice, Laksmi Devi said, "My Lord, I have something to ask You, but I am afraid to speak. I have a problem and I need your help. My Lord, please save Your maidservant. Please listen, O abode of all transcendental qualities, I am holding Your feet." 'Smiling slightly with a sign of questioning in His eyes, Lord Narayana cast a glance toward His sudarsana disc. Beginning to tremble, Sudarsana spoke humbly to the Lord, "My Lord, I don't know the cause, but it seems that Laksmi Devi has a problem." 'Then Laksmi Devi said, "It's not Sudarsana's fault. But Narada Muni' s request has put me in anxiety. Although nobody knows it, Narada has served for twelve years. Being pleased, I offered him a boon. Narada repeatedly asked for the same thing. He wants nothing other than Your maha-prasada remnants, my Lord. Although I have no power to disobey your order, I

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Caitanya-candra carelessly gave this promise to Narada Muni. O, my Lord, please save me, and engage me in Your service." 'Understanding her dilemma, Lord Narayana said, "Listen, My dear Laksmi, You made a big mistake. Without My knowledge, you can secretly give My remnants to Narada." 'After some days had passed, the mother of the universe, Laksmi, gave me some of Lord Narayana's maha-prasada remnants. I honored the maha-prasada to my full satisfaction. Of course, the incomparable effulgence of Lord Narayana's transcendental form defeats the combined brilliance of millions of moons and millions of suns. And His indescribable beauty puts millions of Kamadevas [Cupids] to shame. 'Yet, by the touch of the Lord 's maha-prasada, my own effulgence and spiritual potency has increased one hundred times. Feeling intense spiritual ecstasy, I chanted Hare Krishna and played my vina as I traveled to Kailasa to see you.' "Lord Siva said to Narada Muni, 'I must say, Narada, you look extraordinary. Tell my, why do you appear so spiritually surcharged and effulgent?' "After hearing Narada describe his experiences, Lord Siva scolded him, 'Narada, after getting the Lord's maha-prasada, which is rarely attained, you ate it all yourself, without offering any to me. Out of affection, you have come to see me, but why didn't you bring any of this rare treasure?'

7.10 The Effect of Maha-prasada on Lord Siva


"Hearing Siva's statements of dissatisfaction, Narada hung his head down in shame. Then Narada remembered that he still had a morsel of maha-prasada. With great delight, he quickly gave it to Mahesa. Immediately, Lord Siva ate the maha-prasada. "Then to everyone's surprise, Mahesa Thakura [Siva] began dancing uncontrollably in the joyous ecstasy of love of God. The earth trembled under the pounding of his feet. Everyone became amazed, seeing Mt. Sumeru rocking back and forth in ecstasy, due to Siva's powerful dance. Vasumati [Mother Earth] was also rocking dangerously. "Overcome by the bliss of pure love of Krishna, Lord Siva totally forgot himself. His devastating dance threatened to drive the earth planet down to Rasatala, the bottom of the universe. The hood of Ananta Deva was stretching back to the point of touching the back of Kurma. Startled by this strange tickling sensation, Kurma poked His head out of his shell and stared at Ananta. "Lord Siva's loud and euphoric roaring of the Lord's holy names bounced off the domelike covering of the universe, reverberating throughout the ten directions. Seeing the whole universe shaking in ecstasy, and unable to tolerate the weight of Siva's dancing, Mother Bhumi [earth personified] ran to Mt. Kailasa. "With folded hands, Mother Bhurnii appealed to Goddess Katyayani, 'O Parvati Devi, please, I will die if your husband keeps on dancing. I see that the whole material word is also in great danger. So you better do something if you want to save the creation from destruction.' "After heating Mother Bhumi's plea, Parvati rushed to the place where Pasupati [Siva-the lord of the living entities] was dancing in a trance of divine ecstasy. With folded hands, Parvati Devi spoke some harsh words to break Lord Siva's absorption. "His ecstasy broken by Parvati's strong words, Lord Siva regained exte.rnal consciousness. Feeling very sad, he said, 'Devi, what you just did is not proper. Why did you interrupt my ecstasy? By doing so, you have practically killed me. You are acting like my enemy. I've never tasted so much bliss before in my whole life. Why did you stop it?'

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Caitanya-candra Feeling great distress, Parvati Devi spoke again with doleful words, 'My Lord, just see the earth before you. The weight of your dancing has pushed her down to the bottom of the universe. Because you're threatening to destroy the universe, I spoke such strong words to you. Please forgive me for my offense.' "With a smile of satisfaction, Lord Siva pardoned his wife. Seeing her husband in a relaxed mood, Parvati humbly asked him a question, 'Prabhu, everyday you dance in the ecstasy of pure Krishna consciousness. Why is it that today your dancing has pushed the earth down to Rasatala? Your spiritual effulgence is as brilliant as ten million suns. I've never seen you exhibit such a magnificent form. Please tell me, why is it that today you displayed such unlimited rapture in Krishnaprema?' "Lord Siva replied, 'Devi, listen to the joyful news of my good fortune. Today, the great sage, Narada, gave me some of Lord Narayana's maha-prasada remnants. Although glorified in the Vedas, Vishnu's mahaprasada is inconceivably rare. In all three worlds, it is very difficult to get the Lord's remnants, which are mixed with the nectar of Krishna's lips. Today, my life is a success. By the mercy ofNarada Muni, I received Lord Narayana's maha-prasada. This is my real wealth and the source of my ecstasy.' "Noticeably disturbed by her husband's statement, Mahamaya [Parvati] said, 'For all this time, I thought that you were always kind and merciful to me. As husband and wife we are one, for you have accepted me as half of your body. 'But today, your false love is revealed. It's all just pretension. You cheated me! After getting that rarely attainable maha-prasada, you ate it all yourself. You didn't even give me a speck of it.' "Sulapani [Siva, holder of the trident] feeling slightly guilty, said, 'O Bhavani [Parvati, goddess of the material energy] you have no right to receive this transcendental wealth.'

7.11 The Vishnu-Katyayani Samvada from Padma Purana


"These words inflamed adya-sakti [Parvati] with furious anger. Parvati said, 'One of my names is Vaisnavi; and I also have devotion for Lord Vishnu. Now before this assembly, I make a solemn vow. If Lord Narayana bestows His compassion upon me, I will make sure that the Lord' s maha-prasada is distributed to everyone throughout tee universe, even to the dogs and jackals.' "At that moment, the Lord of Vaikuntha, Vishnu Himself, arrived in Kailasa to uphold Parvati's promise. Respectfully, Parvati stood up and offered obeisances to the Lord. With tears in her eyes, she let out a sigh and told her problem to the Lord." Then Lord Vishnu spoke in a sweet voice, 'Katyayani, don't be in ignorance. You are My adya-sakti, and ,through you I manifest the entire material creation. I know that you have devotion for Me. 'You are My prakrti svarupini [the form of Vishnu's energy]. You always engage in My devotional service. Without you, the material creation can't exist. The whole creation worships you and your husband, Lord Siva, as Hara and Gauri knowing that you both are My very self. Pleasing you removes the. misconception that you and Lord Siva are different from Me. Please be assured I will keep your promise. I will personally distribute My maha-prasada to everyone in the univere.' "Lord Vishnu, the possessor of all jewel-like qualities, continued speaking. 'Listen, Katyayani Devi. Now I'll tell you a secret about an ancient episode which will alleviate the miseries of the material world. No one knows the inner meaning of the story concerning the demigods' churning of the 'ocean of nectar. They used Mandara mountain a,s the churning rod, and

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Caitanya-candra Vasuki, the king of the snakes, as the rope. The first object they produced from churning was a kalpa-taru, a tree which gives unlimited wealth and fulfills all a person desires. 'Within that special tree there was a transcendental effulgence emanating from the beautiful form of Lord Caitanya, the supreme embodiment of pure mercy. There has never been a form or incarnation equal to the form of Sri Krishna Caitanya. He is the fountainhead of all incarnations. He will appear in the word, displaying His transcendental pastimes. By preaching Krishna consciousness, I will distribute My mercy to the people in general. 'In the age of Kali, I will manifest the golden form of Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu to propagate the sankirtana-yajna, congregational chanting of My holy names. Taking the form of the golden avatara, I will fulfill your vow Parvati, 'and give love of Krishna to everyone. Please keep this confidential topic secret. In the form of Lord Gauranga, the essence of all incarnations and full of all transcendental qualities, I will deliver all people in Kali-yuga.' 'The preceding conversation between Lord Vishnu and Parvati Devi, which is called the Vishnu-Katyayani Samvada, was taken from the Padma Purana. King Prataparudra, who.was an ocean of transcendental qualities, distributed these teachings throughout his empire. "Narada Muni continued talking to Lord Siva. 'Mahesa, the L6rd ordered me to announce His upcoming appearance in Kali-yuga. At that time, the Lord and His eternal associates will descend to earth to remove all calamities. The Supreme Lord in the form of Lord Gauranga will appear in a brahmana family.' "Lord Siva and Parvati Devi became happy after heating the good news from Narada. Bliss filled the home of Lord Siva as everyone loudly chanted the holy names of the Lord. Sounds of ".Had! Had!" vibrated everywhere. Playing sweetly on his vina, Narada Muni left Mt. Kailasa.

7.12 Narada Visits Brahmaloka


"As he traveled, a stream of nectarean melodies rose from his vina, enchanting the ears of the three words. Losing external consciousness, Narada couldn't walk properly, and his face turned red due to love. Although unaware of his fatigue, when he arrived in Brahmaloka he was covered with drops of perspiration. "Seeing his son in this condition, Lord Brahma had mixed feelings of concern and happiness as he welcomed the great sage. Narada offered respects to Brahma, his father and spiritual master. In a fathefty mood, Brahma lifted him up, embraced him, and asked about his well-being. "Lord Brahma said, 'Narada, I feel immensely satisfied to b..ehold your beautiful face. Please fill my ears with the nectar of your words. Heating you will soothe my heart. Where have you been? Whom have you met, and what have you experienced?' "Before Narada could answer, his body began trembling in transcendental ecstasy. Tears flooded his eyes, and his face reddened with feelings of joy. Then Narada said, 'Brahma, listen to a wonderful story. You are the creator of everything, and the name brahmanda comes from your name. 'According to the characteristics of each age, the people follow a particular type of dharma. In Kali-yuga, peope are extremely sinful. At the end of Dvapara-yuga, people were full of sorrow and lamentation. They became afraid of the upcoming age of Kali. 'This situation pained me so much that I went straight to the Lord. I boldly asked Him about the deliverance of the people in Kali-yuga. I told Him I was worded because the brahmanas are not following the Vedas. As a result, the people have very little inclination for religious practices.

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Caitanya-candra 'On hearing my words of distress, the Lord, who is full of all transcendental qualifies, said, "Narada, to deliver the people in the age of Kali, I will personally descend and preach the science of devotional service. The benefits one derives from charity, sacrifice, austerity, and religious activities will automatically come, simply by doing Hari-nama sankirtana." 'The Lord continued, "Narada, although the age of Kali is full of faults, just by chanting My holy names one will obtain freedom from material existence. Now please go to the abodes of Brahma, Siva, and the others. Tell them to take birth on earth in Kali-yuga, and in the form of Lord Gauranga, the embodiment Of compassion, I will also descend." "On heating Narada's description, a seed of sweet love sprouted within the heart of Lord Brahma. He became overwhelmed with love of God; tears streamed down his cheeks. Brahma picked up Narada and placed him on his lap. "At that time, Lord Brahma said, 'O my dear sage, your mercy fills my heart with pleasure. People are blinded by sense gratification and ignorance of the truth. By your mercy they will become free from Maya' s clutches. Delivering fallen people is your only activity. Please listen attentively. I want to tell you about a recent experience. 'Some time ago, my sons like Sanaka and other sages came here to reveal their minds. They said, "Lord Brahma, you are the dear son of the Lord. Please give some brief answers to our questions." Then those sages glorified the qualities of Lord Vishnu.' 'The sages said, "The Lord is inconceivable, inexhaustible, and eternally blissful. He is full of spiritual energy, very subtle, and the controller of all controllers. He is all-pervading and the very form of religion. The Lord is unlimited and devoid of any material qualities. He is free from all contamination, and has no material form. He has no beginning, middle or end. This can be realized only by pure consciousness." 'The sages continued, "Although unborn, the Lord seems to take birth in the material nature. Lord Sri Krishna relished transcendental' rasa with the gopis in Vmdavana. He acted just like an ordinary lusty man, enjoying conjugal affairs, though everyone knows that the Lord is the true atma of all living entities, whether man or woman. So we want to know why the Lord disturbs our minds by perfonning such unusual pleasure pastimes? O Brahma, please dispel our doubts by telling us the truth." "Lord Brahma said to Narada, 'O Narada, please listen attentively. Hearing the-doubts of the sages filled my heart with anxiety. I became morose, because I also could not fathom the mystery of the Lord's transcendental sports. Literally there are hundreds of Brahmas like me who don't understand this subject. These truths lie far beyond the knowledge of Vedanta. 'While I was expressing my heart like this, the Lord manifested.a wonderful form before me. He appeared as the Hamsa avatara. Lord Hamsa said, "Lord Brahma, the solution to the sages' question appears in the catuh-sloki [four seed verses] of the Srimad-Bhagavatam. I will now disclose this to you." "Lord Brahma continued, 'Narada, I must tell you that the catuhsloki are the very source of all my bliss. No one in the universe knows the truth about this. For many days, Srila Vyasadeva stayed in Naimisaranya describing the Mahabharata and the Puranas. After explaining these subjects, Vyasadeva still felt morose. 'Overcome by bewilderment, he didn't know what to do. In the middle of the jungle, he just lost external consciousness. Un9erstanding his difficulty, 'the Lord became compassionate'. Summoning me, the Lord spoke the nectarcan catuh-sloki, and then He ordered me to give this transcendental treasure to Vyasa. 'At that time the Lord said, "Brahmaji, Vyasadeva doesn't know the inner meaning of My pastimes. Give him these four verses and let him write the Srirnad-Bhagavatarn based on these slokas. Then speak the Bhagavata to Narada Muni, on whose tongue the Goddess

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Caitanya-candra Sarasvati always resides. Tell Narada that in every yuga he is the most merciful to the living entities." "Lord Brahma continued, 'Narada, no other scripture compares with the SrimadBhagavatam which is completely transcendental. Narada, you should teach the Bhagavata, in order to deliver all living entities. There is no other subject in the Bhagavata, except the glorification of the supremely independent Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krishna. Anyone who misunderstands this point is a fool.

7.13 The Yuga-Avataras


'Narada, now I remember some Bhagavata verses spoken by Gargamuni at the time of Lord Krishna's name-giving ceremony on earth. Gargamuni described that in different yugas, or ages, the Lord appears on the earth in various incarnations. Gargamuni said in the SrimadBha gavatarn ( 10.8.13): "Your son Krishna appears as an incarnation in every rfiillennium. In the past, He assumed three different colors---white, red, and yellow--and now He has appeared in a blackish color. [In another Dvaparayuga, He appeared (as Lord Ramacandra) in the color of a suka, a parrot. All such incarnations have now assembled in Krishna.]" "Lord Brahma said, 'Some people question the break in the usual sequence of the four yugas. They think that the Lord appeared in the four yugas in only three colors. In reality, there are only four colors"white, red, yellow and black---and four yugas--- Satya, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. Please consider which age Lord Gauranga belongs to. For the benefit of ignorant people, I will now explain this by quoting various verses from Srimad-Bhagavatam ( 11.5.19-3 1): "King Nimi inquired from Karabhajana Muni: In what colors and forms does the Supreme Personality of Godhead appear in each of the different ages, and with what names and by what types of regulative principles is the Lord worshiped in society? "Sri Karabhajana Muni replied: In each of the four yugas, or ages~ -Satya, Treta, Dvapara and Kali--Lord Kesava appears with various complexions, names, and forms and is thus worshiped by various processes. "In Satya-yuga the Lord is white and four-armed, has matted locks and wears a garment of tree bark. He carries a black deerskin, a sacred thread, prayer beads, and the rod and waterpot of a brahmacad. "People in Satya-yuga are peaceful, non-envious, friendly to every creature, and steady in all situations. They worship the Supreme Personality by austere meditation and by internal and external sense control. "In Satya-yuga the Lord is glorified by the names Hamsa, Suparna, Vaikuntha, Dharma, Yogesvara, Amala, Isvara, Purusa, Avyakta and Paramatama. "In Treta-yuga the Lord appears with a red complexion. He has four arms, golden hair, and wears a triple belt representing initiation into each of the three Vedas. He embodies the knowledge of worship by sacrificial performance, which is contained in the Rg, Sama and Yajur Vedas. His symbols are the ladle, spoon, and other implements of sacrifice. "In Treta-yuga, those members of human society who are fixed in religiosity and are sincerely interested in achieving the Absolute Truth, worship Lord Hari who contains within Himself all the demigods. The Lord is worshiped by the rituals of sacrifice taught in the three Vedas.

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Caitanya-candra "In Treta-yuga the Lord is glorified by the names Vishnu, Yajna, Prsnigarbha, Sarvadeva, Urukrama, Vrsakapi, Jayanta and Urugaya. "In Dvapara-yuga the Suprema Personality of Godhead appears with a dark blue complexion, wearing yellow garments. The Lord's transcendental body is marked in this incarnation with Srivatsa and other distinctive ornaments, and He manifests His personal weapons. "My dear King, in Dvapara-yuga men who desire to know the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme enjoyer, worship Him in the mood of honoring a great king, following the prescriptions of both the Vedas and tantras. "Obeisances to You, O Supreme Lord Vasudeva, and to Your forms of Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. O Supreme Personality of Godhead, all obeisances unto You. O Lord Narayana Rsi, O creator of the universe, best of all personalities, master of this cosmos and original form of the universe, O Supersoul of all created entities, all homage unto You. "O King, in this way people in Dvapara-yuga glorified the Lord of the universe. In Kaliyuga also, people worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead by following various regulations of the revealed scriptures. Now kindly hear this from me." [end of SrimadBhagavatarn quote]' "Lord Brahma continued speaking to Narada Muni. 'Listen Narada, the three yugas-~Satya, Dvapara and Treta-- have already passed, and the white, red, and black color avataras have appeared respectively. The great sage Karabhaj ana has explained this. Now hear what the sage says about the incarnation in Kali-yuga. Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.32): krishna~varnam tvisa-krishnam sangopangastra-parsadam yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi su-medhasah "In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incamarion of Godhead who constantly sings the names of Krishna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krishna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons, and confidential companions."

7.14 The Bhagavata Predicts Gauranga's Advent


"Lord Brahma said, 'Narada, listen carefully to my explanation. Whenever the SrimadBhagavatam mentions the two syllables krs and na--it refers to Lord Sri Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The word akrishna [mentioned in the verse quoted above] means He was not black in complexion but golden. Therefore we sing "Gaura!" "Gaura!" The Lord incarnated with His eternal associates, His followers and His weapons which took the form of devotees. I say the word anga me^s Balarama, which I call sanga. 'The word upanga refers to all of His ornaments. His sudarsana disc and other weapons appeared as His associates, along with Narada and Prahlada. Sri Krishna's eternal associates who had served Him in His previous incarnations, appeared now as Sri Krishna Caitanya's companions and associates. At the time of Lord Caitanya, someone will identify His associates and give their previous names in Krishna's pastimes. 'The common people will have difficulty understanding this, what to speak of the lowminded. For this reason, the sage Karabhajana said sumedhasah--only intelligent people will

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Caitanya-candra understand. In the age of Kali, religion will manifest in the form of sankirtana~yajna. Intelligent people will taste'ecstasy by chanting the Lord's holy names.

7.15 Sri Krishna: Three Colors, Four Yugas


'Now I will explain again how Lord Krishna came in three different colors in the four yugas. In Satya and Treta-yugas the Lord appeared in two colors- white and red. But in Kali and Dvapara-yugas the Lord came in one color--black. However, there is actually no break in the sequence of colors mentioned by Gargamuni in the Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.8.13. There he said the Lord appeared in white, red and yellow colors in the three previous ages. 'Narada, now listen to a blissful elaboration on the Sanskrit words used by Gargamuni. In Srimad-Bhagavatam verse 10.8.13, Gargamuni said that the four yugas appear within the three phases of time---past, present and future. After passing Satya and Treta yugas, Krishna comes Himself in Dvapara. Then in Kali-yuga, Krishna Himself incarnates as His holy names. Gar^amuni has used the word idanim, which means recently. But thi^ pastime will happen in the future. The word bhavisya means future. A scholar can prove the meaning of the future by knowing the past. 'This is sufficiently indicated by the word tatha [in that place] which refers to the Lord's red and white incarnations that have already been seen. The yellow color will be seen in Kaliyuga when Lord Had appears in a yellow color as Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. If someone doesn't accept my explanation, then he must explain why Gargamuni used the word tatha in the verse.' Locana dasa says please accept these statements as correct and don't ignore them. "Lord Brahma continued speaking to Narada, 'This explanation is the supreme proof which shows why Krishna is the avatara for Kaliyuga: Alth6ugh there is a debate about Krishna's appearance as an avatara outside of the normal time, if you hear carefully, you will understand the truth. The other yuga avataras are either parts or expansions of the parts of Lord Sri Krishna. Krishna Himself is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is not an incarnation, as proven in the Srimad- Bhagavatam (1.3.28): ete camsa-kala pumsah krishnas tu bhagavan svayam indrari-vyakularn lokarn rnrdayanti yuge yuge "All the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead. All of them appear on planets whenever there is a disturbance created by the atheists. The Lord incarnates to protect the theists." 'Using the authority of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, I will explain why Krishna is called a yuga avatara. Gargamuni's realizations are difficult to understand for ignorant people like us. Only an intelligent devotee can understand. 'Gargamuni said that in the four yugas, the Lord appeared in four colors in three different times--past, present, and future. In Satya, Treta, Dvapara and Kali-yugas the Lord appears in white, red, yellow and black colors respectively. 'Who is the fountainhead of all incarnations? Sri Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appeared in the Yadu dynasty, is the source, and all others are His expansions. The Lord comes to establish religion and destroy the atheists. In Dvapara-yuga, the Supreme Lord Krishna Himself appeared on earth, and in Kali-yuga, Krishna came as Lord Gauracandra. They are the same and they are also different. According to Vyasadeva in the

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Caitanya-candra Srimad-Bhagavatam, in two yugas, Dvapara and Kali, the two incarnations of the Lord had the same color, Krishna-- blackish. 'Narada, it's explained in the Brhat Sahasra-Nama-stotra that Lord Siva appears in the beginning of Kali-yuga. He takes the form of Sankaracarya and promotes atheism by preaching impersonal philosophy. In the Bhagavad-gita (4.8,9), Krishna promises that whenever and wherever religion is reduced, He comes to earth to remove atheism and reestablish religion. Due to ignorance people in Kali-yuga become absorbed in sinful activities and sense gratification. Thus, they remain bound in the miserable material existence.

7.16 Gauranga, Kali-Yuga, and Sankirtana


'In every yuga, the Supreme Lord comes to earth to deliver the saints, destroy atheism, and reestablish religious principles. In Kaliyuga, Krishna comes as the Gauranga avatara to propagate the chanting of the holy names as the universal yuga-dharma. Glorification of God's holy names is the only religion for the age of Kali. 'Other than the Supreme Lord Himself, who else could have established the yuga-dharrna of Hari-narna sankirtana, which quickly and effectively removes the sins of the age of Kali. Charity, sacrifice, austerity, yajna, self-control, studying the scriptures, renouncing material desires, and other religious principles are automatically attained by sincerely chanting Hare Krishna. The unlimited glories and qualities of Krishna's holy names destroy ignorance and free one from the horrible cycle of birth and death. 'Not knowing this essential quality of the age of Kali, people think that this is just a dark age full of sins. Actually, Kali-yuga is the most wonderful age because of this one quality. From' any position, sinful living entities can attain salvation simply by performing Hari-narna sankirtana. ' "After saying this, Lord Brahma, overwhelmed with ecstasy, warmly embraced Narada Muni. Then Brahma stood up suddenly and proclaimed, 'One will attain unlimited sense pleasure and satisfy all his desires simply by once seeing the radiantly beautiful form of Lord Gaurangaf ' "Lord Brahma continued his discusson by quoting some sastric verses to verify Lord Krishna's appearance as Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu, and to glorify Kali-yuga and the process of Hari-nama sankirtana. He cited the Mahabharata (V'tshnu-sahasra-nama stotra): suvarna-varna hemango varangas candanangadi sannyasakrc camah santo nistha santi parayanah "When Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appears as Sri Gauranga, His complexion is gold [suvarna] in His early pastimes. His limbs are the color of molten white gold [hemanga]. His body is extremely beautiful [varangas], and He is decorated with sandalwood pulp [candanangadi]. These four are the symptoms of the Lord's grhastha-lila. "The Lord will take sannyasa [sannyasikrc] and show equanimity [sama] in different ways by describing the mysteries of devotion to Sri Krishna, and by satisfying everyone with knowledge and attachment to Krishna. The Lord is peaceful [santa] because He renounces all topics not related to the service of Krishna. His mind is always fixed [nistha] in performing Hari-nama sankirtana. He silences those opposed to.the Lord's service by teaching pure devotional service. He is the abode of the highest spiritual peace and devotion [parayanah] ."

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Caitanya-candra "Lord Brahma quoted another verse to show that Lord Caitanya's appearance was also predicted in the (Bhavisya Purana): ajayadhvamaja yadhvam na sansayah kalau sankirtana rambhe bh.avisyami saci sutah "The Supreme Lord said, 'In Kali-yuga, I will appear as the son of Saci, and inaugurate the sankirtana movement. There is no doubt about "Lord Brahma continued speaking, 'Narada, listen to some more wonderful topics. The age of Kali is full of darkness, impiety, and sinful acts. The few pious activities that remain are diminishing day by day. The essence of all religions is contained in Hari-nama sankirtana. 'The chanting of the holy names will spread all over the world. If a materialist chants the name of Had, the Lord will give him sense gratification. One who chants with faith, however, will give up all sense enjoyment, and conquer the Lord by his pure love. In Kali-yuga, chanting the Lord's names and qualities is the supreme religion. 'Had-nama sankirtana is like a big ax to cut the hard knot of sinful activities. The age of Kali is so special that people from previous yugas want to take birth in this age. Why? They want the opportunity to chant Hare Krishna and preach .the holy names. This fact is confirmed in the Srimad- Bhagavatam (11.5.38) 'The inhabitants of Satya-yuga and other ages eagerly desire to take birth in the age of Kali, since in this age there will be many devotees of the Supreme Lord." 'When the all-powerful Supreme Lord Krishna came, why didn't He give prema-bhakti to the sinful? What other avatara would give prema, even to the undeserving and unsurrendered? That type of compassion was unseen in any other yuga. That supremely merciful form of the Supreme Lord is none other than Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. 'A religious man accumulates great benefits and destroys his impious acts by doing pious works, going on pilgrimages, and by following religious rituals; but none of these compares with chanting Hare Krishna. In summary, it is quite clear that Kali-yuga is the best of all ages. There is absolutely no other dharma [religious practice] save and except the congregational chanting of Lord Krishna's holy names.' "After full deliberation, Lord Brahma came to this conclusion. Narada was extremely delighted to hear these things from Lord Brahma. In appreciation, the sage showered forth sweet music from his vina. "Then Narada said, 'Brahma, what more shall I say? You have already said whatever I have kept in my heart and soul. Some people pass many kalpas entangled in fruitive activities. Suddenly, by the grace of the Lord they get to render a little service to a Vaisnava. Hearing the divine topics of Krishna from such a Vaisnava, they attain freedom from material bondage. Then they become so devoted to serving Krishna that they don't care a fig for the five kinds of mukti [liberation]. 'Brahma, I want to say something about prema-bhakti and who is eligible to receive gopibhava [the love of the gopis]. The pure love of the gopis conquers the Lord of the three worlds in the same way that a paramour conquers her lover by her spontaneous love. Who can explain that premarbhakti of the gopis? Uddhava, the great devotee of the Lord, was ready to take birth as a creeper in Vrndavana, in order to get the dust from the feet of the gopis. Uddhava himself describes this in the Srimad-Bhagavatarn ( 10.47.61 ): "The gopis of Vrndavana have given up the assQciation of their husbands, sons, and other family members, who are very difficult to give up, and they have forsaken the path of chastity

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Caitanya-candra to take shelter of the lotus feet of Mukunda, Krishna, which one should search for by Vedic knowledge. Oh, let me be fortunate enough to be one of the bushes, creepers, or herbs in Vrndavana, because the gopis trample them and bless them with the dust of their feet." 'The lotus feet of the Lord which are meditated upon by Lord Brahma, Siva, the munis, and the greatest yogis are rarely attained by them. Laksmi Devi massages those feet which have an indescribably sweet effulgence. Although the four Vedas are constantly reciting the glories of the Lord' s lotus feet, they have hardly reached the shore of the ocean where He rests upon the bed of Ananta Sesa. 'Being controlled by their pure spontaneous love, that very same Lord Himself worshiped the feet of the gopis. There are also hundreds of devotees who have brought the Lord under control by following in the footsteps of the gopis. There is no comparison to the confidential pure love shared between the Vraja gopis and Krishna, the Supersoul of all living entities. Their love is matchless and supreme. 'Although it sometimes resembles the lusty dealings between mundane paramours, that love is totally pure and transcendental. That quality of pure bhakti, which Ananta and Laksmi have never even heard of, Lord Gauranga will preach in the age of Kal^i.' "Then Narada, as per the Lord' s request, asked Lord Brahma to tell everyone in Brahmaloka to expand themselves and take birth on earth in Kali-yt^ga in order to assist Lord Caitanya's pastimes. After saying this, Narada, feeling ecstatic, left Brahma's abode. "Narada continued visiting the demigods. He was playing gently on his vina and singing sweetly. These nectarean sounds showered the world with bliss and enchantment. Absorbed in ecstasy, Narada chanted 'Hari bol! Hari bol!' as he informed the three worlds of the upcoming appearance of Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu, the avatara for the age of Kali. The Lord would come with His joyful associates." Locana Dasa says Lord Gauranga's mercy will inundate the world with nectar. All glories, all glories to the Lord of the universe ! In Kaliyuga the Lord appears to propagate Krishnabhakti. In Kali-yuga the people and the land of Nadia are all fortunate. All glories to Jagannatha Misra, in whose house Gauranga appeared! Oh how wonderful! The glorious Lord Gauranga, along with the auspicious sound of conches, mrdangas, and karatalas, will preach the transcendental glories of the Lord and flood the fourteen worlds with the mellow love of Krishna. Sri Krishna Caitanya will first taste the sweet rasa of Vraja-prema. Then He will distribute it to satisfy the hankerings of everyone from the candalas to the demigods. Forgetting myself in the ecstasy of Krishna consiousness, I, Locana Dasa, proclaim that in this way, the supremely auspicious, blissful treasure of Vmdavana will appear on the earth. Murari Gupta continued speaking to Damodara Pandita. "Indra, Candra, the Yogindras, and the demigods became joyful and danced ecstatically upon hearing about the Gauranga avatara from Narada Muni. The residents of every planet felt rejuvenated, like dead trees sprouting anew.

7.17 Lord Jagannatha Glorifies Gauranga


"When Narada returned to the earth planet, he noticed a decline in the religious practices of the people. They had given up the practices of charity, penances and austerities. Neglecting all pious activities, men were using their bodies, minds, and words only to glorify their wives. Men were totally infatuated with women and sense enjoyment. Nobody cared a fig for yoga or self-realization. Observing these symptoms, Narada became convinced that during his visit to

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Caitanya-candra Brahmaloka, the age of Kali had arrived on earth. Feeling disturbed, Narada sat down to meditate. "Suddenly, he heard a divine voice in the sky: 'I am Lord Jagannatha, the Lord of the universe, and I have appeared as daru brahma [form of the Lord in wood]. I am residing in Nilacala beside the sea for the deliverance of all fallen souls. Have you forgotten the past? In order to fulfill the promise of Katyayani Devi, I have descended to distribute my mahaprasada to everyone. Now, 0 best of the sages, come to Nilacala [Jagannatha Puri] and obey My order.' "Overwhelmed with love, Narada cried out, 'O Jaganrtatha L Playing his world-enchanting vina he hastened to Nilacala. Entering the grand temple, he saw the large, round lotus face of Lord Jagannatha. His face was more cooling, brilliant and beautiful than a million moons. "Narada saw Lord Jagannatha as the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krishna, the fountainhead of all incarnations. The Lord was full of ecstasy and had an effulgent smile. Now He had appeared in a most merciful form as a worshipable Deity. "Falling at Lord Jagannatha's feet, Narada said, 'Please Lord Jagannatha, the age of Kali has come. Please bestow Your mercy. People are bewildered, extremely degraded, and full of lamentation. Controlled by their senses, they're engaged in the most gross sinful activities.' "Lord Jagannatha smiled, touched Narada's hand and said confidentially, 'Narada, now you should go to Goloka, the topmost spiritual planet. Lord Gaurasundara is residing there. Laksmi and many other ladies lovingly serve Lord Had who is the only enjoyer. The residents are happy there. Radha and Rukmini are the principal queens. Along with their many expansions, they serve the Lord as His consorts. Following in their footsteps, hundreds and thousands of devotees also serve the Lord. 'Satyabhama serves the Lord with her incomparable beauty and matchless qualifies. Indeed, she is the most beautiful woman in the three worlds. She is the connoisseur of cleverness and knows the limits of rasa. Satyabhama enjoys charming pastimes encompassing the various rasa-laden arts. 'After worshiping Srimati Radharani, the Lord expanded Himself into many forms to enjoy the rasa dance in Vrndavana with hundreds of loving gopis. With one mouth, how is it possible to describe the limitless glories of this sweet pastime? 'In Dvaraka, all the ladies obey Rukmini Devi. Their minds are full of devotion and they always sing the Lord's glories. Even when they're all together with Krishna, they experience individual flavors of rasa. 'The four types of salvation are given by the Lord of Vaikuntha. Even fallen people in the material word may attain liberation by rendering devotional service. Only pure bhakti, however, can control the Supreme Lord. Being surrounded by Laksmi Devi, the Lord is always rich; but He is always in need of the taste of pure love. 'Just as sugar can't taste its own sweetness, but helps others to taste and enjoy it; similarly, with the help of bhakti, salvation is automatically attained. Liberation impedes the natural flow of pure devotional service. You should know that prema-bhakti-yoga far surpasses the four types of liberation. 'The Supreme Lord of Goloka will come to Puri as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to distribute His mercy. As the Lord of all lords, He will have a tall golden form. By freely giving His mercy He will mitigate everyone's suffering. He will preach, chant, and glorify the holy names. He will distribute the bliss of pure Krishna-prema to deliver all people in Kali-yuga. Now go see Him and you' 11 get relief from all your miseries.' "After hearing from Lord Jagannatha, Narada Muni left Puri and traveled to Vaikuntha. While moving, Narada was thinking, 'I have heard many confidential talks in the Srimad-

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Caitanya-candra Bhagavatam about mukti and bhakti. I have also heard about that place which is unknown, unmanifest in this world and beyond the knowledge of the Vedas. Today I will see that place manifest before my eyes.'

7.18 Narada Visits Vaikuntha


"Infatuated with Krishna-prema and playing his vina, the great sage moved quickly to Vaikuntha. He became even more ecstatic when he heard the sweet singing of the residents of Vaikuntha. Arriving at the gate, Narada praised Lord Vishnu with the most auspicious prayers. The Lord of Vaikuntha was sitting on a jeweled asana, surrounded by His eternal associates. Narada Muni fell at the Lord's feet in respectful submission. Immediately the Lord picked him up and embraced him. "Laughing and smiling, the Lordssaid, 'Narada, please reveal your mind to Me. Immediately tell Me the secrets of your heart. I am eager to fulfill your desire. I will easily reveal to you whatever you can't understand.' "With folded hands and a humble heart, Narada replied, 'My Lord Narayana, You are the Supersoul of all living entities. Since You already know everything, what more can I say? In Your daru brahma form as Lord Jagannatha You told me about a wonderful form of Yours. Now I want to see that form.' ^ "Then Lord Narayana, the jewel mine of all transcendental qualities, said, 'That form is My original form, replete with many different energies standing like a shadow. They serve Him in His unlimited number of incarnations. 'I am all-pervading and within everything. Laksmi Devi and the four muktis [forms of salvation] follow Me. I am the wealth of Laksmi Devi. Narada, this Vaikuntha planet which you have come to is an expansion from the original, topmost spiritual planet called Goloka Vmdavana. The four types of mukti act here like a shadow covering the brilliant reality of bhakti. In Goloka Vmdavana, however, there is nothing but spontaneous pure devotional service. 'Srimati Radharani is the original energy, the very embodiment of prema. She alone controls Sri Krishna, fi^e supreme enjoyer. Their abode is called the Maha-Vaikuntha, the topmost planet among the Vaikunthas. Three-fourths of the Lord's energy is found in the spiritual world. 'I can definitely say that Gaurahari is beyond the touch of Maya. He is a desire tree full of compassion. O great sage Narada, go to His abode and take shelter of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the siksa-guru for the whole world!'

7.19 Narada Sees Gauranga in Goloka


"Narada moved toward Goloka playing his vina and singing the glories of Hari. Overwhelmed with ecstasy, his body showed various symptoms of transcendental love like hompilation. One momefit he would run, calling out "Gauranga!" The next moment he would stagger a few steps, turn his head around for no reason, and then run forward rapidly. "Suddenly, a soothing Vaikuntha breeze flowed over him, and in the distance he saw a wonderful effulgence more cooling than a million moons. Narada's senses became inert when he smelled the sweet fragrance of the Lord' s lotus feet. Narada saw that the residents of Goloka were in a joyful mood. "Thousands of Cupids surrounded the Lord, waiting to serve Him. Their bodily features were very attractive. Their talking was a shower of nectar singing,

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Caitanya-candra and their walking was full dancing and dramatic gestures. They seemed completely satisfied by an inner bliss created from pure love of God. "Kalpa-vrksa trees and Kamadhenu [surabhi cows] dotted the landscape. Seeing some flowering vines, Nataria remembered Uddhava's desiring to take birth as a creeper in Vmdavana. Soon Narada came to an attractive private grove in the inner portion of Goloka. There he saw the golden form of Krishna, Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu, sitting upon an ornately decorated, brilliant golden throne. The throne was placed on a jewel- studded platform under an incredibly beautiful desire tree. "Sri Krishna Caitanya, His gentle face adorned with an ecstatic smile, sat there peacefully. His form was more nectarean and beautiful than the sweetness of honey. A mango twig resting atop a covered water pot sat beside the throne. Gauranga Raya's left toe was touching the waterpot. The grove was illuminated by a bejeweled lamp, shining like the sun. "Radhika and Her gopi friends [representing the energies of Vrndavana], holding jeweled waterpots, stood on the Lord's right side. On the left side [representing the energies of Dvaraka] were Rukmini and her followers, holding golden waterpots containing jeweled water. Nagnajiti gave a full pot of water to Mitravinda who in turn gave it to Sulakshana. She gave it to Rukmini who then used that celestial Ganges water to bathe Gauranga Mahaprabhu. "Tilottama [one of Indra's apsaras] filled another waterpot, passed it to Madhupriya, who gave it to Candramukhi. She gave it to Radhika Rai [Radharani] who poured the water on Gauranga's head in abhiseka. Satyabhama gave celestial scents, dresses, garlands and ornaments to Laksmana, Subhadra and Bhadra. With golden waterpots full of celestial Ganges water soaked in jewels, everyone bathed the transcendental form of Lord Caitanya. "From all four directions, celestial ladies came with wonderful clothes, jewels and ornaments for the Lord. The best minstrels stood near Lord Gaura Raya, praising Him with select prayers. According to the Vedas, the best meditation is to always remember the abhiseka of the Lord of Goloka. "The beautiful body of Mahaprabhu shone like molten gold. His two arms were long and graceful. He was being worshiped by devotees chanting the four-syllable mantra. That same form appears with four arms in Vaikuntha. There His body is the color of a newly-formed rain cloud, and He holds the four symbols of Vishnu in His four hands: cakra, padma, sankha, gada. "Upon seeing Gauranga, the great sage became overwhelmed with divine love. He fell upon the Lord's feet and bathed them with his tears. Smiling, the Lord picked up Narada and put him on His lap. "At that time, Narada said, 'O my Lord, you a^e very dear to me. You have destroyed all my pains and miseries. My dear Mahaprabhu, I've never seen such amazing things. Now my life is perfect. Never before have I seen such nectarean beauty compressed in one form. Even my father, Brahma, can't understand you. You are completely indescribable. 'Some say You are the supreme effulgence. Others say Your existence defies definition. There's no example to describe Your effulgent aspect. Some say that You're the topmost supreme personality. No amount of speculation can measure You. One can't get liberation even if he knows all about Your all-pervading energy. In this way, Your transcendental pastimes defy comprehension. 'Ananta, with thousands of mouths, can't reach the end of Your transcendental qualities. Although he's trying, he can't properly glorify you. By Your mercy I saw Your form as Lord Gauranga which was impossible for me to perceive otherwise. Yogis and Sankhyaites believe the path of bhakti is the gross way to approach the Supreme. They say only through

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Caitanya-candra mysticism and meditation can one realize transcendence. Nevertheless, the devotees are resolute in their consciousness. They simply fix their minds on the lotus feet of the Lord and worship Him with undivided attention. 'According to the Vedas, some follow the path of Varnasrama~ dharma. Some munis, without understanding the Vedas, try to present the conclusion of Vedanta. Why do different philosophers present conflicting views? Some stubbornly insist that the Absolute Truth is non-differentiated oneness. I fully understand that You are beyond the reach of knowledge, guess work or speculation. 'Please give me the mercy of Your lotus feet. I feel great anguish. My Lord, just let me die and be reborn so that I can attainprema-bhakti and lead a life of Krishna consciousness.' "After hearing Narada Muni's appeal, Lord Gauranga smiled and said, 'Narada, king of the sages, just come with Me. Let us go to Navadvipa and we'll deliver the people of Kali-yuga by preaching My pure devotional service. 'I reside in Svetadvipa along with My elder brother Balarama whose expansion is Ananta. He is served by Lord Siva and the eleven Rudras. Balarama, in His expanded form as Ksirodakasayi Vishnu, and His wife Revati, are now sporting in the ocean of milk. He arranges for the incarnations to first enter the material world. Narada, go quickly to Svetadvipa and ask the Lord to take the name of Nityananda and appear on earth with His eternal associates.' "Narada Muni, feeling blissful and satisfied in his heart to hear from Lord Gauranga, chanted 'Hari bol! Hari bol!"' Locana Das declares that one will be swept away in waves of ecstasy by hearing this transcendental conversation.

7.20 Gauranga Tells Why He Descends


Murari Gupta continues narrating to Damodara Pandita. "After Narada's departure, the Lord thought to Himself and then announced to His beloved associates: 'Listen carefully as I explain why I incarnate on earth.' "The Lord, the greatest of all controllers, always thinks about the welfare of the world. He was surrounded by Radharani on His right side and Rukmini on His left. All His delightful queens, dear associates, and intimate followers were also present. They were all eager to listen to the Lord's nectarean words. Millions of eyes were not enough to appreciate the unique beauty of the Lord's face. As many cakora birds hanker after the rays of one moon, similarly their eyes were thirsty to drink the nectar of the moonlike face of Lord Gauranga. "Revealing the purpose of His incarnation to all His eternal associates, Lord Caitanya said, 'In every age I appear in the material world to deliver the saints and to reestablish religion. Without understanding the purpose of My advent, the ignorant people continue to commit sinful activities. It hurts Me that after Satya-yuga sinful activities gradually increase with the progress of the ages. Seeing the appalling condition of Kali-yuga, I feel compassionate and personally incarnate in order to manifest My love. 'I will personally teach the people the difference between religion and irreligion. I '11 give them the most difficult-to-attain jewel ofpremabhakti. In Navadvipa on the bank of the Ganges, I'll appear as the son of Jagannatha Misra and Saci Mata. In My previous incarnations I killed the demons, but as Lord Gauranga I'll conquer' them with My love. 'In My other incarnations I took fierce forms and powerful weapons to obliterate many huge and invincible demons. In Kali-yuga, however, I'11 use the weapons of My transcendental holy names, qualifies, and the potency of My prema-bhaktas [pure devotees].

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Caitanya-candra With these I'll conquer the people's demoniac mentalities and award them pure devotional service to Radha and Krishna. nama-guna-sankirtana vaisnavera shakti prakasa karibe ami nija prema-bhakti Chanting of the name & qualities of Krsna is the life & energy of the Vaisnavas. I will reveal these activities & rejuvenate pure devotional service unto Myself. ei mate kali-papa karibe sanhara sabe cala age pache na kara vichara In this way I will destroy all the sins in Kali Yuga. So all of you, My associates, go ahead and take birth on the earthly planet before My advent and don't remain behind. ebe nama sankirtana tikshna khadaga laiya antara asura jivera phelibe katiya Taking the sharp sword of the congregational chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra, (namasankirtana) I will root out & destroy the demoniac mentality in the hearts of all the conditioned souls. yadi papi chadi dharma dure dese yaya mora senapati-bhakta yaibe tathaya If some sinful people escape and giving up religious principles go to far off countries, then my Senapati Bhakta3 will come at that time to give them Krsna consciousness. (senapati - a military field commander, bhakta - a devotee. Lord Caitanya will empower His own devotee to spread Krsna Consciousness around the world.)

8 DOES LORD CAITANYA APPEAR IN EVERY DAY OF LORD BRAHMA?


Just like the original Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna does appear once in every day of Lord Brahma. Srila Prabhupada once explained in Melbourne, Australia, in answer the question of how long it would be before Lord Krsna would come to this planet again in His physical form, that Krsna would come again after 8 billion, 600 milion years. Devotee: How long do you say it is before Krsna comes to this planet again in His physical form? Srila Prabhupada: Now, calculate, I have already given the duration of one day, twelve hours, of Brahma means 4,300,000 years multiplied by one thousand the eight billion. Paramahamsa: 600,000,000.
3 Refers to Srila Prabhupada

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Srila Prabhupada: So Krsna comes after this period in one day, after one day of Brahma, He appears. Devotee: Srila Prabhupada, does Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu also appear every day of Brahma? Srila Prabhupada: Yes, following Krsna. Krsna comes in the Dvapara-yuga. There are four sets of yugas: Satya, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali. So Krsna come at the end of Dvapara-yuga, and Caitanya Mahaprabhu comes in the Kali-Yuga so almost the same year, same circulation. Similarly, Krsna appears in rotation in this universe after so many years, eight billion years. So next He goes to another universe....

9 DESCRIPTIONS OF LORD CAITANYA'S BODILY FEATURES


Srila Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, one of the foremost disciples of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in Jagannatha Puri, composed an entire series of prayers describing in detail the various features of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, called Sri Gauranga-Prati-Anga-Varnanakhya-Stava-Rajah, or the King of Prayers, proclaiming the glory of each limb of Sri Gauranga. Let us carefully present a few of these divine gems. Lord Caitanya's bodily luster. Srila Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya has described the complexion of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's body. tapta hema dyutim vande kali-krsnam jagad-gurum caru-dirgha-tanum srimac chaci-hrdaya-nandanam I worship Lord Krsna, the spiritual master of the universe, who appears in the age of Kali with a luster like molten gold. His body is beautiful and tall. He is like molten gold, and He is the delight of the son of Sacidevi. Srila Prabodhananda Sarasvati Thakura also describes Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's golden complexion. ananda lilamaya vigrahaya hemabha-divya-cchavi-sundaraya O Lord Caitanyacandra, O Lord whose form is full of blissful pastimes, O Lord whose complexion is as splendid as gold... Srila Prabodhananda Saraswati a great Vaisnava acarya of the Sri Ramanuja Sampradaya says: prabodhananda-vakyam yattad idam srnu sampratam stumas tam caitanyakrtim ati-vimaryada-pramadad bhgtaudaryam varyam vraja-pati-kumaram rasayitum

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Caitanya-candra visuddha-sva-premonmada-madura-piyusa-laharim pradatum canyebhyah para-pada-navadvipa-prakatam "Now please hear the statement of Srila Prabodhanda Sarasvati: 'Let us glorify the boundlessly merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead, the prince of Vraja. To taste the intoxicating sweet waves of the nectar of transcendental love for Krsna, as well as to give that nectar to others, He has now appeared in the transcendental abode of Navadvipa as Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.' - Srila Prabodhananda Sarasvati Thakura statement. Cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya, 5/14 Srila Rupa Goswami prays at the lotus feet of Lord Caitanya as follows: namo maha-vadanyaya krsna-prema-pradaya te krsnaya krsna-caitanya namne gaura-tvise namah I offer my respectful obeisaces unto the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya, who has assumed the golden color of Srimati Radharani, and who is more magnanimous than any other avatara, even Krsna Himself, because He is widely distributing freely what no one else has ever given -pure love of Krsna. Sripada Vallabhacarya a great acarya of the Rudra Visnuswami Vaisnava Sampradaya prays at the lotus feet of the Lord as follows: tumi-isvara . . . My dear Lord, You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Similarly Sripada Kesava Kasmiri a prominent acarya of the Kumara Nimbaditya Vaisnava Sampradaya aserts Lord Caitanya as the Supreme Personlity of Godhead: saksat isvara kari prabhute janila After understanding the transcendental position of the Lord he (Kesava) accepted that Sri Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Srila Krsna Dasa Kaviraja Goswami similarly describes Lord Caitanya. tapta hema sama kanti prakanda sarira "...the luster of His expansive body resembles molten gold..." Sripad Prabodhananda Sarasvati also further describes Sri Caitanyas golden complexion. svayam devo yatra-kanaka-gaurah karunaya His complexion is as fair as molten gold.

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Sri Caitanya's beautiful hair. lasan-mukha-lata-naddha caru-kuncita-kuntalam "His lovely curling locks are interwoven with creepers of glistening pearls..." Sri Caitanya's shoulders and chest. Prabhodananda Sarasvati Thakura describes the shoulders of Mahaprabhu. simha skandham... "May Lord Caitanya, whose shoulders are like a lion..." Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Goswami also points out the nature of Sri Caitanya's shoulders and voice. simha griva simha-virya simhera hunkara "He has the shoulders of a lion, the powers of a lion, and the loud voice of a lion." Sri Caitanya's arms. ajanulambita-bhuja His arms reach all the way to his knees. ajanulambita bhujau kanaka vadatau Their arms ( Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda ) reach all the way to their knees. kankanangada-vidyotiajanu-lambi-bhuja-dvayam ....His two arms, glittering with bracelets and bangles, extend down to His knees. Sri Caitanya's face. prema-pravaha-madhura raktotpala-vilocanam h la-prasuna-susnigdhanutanayata-nasikam His beautiful eyes are just like reddish lotus flowers. They are most beautiful, just like lakes of Krsna Prema. His nose is arched and is resplendent just like the sesame flower. sri-ganda-mandollasi-

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Caitanya-candra ratna-kundala-manditam savya-karna-suvinyastasphurac-caru-sikhandakam His cheeks are round and they shine brilliantly. He wears jewelled earrings. He has a peacock feather placed near His left ear. madhura-sneha-susnigdha praraktadhara-pallavam isad-danturita-snigdha sphuran-mukta-radoijvalam His lips are tender and very lustrous. They resemble reddish blossoming flowers. He reveals his pearl-like teeth out His kindness. According to the authoritative statements of the great purva-acaryas [previous authorized bona fide spiritual masters] such as Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada, Srila Sanatana Goswami, Srila Jiva Goswami Prabhupada, Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Goswami, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, and His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the foremost representative of all the Acaryas in the Gaudiya Sampradaya, and many other great Acaryas and pure devotees, Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Yuga-Avatara, and the incarnation of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna combined who has come to taste the transcendental bliss experienced by Srimati Radharani. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This transcendental conclusion is supported by the statements of the Vedas, the Srimad Bhagavatam, various Puranas, the Mahabharata, various Samhitas, Tantras and Pancaratric texts. sankirtana-pravartaka sri krsna-caitanya sankirtana-yajne tanre bhaje sei dhanya Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya is the initiator of sankirtana [congregational chanting of the holy name of Lord Krsna]. One who worships Him through sankirtana is fortunate indeed. vintala-kamala-vaktrah pakva-bi nbadharosthas tila-kusu na-su-nasah katnbu-kanthah su-dirghah suvaliuta-bhuja-dando nabhi-gambhira-rupah sphuratu hrdaya-madhye gaura-candro-natendrah His face is flawless like a blooming lotus and His lips are red as ripe as bimba fruits. His nose is as beautiful as the sesame flower and his neck is like a three- ringed conch. He is very tall and His rod-like arms make artistic movements while He dances. His navel is very deep. May my Lord Gauracandra, the king of dancers, reveal Himself in the core of My heart.

9.1 Specific Bodily Features And Markings

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Caitanya-candra All genuine incarnations of God have specific bodily features and markings that distinguishes Him from common men. The hands and soles of the Lords feet have special markings, which proves that one is a bonafide incarnation of the Supreme Lord. Srimad Bhagavatam (10.38.25) describes the marks on Lord Krsnas feet: padani tasyakhila-loka-pala kirita-justamala-pada renoh dadarsa gosthe ksiti-kautukani vilaksitany abja-yavankusadyaih In the cowherd pasture Akrura saw the footprints of those feet whose pure dust the rulers of all planets in the universe hold on their crowns. Those footprints of the Lord, distinguished by such marks as the lotus, barleycorn and elephant goad, made the ground wonderfully beautiful. Similarly, Srimad Bhagavatam (10.30.25) quotes the gopis: padani vyaktam etani nanda-sunor mahatmanah laksyante hi dhvajambhoja vajrankusa-yavadibhih The gopis said; The marks of a flag, lotus, thunderbolt, elephant goad, barleycorn and so forth on these footprints clearly distinguish them as belonging to that great soul, the son of Nanda Maharaja. In these regard, the Skanda Purana gives the exact details and locations of the eleven marks on Krsnas right foot and eight on his left foot. These marks were not only on Krsnas body, but they are a characteristic of any genuine incarnation of the Lord. For instance, in Srimad Bhagavatam, similar characteristics are observed regarding: the empowered incarnation known as Prthu Maharaja (4.15.9-10) Lord Brahma, the master of the entire universe, arrived there accompanied by all the demigods and their chiefs. Seeing the lines of Lord Visnus palm on King Prthus right hand and impressions of lotus flowers on the soles of His feet, Lord Brahma could understand that King Prthu was a partial represntative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. and Lord Kapila Muni who appeared in Satya-yuga (3.24.17) By mystic yoga and the practical application of knwoledge from the scriptures, Kapila Muni, who is characterized by his goden hair, His eyes just like lotus petals and His lotus feet, which bear the marksof lotus flowers, will uproot the deep-rooted desire for work in this material world. Lord Ramacandra, according to Srimad Ramayana also had such special markings on his body.

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The markings on Lord Caitanyas feet are described in Sri Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi-lila 14.7): grhe dui jana dekhi laghupada-cinha tahe sbhe dhvaja, vajra, sankha, cakra, mina According to the astrologer Nilambara Cakravarti, Nimai (Lord Caitanya) was born at the most favorable moment of planetary conjunctions. His horoscope indicated that he would be an intellectual genius, a saviour of the world, a unique preacher of religion and would declare the dispensation for the present age (the chanting of the Lords holy name). The astrologer recognised on His person all the signs of an avatara, both from the calculations and from the auspicious marks on His limbs. When the Lord tried to walk, in his small fotprints the specific marks of Lord Visnu were visible, namely the flag, thunderbolt, conchshell, disc and fish. Such are the specific marks on the palms and feet of all genuine incarnations. These marks are not like the regular lines which appear on the soles and palms of of ordinary men. Nowdays there are many imposters who claim to be God, but do not have any specific marks on their palms and feet except for the lines seen regularly on ordinary people. Nilambara Cakravarti, Sacidevis father and the family astrologer, could understand another way in which the boy was golden - his bodily limbs and zodiacal signs all indicated that he was none other than the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna. Looking at all this features Nilambara named the extraordinary child Visvambhara, indicating the boys divinity. He said In the future this child will protect and maintain all the world. For this reason He is to be called Visvambhara. The Caitanya-Bhagavat also confirms that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabu, by his birth, has made the whole world peaceful, as in the past Narayana protected this earth in His incarnation as Varaha. Because of His protecting and maintaining this world in the present Kali-yuga, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Visvambhara, which refers to one who feeds the entire world. The name Visvambhara is mentioned in the Atharva-veda-samhita (visvambhara visvena ma bharasa pahi svaha). Sri Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi-lila 14.15) describes even further bodily symptoms of an incarnation of God: panca-dirghah panca-suksmah sapta-raktah sad-unnatah tri-hrasva-prthu-gambhiro dvatrimsal-laskano mahan There are thirty-two bodily symptoms of a great person: five of his bodily parts are large,five fine, seven reddish, six raised, three small, three broad and three grave. The seven large parts are the nose, arms, chin, eyes and knee. The five fine parts are the skin, fingertips, teeth, hair on the body and hair on the head. The seven reddish parts are the eyes, soles, palms, palate, nails, and upper and lower lips. The six raised parts are the chest,

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Caitanya-candra shoulders, nails, nose, waist and mouth. The three small parts are the neck, thighs and male organ. The three broad parts are the waist, forehead, chest. The three grave parts are the navel, voice and existence. Altogether these are the thirty-two symptoms of an incarnation. Sri Caitanya, according to His authorised biographers and confidential associates possessed all the thirty-two marks of divinity incarnate (maho purusa laksanas).

10 WHY DID LORD KRSNA APPEAR AS LORD CAITANYA?


In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Krsnadasa Kaviraja Goswami has stressed that Lord Caitanya appeared for three principal purposes of his own. The first purpose was to relish the position of Srimati Radharani, who is the prime reciprocator of transcendental love of Sri Krsna. Lord Krsna is the reservoir of transcendental loving transactions with Srimati Radharani. The subject of those loving transactions is the Lord Himself, and Radharani is the object. Thus the subject, the Lord, wanted to relish the loving mellow in the position of the object, Radharani. The second reason for His appearance was to understand the transcedental mellow of Himself. Lord Krsna is all sweetness. Radharanis attraction for Krsna is sublime, and to experience that attraction and understand the transcedental sweetness of Himself, He accepted the mentality of Radharani. The third reason that Lord Caitanya appeared was to enjoy the bliss tasted by Radharani. The Lord thought that undoubtedly Radharani enjoyed His company and He enjoyed the company of Radharani, but the exchange of transcedental mellow between the spiritual couple was more pleasing to Srimati Radharani than to Sri Krsna. Radharani felt more transcendetal pleasure in the company of Krsna than He could understand without taking Her position, but to Sri Krsna, to enjoy in the position of Srimati Radharani was impossible because that position was completely foreign to Him. Krsna is the transcendental male, and Radharani is the transcendental female. Therefore, to know the transcendental pleasure of loving, Lord Krsna Himself appeared as Lord Caitanya, accepting the emotions and bodily luster of Srimati Radharani. In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, 1.6 it is stated: sri-radhayah pranaya mahima kidrso vanayaiva svadyo yenadbhuta-madhurima kidrso va madiyah saukhyam casya mad mad-anubhavatah kidrsam veti lobhat tad-bhavadhyah samajani saci-garbha-sindhau harinduh Desiring to understand the glory of Radharanis love, the wonderful qualities in Him that She alone relishes through Her love, and the happiness She feels when She realizes the sweetness of His love, the Supreme Lord Hari, richly endowed with Her emotions, appears from the womb of Srimati Sacidevi, as the moon appears from the ocean. Radha and Krsna are one, and when Krsna desires to enjoy pleasure, He manifests Himself as Radharani. It is explained in Srimad Bhagavatam that Krsna desired to know the glory of Radharanis love for Him. He wanted to taste the feelings Radharani felt upon seeing Him.

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Caitanya-candra Krsna Himself could not understand the ecstatic feeling of Radharani towards Him, and therefore He desired to accept the role of Radharani and thereby taste these feelings. In order to taste the essence of that loving affair, Krsna appeared as Lord Caitanya with the sentiments of Radharani. Lord Caitanya is Krsna with the feelings of Radharani; in other words He is a combination of Radha and Krsna united into one form. Krsna and Caitanya are not incarnations, but the Supreme Personality of Godhead; the cause of all the causes.They are the original source of all the incarnations. No one should try to eliminate Lord Caitanya from Lord Krsna. In the form of Sri Krsna , He is the supreme enjoyer and in the form of Sri Caitanya, He is the supreme enjoyed. Lord Caitanya appeared to fulfill these confidential desires and also to preach the special significance of chanting Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare, and also to answer the call of Advaita Acarya4 who constantly prayed to the Supreme Lord to personally descend to earth to establish the yuga-dharma. Apart from the above reason, the celebrated author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta has fully discussed another reason for the descent of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Krsna, after displaying His pastimes as Lord Krsna, thought it wise to make His advent in the form of a devotee to explain personally the transcedental mellow reciprocations of service and love beween Himself and His servants, friends, parents and lovers. According to the Vedic literatures, the foremost occupational duty for humanity in this age of Kali is hari-nama-sankirtana, or congregational chanting of the holy name of the Supreme Lord. The incarnation for this age especially preaches this process, but only Krsna Himself can explain the confidential loving service performed in the four principal varieties of loving affairs between the Supreme Lord and His devotees. Lord Krsna therefore personally appeared, with His plenary portions, as Lord Caitanya. For this purpose the Lord appeared personally in Navadvipa in the form of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Krsnadasa Kaviraja Goswami has described bodily symptoms in Lord Caitanya that are visible only in the person of the Supreme Lord, and he has proved that Lord Caitanya appeared with his personal associates like Nityananda Prabhu, Advaita Acarya, Gadadhara Prabhu, Srivasa Prabhu and other devotees to preach the special significance of chanting Hare Krsna mahamantra. The appearance of Lord Caitanya is both significant and confidential. He can be appreciated only by pure devotees and only through the process of devotional service. The Lord tried to conceal his identity as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by representing Himself as a devotee, but His pure devotees can recognize Him by his special features. The Vedas and Puranas foretell the appearance of Lord Caitanya, but still He is sometimes called, significantly, the concealed descent of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Sri Advaita Acarya is not only the efficient cause of the descent of the Lord, but also of His disappearance. He sent a cryptic message to Caitanya Mahaprabhu, rice is no longer needed in the market place, since every one is mad like Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself. When Mahaprabhu received this message, He smiled and soon after displayed His pastime of disappearing. Only a few of the intimate associates understood that this message meant that the yuga dharma of sankirtana had been sufficiently well established now that it could be carried on by empowered disciples.
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Furthermore it is explained that Lord Krsna appeared as Lord Caitanya to kill the demons. The demons this time were none other than the Mayavadis. The term Mayavadi means a follower of Maya-vada. Mayavada is another name for Advaita-vada philosophy of Adi Sankaracarya. More precisely the followers of Sankaracarya are known as Mayavadis. Sripada Adi Sankaracarya appeared in the beginning of Kali-yuga and promoted atheism by preaching Mayavada (impersonal) philosophy. Sankaracarya was an incarnation of Lord Siva, and it is known that Lord Siva is one of the great Vaisnavas. Why, then did he adopt the process of Mayavada philosophy?. The answer is given in Padma Purana where Lord Siva states: mayavadam asac-chastram pracchanam bauddham ucyate mayaiva kalpitam devi kalau brahmana rupina The Mayavada philosophy is veiled Buddhism. In other words, the voidist philosophy of Buddha is more or less repeated in the Mayavada philosophy of nirakara-vada, impersonalism. Lord Siva, however admits that this philosophy is manufactured by him in the age of Kali in order to mislead the atheists. Lord Siva says: Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead has His transcendental spiritual body, but I describe the Supreme as nirakara, impersonal. I also explain the Vedanta-sutra according the same principles of Mayavada philosophy. The Mayavada philosophy taught by Sankaracarya is an imaginary explanation of the Vedas, but it had to be taught by him and because he (Sankaracarya) was ordered to teach it by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the Padma Purana (62.31) it is stated that the Supreme Lord ordered Mahadeva, Lord Siva, to present some imaginary interpretations of Vedic literatures. By doing so you will attempt to make them atheists, the Lord said. After that, they can produce more population. More precisely the Supreme Lord ordered Lord Siva to deviate the human race from Him, the Supreme Personality of Godhead for some time. The Personality of Godhead was to be covered so that people would be encouraged to generate more and more population. It is also stated in Padma Purana (25.9) that Lord Siva explained to his wife, Parvati, that in Kali-yuga he would come in the form of a brahmana to preach imperfect interpretations of the Vedas, known as Mayavadism, which in actuality is but a second edition of atheistic Buddhist philosophy. Some basic tenets of Sankaracaryas philosophy are as follows: God and the soul are identical; the formless, senseless, impersonal Absolute is the only reality; all else is maya, (illusion); and the incarnations of God are all products of maya, (illusion). Also according to the Mayavadis, Krsna and devotional service to Him (bhakti) are products of maya, (illusion). They believe that everything is one and that the goal of spiritual life is to become one with God. They are impersonalists; they think that God is formless (nirakara). They do not accept that the highest reality is the Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna. In different forms and names, Mayavada has spread throughout India and beyond. By diverting peoples attention away from the Personality of

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Caitanya-candra Godhead, and by giving them the false hope that they can become one with God, Mayavada has created havoc in the spiritual life of the world. Therefore, Vaisnava acaryas, especially Sripad Ramanujacarya, Sripad Madhvacarya, Sripad Nimbarkacarya, Sripad Visnuswami and Bhagavan Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, staunchly oppose Mayavada. Using evidence from the sastra (scripture) and common-sense logic, they have systematically refuted Mayavada by exposing the numerous fallacies on which it is based. The correct understanding of the Absolute Truth is that Krsna is supreme. This is directly established by Lord Krsna in Bhagavat-gita and is thus accepted by all Vaisnava philosophers. Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is not formless; He is eternally situated in His transcendental form (sac-cid-ananda vigraha). The topmost understanding of transcendental reality is that GOD IS A PERSON, and all other living beings (jivas) are His servants eternally. In the Bhagavat-gita (4.8,9), Krsna promises that whenever and wherever there is decline in religion, He comes to remove atheism and reestablish religion. Due to ignorance, people in Kali-yuga become absorbed in sinful activities and sense gratification. In Sri Caitanya-Bhagavat Lord Caitanya says: sankirtana arambha amara avatara kirtana virodhi pape, karimu samhara I have incarnated to inaugurate the sankirtana movement and any sinful person who is against this sankirtana movement shall be kill by Me. Similarly in Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila,17.53 Lord Caitanya says: pasandi samharite mora ei avatara pasandi samhari bhakti karimu pracara I have appeared in this incarnation to kill the demons [pasandis] and, after killing them, to preach the cult of devotional service. Lord Caitanyas mission is the same as that of Lord Krsna in Bhagavat-gita: yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srjamy aham paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise in irreligion - at that time I descend Myself. In order to deliver the

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Caitanya-candra pious and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to eestablish the principles of religion, I advent Myself millennium after millennium. (Bg. 4.7-8) As explained here , the real purpose of an incarnation of Godhead is to kill the atheists and maintain the devotees. He does not say, like so many rascal incarnations, that both atheists and devotees are on the same platform. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu or Lord Krsna, the real Personality of Godhead, does not advocate such an idea. Atheists are punishable, whereas devotees are to be protected. To maintain this principle is the mission of all avataras, or incarnations. The Lord comes along with His confidential associates and weapons. In other incarnations the Lord descended with His armies and weapons, but in this incarnation His solders are His plenary parts and associates. His plenary parts and associates peform the work of weapons as their own specific duties. One must therefore identify an incarnation by his activites, not by popular votes or mental concoctions. Unlike other incanations of the Lord that descended prior to His appearance, Lord Caitanya came with no weapons. Lord Ramacandra carried a bow and arrow for killing the demons; Lord Parsurama carried an axe; even Lord Krsna appeared with His lethal disc (sudarsana cakra). But Lord Caitanya was empty handed. His only accountrements are His associates and His only weapon is hari-nama sankirtana. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu gave protection to the devotees and killed many demons in the course of his preaching work. He specfically mentioned that the Mayavadi philosophers are the greatest demons. Therefore he warned all others not hear the Mayavada philosophy. Mayavada-bhasya sunile haya sarva-nasa: simply by hearing the Mayavada interpretation of the sastras, one is doomed (Caitanya-caritamrta, Madhya-lila, 6.169). Lord Caitanya further says - mayavadi krsne aparadhi: All the Mayavadis are offenders of Lord Krsna.(Caitanya-caritamrta, Madhya-lila, 7.129) Actually Lord Caitanya did not kill anyone physically, but instead killed the demoniac minds of such atheists by giving them the Hare Krsna maha-mantra which when chanted by one offencelessly develops love for Godhead. Instead of killing the demons and thereby giving them liberration, He transformed them into devotees and conquered them by His devotion. Through little more than the changing process, Mahaprabhu was able to liberate all who ventured within Hus path. According to His teachings and the example of His followers, we need only adopt the process.

11 SRI NAVADVIPA DHAMA - THE DIVINE ABODE OF LORD CAITANYA


According to the scriptures, Sri Navadvipa dhama, being the birth place of Lord Caitanya, is nondifferent from Sri Vrindavana dhama, the birth place of Lord Krsna are considered manifestations of the spiritual world. Srila Vrindavana das Thakur has described the village of Navadvipa as bearing the name of Svetadvipa. In this Svetadvipa the concluding portions of the pastimes of Goloka exist eternally as the pastimes of Navadvipa. Hence the region of Navadvipa, Vraja and the realm of Goloka are the one and the same indivisible entity. Here in Navadvipa what the yogis obtain after 10 nights at other tirthas, holy places, is obtained in 3 nights. In the Skanda Pura the Lord says:

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Caitanya-candra mypur samaritya kalau ye mm upsate sarva-ppa-vinirmukts te ynti param gatim They who in the age of Kali take shelter of Mypura and worship Me become free from all sins and attain the supreme destination. yat trtha vartate rmn navadvpe vibhgaa tat-trtha-mahim tatra ata-koi-gua kalau The glories of other holy places are present hundreds and millions of times over in Navadvpa in the age of Kali. yath cintmae sagt dhtu-mlya pravardhate gaura-sagt tath trthamhtmya parivardhate As a metal's value increases with a cintmai jewel's touch, so the glory of any holy place increases with Lord Gaura's touch. my mypur skt sarvnanda-vivardhin r-garga-sahity sa krtit ppa-nin Mypura is the Lord's yogamy potency. It is filled with ever-increasing bliss. In the Brhad-Brahma-Yamala-Tantra, in ancient times it was said: kalau purnandas tri-bhuvana-jay gaura-sutanur navadvpe jta suradhuni-sampe narahari dadat ppibhya sastutam api harer nma sukta taritv ppbdhi bhuvi vijayate r-gauracandrbhidha All Glories to Lord Gauracandra, who is the perfect bliss in the age of Kali, the glory that shines in the three worlds, and the fair complexioned human-like form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has taken birth in Navadvipa, and who gives to the sinful the sacred and glorious name of Lord Hari and makes them cross over the ocean of sins in this world. vande gaurvatra kali-mala-mathana r-navadvpa-vsa kathe ml dadhna ruti-yuga-vilasat-svara-sasaktagaam keyrgada-divya-ratna-ghatita bahu-dvaye bibhrata bhaktebhyo dadat malpaharaa nmpi sarva hare

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Caitanya-candra I offer my respectful obeisances to Gaura-avatra, who destroys the impurities of the age of Kali, who resides in Navadvpa, who wears a garland on His neck, to whose cheeks cling glistening golden earrings, who wears splendid jeweled keyra and agada armlets on His arms, and who gives to the devotees Lord Hari's holy name, which destroys all sins. Brhad-Yamala-Tantra as cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Navadvipa-DhamaMahatmya, 4.5 In the Mukti-Sankalini-Tantra it is said: kuruketra kte trtham trety pukara smtam dvpare naimisrayam nava-khaa kali kala In the Mukti-sakalin Tantra it is said: In Satya-yuga Kuruketra is the most important holy place, in Tret-yuga Lake Pukara is the most important holy place, in Dvpara-yuga Naimiraya is the most important holy place, and in Kali-yuga Navadvpa is the most important holy place. In Satya-yuga, Kuruksetra is the most important holy place, in Treta-yuga, lake Puskara is the most important holy place, in Dvapara-yuga, Naimisaranya is the most important holy place, and in Kali-yuga, Navadvipa is the most important holy place. Mukti-SankaliniTantra cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya , 4.7 The Chandogya Upanisad describes the place of advent of the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya. This is explained by Srila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura, in his Navadvipa Dhama Mahatmya (text 5): tan-madhye daharam saksan mayapuram itiryate tatra vesma bhagavatas caitanyasya paratmanah tasmin yas tv antarakaso hy antardvipah sa ucyate The spiritual city in the shape of a lotus has the abode of Sri Mayapura as its heart. Sridhama Mayapura is the divine abode of Lord Caitanya, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the middle of Mayapura is the place called Antardvipa. In the Urdhvmnya Tantra the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself said: vaivasvatntare brahman gag-tre su-puya-de hari-nma tad dattv caln haiks tath brhman katriyn vaiyn atao 'tha sahasraa uddhariymy aha tatra

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Caitanya-candra tapta-svara-kalevara sannysa ca kariymi kcana-grma rita O brhmaa, during the Vaivasvata-manvantara, on the sacred banks of the Ganges I will give to the people the holy name of Lord Hari. I will deliver hundreds and thousands of calas, dras, brhmaas, katriyas, and vaiyas. My form splendid as molten gold, I will go to Kcana-grma (Katwa) and aceept the renounced order (sannysa).

11.1 Lord iva's glorification of Navadvipa to Prvat in the Urdhvmnya Tantra.


Text 1 rutv gaura-kath devi viu-my santan papraccha sakara deva bhakty paramay mud After hearing this description of Lord Gaura, Lord Viu's eternal illusory potency cheerfully and with great devotion asked Lord iva: Text 2 gaura-mantrdika ntha ruta tavordhva-vaktrata navadvpasya mhtmya idni vada tattvata O Lord, I have heard Lord Gaura's mantra from You. Now please truthfully tell me the glories of Navadvpa. Text 3 navadvpa-kath puya sarva-ppa-vinin na kadcit pur ntha kpay kathit tvay O Lord, never before have You told me the sacred description of Navadvpa, a description that destroys all sins. Text 4 r-mahdeva uvca r-hare param akti svarpkhy varnane

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Caitanya-candra yasy chy-svarp tva mah-my gutmik Lord iva said: O girl with the beautiful face, Lord Hari's transcendental potency is called Svarpa-akti. You, His Mah-my potency consisting of the modes of nature, are a shadow reflection of the Svarpa-akti. Text 5 tat-prabhvas tridh samvithldin-sandhin priye sandhin dhma-nmder hare skt-prakin The transcendental potency is of three kinds: samvit, hldin, and sandhin. The sandhin potency reveals Lord Hari's holy name and abode. Text 6 bhagavn sac-cid-nandas codaym sa sandhinm s sandhin navadvpa akarod aki-gocaram The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, sent the sandhin potency to this world. The sandhin potency made Navadvpa visible to the eyes of this world. Text 7 phala pupa yath devi akter dhma tath ubhe ato nitya navadvpa prakata hi vidur budh O goddess, O beautiful one, the wise know that Navadvpa-dhma is eternally manifest from the Lord's transcendental potency with many fruits and flowers. Texts 8 and 9 aprakta navadvpa cin-maya cid-vieaam jatta para dhma brahma-pura santanam vadanti rutaya skd dahara sarva-sundaram nava-sakhys tath dvp vartante padma-pupa-vat

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Caitanya-candra The Vedas say Navadvpa is not material, but spiritual and full of knowledge, beyond dull and inert matter, a transcendental abode, an eternal spiritual city, an all-beautiful lotus flower. The nine islands of Navadvpa are like a great lotus flower. Text 10 u devi pravakymi nava-khaa-svarpakam yatra vai rjate nitya r-gaurasundaro hari O goddess, please listen and I will tell you of these nine islands where Lord Gaura-Hari eternally shines with great splendor. Text 11 antardvpas tath devi simantadvpa-samjaka godrumadvpa-samjo 'nyo madhyadvpas tath para gag-prva-tate ramye devi dvpa-catutayam koladvpa-rtudvpo jahnudvpa surevari modadrumas tathrudra pacaite pcime tate O goddess, on the Ganges' beautiful eastern shore are the four islands Antardvpa, Smantadvpa, Godrumadvpa, and Madhyadvpa, and on the western shore are the five islands Koladvpa, Rtudvpa, Jahnudvpa, Modadrumadvpa, and Rudradvpa. Text 12 gag ca yamun caiva godvar sarasvat narmad sindhu kver tamrapar payasvin ktaml tath bhm gomat ca dadvat sarv puya-jal nadya vartante 'tra yath-yatham navadvpo mah-devi tbhi sarvai parivrita O goddess, Navadvpa is surrounded by the pure and sacred waters of the Ganges, Yamun, Godvar, Sarasvat, Narmad, Sindh, Kaver, Tamrapr, Payasvin, Ktaml, Bhm, Gomat, Dadvat, and all other sacred rivers.

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Caitanya-candra Text 13 ayodhy mathur my k kc hy avantik dvrvat kuruketra pukaro naimia vanam vartante 'tra navadvpe nitye dhmni mahevari O goddess, Ayodhy, Mathur, My, K, Kc, Avantik, Dvrak, Kuruketra, Pukara, and Naimiraya, are all present in the eternal transcendental abode of Navadvpa. Text 16 bhgirathy-alaknand mandkin tathpar bhogavatti gagy asti dhr-catutayam navadvpasya paridhi catvri yojanni ca Bhgrath, Alaknand, Mandkin, and Bhogavat are the four streams of the Ganges that surround Navadvpa for 32 miles. Text 17 pthivy yni trthni rasy divi v priye tni sarvni tithanti navadvpe surevari O goddess, O beloved, all the holy places of the upper and lower planets are present in Navadvpa. Text 18 nha vasmi kailse na tva vasasi mad-ghe na dev divi tithanti ayo na vane vane I do not reside in Kailsa. You do not reside in my home. The demigods do not stay in the upper planets. The sages do not stay in the forest. Text 19 sarve vaya navadvpe tithma prema-llas

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Caitanya-candra gaura gaureti gyanta sakrtana-par bhuvi We all stay in Navadvpa. Overwhelmed with love, we perform sakrtana, singing "Gaura! Gaura!" in the earthly sphere. Text 20 ye nar ktino devi navadvpe vasanti te jvena marae te patir eko mahprabhu O goddess, for the saintly devotees who live in Navadvpa Lord Caitanya Mahprabhu is their only Lord both in this life and also after death. Text 21 paca-tattvtmaka gaura ka-caitanya-samjakam ye bhajanti navadvpe te me priyatam kila They who in Navadvpa worship Pacatattvtmaka Gaura, who is known as r Ka Caitanya, are most dear to me. Text 22 padmkra navadvpam antardvpa ca karikam smantdi-sthalas tatra daln ata-svarpakn Navadvpa has the form of a great lotus. Antardvpa is the whorl of that lotus and Smantadvpa and the other islands are its eight petals. Text 23 karik-madhya-bhge tu ptha ratnamaya param paca-tattvnvita tatra gaura purata-sundaram ye dhyyanti jan vt te tu sarvottamottam In the middle of that whorl is a sacred place of jewels. They who always meditate on handsome golden Lord Gaura and the Panca-tattva there are the most exalted of all exalted souls.

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Caitanya-candra Text 24 yatra tatra navadvpe sa sannysy athav gh ha gaureti vadan nitya sarvnandn samanute Whether a sannys or a ghastha, a person who somewhere in Navadvpa calls out "Gaura!" always enjoys all trancendental bliss. Text 25 bhgrath-tate prve mypura tu gokulam tasys tate pcime hi vndvana vidur budh The wise know that on the eastern shore of the Ganges Mypura is Gokula, and on the western shore is Vndvana. Text 26 tatra rsa-sthal divy pulina balukamayam rsa-sthal pcime tu puya dhra-samrakam yad yad vndvane devi tat tat tatra na saaya In this place is the transcendental rsa dance arena. On the western shore is a rsa dance arena filled with bakula flowers and gentle breezes. O goddess, whatever is present in Vndvana is also here. Of this there is no doubt. Text 27 tva hi my hare aktir durghatana-patyas cin-mayam antardityam acchadayasi smpratam You are Lord Hari's insurmountable illusory potency. At the present time you cover the spiritual sun shining here. Text 28 tato mypura-khytir yoga-pthasya bh-tale prauh my tava khyti sarvatra vartate priye
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This sacred place is famous on the earth as Mypura. O beloved, you are famous everywhere as the great illusory potency of the Lord. Text 29 gate tu pulinbhysa kle r-gaura-vigrahe vavata samritya tva psi vaiavn jann When the form of Lord Gaura enjoys pastimes on the shore here, you stay nearby in Vaivata and protect the Vaiavas. Text 30 aha vddha-iva skt prabhor ajnusrata kalpitair agamais tais tair vacmi bahir-mukhn I am the great Lord iva. Following the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, I cheat the fallen souls with many newly-created pseudo-scriptures. Text 31 ll-puti bhagavata caitanyasya hare svayam karomi satata devi tava my-balena hi O goddess, using your illusory power I always increase the transcendental pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Caitanya-Hari. Text 32 antardvpe hari skd brahmn kpay svayam gaurvatra-ttparya kathaym sa tattvata In Antardvpa Lord Hari personally told the demigod Brahm the real meaning of Lord Gaura's incarnation. Text 33 smanta-dvpam sdya tva hi devi santan

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Caitanya-candra dadra sundara rpa gaurgasya mahtmana O eternal goddess, you went to Smantadvpa and there personally saw Lord Gaurga Mahprabhu's handsome form. Text 34 tat-sampe mah-devi mathur vidyate pur abhavat yatra vai kaso yavanasya ghe kalau O goddess, nearby is Mathur City where in Kali-yuga Kasa was born in a yavana's house. Text 35 odhitv ta krtandau r-gaurasundara prabhu trtha dvdaaka trtv rdharasya gha yayau After purifying it in His first public krtana, Lord Gaurasundara left Dvdaa-trtha and went to Kolaveca rdhara's house. Text 36 tad dhi navadvpe devi sudma-puram ryate tatraiva vartate gauri virma-kuam uttamam O goddess rdhara's house in Navadvpa is said to actually be the hosue of Sudm Vipra. O Gauri, in that place is transcendental Virma-kua. Text 37 mayamr tatottrya dtv rma-parkramam suvara-sena-durge sa nanarta krtane hari After crossing over the place named Mayamr, and after seeing Rma's prowess, Lord Hari danced in krtana in the home of Suvara Sena. Text 38

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Caitanya-candra deva-palli tato gatv devn srya-mukhn prabhu r-ka-krtannande plavaym sa bhamin O beautiful one, the Lord then went to Devapalli, where He plunged Srya and the demigods in the bliss of Ka-krtana. Text 39 ketra hari-hara trtv k ca moka-dayinm godruma-dvpam sdya surabhi-sevita hari nanarta paramvito mkaa-suta-sannidhau After going to Harihara-ketra and Ks, which gives liberation, Lord Hari went to Godrumadvpa, where there is a surabhi cow. There the Lord danced in ecstacy with Mrkaeya. Text 40 madhyadvpa tato gatv saptai-maape hari nanarta naimie trthe svadhta sa-prada Lord Hari then went to Madhyadv where, in Naimia-trtha, in Saptari-maapa, He danced with His associates and with Nitynanda Avadhta. Text 41 tato gatv pukarkhya trtha vipra-nievitam brahmvarta kuruketra plavaym sa krtanai The Lord then went to Pukara-trtha, where there are many brhmaas. He flooded Brahmvarta and Kuruketra with krtana. Text 42 tato mah-praygkhya paca-ve-samanvitam trtha r-jhnav trtv koladvpa jagma ha

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Caitanya-candra The Lord then went to Mahprayga-trtha, where five rivers meet. Then He crossed thw Ganges and went to Koladvpa. Text 43 samudrasena-rjye tu gag-sgara-sagame krtayitv hari devi campahatta jagma ha Performing hari-krtana in Mahrja Samudrasena's kingdom where the Ganges meets the ocean, the Lord then went to Campahatta. Text 44 tudvpa tato gatv dtv obh vanasya ca rdh-kudika smtv ruroda acnandana Then Lord acnandana went to Rtudvpa where, seeing the beauty of the forest, He was reminded of Rdh-kua, and He wept. Text 45 tata sakrtannande r-vidyngara hari dadara pradai srdha veda-sthnam anuttamam Then, absorbed in the bliss of sakrtana, Lord Hari and His associates saw Vidyngara, the home of the Vedas. Text 46 jahnudvpa samsdya dtv jahnu-tapovanam modadrume rma-ll smaran gauro mumoda ha Then the Lord went to Jahnudvpa where He saw the forest where Jahnu Muni performed austerities. In Modadrumadvpa was happy remembering Lord Rma's transcendental pastimes. Text 47 vaikutha-pura-madhye tu dtv nireyasa vanam

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Caitanya-candra brahm virajpre bhagavn r-mahat-puram In the midst of Vaikuthapura, the Lord saw Nireyasa-vana. Then, crossing to the other shore of the Viraj, He saw Brahmpura and r Mahatpura. Text 48 sthna ca pau-putraa kmya-nma vana ubham dtv paca-vat ctra r-sakara-pura yayau The Lord then went to the beautiful forest named Kmyavana, which had been the place of the Pavas. He saw five gardens there and then He went to r akarapura. Text 49 tata pulinam sdya ptha vndvantmakam dadara krtayan kam r-gaurga-mahprabhu He went to the riverbank there and saw the sacred place identical with Vndvana forest. There Lord Gaurga Mahprabhu performed Ka-krtana. Text 50 tatra rsa-sthali dtv sa-prada-ram-pati r-bhgavata-padyena rsa-gta cakra sa The Lord, who is the husband of the gosddess of fortune, in the company of His associates seeing the arena of the rsa dance there sang verses from rmad-Bhgavatam glorifying the rsa dance. Text 51 smtv rstmik ll mah-bhva-da prabhu lebhe tatra mah-devi puline rasa-maape O goddess, remembering the rsa-dance pastime in the rsa-maapa by the riverbank, the Lord became filled with ecstatic love. Text 52

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Caitanya-candra divi dundubhayo nedur babhvu pupa-vtaya jagadur munayo vedn chandogydi-svarpakn Dundubhi drums sounded in the celestial worlds. A shower of flowers fell. Beginning with the Chndogya Upaniad, the sages recited the Vedas. Text 53 ruti-mla-gate nmni drgha-bhur mahprabhu hare keti sakroya cacla jhnav-tate When the sound the holy name entered His ears, long-armed Lord Mahprabhu called out " Hare Ka!" and wandered on the Ganges' shore. Text 54 bhgrath samuttrya sa-prada ac-suta nma sakrtane reme rudradvpe samantata After crossing the Ganges with His associates, Lord Caitanya, the son of ac-dev, enjoyed nma-sakirtana everywhere in Rudradvpa. Text 55 bilva-pake tato gatv viprn ka-paryan prem samplavym sa kc-pura jagat-pati The Lord of the universes then went to Bilvapaka and Kncpura, where He plunged the devotee-brhmaas into a flood of ka-prema. Text 56 tato gatv bharadvjasthna sakrtayn harim tato mypurvsa pravivea svaya hari Lord Hari then went to Bharadvja-sthna and performed hari-sakrtana and then He personally entered the abode of Mypura.

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Caitanya-candra Text 57 vanti paray bhakty ye gaura-krtana-drumam na te punar vtti ive sasra-sgare O auspicious one, they with with great devotion hear about the tree of Lord Gaura's sakrtana pastimes never again return to the ocean of repeated birth and death. Text 58 navadvpa-sama sthna r-gaurga-sama prabhu ka-prema-sam prptir nsti durge kadcana O Durg, no place is equal to Navadvpa. No deity is equal to Lord Gaurga. No attainment is equal to pure love for Lord Ka. Text 59 etad dhi janma-sphalya vaiavn vieata bhajana r-navadvpe vraja-loknusrata The success of life, epecially for the Vaiavas, is to stay in Navadvpa and worship the Lord by following the path of the people of Vraja. Text 60 kauram upoana rddha snna-dndika hi yat anya-trtheu kartavya navadvpe na tad vidhi In other holy places shaving the head, fasting, offering rddha, performing ritual bathing, giving charity, and other duties are mandatory, but in Navadvpa there is no rule that they must be done. Text 61 tni tni hi karmni ktni yadi tatra vai nayanti sahas devi karma-granthi-nikntant

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Caitanya-candra O goddess, whatever past karma there may be at once perishes in Navadvpa, for the knot of karma is cut. Text 62 bhidyate hdaya-granthi chidyante sarva-saaya kiyante jada-karmi gaure dte part pare Thus the knot in the heart is pierced, and all misgivings are cut to pieces. The chain of fruitive actions is terminated when one sees Lord Gaura, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Text 63 ato vai munayo devi nava-khaa samarit kurvanty ahituk bhakti rdh-ka-padmbuje O goddess, the great sages take shelter of Navadvpa and serve r r Rdh-Ka's lotus feet with unmotivated devotion. Text 64 dvpe dvpe prapayanti vior avayava param gyanti hari-nmni majjanti jhnav-jale On island after island they see Lord Viu's transcendental Deity form. They sing Lord Hari's holy names. They bathe in the Ganges' waters. Text 65 nava-rtre navadvpa bhramanti bhakti-prvakam jvanti paramnande mah-prasda-sevay For nine nights they wander through Navadvpa with great devotion. They maintain their lives by blissfully honoring mah-prasdam. Text 66 prasda parameni gaurgasya mahprabho
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Caitanya-candra pvana sarva-jivn durlabha dukt kila O goddess, the prasdam of Lord Gaurga Mahprabhu, which purifies all living entities, cannot be attained by the sinful. Text 67 aha brahm tvam isni dev ca pitaras tath munayo aya sarve prasda-ycak dhruvam I, Brahm, you, O goddess, and the devas, pits, munis, and is, all pray to get that prasdam. Text 68 gaura-niveditnnena yatavy sarvad vayam pavitra gaura-nirmalya grahya deya janai sad We always worship the foodstuffs offered to Lord Gaura. The sacred prasdam offered to Lord Gaura should always given and accepted. Text 69 jty-abhimna-mohndhavidyhakra-pit dukti-dit sattv prasde rati-varjita They who are blinded by the illusion of noble birth, they who are tortured by pride of knowledge, and they who are dirty with many sins are not attracted to this prasdam. Text 70 aha tn raurave devi nikipya yatan-maye daa dadmi satya te vadmi ntra saaya O goddess, I cast them into a hell filled with tortures. I punish them. Itell you the truth. Of this there is no doubt. Text 71

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Caitanya-candra yatra tatra navadvpe yad anna tan-niveditam tad grahya brahma skc caald api caike O Ca, in Navadvpa a brhmaa should accept prasdam from even a cala. Text 72 uka paryuita vpi nita v bahu-drata prpti-mtrea bhoktavya ntra kla-vicra Whether stale, dried-up, or brought from very far away, prasdam should be eaten at once. There is no consideration of whether it is the proper time or not. Text 73 na dea-niyamas tatra na patra-niyamas tath na dt-niyamo devi gaura-bhakta-nievane O goddess, in honoring food enjoyed by Lord Gaura there are no restrictions of what is the proper time, who is the proper recipient, orwho is the proper giver. Text 74 -katha-bhojand devi gaure bhakti prajyate na cti-dharma-vdho 'sti gaura-bhukta-nievane O goddess, by eating prasdam until one is filled up to the neck devotion for Lord Gaura is born. There is no impiety in overeating what was enjoyed by Lord Gaura. Text 75 aho dvpasya mhtmya na ko 'pi varane kama anya-trtha-mti pus bhukti-mukti-pradyin navadvpa-mti skt keval bhakti-dayin No one has the power to properly describe Navadvpa. Death in any other holy place brings liberation or future sense-gratification, but death in Navadvpa brings pure devotional service.
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Text 76 akla-maraa vpi kata-mtyur ghe mti apamtyur na doya nava-khae varnane O girl with the beautiful face, in Navadvpa neither an untimely death, a painful death, a violent death, nor a peaceful death at home are at all inauspicious. Text 77 anyatra yoga-mtyur v ky jna-mtir bhavet tat sarva phala crv-agi navadvpe mtasya vai All the results of dying in yoga trance in any other holy place or dying absorbed in transcendental knowledge in K are at once attained by dying in Navadvpa. Text 78 vara dina navadvpe prayge kalpa-ypant vras-nivsd v sarva-trtha-nievant By staying for a single day in Navadvpa one attains the result of living for a kalpa at Prayga, staying for a very long time at Vras, or serving all other holy places. Text 79 yoge 'nyatra phala yat tad bhoge dvpe nave ubhe pda-kepe mah-yaja ayne daavat phalam By merely living in Navadvpa one attains the result of practicing yoga in any other holy place. In Navadvpa walking is like performing great yajas and lying down to sleep is like offering repeated daavats. Text 80 bhojane parameasya prasda-sevana bhavet ki puna raddadhnasya hari-nma-parasya ca

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Caitanya-candra gaura-prasda-bhaktasya bhgya tatra vadmy aham Even ordinary eating there becomes honor to prasdam. I tell you: what could be a greater good fortune for a faithful person devoted to the holy name of Lord Hari and devoted to honoring Lord Gaura's prasdam? Text 81 etat te kathita devi samsena tavgrata gopya hi bhavat sarva gaurga-prabhor icchay O goddess, this summary I have spoken to you should be kept secret, for this is Lord Gaurga's wish. Text 82 dhanye kalau sampravite gaura-ll manoram prakat bhavit hy etat vyakta tad bhaviyati In the auspicious age of Kali Lord Gaura's beautiful pastimes will be openly manifested. The present Navadvipa-dhama is but a part of the whole of Navadvipa. Navadvipa means nine islands. These nine islands, which occupy an area of land estimated at thirty-two square miles, are surrounded by different branches of the Ganges. In all nine of those islands of the Navadvipa area there are different places for cultivating devotional service. It is stated in the Srimad Bhagavatam that there are nava-vidha bhakti, nine different activites of devotional service: sravanam kirtanam visnoh smaranam pada-sevanam arcanam vandanam dasyam sakhyam atma-nivedanam. There are different islands in the Navadvipa area for the culivation of these nine varieties of devotional service. They are as follows: (1) Antardvipa, (2) Simantadvipa, (3) Godrumadvipa, (4) Madhyadvipa, (5) Koladvipa, (6) Rtudvipa, (7) Jahnudvipa, (8) Modadrumadvipa, (9) Rudradvipa. Actually Navadvipa is eight petalled with Simantadvipa, Godrumadvipa, Madhyadvipa, Koladvipa, Rtudvipa, Jahnudvipa, Modadrumadvipa and Rudradvipa forming the petals. The corolla of the lotus is called Antardvipa. Srila Vrindavan das Thakur has described the village of Navadvipa as bearing the name of Svetadvipa.

11.2 Antardvipa

It is ten miles in circumference and Sridhama Mayapura is situated within Antardvipa. The centre of Navadvipa is the yogapitha, the sacred birthplace of Lord Caitanya. One who walks

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Caitanya-candra throughout Mayapura is freed from the influence of maya and the repetition of birth and death in this material world.

11.3 Simantadvipa
Scriptural history relates the following information about Simantadvipa. Long ago during Satya-yuga Lord Siva began to dance madly while chanting the name of Sri Gauranga. Parvati inquired, Who is Gauranga? Lord Siva meditated on Lord Gauranga and replied, Immersed in the mood of Sri Radha, Krsna in a golden form will descent in Kali-yuga at Mayapura, in the womb of Srimati Sacidevi. Lord Gauranga, intoxicated in chanting Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare, will distribute the jewel of krsna-prema (transcendental love of Krsna) to everyone without discrimination. Whoever does not drown in that flood of prema is most unfortunate. Hearing her husbands sweet words, Parvati quickly went to Simantadvipa. She constantly meditated on the form of Sri Gauranga, and chanted His holy name. Very soon she became filled with the transcendental love for the Lord. Lord Gauranga appeared before her in a form like molten gold. He said , O Parvati, why have you come here. Parvati fell down at the lotus feet of Sri Gaurahari and said, You are very merciful to all, but You have cheated me. You have appointed me to bind all living entities in the material world who are averse to You and I have thus been cheated of Your love. Will I ever see Your pastimes. After saying this words, Parvati took the dust from the lotus feet of Lord Gauranga. Gauracandra was pleased and He spoke to Parvati as follows, O Durgadevi, you are My energy. My original spiritual energy is Radharani, but for carrying out the activities in the material world, Her material expansion is Durga or you. Without you My pastimes cannot be accomplished. Saying this Gauranga dissappeared. Chand Kazis village is also found here. Due to a complaint from some envious locals the Kazi, the local Muslim magistrate, had obstructed the sankirtana (congregational singing of the Lords holy names) movement of Lord Caitanya, but later became his ardent follower. Another place of interest is Narasimapalli. After killing Hiranyakasipu Lord Narasimhadeva came here to rest. In the village of Narasimhapalli there is a very old deity of Lord Narasimhadeva, the half-man half-lion incarnation of the Supreme Lord.

11.4 Godrumadvipa
Here Indradeva and Surabhi cow worshipped Lord Gauranga and obtained His audience. Indra was not fully satisfied with his worship of Lord Krsna in Govardhana-lila. To become free from the offence to the vraja-vasis (residence of Vrindavana), he performed further austerities here along with the Surabhi cow. Surabhi cow eternally resides here beside a banyana tree. Go means cow and druma means tree thus deriving the name of this island as Godrumadvipa where Surabhi cow is constantly serving Sri Gaurangas lotus feet. In the Skanda Pura, Godruma-mhtmya it is said: godrumkhye hare sthne vasanti ye narottam sarva-ppa-vinirmukts te ynti parama padam They who reside in Lord Hari's abode named Godruma become most exalted. Free from all sins, they attain the supreme abode.

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In Satya-yuga Lord Brahma instructed the seven sages-Vasistha, Visvamitra, Gautama, Atri, Kasyapa, Jamadagni and Bharadvaja to go to Navadvipa to attain prema. They came to this place and performed austerity. Lord Gauranga appeared before them around noon (madhyan) thus this petal is called Madyadvipa. In the Garga-sahit in the glorification of the Naimiraya situated in Madhyadvpa, it is said: gomat-traja puya rajo yo dhrayen nara ata-janma-ktt ppn mucyate ntra saaya He who takes the sacred dust on the shore of the Gomat becomes free from the sins of hundreds of births. Of this there is no doubt. makara-sthe harau mghe prayge snnam caret atvamedha-ja puya samprpnoti videha-r O king of Videha, a person who bathes at Prayga during Makara-sakrnti attains the pious result of performing a hundred avamedha-yajas. tat sahasra-gua puya gomaty makare ravau gomatya caiva mhtmya vaktu nla catur-mukha That pious result is multiplied a thousand times during Makara-sakrnti at the Gomat. Even Brahma with his four mouths cannot properly describe the Gomat's glories.

11.5 Madhyadvipa

11.6 Koladvipa
The present town of Navadvipa is located on this Koladvipa on the western bank of Ganges. Brahma performed sacrifice here and the Lord appeared as Varaha to kill Hiranyaksa. Kola means boar. This place is greatly reputed for freeing one from the greatest danger to spiritual advancement vaisnava aparadha (offence to devotees of the Supr me Lord Hari). If an offender sincerely chants the holy names of Krsna Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare\ Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare,on this island then they become freed from the worst of sins, offence to vaisnavas or devotees of Visnu or Krsna. Offence to vaisnavas completely checks spiritual growth i.e. mercy of the Lord is lost and the offender comes under his anger.

11.7 Rtudvipa
Valmiki Muni came here and received the Ramayana from Narada Muni.

11.8 Jahnudvipa
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Caitanya-candra Puranic history relates that once long ago Jahnu Muni was sitting on this island chanting gayatri mantra (sacred mantra chanted by duly qualified brahmanas) when his purification cup fell into Ganga and was being swept away. Ganga was swiftly following Bhagirath to deliver his forefathers. Powerful Jahnu Muni suddenly opened his mouth and with his awesome yogic power drank the entire Ganges. Bhagirath worshipped the sage, who then released the Ganges from his body, thus another name of Ganges is Jahnavi, daughter of Jahnu Muni.

11.9 Modadrumadvipa
In Treta-yuga when Sri Hari in his form as Lord Ramacandra was banished to the forest, he once came to Modadrumadvipa with Sri Lakshmana and Srimati Sitadevi and lived in hut under a huge banyan tree. Here He disclosed to Srimati Sitadevi in confidence that in future He will appear as Gauranga Mahaprabhu. Gauranga is another name of Lord Caitanya. The Lord had revealed to Janaki of His appearance in Kali-yuga in the home of Jagannatha Misra and Sacidevi. He had also told Her of His mission to spread the Hare Krsna maha-mantra and His acceptance of sannyasa, life of a medicant for the welfare of all beings. Also, once as Srila Madhvacarya, the great acarya of Brahma sampradaya was travelling in the association of his disciples he arrived in Sri Navadvipa and decided to spend some days within the forests of Modadrumadvipa. One night, as Madhvacarya lay sleeping, Lord Gauranga appeared to him in a dream. The Lord told Madhva, "It is well known to everyone that you are My eternal servitor. When I will 3 appear here in Navadvipa, I will accept your sampradaya . Travel everywhere and carefully uproot all the false scriptures of the Mayavadis and reveal the glories of worshipping the personal form of mine (the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Krsnas). Later, when I appear, I will personally broadcast your pure teachings." Saying this the Lord then disappeared. When Madhva awoke, he was astonished and as he remembered the Lord, he began to cry in separation, saying, "Will I ever see that beautiful golden form again?" A celestial voice from the sky replied, "Worship Me secretly and you will come to Me." Carrying these instructions within his heart, Madhva continued his travels more determined than ever to defeat the mayavadi philosophers (followers of Sankaracarya)." Cited from Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakuras Sri Navadvipa-DhamaMahatmya. Note:Later on when the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Caitanya appeared, He took diksa, spiritual initiation from Srila Isvara Puri Goswami who was an acarya of BrahmaMadhva-Gaudiya Sampradaya.

The eleven Rudras reside here constantly chanting the name of Sri Gauranga and dancing in bliss. Once in a village near the forest of Bilva Paksha, a group of brahmanas came to engage in the worship of Lord Siva. Just as Lord Visnu is very much pleased when He is offered the leaves of His most beloved Tulasi, so Lord Siva is pleased by offerings of leaves from the bilva or bael tree. Thus the brahmanas worshipped Lord Siva by offering bilva leaves, for a period of one fortnight and satisfied Lord Siva greatly.

11.10 Rudradvipa

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Caitanya-candra Amongst those brahmanas was one whose name was Nimbarka. He had been particularly attentive in his worship of Lord Siva. Being especially pleased with Nimbarka's devotion, Lord Siva personally appeared to him. "Nimbarka," said Lord Siva, "at the edge of this village is a sacred bael forest. There, in that forest, the four Kumaras are absorbed in meditation. By their mercy you will receive transcendental knowledge, for they are your spiritual masters, and by rendering service unto them you will receive all that is of value." After saying this Lord Siva disappeared. Nimbarka immediately went to that place and with great determination he searched for the four Kumaras in every direction, until he finally found them, shining as brilliantly as the sun. They were seated on a very beautiful natural platform beneath a tree and they appeared like fire blazing on an altar. They were all very young, seeming to be no more than five years in age, but they appeared most noble in character as they sat there naked, rapt in meditation. Nimbarka was so excited that he cried out, "Hare Krsna!" This sudden sound startled the four brothers, breaking their meditation. Opening their eyes, they saw before them the blissful form of an ideal devotee, and with great pleasure they embraced Nimbarka, one after another. "Who are you," they asked, "and why have you come here? We are certainly ready to answer all your prayers." Nimbarka fell at the feet of the four brothers like a rod, and with great humility he introduced himself. With a sweet smile on his face Sanat Kumara then said, "The all-merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead, knowing that Kali-yuga will be extremely troublesome for the living entities, resolved to propagate devotional service to Himself. With this goal in mind, He has empowered four personalities with devotion and sent them into this world to preach. Ramanuja, Madhva, and Visnuswami are three and you are the fourth of these great souls. Laksmi accepted Ramanuja as a disciple, Brahma accepted Madhva, Rudra accepted Visnuswami and meeting you today we have the good fortune of being able to instruct you. This is our intention. Previously we were engaged in meditating on the impersonal Brahman, but by the causeless mercy of Lord Visnu, we have been relieved of this sinful activity. Since I have realised that it is essential to preach pure devotional service, I have composed a literary work entitled Sanat Kumara Samhita. After taking initiation from me, you should follow the instructions I have set forth therein." Nimbarka was greatly enlivened at the prospect of taking initiation and he immediately ran to take bath in the Ganges. After this he quickly returned and prostrated himself once more before the effulgent brothers. "O deliverers of the fallen," said Nimbarka, in all humility, "please deliver this low-born rascal." The four Kumaras gave him the Radha Krsna mantra (Radhe Krsna Radhe Krsna Krsna Krsna Radhe Radhe Radhe Syama Radhe Syama Syama Syama Radhe Radhe) and instructed him in the method of worshipping Radha and Krsna with the sentiments of great love called bhava marga. In that sacred bael forest Nimbarka began to worship Sri Sri Radha Krsna according to the Sanat Kumara Samhita and he chanted the mantra they had given him. Very soon Radha and Krsna revealed Themselves to Nimbarka. They stood before him, spreading an effulgence which illuminated all directions. In sweet voices They addressed him thus: "Nimbarka, you are very fortunate, for you have performed sadhana in Sri Navadvipa. We both combine, and assume one form, as the son of Sacidevi." At that moment Radha and Krsna combined and displayed Their form of Gauranga.

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Caitanya-candra Beholding this splendid vision, Nimbarka began to tremble. "Never," he said, "Never have I ever seen such a form at any time." Lord Gauranga then said, "Keep this form, which I now show you, a secret for the time being. Just preach about devotional service and the pastimes of Radha and Krsna, for I gain great satisfaction from this. When I make My appearance and perform My education pastimes, you will also appear. Taking birth in Kasmir as a great pandit, you will tour all over India defeating all opposition. Your reputation and learning will be celebrated everywhere and you will be known as Kesava Kasmiri. Whilst wandering in Sri Navadvipa you will come to Sri Mayapur. Simply by hearing your name all the great pandits of Navadvipa will flee. Intoxicated with scholastic pride, I will take great pleasure in defeating you. However, by the mercy of Saraswati devi, the goddess of learning, you will realize My true identity. Giving up your false pride, you will take shelter of Me and I will reward you with the supreme gift of loving devotional service and will again despatch you to preach. Thus you can satisfy Me by preaching the philosophy of dvaita-advaita. Keep My identity a secret. In the future when I begin My sankirtana movement, I will personally preach, taking the essence of your philosophy and the philosophies of Madhva, Ramanuja and Visnuswami.From Madhva, I will receive two essential items: his complete defeat of Mayavada philosophy, and his service to the deity of Krsna, accepting the deity as an eternal spiritual being. From Ramanuja, I will accept two great teachings: the concept of bhakti unpolluted by karma and jnana, and service to the devotees. From Visnuswamis teachings I will accept two main elements: the sentiment of exclusive dependence on Krsna, and the path of raga-bhakti. And from you I will receive two excellent principles: the necessity of taking shelter of Radha, and the high esteem for the gopis love for Krsna." After instructing Nimbarka in this way, Lord Gauranga disappeared, and filled with intense ecstacy, Nimbarka began to shed tears of love. After worshipping the lotus feet of his gurus and taking their permission, he left Sri Navadvipa to begin preach ing krsna-bhakti. (cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakur in his Sri Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya. ) One time, Visnuswami came here during the course of his tour to defeat opposing philosophies. He stayed the night with his followers here in Rudradvipa. The disciples began dancing and singing, Haribol! while Visnuswami recited prayers from the sruti. Pleased by the discussion of bhakti, Nila-lohita mercifully appeared there. Upon Sivas arrival in the assembly, Visnuswami became startled. He folded his hands in prayers and recited appropriate praises. Siva spoke to him, All of you Vaisnavas are dear to me. Your discussion on devetional service has pleased me. Ask a boon, and I will rant it. There is nothing I will not give to the Vaisnavas. Visnuswami offered his dandavats and, filled with acstatic love, he said, Give us this one gift; that henceforth we will perfect a sampradaya teaching devotional service. In great bliss, Rudra consented and named the sampradaya after himself. Thus Visnuswamis sampradaya is called the Rudra-sampradaya. With the mercy of Rudra, Visnuswami stayed here and worshiped Lord Gauracandra with a desire to attain love of God. Gauracandra appeared to him in a dream and said, By Rudras mercy you have become My devotee. You are fortunate to attain the treasure of bhakti in Navadvipa. Now go out and preach the philosophy of suddhadvaita

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Caitanya-candra (purified monism). The time of My appearance on earth will soon come. At that time you will appear in the form of Sri Vallabha Bhatta. You will meet Me at Puri, and you will perfect your sampradaya when you go to Mahavana. (cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakur in his Sri Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya. ) In the Garga-sahit, Rudradvpa-mhtmya it is said: tath v uttare dvare ketra syn naila-lohitam yatra skn mah-devo rjate nila-lohita In the north is a holy place named Nailalohita-ketra, where Lord iva is splendidly manifest as the deity Nlalohita. devat munaya sarve tath saptaraya pare vasanti yatra vaideha tath sarve marud-ga O king of Videha, all the demigods, sages, saptaris, and Maruts live there. nla-lohita-liga tu yatra sampjya yatnata aivaryam atula lebhe rvao loka-rvaa In this place Rvaa, who made the world cry, earnestly worshiped the liga of Lord Nlalohita and thus attained peerless opulence. kailsasypi yatry yat phala labhate npa tasmc chata-gua puya nila-lohita-darant By seeing the deity of Lord Nlalohita one attains piety a hundred times greater than what one atains by going on pilgrimage to Mount Kailsa. There is one more confidendial story. Ramanujacarya once came to Jagannatha Puri and pleased the Lord with many prayers. Lord Jagannatha appeared before him and said, Go and see Navadvipa-dhama, for I will soon appear there in the house of Jagannatha Misra. The entire spiritual city is situated within one corner of Navadvipa, My very dear abode. As My eternal servant and dear devotee, you should see Navadvipa. Let your students, who are absorbed in dasya-rasa, stay here while you go. Any living being who does not see Navadipa has been born uselessly. Just one portion of Navadvipa contains Ranga-ksetra, Sri Venkata (Tirupati), and Yadava Acala. O son of Kesava, go to Navadipa and see the form of Gauranga. You have come to the earth to preach bhakti, so let your birth be successful with the mercy of Gaura. From Navadvipa, go to Kurma-sthana and join again with your disciples.

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Caitanya-candra With folded hands, Ramanuja submitted to Lord Jagannatha, In Your narration You have mentioned Gauracandra, but exactly who He is, I do not know. The Lord mercifully replied to Ramanuja, Everyone knows Krsna, the Lord of Goloka. That Krsna, whole vilasa-murti is Narayana, is the Supreme Truth, and He resides in Vrndavana,. That Krsna is fully manifest in the form of Gaurahari, and that Vrndavana is fully manifest in the form of Navadvipa-dhama. I eternally reside as Lord Gauranga in Navadvipa, the topmost abode in the universe. By my mercy that dhama has come within Bhu-mandala, yet it remains without a scent of maya. This is the verdict of scripture. If you say that Navadvipa is part of the material world, then your devotion will dwindle day by day. I have placed this spiritual abode within the material world by My desire and inconceivable energy. Simply by reading scriptures one will not get the highest truth, for the highest truth surpasses all reasoning power. Only the devotes can understand by My mercy. Hearing this, the sober-minded Ramanuja was agitated with love for Gauranga. He said, Lord, Your pastimes are truly astounding. The scriptures cannot know your opulences. Why isnt gauranga-lila clearly stated in the scriptures? When I closely examine the sruti and Puranas, I find only some hint of the Gaura-tattva. After hearings Your instructions, my doubts are gone and the sweet mellows of Gaurangas pastimes have arisen in my heart. If You order me, after going to Navadvipa, I will preach gaura-lila throughout the three worlds. I will give people evidence from the hidden scriptures and establish devotional service to Gauranga throughout the universe. Please instruct me. Seeing Ramanujas eagerness, Jagannatha said, Ramanuja, do not broadcast like this. Keep the confidential pastimes of Gauranga secret. Only after Gauranga has finished His pastimes with the general public receive them. For now, preach dasya-rasa, while in your heart worship Gauranga constantly. Taking the Lords advice, Ramanuja secretly cultured his attraction for Navadvipa. So that Gaurangas pastimeswere not revealed prematurely, Lord Narayana then led Ramanuja to Vaikunthapura and mercifully showed Ramanuja His transcendental form of Sri, Bhu, and Nila. Ramanuja considered himself fortunate to obtain darsana of his worshipable Lord, when suddenly he saw the Lord assume the enchanting form of Gaurasundara, the son of Jagannatha Misra. Ramanuja swooned at the brilliance of the form. Then Gauranga put His lotus feet on the head of Ramanuja, who was thus divinely inspired and recited prayers of praise. I must see Gauras actual lila on earth. I can never leave Navadvipa! Gauranga said, O son of Kesava, your desire will be fulfilled. When the Nadia pastimes will be revealed in the future, you will take birth here again. Gauranga disappeared and Ramanuja, contented, resumed his journey. After some days he arrived at Kurma-sthana and saw the place with his disciples. During his life he preached dasya-rasa throughout South India, while internally he was absorbed in gaura-lila. By Gaurangas mercy, he took birth in Navadvipa as the devotee Sri Ananta. He went to Vallabhacaryas5 house and saw the marriage of Laksmipriya and Gauranga. (cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Sri Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya. )

Vallabhacarya, or Vallabha Misra, is the father of Laksmipriya

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Caitanya-candra Kavi-karapra has also described (Navadvpa) in the following verse of r Caitanyacandrodaya Naka: tenaiva varita candrodaykhye nake puna gaua-kaun jayati katam puya-trthvatasapry ysau vahati nagar r-navadvpa-nmnm yasy cmkara-vara-rucer varasyvatro yasmin mrt puri puri parispandate bhakti-dev All glories to the crest-jewel of sacred places in Bengal that bears the name Navadvpa! There the Supreme Personality of Godhead descended in a form splendid as gold. There Goddess Bhakti is splendidly manifest in every home. In r Gaura-gaoddea-dpik, also, he said: r-gaura-gaoddea-dpiky ca rasaj r-vndvanam iti yam hur bahu-vido yam eta goloka katipaya-jan prhur apare sita-dvpa prhu param api para-vyoma jagadur navadvpa so 'ya jayati paramcarya-mahim Some learned devotees say that Navadvpa is identical with the land of Vndvana. Others say that Navadvpa is actually the spiritual planet Goloka. Some say that Navadvpa is the planet Svetadvpa, and others say that Navadvpa is actually the spiritual sky of Vaikuha. All glories to the wonderfully glorious land of Navadvpa! rla Rpa Gosvm has said in his prayers to Lord Caitanya: gatir ya paur prakaita-navadvpa-mahim bhavenlakurvan bhuvana-mahita rotriya-kulam punty ag-krd bhuvi paramahasrama-pada sa devacaitanyktir atitar na kpayatu He is the shelter of the people of Bengal. His glory is manifested in Navadvpa. By birth He ornaments the brhmaa community, which is worshiped in all the worlds. By accepting it, He purifies the paramahasa-rama in this world. May that Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Caitanya, show us His great causeless mercy. Now please hear the statement of rla Prabodhnanda Sarasvat: stumas ta caitanyktim ati-vimaryda-pramaddbhutaudarya varya vraja-pati-kumra rasayitum viuddha-sva-premonmada-madhura-pya-lahar pradtu cnyebhya para-pada-navadvpa-prakaam Let us glorify the boundlessly merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead, the prince of Vraja. To taste the intoxicating sweet waves of the nectar of transcendental love for Ka,

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Caitanya-candra as well as to give that nectar to others, He has now appeared in the transcendental abode of Navadvpa as Lord Caitanya Mahprabhu. r Vndvana dsa Thkura has said: r-vndvana-dsa-hkurasya nitynanddvaita-caitanyam eka tattva nitylakta brahma-stram nityair bhaktair nityay bhakti-devy tta nitye dhmni nitya bhajma We eternally worship Lord Nitynanda, Lord Advaita, and Lord Caitanya, who are the single Supreme Personality of Godhead, who are eternally decorated with spiritual glory, and who eternally stay in Their eternal transcendental abode with Thier eternal devotees and with the eternal goddess of devotion. The following meditation on Navadvpa (is found in the r Caitanyacandrrcana-candrik): phullat-rmad-druma-valli-talla-jala-sat-tr taragval ramy manda-marun-marla-jalaja-reu bhgspadam sad-ratna-khacita-trtha-divya-nivah r-gaura-pdmbujadhli-dhsaritga-bhva-nicat gagsti y pvan tasys tra-su-ramya-hema-surasa-madhye lasac-chr-navadvpo bhti su-magalo madhuripor nanda-vnyo mahn nn-pupa-phaldya-vka-latik-ramyo mahat-sevito nn-vara-vihaga-mlini-nadair ht-kara-hr hi ya In the beautiful, purifying Ganges, where the shores are filled with beautiful blossoming trees and vines, where the waters are filled with waves, where there are gentle breezes, swans, lotus flowers, and bumblebees, where there are splendid holy places studded with jewels, where the dust bears the impression of Lord Gaura's lotus feet, by the charming, golden, nectar shore, r Navadvpa, very auspicious, a great flood of bliss, charming with many kinds of flowers, fruits, trees, and vines, served by the great souls, and filled with the sounds of many kinds of colorful birds, sounds that charm the ear and heart, shines with great splendor. tan-madhye dvija-bhavya-loka-nikargri ramyganam rmopavanli-madhya-vilasad-vedi-vihrspadam sad-bhakti-prabhay virjita-mahad-bhaktli-nityotsava praty-gram aghri-mrti su-mahat bhtha yat paanam In the city of Navadvpa many brhmaas and pious people have their homes, and there are many beautiful courtyards, gardens, groves and splendid pastime places. The devotees celebrate eternal festivals glorious with the splendor of transcendental devotional service. In every home the Deity of Lord Ka shines with great splendor. tan-madhye ravi-knti-nindi-kanaka-prkra-sat-toraa r-nryaa-geham agra-vilasat-sakrtana-prganam

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Caitanya-candra lakmy-anta pura-pka-bhoga-ayana-r-candrala pura yad gaurga-harer vibhti sukhada svnanda-sambhitam In Navadvpa Lord Gaurga-Hari's delightful palace, enclosed by a golden wall eclipsing the sun's splendor, glorious with a grand entrance-gate, splendid sakrtana-courtyard, temple of r Lakm-Nryaa, kitchen, dining-room, bedroom, and rooftop balcony, shines with great splendor. tan-madhye nava-ca-ratna-kalasa vajrendru-ratnntaramukt-dma-vicitra-hema-paala sad-bhakti-ratncitam veda-dvr-sad-aa-ma-mai-rut-obh-kapnvita sac-candrtapa-padmarga-vidhu-ratnlambi yan-mandiram The palace has a dome of jewels, a roof of diamonds, candramais, other jewels, pearls, wonderful gold, and transcendental bhaktimais, four doors with eight panels splendid with mamai jewels, and awnings of rubies. tan-madhye mai-citra-hema-racite mantrra-yantrnvite a-kontara-karikra-ikhara-r-keara-sannibhe krmkra-mahiha-yoga-mahasi r-yoga-phe 'mbuje ktapa-candra-ptra-vimale yad bhti sihsanam In the midst of that place is a wonderful golden six-petal lotus decorated with mantraletters and mystic patterns (yantras). In the middle is the lotus whorl and filaments. There, splendid as sunshine and cooling as camphor, is a sacred place in the shape of a tortoise. There a lion-throne shines with great splendor. prvdha-padma-pa-ghaita-harimai-stambha-vaidrya-pha citra-cchdvalambi-pravara-mai-vara-mauktikya-knty-ujjvalam tulnta cna-celsanam uupa-mdu-prnta-phopadhna svarnta citra-mantra vasu-hari-caraa-dhyna-gamyaa-koam The base and sides of the throne are fashioned from rubies, the legs from sapphires, and the back from lapis lazuli. It is splendid with wonderful pearls and the best jewels. There are soft moon-cushions covered with silken cloth. The throne rests on an octagonal golden base where an eight-letter mantra of meditation on LordHari's feet is inscribed. Navadvipa Stotra, Prayers glorifying Navadvpa by rla Rpa Gosvm: Text 1 r-gaua-dee sura-drghikys tre 'ti-ramye iha puyamyy lasantam nanda-bharea nitya ta r-navadvpam aha smarmi I meditate on r Navadvpa, which eternally shines with great spiritual bliss on the very charming shore of the purifying Ganges in Gauda-desa (Bengal).

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Caitanya-candra Text 2 yasmai paravyoma vadanti kecit kecic ca goloka itrayanti vadanti vndvanam eva taj-js ta r-navadvpam aha smarmi I meditate on r Navadvpa, which some say is the spiritual sky of Vaikuha, some say is the realm of Goloka, and they who know the truth say is r Vndvana. Text 3 ya sarva-diku sphuritai su-tair nn-drumai spavanai parta r-gaura-madhyhna-vihra-ptrais ta r-navadvpam aha smarmi I meditate on r Navadvpa, where in every direction are cooling breezes and many trees where Lord Gaura enjoyed His noon pastimes. Text 4 r-svara-dh yatra vihrit ca suvara-sopna-nibaddha-tr vyptormibhir gaurava-gha-myyes ta r-navadvpam aha smarmi I meditate on r Navadvpa, where the waves of the great Ganges playfully splash against the golden shores decorated with golden stairs. Text 5 mahanty anantni ghni yatra sphuranti haimni manohari praty-laya ya rayate sad rs ta r-navadvpam aha smarmi I meditate on r Navadvpa, where there numberless beautiful golden palaces, all the eternal homes of the goddess of fortune. Text 6 vidy-day-kanti-makhai samastai abhir guair yatra jana prapanna sastyamn i-deva-siddhais ta r-navadvpam aha smarmi

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Caitanya-candra I meditate on r Navadvpa, where the people are glorified by the great sages, demigods, and Siddhas, and are filled with knowledge, mercy, tolerance, the results of all Vedic yajas, and the six great opulences. Text 7 yasyntare mira-purandarasya svnanda-gamyaika-pada nivsa r-gaura-janmdika-llayhyas ta r-navadvpam aha smarmi I meditate on r Navadvpa, within which is the blissful home of Purandara Mira, opulent with Lord Gaura's pastimes from His birth. Text 8 gauro yatra bhraman hari sva-bhaktai sakrtana-prema-bharea sarvam nimajjayaty ujjvala-bhva-sindhau ta r-navadvpam aha smarmi I meditate on r Navadvpa, where golden Lord Hari, by wandering everywhere and chanting the Holy Name with great love in the company of His devotees, plunged everyone into the brilliant ocean of ecstatic love of God. Text 9 etan navadvpa-vicintanhya padyaka prta-man pahed ya rmac-chacnandana-pda-padme su-durlabha premam avpnuyt sa May he who with a joyful heart reads these eight verses opulent with meditation on r Navadvpa attain rare love for rmn acnandana's lotus feet.

12 SRI PANCA TATTVA: THE LORD IN FIVE FEATURES


panca-tattvatmakam krsnam bhakta-rupa-svarupakam bhaktavataram bhaktakhyam namami bhakta-saktikam I offer my obeisances unto the Supreme Lord Krsna who is nondifferent from His five features. Bhakta-rupa (in the form of a devotee) indicates Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; svarupakam (an expansion of a devotee) indicates Sri Nityananda Prabhu, the incarnation of Krsnas immediate expansion Sri Balarama; bhakta-avataram (an incarnation of a devotee) is Sri Advaita Acarya, the combined incarnation of Maha-Visnu and Siva; bhaktakhyam (known as a pure devotee) refers to Sri Srivasa Thakura, the incarnation of

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Caitanya-candra Narada Muni; and bhakta-saktikam (the energy of the Supreme Lord, who supplies energy to the devotee) is Sri Gadadhara Prabhu, the incarnation of Lord Krsnas pleasure potency, Sri Radha. In the first chapter of Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-Lila, the author, Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Goswami, has described the initiator spiritual master and the instructor spiritual master in the verse beginning with the words vande gurun isa-bhaktan isam isavatarakan. In that verse there are six transcendental subject matters, of which the truth regarding the spiritual master has already been described. Now the author describes the other five tattvas (truths), namely, isa-tattva (the Supreme Lord), His expansion tattva, His incarnation tattva, His energy tattva and His devotee tattva. These five tattvas incarnate with Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and thus the Lord executes His sankirtana movement with great pleasure. The Supremely Powerful Lord Krsna is manifest in five different potencies. Although he is one without a second, in order to serve five specific spiritual purposes, He is manifest in five ways. Such diversity is eternal and blissful, in contrast to the conception of monotonous oneness. From vedic literatures we undestand that the absolute truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, eternally exists with His diverse energies. Lord Caitanya appered with full diverse energies, and they are five in number; therefore Lord Caitanya is said to be Krsna with diverse energies. There is no difference between the energy and the enrgetic in regard to the Lords appearance as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and his four associates-Nityananda Prabhu, Advaita Acarya, Gadadhara, and Srivasa. Amongst these five diverse manifestations of the Supreme Lord (as the Lord Himself and His incarnation, expansion and energies) there is no spiritual difference. They are five in one absolute truth. For the sake of relishing transcendental flavours in the absolute truth, there are five diverse manifestations. These are called the form of a devotee, the identity of a devotee, the incarnation of a devotee, the pure devotee and devotional energy. Out of the five diversities in the absolute truth, the form of Lord Caitanya is that of the original Personality of Godhead, Lord Krsna . Lord Nityananda is the manifetation of the first expansion of the Supreme Lord. Similarly , Advaita Prabhu is an incarnation of the Supreme Lord. These three-Caitanya, Nityananda and Advaita-belong to thecategory of Visnu-tattva, or the Supreme Absolute Truth. Srivasa represents the pure devotee, and Gadadhara represents the internal energy of the Lord for the advancement of pure devotion. Therefore Gadadhara and Srivasa, although included in the Visnu-tattva, are dependent, diverse energies of the Supreme Lord . In other words, they are not different from the energetic, but they are manifest diversely for the sake of relishing transcendental relationships. The whole process of devotional service involves a transcendental reciprocation in the relationship between the worshipper and the worshiped. Without such a diverse exchange of transcendental flavors, devotional service has no meaning. In the Srimad-Bhagavatam there is the following statement regarding Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu: krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam sangopangastraparsadam yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah "In the age of Kali, people who are endowed with sufficient intelligence will worship the Lord, who is accompanied by His associates, by performance of sankirtana yajna." (Srimad Bhagvatam. 11.5.32) Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is always accompanied by His plenary expansion Sri Nityananda Prabhu, His incarnation Sri Advaita Prabhu, His internal potency Sri Gadadhara Prabhu and

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Caitanya-candra His marginal potency Srivasa Prabhu. He is in the midst of them as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One should know that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is always accompanied by these other tattvas. Therefore our obeisances to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu are complete when we say, sri krsna- caitanya prabhu nityananda sri- advaita gadadhara srivasadi gaura-bhakta-vrnda. As preachers of the Krsna consciousness movement, we first offer our obeisances to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu by chanting this Panca-tattva mantra; then we say, Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. There are ten offenses in the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, but these are not considered in the chanting of the Panca-tattva mantra, namely, sri- krsna-caitanya prabhu nityananda sriadvaita gadadhara srivasadi-gaura-bhakta-vrnda. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is known as mahavadanyavatara, the most magnanimous incarnation, for He does not consider the offenses of the fallen souls. Thus to derive the full benefit of the chanting of the maha-mantra (Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare), we must first take shelter of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, learn the Panca-tattva maha-mantra, and then chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. That will be very effective. Taking advantage of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, there are many unscrupulous devotees who manufacture a mahamantra of their own. Actually one should chant the names of the full Panca-tattva (sri-krsnacaitanya prabhu nityananda sri-advaita gadadhara srivasadi-gaura-bhakta- vrnda) and then the sixteen words Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare 70 Caitanya-candra Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare, but these unscrupulous, less intelligent men confuse the entire process. Of course, since they are also devotees they can express their feelings in that way, but the method prescribed by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's pure devotees is to chant first the full Panca-tattva mantra and then chant the maha-mantra-Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare.

12.1 Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu


Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Sri Krishna Himself, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He appeared in the Kali yuga (the present age), 513 years ago in 1486 AD, in the mood of His own greatest devotee, Srimati Radharani. The fact that Caitanya Mahaprabhu is non different from Krishna is substantiated by the scriptures such as the Srimad Bhagvatam (11.5.32), by the sadhus (saintly persons) such as Srila Advaita acarya, Nityananda prabhu and the six Goswamis of Vrindavan. Finally it is substantiated by all the gurus in bona fide disciplic successions. Since it is independently verified by the scriptures, sadhus and guru, we should also accept that Caitanya Mahaprabhu is an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared in this yuga to demonstrate the means for the people to return to Godhead. In the present age of Kali, that began about 5000 years ago, people have short life spans, weak intellect and a propensity to quarrel and cheat. Out of compassion for the fallen souls in this age, Sri Krishna incarnated, as Caitanya Mahaprabhu, to establish the process of Sankirtan Yajna to help people return back, back to Godhead. To enact His mission, He appeared with His associates. Thus Sri Krishna Caitanya is often worshipped in His form as pancha-tattva, accompanied by His immediate expansions, Nityananda prabhu, Advaita acarya, Gadadhar pandit and Srivasa Thakur. Sankirtan is chanting the holy name of the Lord. It could be done congregationally, as kirtans, or it could be done softly in solace, as japa. Japa is the process of chanting the maha-mantra: Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna Hare Hare Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama Hare Hare

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Caitanya-candra on the 108 tulasi beads of the japa-mala. Caitanya Mahaprabhu established that the name of Krishna is non different from Krishna Himself. He established this on the basis of authorized scriptures and explained to the mass of people the philosophy of 'acintya-bhedabheda-tattva', which maintains that the Supreme Lord is simultaneously one with and different from His creation. He demonstrated it by practicing the chanting of the holy name Himself, and explained that the holy name is the sound incarnation of the Lord Himself, and since the Lord is absolute, there is no difference between His holy name and His transcendental body. Krishna Caitanya, as He is often also called was born in a brahman family in Navadvipa, West Bengal as Vishvambhara, His birth was accompanied by an almost universal chanting of Haribol, since it coincided with a total lunar eclipse. As a child, the only way His parents, Sacidevi and Jagannatha Misra, could get Him to stop crying was by chanting the holy name. Therefore, from the beginning, He was inducing the people to chant to names of God. He was also called 'Gauranga' on account of His golden body complexion and 'Nimai' partly because He was born under a neem tree. Though He had no need for it, He followed the established practice of studying scriptures under the guidance of a guru in a tol (school). As a young boy, He acquired a formidable reputation as a logician and vedantist. At a very young age, he defeated Kesava Kashmiri, a digvijaya (unconquerable) brahman from Kashmir. But Caitanya Mahaprabhu then moved on to immerse Himself completely in the devotional worship of Krishna. He then conclusively established over and over again to prominent Vedic scholars of His time, that Krishna can never be approached by the dint of mental speculation, specially in the present age where people have limited intellect, but can be only approached in the mood of love and surrender - the mood of a devotee. Caitanya Mahaprabhu also demonstrated that any one can become a devotee. He glorified Haridas Thakur, a Moslem by birth, who daily chanted 300,000 names of the Lord. In fact He showed that any living creature, may it be a learned brahman, a fallen shudra, a criminal or even animals can become spiritually elevated by chanting or hearing the names of Lord. He thus showed that love of Godhead is an intrinsic quality of the spirit soul, and can be awakened from its dormant stage by the process of chanting and kirtan. As one practices the process of chanting, he passes through three stage: the offensive stage, wherein one may desire all kinds of material happiness, the clearing stage, when the material contamination's are cleared and finally the transcendental stage, one of pure love of Godhead. Caitanya Mahaprabhu taught and showed that this is the highest stage of perfection for the human beings. The immediate followers of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, chief amongst them being the six Goswamis, wrote several authoritative books based on Vedic scriptures. They wrote this based on the personal instructions given by Caitanya Mahaprabhu to demonstrate that bhakti or love of Krishna is the ultimate goal of the Vedas. Krsnadas Kaviraj Goswami and Vrndavan dasa Thakura wrote authoritative biographies of Sri Krishna Caitanya known as Caitanya Caritamrita and Caitanya Bhagvata. Though He inspired His followers to prolific writing, Caitanya Mahaprabhu left behind the essence of His teaching in only eight verses called the 'Siksastaka'. Each of this verse is a pearl of spiritual wisdom, which if understood properly, under the guidance of a qualified teacher, can elevate a person from the mundane plane of materialism to the highest form of devotion - prema bhakti. In addition to this, Caitanya Mahaprabhu lived an exemplary life that served as a model for people in the Kali yuga to follow and return to Godhead. Caitanya Mahaprabhu predicted that the holy name of the Lord would be spread to every village and town all over the world. He propagated the chanting of the maha mantra, which He directly took from the scriptures. In the Brhannaradiya Purana says: harer nama harer nama harer namaivia kevalam kalau nasty eva nasty

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Caitanya-candra eva nasty eva gatir anyatha 'Chant the Holy name, chant the Holy name, chant the Holy name. In the Kali yuga, there is no other way, no other way, no other way!' The Kalisantarana Upanishad says that the 16 word, 32 syllable Hare Krishna maha mantra is the most effective way of counteracting the contaminating effects of the Kali yuga. Many of His empowered devotees, like Bhaktivinoda Thakura, Bhaktisiddhantha Saraswati Thakura have since appeared to further this holy mission. The latest, prominent personality in this line is His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder of acarya of ISKCON. In following the instructions of his spiritual master and the mission of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Prabhupada propagated the chanting of the name of Krishna well beyond the borders of India, in countries all over the world, a mission that is still being carried forward by his disciples in ISKCON. Recommendations for interested readers : Readers who are not already chanting are strongly encouraged in begin the all auspicious activity of japa meditation, this spiritually uplifting process which cleanses the heart of all the dust accumulated over years, enabling one to fully taste the nectar of the holy name. Further Reading: Sri Caitanya Caritamrita by Srila Krsnadas Kaviraja Goswami, translated into English by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Sri Caitanya Bhagavata by Srila Vrndavana dasa Thakura. Sri Caitanya Mangala by Srila Locanadas Thakura.

12.2 Lord Nityananda Prabhu


Lord Nityananda is the eternal associate of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Rarely is the name Nimai (Caitanya Mahaprabhu) taken without that of Nitai (Lord Nityananda). Mahaprabhu cannot be approached or understood without the mercy of Nityananda Prabhu, who is the cardinal guru of all the universes and serves as an intermediary between Mahaprabhu and His devotees. He is the Lord's active principle in both creation and lila. He is the second body of the Lord, manifesting as Balaram to Sri Krishna, Lakshman to Sri Ram and Nityananda Prabhu to Caitanya Mahaprabhu. All other forms and expansions of the Lord emanate from this second body. Nityananda Prabhu is thus the source of Sankarshan, all the Vishu's, and Ananta Sesa. As Vishnu tattva He and Advaita Acarya are worshipped in the same category as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. In the manifested earthly lila, Nityananda Prabhu is senior to Caitanya Mahaprabhu by more than a decade. He is statuesque, like His Master, with the whitish complexion of Lord Balarama. His garments resemble a cluster of blue lotus flowers and His effulgence is said to surpass the grandeur of a rising moon at sunset. He has a deep melodious voice, constant singing the glories of Sri Krishna and carries a red stick with benedictions for the devotees, but feared by the demoniac. He has the carefree mood of a wild avadhuta, so absorbed is He in the love of Godhead, and no one knows what He will do next. Nityananda Prabhu was born in Ekacakra, a small village in present West Bengal, around the year 1474. His birthsite is commemorated by a temple named Garbhasva and is visited by throngs of pilgrims today. His father, Hadai Ojha and mother Padmavati, were pious Brahmans originally from Mithila. Nityananda Prabhu was born on the auspicious thirteenth day of the bright fortnight of the month of Maga. As a child, Nitai (as Nityananda Prabhu was called), loved to enact the pastimes of Sri Krishna or Lord Rama. He did this so authoritatively and with such rapture, that the entire village would be immersed in the love of Godhead. Nitai's favorite part was that of Lakshman, and He enacted it with so many apparently authentic scenes not described in the Ramayana, that people would wonder if He was making it up or actually relishing His own pastimes. The village of Ekacakra was completely absorbed in the love of little Nitai, where He spend the first 12 years of his earthly life. In the 13th year, a travelling sannyasi, said to be the famous Lakshmipati Tirtha, enchanted by Nitai"s devotion and service, requested Nitai from his

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Caitanya-candra parents, as a travelling companion. His parents, bound by Vedic culture, could not refuse the request of a guest and reluctantly parted with Nitai. However, devastated by the separation with Nitai, that Hadai Pandit soon gave up his life. Nitai traveled with Lakshmipati Tirtha for about 20 years, during which He visited all the holy places in the country, reminiscent of the manner that Balarama traveled while the battle at Kurukshetra raged on. Nitai is said to be later on initiated by Lakshmipati Tirtha. He also associated with another of Lakshmipati Tirtha's famous disciple, Madhavendra Puri, who although his godbrother, was revered by Nitai was as a spiritual master. Madhavendra Puri is famous for establishing the sweet truth of Madhurya-rasa which later become an integral part of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. Among the other disciples of Madhavendra Puri is Advaita Acarya, and Isavara Puri (the spiritual master of Caitanya Mahaprabhu). Nityananda Prabhu met Caitanya Mahaprabhu in 1506, when He was 32 years old and the Lord 20 years. It is said that when Nityananda Prabhu reached the land of Nadia, He hid in the house of Nandanacarya, to heighten the ecstasy of meeting through separation. Caitanya Mahaprabhu aware of the arrival of His eternal associate dispatched Haridas Thakur and Srivas Pandit to search out Nitai, but they failed. Finally unable to bear the separation any longer, Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself went directly to Nityananda Prabhu and the ecstasy of the meeting was so transcendental that every one witnessing it were awed by the sublime experience. A temple called Sri Gaura-Nityananda commemorates this meeting place in Nadia. Nityananda Prabhu in His role as the original spiritual master, was instrumental in spreading the yuga dharma of sankritana all over the Gaudia desh (Bengal, Orrisa). His mercy knew no bounds, and people fortunate to come in contact with Him were inundated with the love of Godhead. It was by His mercy that Raghunatha dasa, one of the six Goswamis started the famous Danda Mahotsava festival of Panihatti, a tradition that continues to this day, and was thus able to serve Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He extended His mercy to even fallen souls like Jagai and Madhai, delivering them from the sinful lives and protecting them from the wrath of even Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Indeed His mercy knew no bounds, and fortunate were the people who tasted the nectar of His instructions. When Nityananda Prabhu returned to Bengal at the request of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, His decided to abandon His avadhuta status and become a grahastha (householder). He married Jahnava devi and Vasudha, the two daughters of Suryadasa Sarakhel, who the brother of Gauridasa Pandit (an intimate associate of Caitanya Mahaprabhu and the spiritual master of the famous Shyamananda Pandit). Nityananda Prabhu had a son (Virchandara) and a daughter (Gangadevi) from Vasudha. Soon after Vasudha passed away and Jahanva devi looked after the children. She later initiated Virchandra, and also became an instructing spiritual master to the likes of Shyamananda Pandit, Shrivasa Pandit and Narottama dasa Thakur. Jahnava devi is revered as a Vaishnavi and she established the pre-eminent positon of women in the Vaishanava tradition. Lord Nityananda wound up His earthly pastimes, by merging into the deity of Krishna, known as Bankim Ray, not far from Ekacakra. Vaishanava acaryas emphatically state that people who try to understand Caitanya Mahaprabhu without getting the mercy of Nityananda Prabhu will never succeed. and one must pray very sincerely to Lord Nityananda Prabhu as the adi-guru (original spiritual master) to be delivered to the Lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The presence of Nityananada Prabhu is always felt in the presence of one's own guru, for the guru is considered to be the living manifestation of Nityananda Prabhu's love and mercy, and his sakti (power) is what gives the disciple the ability to perform devotional service and experience spiritual bliss.

12.3 Sri Advaita Acarya

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Caitanya-candra When the Lord descends to perform His pastimes, He is invariably accompanied by His intimate associates and devotees. When Sri Krishna was came to perform His lila about 5000 years ago, innumerable associates from both the material and the spiritual world descended with Him to take this great opportunity to serve Him. Similarly when Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who is non-different from Sri Krishna, came about 514 years ago, many of the same associates came again to serve Him. Of these the most confidential were collectively addressed as the Panca Tattva, which in addition to Caitanya Mahaprabhu comprised of Nityanada Prabhu, Advaitacarya, Gadadhara Pandita and Srivasa Thakura. The Caitanyacaritamrta (Adi Lila 6) is entirely devoted to the glories of Sri Advaita Acarya. He is the combined incarnation of Maha Vishnu and Sadashiva. He is the cause of the advent of Caitanya Mahaprabhu to this world, and as we will see later, the cause of His departure too. Along with Nityananda Prabhu, He is Vishnu tattva, non-different from Sri Krishna and is worshippable in that form. Sri Advaita Acarya manifested as the child of Labhadevi and Kuvera, in a village named Lauda, in present day Bangladesh, in the year 1434. His father was a Brahman, expert in Vedic scriptures and an advisor to the emperor of Sri-Hatta, King Divyasimha. Previously Labhadevi and Kuvera had six sons, of which four had taken sannyasa. The other two sons had become householders, and their descendants are still there. Sri Advaita Acarya was born after many auspicious dreams to mother Labhadevi, indicating that the Supreme Lord was descending and the event was awaited with much anticipation in the entire village. Sri Advaita Acarya was named Kamalaksha (lotus eyed) at birth. He was also named Advaita (meaning non-different from God). As a child, He displayed many transcendental pastimes that bewildered and also gratified His parents. He refused to drink His mothers milk unless she chanted Hare Krishna loudly. He also displayed the quick temper found in Lord Shiva. Once He grew angry at the prince making fun of Vaishnava devotees. So intimidating was His anger, that the prince, otherwise a brave lad, fainted with fright. At another time He refused even the Emperors order to bow to the deity of Mother Durga, explaining and finally convincing him that devotion to Sri Krishna surpasses all forms of demigod worship. As Sri Advaita Acarya grew, His knowledge of Vedic scriptures also grew enormously. As a young boy He was awarded the prestigious Veda-pancanana, an advanced degree in Vedic scriptures. As the disciple of Santacarya, He was completely surrendered to the instructions of His guru, even though He was far more advanced in scriptures. When He reached His early teens, both His parents passed away and Sri Advaita Acarya went on an extensive pilgrimage across the country. While visiting the temples of Udupi, He met Srila Madhavendra Puri Goswami, who would later be His preceptor. Sri Advaita Acarya quickly rose to the position of becoming a leading Vaishnava of His time. On the instructions of the Madan-Mohana deity, Who appeared to Him in a dream, He led a number of Braja residents to the secret hiding place of the deity and established a temple. Later when the Moslems again pillaged the temple, He gave the deity to Purusottama Chaube, the same Brahman who would later give the deity to Sanatana Goswami. He was also instructed in a dream to establish deities to Srimati Radharani and Madan Gopala, which He did in Santipur. It was at this time that Srila Madhavendra Puri came and instructed Him on the esoteric details of worship, chanting, and subsequently initiated Him. The decline of religiosity and the suffering of people all around greatly perturbed Sri Advaita Acarya. In order to alleviate this, He would fervently pray on the banks of the river Ganges, offering flowers and tulasi leaves. Just as Sri Krishna says that simple offering of flowers, leave, water etc. made with love and devotion will satisfy Him, Sri Advaita Acarya pleased Sri Krishna with His sincere devotion so as to descend as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Sri Advaita Acarya was in his fifties when Nimai was born, but He always treated Nimai as the Supreme Personality

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Caitanya-candra of Godhead, even when Nimai was playing His pastimes of being an intellectual. Indeed He was the first to boldly proclaim that Nimai was non-different from Sri Krishna, and first worshipped young Nimai with the Krishna mantra (namo brahmanya devaya go-brahmanahitaya ca, jagad-hitaya krsnaya, govindaya namo namah) When Sri Advaita Acarya was in His fifties, He married Sitadevi, and later her younger sister Sridevi. He did this on the instructions of His spiritual master, so that there would be some one to carry on the deity worship of Madana Gopala. He also wanted to establish that spiritual progress can be made as a householder. Of His six sons, He rejected three for deviating into the mayavadi line. His eldest son, Acyutananda was to become a prominent Vaishnava in pure devotional service and is later said to have taken initiation from Gadadhara Pandita. Even though Sri Advaita Acaryas mood towards Caitanya Mahaprabhu was always one of servitude, Caitanya Mahaprabhu always treated Him with deference and respect. In an effort to get some real mercy of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Sri Advaita Acarya once started preaching mayavadi doctrines to His students. When Caitanya Mahaprabhu heard of this, He rushed over to Sri Advaita Acarya and asked Him three time what was better, knowledge or devotional love. When Sri Advaita Acarya answered knowledge (jnana), Caitanya Mahaprabhu displaying a pastime of being furious, kicked and pummeled Sri Advaita Acarya, much to His delight and ecstasy. Later when all was settled, Sri Advaita Acarya once again began teaching the principle of prema-bhakti very nicely. Sri Advaita Acarya is not only the efficient cause of the descent of the Lord, but also of His disappearance. He sent a cryptic message to Caitanya Mahaprabhu, rice is no longer needed in the market place, since every one is mad like Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself . When Mahaprabhu received this message, He smiled and soon after displayed His pastime of disappearing. Only a few of the intimate associates understood that this message meant that the yuga dharma of hari-nama sankirtana had been sufficiently well established now that it could be carried on by empowered disciples. Sri Advaita Acarya remained manifest on the earth for 125 years, of which 25 were after the disappearance of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. His mercy on the fallen souls of the Kali-yuga knew no bounds, He unveiled the Lords most esoteric and intimate lila for the world and as an acarya, lived, taught and inspired the very same instructions.

12.4 Sri Gadadhara Pandita

Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Rarely is Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Who is non different from Lord Sri Krishna, worshipped without honoring the Pancha tattva, the Lord's eternal associates who incarnated to assist Him in His pastimes. Gadadhara Pandit or Gadai, as he was know as a child, was born in Chittagong in a brahman family in the lineage of Kasyapa muni. His father's name was Kasyapa Misra and mother's name Ratnavati. He was born around the same time as Caitanya Mahaprabhu, perhaps an year later, and from the age of thirteen moved to Navadvipa in his uncle's house. Here he met Caitanya Mahaprabhu and soon became His closest, inseparable friend. Of all the associates and disciples of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Gadadhara Pandit remained the longest in personal contact with the Lord, serving Him even after He took sannyasa and moved to Puri. Gadadhara Pandit is understood to be an incarnation of Radharani. Whereas Caitanya Mahaprabhu incarnated Himself in the mood of Radharani in separation, the bhava of Gadadhara Pandit was more that of Rukmini devi, one of awe, reverence and submissiveness to Sri Krishna. Gadadhara Pandit is the perfect manifestation of the Lord's hladini potency. Jiva Goswami explains in the Bhagavatasandarbha that the Lord has basically three potencies, the sandhini potency by which He

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Caitanya-candra maintains His existence, the samvit potencies by which He knows Himself and His devotees understand Him, and the hladini potency, through He and His devotees enjoy indescribable bliss, unattainable in the material world. These three energies correspond to the three Vedic principle of existence: - sat (eternity), - cit (knowledge) and - ananda (bliss) The hladini potency, which is embodied in Srimati Radharani, is the highest and most esoteric of the Lord's energies. The essence of love of God is bhava, or intense spiritual emotions. This consummate love is manifested in the personality of Radharani. Lord Krishna enchants the world, but Sri Radharani enchants Krishna. Therefore, She is the supreme goddess, above all others. She is the param-shakti, the full power and She manifests in Caitanya lila as Gadadhara Pandit. He has the golden effulgence of Radharani and is meditated upon by those who are specially wise. His body radiance is unsurpassed, for He is a lifelong celibate. It is said that when the nocturnal kirtans at Shrivasa Thakur's home became really ecstatic, Caitanya Mahaprabhu's body would turn blackish, like that of Krishna, and Gadadhara Pandit's body would glow with the golden effulgence of Radharani. As a young man, Gadadhara Pandit was often able to soothe the Lord when His anguish in separation would become intolerable. Witnessing this, Saci devi, Caitanya Mahaprabhu's mother, requested Gadai to always remain by the side of Nimai. It is said that when Radharani in Vrindavan was constantly being scolded and forbidden by Her elders to associate with Sri Krishna, She prayed for a male body so that She could freely associate with the Lord. It was in response to these prayers of Radharani that Gadadhara Pandit incarnated with a male body. Gadadhara Pandit was initiated by Pundarika Vidyanidhi, a wealthy but pure devotee of the Lord, who is an incarnation of Maharaja Vrishbhanu, the father of Radharani. Gadadhara Pandit later took sannyas and spent his days in ecstasy as one of the Lord's intimate associates in Puri. He lived on the southwest side of the Jagannatha temple in a place called Yamesvaratota, where he took the vow of caring for the Gopinatha deity for the rest of his life. Even though Gadadhara Pandit has taken ksetra sannyas (vow of not leaving Puri), he was willing to break his vow so as to accompany Caitanya Mahaprabhu to Vrindavan. Such is the mood of pure devotees, who are always willing to break all rules for a higher purpose, service to the Lord. After the disappearance of the Lord, Gadadhara Pandit spent his time in separation, worshipping the Tota-Gopinatha deity. In his old age he was unable to stand and garland the deity, but so intense was his desire to anoint the deity, that the deity assumed a sitting position to help Gadadhara Pandit. The worshippable deities of the pure devotees are non different from their Lord and should be considered as living expansions. The Gopinatha deity is extremely special since it is one of the three place where Caitanya Mahaprabhu merged into when he exhibited His disappearance pastime. In doing so, the Lord glorified the deity and His worshipper, Gadadhara Pandit. So intense was the anguish of separation with his Lord, that Gadadhara Pandit was reduced to a mere shadow of his old effulgent self. He only remained on the planet under the orders of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, to instruct a great saint of the next generation, namely Srinivas Pandit. Once he was able to meet and instruct Srinivas Pandit, Gadadhara Pandit wound up his earthly pastimes to rejoin his master in the eternal spiritual sky. He is considered the best of the sadhus, exhibiting all Brahminical qualities. He is the perfect example of devotion in practice, the very form of blissful love, and to gaze upon His sweet smiling face is to see love personified. He is absorbed in the mood of madhuryarasa, and without His mercy it is impossible even to approach Krishna. So, let us pray to Gadadhara Pandit, so that He may show us the way of selfless surrender and pure devotion.

12.5 Sri Srivasa Thakura

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Caitanya-candra Caitanya Mahaprabhu is always worshipped with His confidential associates, who are collectively referred to as the Pancha Tattva. They constitute: Caitanya Mahaprabhu - the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nityananda Prabhu - incarnation of Lord Balarama, Advaita acarya - the combined incarnation of Sada Shiva and Maha Vishnu, Gadadhara Pandita, the embodiment of the Lord's intimate devotees like Radharani and the Gopis, and Srivasa Thakur who personified unalloyed devotion to the Lord and is an incarnation of the premabhakti shakti (loving devotion) found in Narada muni. Narada Muni is one of the 12 mahajans or bona fide Vedic authorities and perfectly pure devotees of the Lord. He has a spiritual body and can travel in both the material and the spiritual worlds and is completely absorbed in singing the glories of the Sri Krishna. Srivasa Thakur, as an incarnation of Narada, also emphasized chanting, and the unparalleled kirtans in his courtyard became legendary. It was here that Caitanya Mahaprabhu inaugurated His sankirtan movement that would inundate the world with love for Godhead. A facsimile of Srivasa Thakur's house exists to this day in Navadvipa. Srivasa Thakur, though born in a pious Brahman family, displayed no Brahamanical qualities as a youth. Till the age of 16 years, he was cruel, restless, offensive to Guru and Vedas and had a proud, conceited personality. One day in a dream, a divine voice informed him that he had only one more year to live. Young Srivasa took this warning very seriously, and somewhat in the mood of Prakshit Maharaja, prepared to die by dedicating his life to Krishna. The changed Srivasa became completely absorbed in the devotion of the Lord, associating with His devotees and relishing His pastimes. After the year was over, Srivasa, who at that time was hearing the pastimes of Prahalda Maharaja in Srimad Bhagvatam, fell from the balcony and apparently left his body. It is at this time, that by the mercy of the Lord, he was able to enter his body again, infused with the spiritual potency of Narada Muni. Several years later, Caitanya Mahaprabhu reminded him about his experience with death, and Srivasa Thakur understood that it was all by the mercy of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Srivasa Thakur is the ideal house holder devotee and is known as the acarya (teacher) of vaidhi-bhakti (devotion by rules and regulations). He was the first to whom Caitanya Mahaprabhu revealed His divinity, and he is clearly the best in performing devotional service. The popular prayer: Sri Krishna Caitanya, Prabhu Nityananda, Sri Advaita, Gadadhara, Srivasa adi Gaura bahkta vrnda means, "All glories to Krishna Caitanya, Nityananda Prabhu, Advaita Acarya, Gadadhara Pandit, and the family of devotees who follow in this line beginning from Srivasa Thakur." Thus, Srivasa Thakur is considered as the adi (original) devotee of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Srivasa and his brothers were raised by their father Jaladhara Pandita in the district of Sri Hatta. Later they relocated to Navadvipa, and became famous throughout the region as pure devotees of the Lord. Here, Srivasa Thakur and his wife Malinidevi became close friend of Jagannath Misra and Sacidevi. Malinidevi actually assisted in the birth of Nimai, and they were like surrogate parents to Him. As Nimai grew, Srivasa Thakur was able to divine that He was non different from Krishna, and patiently waited for Caitanya Mahaprabhu to conclude His various lilas of childhood, scholar etc. and reveal His mission. After Caitanya Mahaprabhu took initiation and began displaying His mood of an unalloyed devotee, Srivasa Thakur and his brothers opened their house and all facilities to assist Him. In the courtyard of the house of Srivasa Thakur, Caitanya Mahaprabhu would conduct daily nocturnal kirtan with His closest associates, officially beginning the sankirtan movement for the Kali yuga. So transcendental were these kirtans that the intimate associates would often reveal their original spiritual forms in the ecstasy of chanting and singing. Indeed, the courtyard of Srivasa Thakur's house is considered non-different from Vrandavan. It was here that Nityananda Prabhu first performed Vyasa puja of Caitanya Mahaprabhu and it was here that Caitanya Mahaprabhu first revealed His original position as

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Caitanya-candra the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Mahabhava prakasha) in a pastime that lasted for 21 hours wherein the Lord displayed His transcendental incarnations and gave many benedictions to His devotees. It was here also that Caitanya Mahaprabhu gave two very instructive lessons in devotional service. The first happened when Srivasa Thakur, taking mercy on a brahman, allowed him to conceal himself in the courtyard and witness the divine nocturnal kirtan. The brahmnan was extremely pious, a life long celibate and lived on only milk. However, when Caitanya Mahaprabhu sensed the presence of the hidden brahman He became extremely furious. Finally on the plea of Srivasa Thakur, Mahaprabhu relented and gave His mercy to the brahman. He thus demonstrated that all activities and austerities, even if they are in the mode of goodness will not give one love for Godhead unless they are based on complete surrender to His lotus feet. He also showed that the Lord can never be attained directly but only my the mercy of His pure devotee. In the second incident, during one of the nocturnal kirtans in the house Srivasa Thakur, one of his sons all of a sudden died. Hearing the lamentation of his wife and other women, Srivasa Thakur went and found out what happened. In the mood of a pure devotee, Srivasa Thakur consoled his wife, explaining the permanence of the spirit soul and the transience of the material body. He then rejoined the kirtan, which lasted for a full nine hours into early morning. After the kirtan, Mahaprabhu, sensing what had happened, inquired from Srivasa Thakur why he did not tell Him of the passing away of the son earlier. Srivasa Thakur replied that he would have gladly forsaken all of his sons, rather than interrupt the transcendental pastimes of the Lord. Greatly touched and pleased by the mood of complete surrender, Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked the body of the son to be brought in His presence. There, by His divine instructions, the spirit soul of the son returned to his body and spoke very nicely, glorifying Caitanya Mahaprabhu as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The spiritual soul also revealed its own inability to escape the cycle of material birth and death, without getting the mercy of the Lord and expressed distress at falling from its original spiritual home driven by a mad desire to enjoy separately from the Lord. After this is spirit soul once again left the body on its pre-destined path. Caitanya Mahaprabhu glorified Srivasa Thakur as being His eternal father. He exemplified that the love of a pure devotee binds the Lord Who is otherwise unconquerable. The services of a devotee indebts the Lord, Who actually owns every thing and is never in the need of any thing. He finally declared that Srivasa Thakur, situated in the love of Godhead, will never be influenced by Maya, the illusory power that binds one to the material world. In the line of Srivasa Thakur, devotees completely surrendered to the Lord continue to exist, and where they are, so is the Panca Tattva. Based on Sri Pancha Tattva by Steve J Rosen.

13 THE SIX GOSWAMIS OF VRNDAVANA: SIX PRINCIPAL DISCIPLES OF LORD CAITANYA


13.1 Srila Rupa Goswami
The six Goswamis of Vrindavan are pre-eminent members of the immediate disciplic succession of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who revealed the teachings of Caitanya Mahaprabhu not only by their writings but also by their lives. Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Who is non-different from Krishna, came to deliver the process of Sankirtan, by which the souls in the Kali yuga could be freed from the cycle of birth and death in the material world. He was not only delivering the process, but also relishing the taste of it Himself, assuming the mood of the His most intimate devotee Srimati Radharani, and the six Goswamis were assisting Him in this task, and tasting the nectar themselves. Sri Krishna experiences the highest pleasure when

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Caitanya-candra being served by Srimati Radharani, who is a manifestation of His own Hladini or pleasure giving potency. But this pleasure is eclipsed a thousand times by the pleasure that Srimati Radharani experiences in serving Sri Krishna. In this endeavor, Srimati Radharani is expertly assisted by special Gopis, called manjaris, who experince even greater pleasure in serving Srimati Radharani, so that She can perfectly serve Sri Krishna. It is in this manjari mood, that the six Goswamis were helping Caitanya Mahaprabhu Who had assumed the mood of Srimati Radharani, in seperation from Sri Krishna. This manjari bahava is epitomized by Srila Rupa Goswami, the spiritual leader of the six Goswamis, who as the most confidential associate of Caitanya Mahaprabhu assisted Him in spreading the Yuga dharma of Sankirtan. He was relishing the process himself and perfecting it for others to follow. In his original spiritual identity as Rupa Manjari, he is a very confidential associate of Srimati Radharani, and in his role in Caitanya leela, he is a close confidential associate of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Rupa Goswami (1494-1564) was born of Kumardev and Revatidevi, who came from an exalted Saraswati Brahman lineage of Karnataka, a southern state of present day India. At some point they migrated and settled in what is known as East Bengal today. Of the five sons of Revatidevi, three were famous for their spirituality. These were to become Rupa Goswami, his elder brother Sanatan Goswami. The third brother Anupam, left his body shortly after receiving the mercy of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and his son Jiva Goswami, a disciple of Rupa Goswami, would become the most prolific writers of the six Goswamis. Even before the meeting with Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Rupa and Sanatan Goswami were famous for their intellect and renunciation. The Moslem emperor of Gauda desh, Nawab Hussein Shah, keen to spread his influence on the local people, conscripted the two brothers into his service, by threatening tribulations on the local people if they did not agree to work for him. Much against their desire, the brothers worked in prominent positions in the Shah's court. However as pure devotees, they used their wealth and energies in the service of Krishna, by constructing an opulent 'hidden Vrindavan' in Ramakeli, immersed themselves in the reading of the Bhagvatam and perfecting their own realizations. When Caitanya Mahaprabhu first met the brothers in Ramakeli, He greeted them as His eternal associates. He also gave then their spiritual names (Rupa, Sanatan and Anupam) With superlative humility Rupa Goswami offered the now famous pramama mantra (greeting) to Caitanya Mahaprabhu: namo maha-vadanya, krishna prema pradaya te krishnaya krishna caitanya namne gaura-tvishe namaha O most munificent incarnation of the Lord, You are Krishna Himself appearing as Sri Caitanya. You have assumed the golden color of Radharani, and you are freely distributing what no other incarnation has ever distributed pure love of God. Pleased by the prayers of His devotees, Caitanya Mahaprabhu spend 10 days in Prayag (Allahabad), instructing Rupa Goswami about the science of Krishna consciousness. While spending an additional ten months in Puri with Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Rupa Goswami developed and refined the outline of his two famous plays Vidagadha Madhava (featuring Krishna's intimate pastimes as the cowherd boy of Vrindavan) and Lalita Madhava (featuring Krishna's majestic pastimes as the king of Dwarka). These plays were later completed and are regarded by Gaudiya Vaishnavas as the most important dramatic literature in Sanskrit. When Rupa Goswami finally did go to Vrindavan, at that time it was mostly forgotten and neglected

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Caitanya-candra with the passage of time. Shortly after arriving, Rupa Goswami established the deity of Vrinadadevi, an incarnate aspect of Sri Krishna, as the proprietor of Vrindavan. The deity was later moved and can be today found in Kamyava (West Vraja). Rupa Goswami however was not able to make much progress earlier and would frequently lament his inability to carry out the wishes of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. All this however changed after he was spiritually guided to a hidden deity of Sri Govindadev, that was established almost five thousand years ago by Vajra, the great-grandson of Sri Krishna. The Radha-Govindadev temple, established by Rupa Goswami, is the most opulent and majestic temple of Vrindavan and built under the patronage of the Mughal Emperor Akbar and the Hindu Raja Mann Singh of Jaipur.. Unfortunately most of it was later demolished by the Mughal tyrant Aurangazeb, and the original deities moved to Jaipur, where they are worshipped to this day. If the magnificent temple is a testimony to dedication and devotion of Srila Rupa Goswami, his literary works are even more so. He compiled huge volumes of Vaishanava literature, writing more than 100,000 verses in all. Of the more famous works are his two plays, the Upadeshamrita (Nectar of Instructions), Bhakti-rasmrita-sindhu (Nectar of Devotion), Ujjvala-nilamani and Laghu Bhagvatamrita, to name a few. These works represent the highest realizations of Rupa Goswami, and can guide a serious student through the various stages of self realization namely, sambandha gyan (acknowledging a relationship with Krishna), abhideya gyan (establishing that relationship) and finally prayojana gyan (relishing the relationship). The realizations of Rupa Goswami were so perfect, that Savrupa Damodar, a close associate of Caitanya Mahaprabhu concluded that he could only have done by receiving the mercy of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The members of ISKCON consider themselves to be followers of Rupa Goswami, worshipping in the Rupanuga form of bhakti, as the servant of the servant of the servant, so many times removed, of one who can serve Sri Krishna. Srila Prabhupada, the founder Acarya of ISKCON, translated Upadeshamrita (Nectar of Instruction) and wrote a summary on the Bhakti-rasmrita-sindhu (Nectar of Devotion), in his opinion two extremely vital books on the philosophy of Krishna consciousness. August 23rd is the disappearance day of Srila Rupa Goswami, the superlative manifestation of humility, renunciation, knowledge, dedication and compassion. Let us pray for his mercy with the following pranama mantra. sri caitanya mano 'bhistam sthapitam yena bhu tale svyam rupah kada mahyam dadati sva padantikam When will Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada, who has established within this material world to fulfill the desire of Lord Caitanya, give me shelter of his lotus feet?

Sanatana Goswami (1488-1588) is the senior most of the six Goswamis of Vrindavan and became the perfect instrument of Caitanya Mahaprabhu to establish the science of Bhakti Yoga. The famous Rupa Goswami, was his younger brother and considered himself to be his servant and disciple. Jiva Goswami, the most prolific writer and preacher of the six Goswamis was the son Anupama, the younger brother of Sanatana Goswami. Belonging to the prestigious Saraswati Brahman ancestry from Karnataka, Sanatana Goswami grew up with his five brothers and one sister in the Jessore district of East Bengal. From the earliest age, Sanatana Goswami was spontaneously attracted to the logic, philosophy, rhetoric and the theistic message of the Srimad Bhagavatam. He accepted instructions from such luminaries as Vidya Vachaspati, Sarvabhuma Bhattacharya, Pramananda Bhattacharya and the learned Ramabhadra. So famous was Sanatana Goswami for his wisdom that the Emperor of Gauda Desh, Nawab Hussein Shah forced him and Rupa Goswami to work in the court under threat of doing harm to the local Brahmans if they refused. Apparently resigned to his fate, Sanatana Goswami settled in Ramakeli in Northern Bengal. He was conferred the title of 'Sakara Malik'

13.2 Srila Sanatana Goswami

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Caitanya-candra (revenue officer) and given immense wealth by the delighted Shah. So competent were the brothers in administration that the Shah completely delegated the daily affairs to them and spend his time trying to expand his territory. However Sanatana Goswami was simply bidding his time, waiting for instructions from his eternal master, Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He used his time and wealth to help the Brahman community and prepare himself for his eventual service to the Lord. When Caitanya Mahaprabhu visited Ramakeli on the pretext of going to Vrindavan, the brothers met Him in a meeting that is often described as pivotal in the annals of Gaudiya Vaishnava. After receiving many instructions from Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Rupa and Anupama were able to immediately leave for Vrindavan. However Sanatana Goswami remained in Ramakeli, feigning illness, to wind up his material affairs. The Nawab however became suspicious and sent his physician who discovered that not only was Sanatana Goswami in perfect health, but his house was full of Brahmans who were studying and discussing Srimad Bhagavatam. The enraged Nawab had Sanatana Goswami temporarily thrown in jail. Sanatana Goswami was however able to bribe his way out and make his way to Benares to meet Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Here he remained for two months receiving several valuable instruction from the Lord on the science of Bhakti, after which he proceeded to Vrindavan. When Sanatana Goswami went again to meet Caitanya Mahaprabhu in Puri, he traveled in the most austere manner through the forests of Jharakandha. Here he contacted some kind of skin disease which resulted in oozing wounds all over the body. Not wanting to enter the holy temple of Jagannath Puri, Sanatana Goswami stayed outside with Haridas Thakur the namacarya disciple of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Unable to render any service to Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Sanatana Goswami resolved to end his life. The omniscient Caitanya Mahaprabhu however sensed this and chastised him strongly. Finally Sanatana Goswami realized that on his own he was totally incapable of performing any act of devotion. This final surrender is a demonstration of the loving relationship between the Lord and His pure devotee. Caitanya Mahaprabhu having imparted the most important lesson in devotion, completely cured Sanatana Goswami, simply by His touch and instructed him to establish temples at the birthplace of Lord Krishna, Vrindavan. The very first temple in Vrindavan, Sri Radha Madan-Mohan was established by Sanatana Goswami, which would started a tradition of temple building resulting in more that 5000 temples in Vrindavan. The Deity of MadanMohan were first established by Vajra, the great-grandson of Sri Krishna, but had been lost over time. One night, Sanatana Goswami dreamt that a very beautiful Deity of Krishna was being worshipped by a humble Brahman, and sure enough, the next day while begging for alms he came across the very same Deity being worshipped in the house of a poor Brahman called Purushottam Chaube. Though the Brahman was first reluctant to part with the Deity, he was later instructed in a dream and agreed to give the Deity to Sanatana Goswami. MadanMohan was initially worshipped by Sanatana Goswami in a very simple and humble manner. The opulent temple of Sri Radha Madan-Mohan was built by a wealthy merchant Krishnadas Kapoor, who had prayed to Madan-Mohan to free his salt laden ship stuck in a sandbar. The ship was freed while the merchant was praying, and the grateful merchant built a magnificent temple for Madan-Mohan. The Deities were later removed from here to Jaipur to protect Them against the tyrannical Mogul ruler, Aurangazeb. From here, They were then moved to Karoli where They are being worshipped to this day. Quite appropriately, worshipping of Madan-Mohan is on the platform of re-establishing one's forgotten relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Madan-Mohan means one who attracts even Cupid, and this relationship is very relevant for neophyte devotees, for attraction to Madan-Mohan nullifies all material attractions. This is known as 'sambandha tattva' and from this platform only can a devotee advance to actually establishing a relationship with Krishna (abhideya

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Caitanya-candra tattva) and finally relishing the relationship (prayojana tattva). Sanatana Goswami is credited with several authoritative works on devotional service. Foremost is the Hari-Bhakti-vilas (edited by Gopala Bhatta Goswami), which describes in twenty chapters (or vilas) a detailed, scientific analysis of progress and pitfalls in bhakti. Another of his work the BrihatBhagavatamrita, in its first part gives a detailed description of the universes from the material to the spiritual world. It also describes the types of bhaktis, types of devotees and their relationships to the Lord (rasas) In the second part it gives the glories of the spiritual world and the process of renouncing the material world. Sanatana Goswami also wrote a insightful commentary on the Tenth Canto of the Srimad Bhagavatam, called the Dashama-tipani, which gives the Caitanyite perspective on the activities of Sri Krishna and is thus considered as the authoritative, bona-fide interpretation of the scripture. Ontologically Sanatana Goswami is considered to be an incarnation of Rati or Labanga Manjari, an intimate associate of Srimati Radharani. He was honored by everyone and was considered to be an extension of the transcendental body of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. It is also said that Sanatana Kumar, the jewel amongst the four Kumaras sons of Brahma, was also present in the incarnation as Sanatana Goswami. With his humble attitude, keen intellect and complete surrender to the Lord, Sanatana Goswami lived, preached and left for posterity the science of devotional service.

13.3 Srila Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami

Raghunath Bhatta Goswami (1505-1579) is in many ways the most mysterious of the six Goswamis of Vrindavana. Caitanya Mahaprabhu considered his singing, cooking and recitation of the Srimad Bhagavatam as unparalleled in the history of Vaishnavism. But he did not leave any literary contributions and very little is known of his antecedents. It is known that his ancestry hails from East Bengal and his father was Tapan Mishra a respected Brahaman scholar who had inquired from Caitanya Mahaprabhu about the meaning of life. Even though Caitanya Mahaprabhu was at the time playing His pastime of an eminent scholar and logician, he revealed to Tapan Mishra for the first time His intention of establishing the yuga dharma of Sankirtana. On the instructions of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Tapan Mishra relocated to Benares in 1503 and two years later Raghunath Bhatta was born. Later in 1514, Caitanya Mahaprabhu stopped in Benares on His way back to Puri from Vrindavana. He resided at the house of Chandrashekar and took His daily lunch at the house of Tapan Mishra. Here the Lord was served by the nine year old Raghunath Bhatta and inspired by the blessing and association, Raghunath Bhatta would soon become totally immersed in Krishna prema, When Sri Caitanya, having accomplished His mission of converting the mayavadi philosophers of Benares to devotees of Sri Krishna, left for Puri, Raghunath Bhatta was heart broken. He would constantly dwell on his memories of Caitanya Mahaprabhu and as he grew he developed longing to be re-united with the Lord and serve Him personally. Finally when he was twenty, Raghunath Bhatta and a servant left Benares for Puri. On the way, as was the custom of the times, Raghunath Bhatta made several detours to visit the holy places. Here is also met and befriended Ramdas and great devotee of Lord Rama. Although very advanced himself, Ramdas soon realized that Raghunath Bhatta was indeed a highly renounced devotee. Though he was quite a bit older and despite several protests from Raghunath Bhatta, Ramdas insisted on serving him menially throughout the journey, by massaging his legs and carrying his luggage for him. When Raghunath Bhatta eventually

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Caitanya-candra reached Puri, he was joyfully greeted by Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Here he received special mercy of the Lord, Who allowed him to render service to Him and instructed him on the various intricacies of the Vedic philosophy. Soon Raghunath Bhatta became an expert cook and it is said that what ever he cooked tasted like nectar. Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very appreciative of his cooking and singing. After eight months of association, Caitanya Mahaprabhu instructed Raghunath Bhatta to return to Puri and serve his parents. Observing his renunciation, Caitanya Mahaprabhu advised him not to marry. He also advised him to hear and understand the Bhagavatam from a realized soul. These instructions of the omniscient Lord would shape the future of Raghunath Bhatta. In asking him to serve his old parents. Mahaprabhu demonstrated that dharma (worldly duties) and para-dharma (spiritual duties) could be nicely dovetailed together by an expert devotee. So Raghunath Bhatta continued to serve his parents till the time they passed away, four years later, and in the mean time perfected his understanding and rendering of the Srimad Bhagavatam from an elevated devotee of the Lord. Raghunath Bhatta once again returned to Puri and happily served His eternal master for another eight months. However after this Caitanya Mahaprabhu once again sent him away, this time to Vrindavan, to seek the shelter of Rupa and Sanatana Goswami and help them in their mission. On reaching Vrindavan, Raghunath Bhatta placed himself in the guidance of Rupa and Sanatana Goswami, who were pleased to associate with such an elevated devotee. Soon Raghunath Bhatta took full shelter of Rupa Goswami's Govindadev deity and eventually had several wealthy disciples construct a gorgeous temple in the honor of Govinda. Raghunath Bhatta himself prepared several ornaments for the Deity, including a flute and a set of ear rings shaped like a shark. He quickly endeared himself to the inhabitants of Vrindavan by his blissful recitations of the Bhagavatam. Raghunath Bhatta Goswami would render the complicated verses of the Bhagavatam in three of four different melodies. At other times he recited the Hare Krishna maha-mantra with such devotion that the listeners would swoon with ecstasy. He himself would often display all the symptoms of maha-bhava at the recitations and discourses on the holy name. Even though Raghunath Bhatta did not leave behind any writings his life was an example of a pure devotee. One cannot penetrate the mysteries of the Srimad Bhagavatam without the guidance of a spiritual master in a disciplic succession. And so Caitanya Mahaprabhu initially instructed Raghunath Bhatta Goswami to study in this way. Having properly studied the Bhagavatam, Raghunath Bhatta demonstrated how to assimilated it into one's life. He made the Srimad Bhagavatam his life and soul. He never spoke or listened to any mundane subjects. He was divinely intoxicated, talking and hearing about Sri Krishna, day and night. Yet, Raghunath Bhatta was keenly aware of his surrounding. Even though he was deeply absorbed in the love of Godhead, he saw every thing around him and utilized it in the service of Krishna. He lived the life of a genuine saint, with all encompassing love and humility and set up a model for devotees in the future to follow, if they have the desire to read and understand the unique love of Godhead coming through the Srimad Bhagavatam.

13.4 Srila Raghunatha Das Goswami

Srila Raghunatha Das Goswami (1495-1571) was the first of the six Goswamis to meet Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Born in a small vilage of Chandpur (now called Sri Krishnapur) in West Bengal, he belonged to a fabulously rich family of landords. His father Govardhana Majumdar and elder uncle Hiranya were multi-millionares, even in those days. Hussein Shah, the Emperor of Bengal went so far to lease the entire Saptagram district to the two brothers for an annual rent of 1.2 Million Rupees. Despite this huge financial contribition the brothers had millions left over which they used abundantly for charity and pious activities. Raghunath

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Caitanya-candra Das was instructed in his boyhood by Balaram Acarya, a great scholar and an advanced devotee of the Lord. He introduced Raghunath Das to Haridas Thakur, the great Namacarya devotee of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who imparted a deep devotional spirit to Raghunath Das. At the age of 15, Raghunath Das heard about Caitanya Mahaprabhu's visit to Santipur and despite resistance from his parents, ran away from home to meet Him. The meeting was emotional and intense. Caitanya Mahaprabhu recognized His eternal devotee in the form of Raghunath Das, who immediately surrendered to the Lotus feet of the Lord. After ten days of blissful association, Caitanya Mahaprabhu left for Puri and Raghunath Das returned home with feeling of intense seperation from the Lord. He would have to wait for another four years before he would get another opportunity to associate with the Lord, once again in Santipur. By this time Raghunath Das's parents had resigned themselves to his spirituality and Caitanya Mahaprabhu had also become famous as a saint, and an incarnation. So with little resistance, Raghunath Das was able to meet his Lord and associate with Him. Though Raghunath Das was eager to give up his family and riches, Caitanya Mahaprabhu instructed him to return home and live as a worldly man. Faithfully following the instructions of his Lord, Raghunath Das began to responsibly manage his father's estate. He married a girl said to be of unexcelled beauty and seemed to settle down into an opulent, materialistic lifestyle. However this would only last for two years before fate took a hand. The Emperor of Bengal, incited by an envious former governor of Saptgram decided to have the father and uncle of Raghunath Das arrested. Since none of them were present at the time, the soldiers arrested Raghunath Das and bought him back. The king tried to get all kinds of information from Raghunath Das, which he did not honestly have. Furious the king ordered that he be tortured, but after hearing a great soliloquy from him on the virtues of kindness and brotherhood, the king was moved to tears. Recognizing Raghunath Das to be an elevated devotee, he accepted him as his son and released him. He also reached an amicable agreement regarding the mis-understandings with the management of Saptagram. Soon after the incident, Lord Nityananda Prabhu, one of the most intimate associates of Caitanya Mahaprabhu came to Pannihati, a village very close to Saptagram. After a lot of difficulty, young Raghunath Das was able to meet Nityananda Prabhu and with great humility begged for His mercy to be able to serve Caitanya Mahaprabhu. This meeting was marked by the historic 'Danda Mahotasava' in which Lord Nityananda as a 'punishment' to Raghunath Das, placed His Lotus feet on the boy's head. He also directed Raghunath Das to arrange for prasadam for the hundreds of devotees who had accompanied Lord Nityananda. Eager to use his wealth in the service of the Lord, Raghunath Das soon had the area inundated with prasadam comprising of yogurt, chipped rice, pastries, milk, sweets and fruits. So ecstatic was the prasadam distributed here that devotees from distant places rushed to partake the nectar. At the height of distribution, Caitanya Mahaprabhu manifested Himself, though only a few advanced devotee could see Him. Lord Nityananda had all the devotees bless Raghunath Das and also gave him His own blessings. The festival of 'Danda Mahotsava' is celebrated to this day in Pannihati with great religious fervor. Having received Bhakti from the most intimate associates of the Lord, Raghunath Das was unable to maintain even the semblance of materialistic life. He tried to escape so often that his parent hired a large contingent of guards to accompany him every where. Despite all this he finally managed to escape and headed for Puri to be united with His Lord. He traveled with great austerity, eating only three meager meals in twelve days. He hardly slept, walking several miles every day, unmindful of the danger of the ferocious animals around him. This would be the first glimpse of the intense austerity that Raghunath Das would later be famous for. He traveled with single minded determination, the body fasting while the spirit feasted at the prospect of seeking the shelter of his eternal Master. Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very

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Caitanya-candra pleased to see Raghunath Das and entrusted him to the care of Svaroop Damodara, His personal assistant. Even though this was a great honor, it just made Raghunath Das all the more humble. He rarely approached Caitanya Mahaprabhu directly, considering himself to be unfit to associate with Him. He served Swaroop Damodar with great devotion, exemplifying the 'dasanudas' (servant of the servant) mood of a pure devotee. The parents of Raghunath Das, now reconciled to his departure would send him great wealth, but Raghunath Das would only use it entirely for the service of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Finally reasoning that he was not advanced enough to handle this materialistic wealth, he stopped accepting that also. Appreciating his renunciation and devotion, Caitanya Mahaprabhu gave him His personal stone from Govardhana Hill and a garland of Tulasi leaves. These were incalculably precious items, since they were personally present with the Lord for more than three years. With passing years the devotion and austerities of Raghunath Das only increased. He would chant for twenty-two hours every day, sleeping for only one hour, and some time not even that. He gave up all food and drink, taking just a few drops of buttermilk a day. His fame as a mystic became so widespread that devotees from miles across would come to see him. With characteristic humility he would offer obeisances to each of the around two thousand devotees who daily approached him. He also offered one thousand obeisances to the Lord and chanted at least one hundred thousand holy names daily. His intense devotion and austerities attracted sages, scholars and spiritualist from far and wide. Raghunath Das Goswami stayed in Puri for sixteen years at which time Caitanya Mahaprabhu left the planet. Two or three years later, his spiritual master, Svaroop Damodar also left his body, and Raghunath Das Goswami, now forty years of age, following the last instructions of Caitanya Mahaprabhu left for Vrindavana to assist Rupa and Santana Goswami in their mission to re-establish Vrindavana to its rightful position at the apex of all holy places. In Vrindavan, at the request of Rupa and Sanatana Goswami, Raghunath Das Goswami would spend two hours every day recounting the pastimes of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. As the legend goes, Raghunath Das Goswami would spend several hours on the banks of Radha-kunda, completely absorbed in his meditation of the Divine Couple. On one occasion, Sanatana Goswami witnessed that Sri Krishna, Himself was guarding His devotee for a pair of tigers that had come to drink in the Radha-kunda. On another occasion, Sanatana Goswami saw Srimati Radharani, Herself drenched in transcendental perspiration, smilingly holding Her garment to shield Her devotee from the intense sunlight. Considering themselves to be the servants of Srimati Radharani, Sanatana Goswami chastised Raghunath Das Goswami for taking service from their Masters. He asked him to build a small hut for his protection, which Raghunath Das Goswami complied with. This would start the tradition of building bhajan-kutirs by devotees to chant and meditate in isolation. Raghunath Das Goswami wrote deeply profound verses about the pastimes of Radha-Krishna. These have been compiled into called the Stava-mala, Danacharita and Mukta-charita. Beyond his literary accomplishments, he is best remembered as the very emblem of renunciation. He was totally detached from material enjoyment and is appropriately known as the prayojana acarya, one who teaches by his own example about the ultimate goal of life.

13.5 Srila Jiva Goswami


Srila Jiva Goswami is the most prolific, voluminous and versatile writer of the six Goswamis of Vrindavana. He composed about 400,000 verses of commentaries, abstracts and at least twenty authoritative works on the science of bhakti. Acknowledged as one of the greatest philosophers in all times, the Benares Hindu University, has dedicated an entire department to study the works of Jiva Goswami. He also initiated the systematic preaching of Caitanya

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Caitanya-candra Mahaprabhu's mission by training and dispatching luminaries like Narottama Dasa Thakura, Shrinivasa Acarya and Shyamananda Pandit. Jiva Goswami (1513-1598) is the youngest of the six Goswamis of Vrindavana. His father, Anupama is the younger brother of Rupa and Sanatana Goswami and was initiated by Caitanya Mahaprabhu in Ramakeli. On the instructions of the Lord, Rupa and Anupama left Ramakeli and later received many instructions from Him in Prayaga (Allahabad). Later when travelling to Puri through Bengal, Anupama left his body on the banks of the river Ganges. While Jiva Goswami did not get the privilege of being instructed directly by Caitanya Mahaprabhu, he was greatly inspired by his illustrious uncles in Vrindavana. As he grew, his body acquired all the symptoms of a Mahapurush or an empowered divinity. He had lotus like eyes, high nose and forehead, large shoulders and chest, hands reaching to his knees and the effulgence of molten gold. He was a child prodigy having mastered grammar, poetry, logic and scriptures at a very young age. As Jiva grew into the teens he displayed a burning passion for spiritual enlightenment. Jiva had no interest in worldly affairs and constantly hoped to join his two uncles in Vrindavan. At this time he began to worship the deity form of Krishna-Balarama, seeing Them as nondifferent from Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Nityananda Prabhu. In order to fulfill his burning desire to visit Navadvipa, Jiva had to resort to tricking his reluctant mother. On the pretext of visiting their ancestral home in nearby Fatehbad, Jiva proceeded to Navadvipa. In Navadvipa he met Lord Nityananda Prabhu. Jiva immediately recognized Him as non-different from Lord Balarama, and surrendered to His Lotus feet for instruction. Nityananda Prabhu took Jiva to the many sites where the pastimes of the Caitanya Mahaprabhu had been enacted. He took Jiva to meet Sacidevi, the mother of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Here Jiva also had the privilege to honor prasadam prepared by Vishnupriya, the widow of the Lord. In this way Jiva was visited all the nine islands of Navadvipa. When his mother passed away Jiva resolved to live the life of a recluse in Vrindavan under the guidance of his two elevated uncles. Following the instructions of Lord Nityananda, Jiva first went to Benares to seek out Madhusudana Vachaspati, an important disciple of Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya. In a relatively short time, Jiva became well versed in all aspects of Vedanta philosophy and acquired the reputation of an eminent scholar. Following the instructions of Lord Nityananda, Jiva now proceeded to Vrindavana. By the time Jiva reached Vrindavana, he was twenty years old and was greeted joyfully by his uncles Rupa and Sanatana Goswami. Jiva first approached his elder uncle Sanatana Goswami for initiation into the Caitanyaite Vaishnava line. Out of humility, Sanatana Goswami referred Jiva to his younger brother Rupa Goswami. Before Rupa initiated Jiva, he tested his mettle for one year, by having him perform all kinds of menial service. Finally satisfied that Jiva in addition to being a brilliant scholar also had self-control, humility and respect, Rupa Goswami accepted him as his disciple. Some months passed since Jiva's initiation, and a travelling scholar called Rupanarayana Saraswati arrived in Vrindavana. He was a vastly learned scholar, a 'digvijaya' (one who had conquered in all directions) but, unfortunately his pride was as vast as his knowledge. He was in the habit of travelling to all places, defeating scholars and then getting them to sign a letter of defeat. Having heard of the fame of Rupa and Sanatana Goswami, he had come to challenge them to a debate. In the spirit of true Vaishnava humility, both Rupa and Sanatana simply accepted Rupanarayana as their superior and signed the letter of defeat without engaging in any debate. Rupanarayana then proceeded to challenge Jiva, who was also famous as a scholar. Incensed at the boasting of the vain scholar, Jiva accepted the challenge and defeated him in a debate that lasted for seven days on the banks of the river Yamuna. Rupa Goswami was very upset at this display of nonVaishnava behavior by Jiva. He severely chastised him and actually banished him from Vrindavana. Jiva accepted the rebuke of his spiritual master, and lived for one year in

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Caitanya-candra Mathura, following a vow of silence, living in great austerities in the hollow of a tree and eating very frugally. Finally by the mercy of Sanatana Goswami, Rupa forgave Jiva and accepted him back into Vrindavana. The behavior of Jiva Goswami is exemplary in both respects. As a Vaishnava one is supposed to be meek and humble when one's own honor is insulted, but should not tolerate any disrespect to his spiritual master or Krishna. Jiva' s victory was not for personal prestige but to refute Rupanarayana's unfounded claims of superiority over Rupa and Sanatana Goswami. But at the same time he unwaveringly accepted the chastisement of his spiritual master. Jiva Goswami inspired many great kings of his time. Prominent amongst them was Akbar, the Moslem emperor of India. Having heard of the fame of Jiva Goswami, he personally came and took many instructions from him. So impressed was Akbar, that at the request of Jiva Goswami, he played a major role in establishing prominent temples of worship in Vrindavana, specially the Radha-Damodar temple. The literary contributions of Jiva Goswami are too many to list here. Prominent amongst them is Harinamamrita-vyakarana, which provides a unique way of learning Sanskrit grammar through the names of Krishna. His masterful Shat-sandarba is a six volume literary jewel that fulfills not only the goals of his prestigious uncles and Caitanya Mahaprabhu, but of the entire world. Spiritual knowledge in its purest form is delivered to the fullest extend in these literary masterpiece, which is know being closely scrutinized by scholars all over the world. Jiva Goswami also wrote elaborate commentaries on the works of his uncles, and made the knowledge accessible to every one. He worked hard to preserve the volumes of Vaishnava literature and with the help of Emperor Akbar, masterminded the construction of Granth Bhandara or a library of scriptures. Jiva Goswami was the personification of all Vaishnava qualities. Brilliant yet humble, he dedicated his life to the instructions of his spiritual master and Vaishnava teachers. He was a crucial link between the immediate disciples of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who wrote and explained the philosophy of Bhakti Yoga, and the next generation of Vaishnavas who took these transcendental teachings and preached them to the world.

13.6 Srila Gopala Bhatta Goswami

The six Goswamis of Vrindavan were entrusted by Caitanya Mahaprabhu to provide extensive guidance to people on the path of spirituality. Each of the six Goswamis, Sri Rupa Goswami, Sri Sanatana Goswami, Sri Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami, Sri Raghunatha Das Goswami, Sri Jiva Goswami and Sri Gopal Bhatta Goswami, were instructed and inspired by Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself at various times and places. While Caitanya Mahaprabhu left only eight verse (Siksastakam) that were recorded by Damodara Svarupa and presented by Krishnadas Kaviraja Goswami in the biography Caitanya Charitamrita, He inspired His disciples, chief amongst then the six Goswamis, to write extensively, with scientific precision the process of bhakti. Gopal Bhatta (1503-1578) was born in an orthodox Brahman family in South India. His father Vyenkata Bhatta was a priest of the famous Narayana temple of Sri Rangam. Vyenkata Bhatta and his brothers, Prabhodhananda Saraswati and Tirumalla Bhatta were famous for their vast learning and piety. When Caitanya Mahaprabhu had undertaken His walking trip to South India in 1511, He spent the four rainy months of Caturmasa with them and engaged in deep discussion about philosophy and bhakti. Even though the brothers belonged to the Sri (Laxmi) Sampradaya, which follows the aishwarya (awe and reverence) mode of worship, Mahaprabhu convinced the brothers about the superiority of the ragunaga (spontaneous love) form of worship. Young Gopal was a keen audience to these discussions and was greatly inspired by Caitanya Mahaprabhu. When the departure of Mahaprabhu became imminent, the pain of separation became unbearable for Gopal Bhatta, till he was

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Caitanya-candra pacified by Caitanya Mahaprabhu in a spiritual dream where Mahaprabhu revealed His original identity as Krishna and instructed Gopal Bhatta to serve under Rupa and Sanatana Goswami in Vrindavan. Before leaving how ever, Caitanya Mahaprabhu personally instructed Gopal Bhatta to serve his parents while they were alive. Gopal Bhatta followed these instructions were assiduously. In time he accepted his uncle Prabhodhanada Saraswati to be his spiritual master and acquired a deep understanding of the Sanskrit, grammar, poetry and Vedic scriptures from him. With the combined assets of Prabhodhanada Saraswati's vast knowledge and divine inspiration of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Gopal Bhattas reputation as a scholar and a devotee reached unprecedented proportions. In time he decided that he was now ready to carry out the mission of Caitanya Mahaprabhu and proceeded to Vrindavan to meet Rupa and Sanatana Goswami. When Gopal Bhatta arrived to Vrindavan, he was met with great joy by the pure devotees residing there. Caitanya Mahaprabhu, now in Puri, was also pleased and send him many personal articles and paraphernalia for worship. Following these instructions, Gopal Bhatta immersed himself in writing about the science of bhakti. His book Sat-Kriya-Sar-Dipika is a classic on the tenets of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. This delineates with great care the ten rituals or samsakaras giving common people valuable guidance on the gradual elevation to spiritual life while pursuing materialistic activities. His next book Samskara Dipika, elucidates the rules of behavior and conduct of the sannyasis or renunciants. His greatest work is the Hari-Bhakti-Vilas, which he corroborated with Rupa Goswami, comprises of twenty vilas (chapters) that provided a scientific, step-by-step analysis of Vaishnava etiquette, and takes one through the pitfalls and dangers in the path of spiritual advancement. Living his life as an embodiment of the scriptures, Gopal Bhatta's fame as a scholar and a pure devotee spread all over India. In a trip to the Gandaki River in Nepal, Gopal Bhatta carried back with him twelve shilas (special stones that are considered as incarnations of Krishna). However on reaching Vrindavan, he felt himself unqualified to worship them and made the long, arduous journey back to place the shilas back in the river. The shilas however refused to be left in the water and repeatedly jumped back into his hand. Taking this as a sign from Krishna, Gopal Bhatta took them back with him and began worshipping them very nicely in Vrindavan. Once on a festival, Gopal Bhatta felt constrained by his inability to dress and decorate the shilas. Responding to his intense desire, one of the shilas, called the Damodar shila, overnight acquired the form of a deity, much to the pleasure of Gopal Bhatta. This deity, named as Radha Ramandev, is still worshipped in the same place in Vrindavan and is one of the most famous temples in the Vraja dhama. Gopal Bhatta initiated such luminaries as Shrinivas Acarya and Gopinatha Pujari who continued as the priest for Radha Ramandev. On the instructions of Gopal Bhatta (who himself was a lifelong celibate), Gopinatha Pujari married and his descendants worship the Radha-Ramandev deity to this day. Gopal Bhatta is famous for his erudition, humility and devotion. His intense study and elaborate knowledge of scriptures acquired him a reputation as one of the most important religious scholar ever produced, while his love and devotion for Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Sri Krishna catapulted him to the status of a saint. He is always revered as one of the six Goswamis of Vrindavan and to this day followers commemorate his exemplary life by visiting his samadhi (tomb) at the Radha-Ramandev temple in Vrindavan.

14 LORD CAITANYA AND HIS ETERNAL ASSOCIATES SPIRITUAL IDENTITIES


All the associates of Lord Caitanya are nitya-siddha, or eternally perferct. The associates of Lord Caitanya are never imperfect. Sri Gaura-gannodesa dipika, a sanskrit text of the Gaudiya
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Caitanya-candra Vaisnavas gives the spiritual identity of Lord Caitanyas eternal and confidential associates. Here are some of the spiritual identities of some of the Lords associates. Sri Nityananda Prabhu is the same Balarama, who appeared as the son of Rohinidevi and the brother of Sri Krsna in Dvapara-yuga. Namacarya Srila Haridas Thakur was a dual incarnation of Lord Brahma and Prahlada Maharaja. Nanda Maharaja, the King of Vrajabhumi appeared as Jagannatha Misra, the father of Sri Caitanya. And Mother Yasoda, the Queen of Vrajabumi appeared as Srimati Sacidevi, the mother of Lord Caitanya. Sri Laksmidevi was formerly Janaki, the wife of Lord Ramacandra and Rukmini, the wife of Lord Krsna in Dvarka. The same goddess of fortune descended as Laksmidevi, the wife of Lord Caitanya. Visnupriya devi, Lord Caitanyas second wife was also an incarnation of Laksmidevi, the goddess of fotune. Lord Caitanyas elder brother,Visvarupa was also an incarnation of Balarama. Rama Dasa, Gauri Dasa, Sundara, Krsna Dasa, Purusottama, Sri Kamalakara, Kala Krsna Dasa,and Uddharana Dutta, the dvadasa gopalas, twelve cowherd boys of Vraja appeared again as Lord Caitanyas associates. Hanumana the dearmost servent of Lord Ramacandra appeared as Murari Gupta in Kali-yuga. Minaketana Ramadasa was none other than Sankarsana. Vakresvara Pandita was Aniruddha. Nilambara Cakravarti, the maternal grandfather of Lord Gaurahari was the same Gargamuni who in Dvapara-yuga was the guru of the Yadu dynasty. Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya was an incarnation Brhaspati, the guru of the demigods. The six principal disciples of Lord Caitanya: Rupa Goswami was a gopi named Rupa Manjari; Sanatana Goswami was a gopi named Rati Manjari; Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami was a gopi named Raga Manjari; Jiva Goswami was a gopi named Vilasa Manjari;Raghunatha Dasa Goswami was a gopi named Rasa Manjari and Gopala Bhatta Goswami was a gopi named Ananga Manjari in krsna-lila. Ramananda Raya, a great devotee of Lord Caitanya was Arjuna (the son of Queen Kunti) in the previous yuga. Virabhadra Gosani was an incarnation of Ksirodakasayi Visnu. The author of Sri Caitanya-Bhagavat, Srila Vrindavan dasa Thakur was an incarnation of Srila Vyasadeva, the compiler of the Vedic scriptures. Svarupa Damodara was the same gopi named Visakhadevi who serves the Lord in Goloka Vrindavana. Rama Pandita, Srivasas younger brother was an incarnation of Parvata Muni, a great friend of Narada. Gopinatha Simha was previously Akrura. The two very fine singers of Vraja namely Madhukantha and Madhuvrata in krsna-lila appeared as Mukunda and Vasudeva Datta respectively in caitanya-lila. Sandipani Muni who formerly offered the sacred thread to Krsna and Balarama in Dvapara-yuga later became Kesava Bharati who offered sannyasa to Lord Caitanya. Paramananda Puri, Isvara Puris godbrother was none other than Uddhava who was Lord Krsnas friend and uncle in krsna-lila became the friend of Lord Caitanya and His uncle in terms of their relationship in the disciplic succession. The two drunkard brothers namely Jagai and Madhai were actually Jai and Vijaya, two great devotees of the Lord Visnu who were cursed to take three demonic births before returning to their rightful position in the spiritual wold. First, they took birth as Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu. Then as Ravana and Kumbhakarna. And finally as Sisupal and Dantavakra. After these three incarnations, however, they again took a special birth in the material world. This time as Jagai and Madhai. And in this way they were blessed to take part in Lord Caitanyas pastimes. Apart from this, there are other such spiritual identities of the associates of the Lord mentioned in the text.

15 GLORIES OF LORD CAITANYAS HOLY NAMES


(III) In the Brahma-rahasya it is stated: krsna-caitanyeti nama, mukhyan mukhyatamam prabhoh

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Caitanya-candra helaya sakrd uccarya, sarva-nama-phalam labhet. "The holy name Krsna Caitanya is the topmost even among all the important primary holy names of the Lord Krsna. By chanting this name just once, a person attains the results (punya) of chanting all the other holy names of the Lord." In the Visnu-yamala it is said: krsna-caitanya-namna ye, kirtayanti sakrn narah; namaparadha-muktas te, punanti sakalam jagat. "Those who chant the name of Krsna Caitanya even once become free from all offenses and purify all the worlds by their very presence." Srila Jagadananda Pandita says in Prema-vivarta: gaura ye visala nama sei nama gau; anya saba nama-mahatmya sei name pau. "The most powerful names of God are the names of the most merciful incarnation of God, who is known as Lord Gaura. The glories and power of all the other names of God are completely present in the names of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu."

16 THE YUGA-DHARMA AND THE HARE KRSNA MAHAMANTRA


What is the dharma in kali-yuga according to Vedic scriptures? In the Srimad Bhagavatam (11.5.32), it is stated: krsna varnam tvisakrsnam | sangopangastra parsadam|| yajnaih sankirtana prayair | yajanti hi sumedhasah || In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the holy name of Krsna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krsna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions. In the Srimad Bhagavatam (11.5.36) it is stated: kali sabhjayanty ry gua j sra-bhgina yatra sakrtanenaiva sarva-svrtho bhilabhyate Those who are actually advanced in knowledge are able to appreciate the essential value of this age of Kali. Such enlightened persons worship Kali-yuga because in this fallen age all perfection of life can easily be achieved by the performance of sakrtana of the Suprem Lords holy names.

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In the Srimad Bhagavatam (12.3.51-52), it is stated: kaler doa-nidhe rjann asti hy eko mahn gua krtand eva kasya mukta-saga para vrajet krte yad dhyayato visnum tretayam yajato makhaih dvapare paricaryayam kalau tad dhari-kirtanat Sukadeva Goswami says to Pariksit Maharaja: "My dear King, although Kali-yuga is an ocean of faults, there is still one good quality about this age; simply by chanting the Hare Krishna mahamantra one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcedental kingdom. Whatever result was obtained in Satya-yuga be meditating on Visnu, in Treta-yuga by performing sacrifices and in Dvapara-yuga by serving the Lord's feet can be obtained in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Krishna maha-mantra" dhyayan krte yajan | yajnais- tretayam dvapare || rcayan yadapnoti tadapnoti | kalau samkirtaya kesavam || "The supreme goal which was attained in Satya-yuga by years of prolonged meditation; in Treta-yuga by performing extensive yajnas; in Dvapara-yuga by opulent and scrupulous Deity worship; in Kali-yuga the same results are easily attained simply by the chanting of the holy names of Kesava (Krsna)." (Visnu Purana) harer nama harer nama | harer namaiva kevalam || kalau nasty eva nasty eva | nasty eva gatir anyatha || "In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy the only means of deliverance is chanting of the holy name of ONLY Lord Hari. There is no other way. There is no other way. There is no other way." (Brhad Naradiya Purana) harinama para ye ca ghore kali-yuge narah | te eva krtakrtyasca na kalir badhate hi tan hare || kesava govinda vasudeva jaganmaya | itirayanti ye nityam na hi tam badhate kalih || "In this dark age of Kali-yuga, sincere devotees of the Supreme Lord Krsna should leave aside all other means for liberation and take full shelter of the holy name. This is their real responsibility and duty. There is unlimited bliss in chanting the different names of Krsna: Hari, Kesava, Govinda, Vasudeva and Jaganmaya. For one who chants constantly with unflinching faith, he remains unaffected by the reverses of Kali-yuga, because his heart has become purified by chanting." (Brhan-naradiya Purana) hari-nama-para ye ca | hari-kirtana tat parah || hari-puja-para ye ca te | krtarthah kalau-yuge || "Those who engage in chanting the holy name of Lord Hari (japa), are addicted to congregational chanting (kirtana) and engage in the worship of Lord Hari, have accomplished their desires in the age of Kali." (Brhan-naradiya Purana) dhyayan krte yajan | yajnais tretayam dvapare ||

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Caitanya-candra rcayan yad apnoti tad apnoti | kalau sankirtya kesavam || "Whatever is achieved in Satya-yuga by meditation, in Treta by offering ritual sacrifices and in Dvapara by temple worship is achieved in Kali-yuga by chanting the names of Lord Kesava congregationally." (Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda 42nd Chapter) satyam kali-yuga vipra | sri harer nama mangalam || param svastyayanam nrnam | nasty-eva gatir anyatha || "Oh brahmana, chanting of the holy name of Sri Hari is the auspicious process in Kali Yuga. It is the highest auspiciousness for mankind. There is no other way." (Padma Purana) krsna krsneti krsneti | svapan jagrad vrajamstatha || yo jalpati kalau nityam | krsna-rupi bhaveddhi sah || "Whoever continuously chants Lord Krsna's holy name, even in his sleep, can easily realise that the name is a direct manifestation of Krsna Himself, in spite of the influences of Kaliyuga. This has been ordained by Lord Krsna. (Varaha Purana) kali-kala kusarpasya | tiksna-damstrasya ma bhayam || govinda-nama-danena | dagdhoyasyati bhasmatam || "I see that Kali-yuga is like a black, poisonous snake with a gaping mouth and fangs. But please be unperturbed dear devotees and listen with faith. Once the holy name of Lord Govinda is being chanted, it is like igniting a forest fire which will burn to ashes the poisonous snakes within the forest. (Skanda Purana) mahabhagavata nityam | kalau samkirtaya kesavam || "The hallmark of a mahabhagavata, the most elevated devotee in Kali-yuga is that he chants the holy name of Lord Kesava (Krsna) constantly. (Skanda Purana) varjams-tisthan svapannasnan svasan | vakya-prapuranenama-samkirtanam || visnor- helaya kali-vardhanam krtva | svarupatam yati bhakti-yuktam param vrajet || "In our normal activities of eating, sleeping, sitting, dreaming, etc. to chant Krsna's names, while nullify the ill effects of Kali-yuga, is the perfection of speech. Even it a person chants Krsna's names indifferently, he will surely achieve his svarupa, or original spiritual self and attain that state beyond all material fear and lamentation. He will reach Vaikuntha, the supreme goal. (Linga Purana) And finally, Srila Madhvacarya himself, quoting Narayana Samhita, in his Mundakopanisad Bhasya says: dvapariyair janair visnuh | pancaratrais tu kevalam || kalau tu nama-matrena | pujyate bhagavan harih ||

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Caitanya-candra "In the Dvapara-yuga people should worship Lord Visnu only by the regulative principles of the pancaratra and other such authorized books. In the Age of Kali, however, people should only chant the holy names of the Supreme Personality of Godhead." PURIFICATION BY CHANTING The portency of the offenseless chanting is so immense that even the most fallen and sinful person can obtain enormous spiritual benefits by enganging in this process. aho bata sva-paco 'to gariyan yaj-jihvagre vartate nama tubhyam | tepus tapas te juhuvuh sasnur arya brahmanucur nama grnanti ye te || Oh, how glorious are they whose tongues are chanting Your holy name! Even if born in the families of dog-eaters, such persons are worshipable. Persons who chant the holy name of Your Lordship must have executed all kinds of austerities and fire sacrifices and achieved all the good manners of the Aryans. To be chanting the holy name of Your Lordship, they must have bathed at holy places of pilgrimage, studied the Vedas and fulfilled everything required. (Devahuti to Lord Kapiladev) (SB 3.33.7) tasmat sankirtanam visnor | jagan-mangalam amhasam || mahatam api kauravya | viddhy aikantika-niskrtam || My dear King, the chanting of the holy name of the Lord is able to uproot even the reactions of the greatest sins. Therefore the chanting of the sankirtana movement is the most auspicious activity in the entire universe. Please try to understand this so that others will take it seriously. (Sri Sukadeva Goswami to Maharaja Pariksita) (SB 6.3.31) namno hi yavati saktih | papa-nirarane hareh tavat || kartum na saknoti | patakam pataki narah || Simply by chanting the holy name of Hari, a sinful man can counteract the reactions of more sins than he is able to commit. (Brhad Vishnu Purana) THE REMEDY FOR THE AGE OF KALI The Srimad Bhagavatam, spoken 5,000 years ago accurately predicted the symptoms in the current age of Kali, also known as the age of quarrel and hypocrisy. However, this age has also received special benediction by the merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead, to make it very easy for us to return back home, back to Godhead. prayenalpayusah sabhya kalav asmin yuge janah mandah sumanda-matayo manda-bhagya hy upadrutah O learned one, in this iron age of Kali men have but short lives. They are quarrelsome, lazy, misguided, unlucky and, above all, always disturbed. [Sukadeva Goswami] SB 1.1.10 dure vary-ayanam tirtham lavanyam kesa-dharanam udaram-bharata svarthah satyatve dharstyam eva hi daksyam kutumba-bharanam yaso 'rthe dharma-sevanam

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Caitanya-candra A sacred place will be taken to consist of no more than a reservoir of water located at a distance, and beauty will be thought to depend on one's hairstyle. Filling the belly will become the goal of life, and one who is audacious will be accepted as truthful. He who can maintain a family will be regarded as an expert man, and the principles of religion will be observed only for the sake of reputation. [Sukadeva Goswami] SB 12.2.6 THE POWER OF CHANTING All Vedic scriptures have glorified the chanting of holy name as the most portend method to free one from material attachments and develop a love for spirituality. The following verses from Srimad Bhagavatam nicely illustrate this point. apannah samsrtim ghoram | yan-nama vivaso grnan || tatah sadyo vimucyeta | yad bibheti svayam bhayam || Living beings who are entangled in the complicated meshes of birth and death can be freed immediately by even unconsciously chanting the holy name of Krsna, which is feared by fear personified. (SB 1.1.14 ) srnvanti gayanti grnanty abhiksnasah | smaranti nandanti tavehitam janah || ta eva pasyanty acirena tavakam | bhava-pravahoparamam padambujam || O Krsna, those who continuously hear, chant and repeat Your transcendental activities, or take pleasure in others' doing so, certainly see Your lotus feet, which alone can stop the repetition of birth and death. (SB 1.8.36) etan nirvidyamananam | icchatam akuto-bhayam || yoginam nrpa nirnitam | harer namanukirtanam || O King, constant chanting of the holy name of the Lord after the ways of the great authorities is the doubtless and fearless way of success for all, including those who are free from all material desires, those who are desirous of all material enjoyment, and also those who are self-satisfied by dint of transcendental knowledge. (SB 2.1.11) In the Vedic scriptures it is mentioned that to save oneself from the contamination of Kaliyuga there is no other alternative, but to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. No other mantra is superior to this taraka-brahma nama (Hare Krsna) maha-mantra. There are no rules and regulations to chant this maha-mantra. It can be chanted anywhere, in any condition and by anyone. 16.1 The Sequence Of The Mah-Mantra One school of thought says that the mah-mantra should be chanted in the following sequence: hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare This understanding is based on the following points:

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Caitanya-candra 1) The Kali-santaraa Upaniad, published by Venkatesh Press, Mumbai, states that this mah-mantra begins with the words hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare followed by hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare. 2) In a book called Kalya from Gorakhpura, the mah-mantra is written in the above mentioned sequence. 3) r Rma appeared in Tret-yuga. Later r Ka appeared in Dvpara-yuga. It is therefore logical to chant hare rma first and then hare ka. The above mentioned views are both illogical and unfounded: 1) Earlier publications of the Kali-santaraa Upaniad by Venkatesh Press, Mumbai, clearly state that the mah-mantra begins with hare ka and not with hare rma. These earlier publications are still preserved in libraries in Calcutta and Jaipura. 2) Kalya, published by Gt Press, Gorakhpura, is not a bona fide proof with which to support the above perspective. 3) That Tret-yuga is followed by Dvpara-yuga has no effect on the eternal mah-mantra. The mah-mantra is beyond all yugas and time. This topic can only be understood by chanting the brahma mahmantra, the deliverer of all yugas. Reference to r Bhagavns names in the different yugas can found in the Ananta-Sahit: Satya-yuga: nryaa par vedh nryaa par kara nryaa par mukti nryaa par gati Nryaa is declared the Supreme in all the Vedas. Nryaa is the supreme of all letters. Nryaa is the supreme liberation. Nryaa is the supreme path. Tret-yuga: rma nryaa-ananta mukunda madhusdana ka keava kasre hare vaikuha vmana He Rma! He Nryaa! He nanta! He Mukunda! He Madhusdana! He Ka! He Keava! He Kasre! He Hare! He Vaikuha! He Vmana! Dvpara-yuga: hare murre madhu-kaitabre gopla govinda mukunda aure yajea nryaa ka vio nirraya m jagada raka Hare, Murre, Madhu-Kaitabre, Gopla, Govinda, Mukunda, aure, Lord of all yajas Nryaa, Ka, Viu! He Jagada, please protect me! I have no other shelter. Kali-yuga:

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Caitanya-candra hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare oa-aitni nmni dvtrinad vara kni hi kalau yuge mah-mantra sammato jva trae Hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare. This hare krsna mah-mantra consists of sixteen names and thirty-two syllables. In Kaliyuga this mah-mantra can deliver all jvas. Thus, in regard to the third point, it is evident that the brahma mah-mantra (Kas name) was present as the deliverer even in Tret-yuga, before the appearance of Ka in Dvparayuga, with names such as Mukunda, Madhusdana, Ka, Keava and Kasri. Therefore, the advice and arguments given about the reversed sequence of the mah-mantra are invalid. The lokas of the Ananta-Sahit clearly state that in the Upanads, such as the Kali-santaraa Upaniad, the mah-mantra is written in the following sequence: hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare. Sri Nrada received the mah-mantra in this sequence from his guru, Brahm, and this tradition is still practiced today in the Brahm Madhv Gauya Vaiava Sampradya. In other sampradyas, however, this mah-mantra does not descend through the guru parampar, and therefore its secret and sequence are unknown to persons in those sampradyas. It is no wonder that they reverse the sequence of the mah-mantra and begin it with hare rma. Other bona fide stras give evidence regarding the form of the mah-mantra: iya syoda mukha-sthasya harer-nmni oaa sarvyaiva tato dagdhn mantra trai-lokya-mangalam r Gurudeva should recite the sixteen words of the hare ka maha-mantra to the disciple before initiating him into the gopla mantra, which brings auspiciousness to the three worlds. To receive this gopla mantra, the disciple must sit facing north and receive the mantra in his right ear. (Jnmta-sra) 16.2 Hare Krsna Maha-Mantra The Great Chanting For Deliverance In Kali-Yuga The Hare Krsna maha-mantra has been prescribed by Lord Brahma in the Kalisantarana Upanisad (5; 6) of Krishna Yajur Veda as follows: hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || iti sodasakam namnam kali-kalmasa-nasanam | natah parataropayah sarva-vedesu drsyate || Lord Brahma instructs his son and disciple, Narada Muni as follows: The sixteen words of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra - (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare) - are especially meant for counteracting the sins of Kaliyuga. To save oneself from the contamination of Kali-yuga there is no other alternative, but to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.After searching through all the Vedic scriptures one

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Caitanya-candra cannot find a method of religion for this age (Kali-yuga) so sublime as the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. In the Vedic scripture, Sri Brahma Yamala, it is stated as follows: harim bina nasti kijcat papani-starakam kalau | tasmal-lokod-dharana-artham hari-nama prakasayet || sarvatra mucyate loko maha-papat kalau yuge | hare-krsna-pada-dvandvam krsneti ca pada-dvayam || tatha hare-pada-dvandvam hare-rama iti dvayam | tad-ante ca maha-devi rama rama dvayam vadet || hare hare tato bruyad harinama samud dharet | maha-mantram ca krsnasya sarvapapa pranasakamiti || hari bin nsti kicat ppani-straka kalau tasml-lokod-dhra-rtha hari-nma prakayet sarvatra mucyate loko mah-ppt kalau yuge hare-ka-pada-dvandva keti ca pada-dvayam tath hare-pada-dvandva hare-rma iti dvayam tad-ante ca mah-dev rma rma dvaya vadet hare hare tato bryd harinma samud dharet mah-mantra ca kasya sarvappa praakamiti Lord Siva says to Parvati-devi: O Mahadevi! Look! In Kali-yuga there is no easier way to eradicate sins than by the holy names of Lord Krsna. It is therefore essential to propagate the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra among the general populous. The people in Kali-yuga can be easily liberated from the greatest hell by performing sankirtana of this Hare Krsna maha-mantra. To chant the maha-mantra, first chant hare krsna twice, then chant krsna twice, then hare twice. After that, chant hare rama twice, then rama twice and again hare twice. Thus the maha-mantra: Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Rama Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. One should chant, articulate and perform sankirtana etc., of this Hare Krsna maha-mantra, which destroys all sins. Furthermore, Sri Ananta-samhita states: hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || sodasaitani namani dvatrimsad varnakani hi | kalau yuge maha-mantrah sammato jivatarane || varjayitva tu namaitad durjanaih parikalpitam | chandobaddham susiddhanta viruddham nabhyaset padam || tarakam brahma-namaitad brahmana gurunadina | kalisantaranadyasu sruti-svadhigatam hareh || praptam sri brahma-sisyena sri naradena dhimata | namaitad-uttamam srauta-paramparyena brahmanah || utsrjyaitan-maha-mantram ye tvanyat kalpitam padam | mahanameti gayanti te sastra-guru langhanah || tattva-virodha-sanprktam tadrsam daurjanam matam |

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Caitanya-candra sravatha pariharyam syadatma-hitarthina sada || hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare - This sixteen-name, thirty-two syllable mantra is the maha-mantra in Kali-yuga by which all living beings can be delivered. One should never abandon chanting this mahamantra and take to other so-called purificatory processes which are practiced by rascals, or engage in chanting other metrical compositions of the name of Krishna that are against the pure conclusions of the scriptures, or are filled with rasaabhaas. About this divinely spiritual maha-mantra, which delivers one from material existence, the original guru, Lord Brahma, has said, kali-santararadi sruti, "The srutis have declared this mantra to be the best means of deliverance in the age of Kali". Having all heard this from Brahma, the sons and disciples of Brahma, beginning with Narada, all accepted the Hare Krishna mahamantra and, having meditated on it, attained perfection. Moreover, in the Brahmanda Purana, Radha Hrdya Khanda, Romaharsana Suta prays to Sri Vedavyasa as follows: yat tvaya kirtitam natha hari-nameti sanjitam | mantram brahma-padam siddhi karam-tad-vad-no-vibho || O master, O mighty one! Please glorify the Hari-nama mantra situated in transcendence, the cause of all perfection! grhanad yasya mantrasya dehi brahma-mayo bhavet | sadhyah putah surapo pi sarva-siddhi-yuto bhavet | tad-aham te bhidhasyami maha-bhagavato hamsi || hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || iti sodasakam namnam tri-kala kalmasapaham | natah parataropayah sarva vedesu vidhyate || Sri Vedavyasa said to Romaharsana Suta O my son the embodied soul who takes up the maha-mantra will become filled with transcendence, and by accepting it, even a drunkard will attain all perfections. I will recite this mantra to you, for you are a swan-like mahabhagavata and a suitable candidate. Just see! The sixteen word maha-mantra, Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare, can destroy the sins of the three worlds. The Vedas do not mention a method for achieving liberation from material bondage superior to the chanting of this maha-mantra. In Sri Radha Tantra, the following is stated: srnu matarmahamaye visva-bija-svarupini | hari namno mahamaye kramaG vad suresvari || Hear me, O mother Mahamaya, seed of the universe personified, mistress of the gods! Please explain the sequence of Hari-nama.

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Caitanya-candra hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || dvatrim sadaksaranyeva kalau namani sarvadam | etanmantram suta srestha prathamam srnuyan nar ah || Tripura-devi said: O best among sons! The maha-mantra for Kali-yuga bestows all perfection. This maha-mantra, is composed of sixteen names and thirty-two syllables: Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. Therefore, a person who desires his own welfare should first hear this Hare Krsna maha-mantra from a bonafide spiritual master. The Hare-Krsna maha-mantra is also mentioned in the Sanat-Kumara-samhita as follows: hare-krsnau dvir avrttau | krsna tadrk tatha hare || hare rama tatha rama | tatha tadrg ghare manuh || The words hare krsna are repeated twice, and then krsna and hare are both separately twice repeated. In the same way, hare rama, rama and hare are twice repeated.The mahamantra is thus: Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. Also in the Vayu-Purana, the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna says to Lord Brahma: tatha catra bhavisyami bhaktyanugraha-kamyaya | sahasrasovatara me gita brahman yuge yuge | bana-margair veda-margai ripunam tatra sanksayam || bhaktanam taranam krtva khyapitam sva-yasah ksitau | kalau nasta-drsam esa mat-padyarka udesyat || hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || sakrd dvis trir yatha-sakti yavaj jivam athapi va | vyaharan svapacopi syan mama bhakto na samsayah || O Brahma, yuga after yuga I kindly appear in many thousands of incarnations. Walking either on the path of arrows or the path of the Vedas, I deliver the devotees, destroy their enemies, and place My glory on the earth. For they who have become blinded by Kaliyuga, a mantra with My holy names will rise like a glorious sun. This verse is: Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. One should chant this mantra once, twice, thrice, as many times as one is able, or again and again for as long as one lives. By chanting this maha-mantra even a dogeater may become My devotee. Also in the Brahmanda Purana, Uttara Khanda 6.55 it is stated: Pipplada mentions that Vrsabhanu Maharaja once prayed to Kratu Muni, O Lord, if you want to favour me, then please donate to me the names of Hari. At that moment the saintly Kratu Muni gave him the sixteen name maha-mantra (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare). By clearly pronouncing

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Caitanya-candra this maha-mantra, one can attain brahma (salokya, samipya, sarupya and sayujya). Not only that, one can attain krsna-prema, the fifth goal of human life (panca purusartha). In the Caitanya-Upanisad, Atharva-Veda, Lord Brahma tells his son Pipplada as follows: mantro guhyah paramo bhakti vedyah The Maha-Mantra is confidential, transcendental and can be understood only by devotional service, (bhakti-yoga). namany astav asta ca sobhanani | tani nityam ye japanti dhiras te vai mayam atitaranti nanyah | paramam mantram parama-rahasyam nityam avartayanti || These sixteen names are supremely beautified. Those who chant them regularly are sober persons who are able to cross beyond the illusory energy. There is no other means. One should repeat this maha-mantra which is the supreme secret, regularly. In the Caitanya Upanisad it is further stated by Lord Brahma as follows: sva nama-mula-mantrena sarvam hladayati vibhuh | sa eve mulam-mantram japati haririti krsna iti rama iti || The name is the root of all mantras, the splendid one bringing joy to everyone. This rootmantra is chanted as Hari, Krsna and Rama. sa eva mula-mantram japati harir iti krsna iti rama iti || 11 || He (Lord Caitanya) chants the original mantra consisting of Hari, Krishna and Rama. harati hrdaya-granthim vasana-rupam iti harih. krsih smarane tac ca nas tad ubhaya-melanam iti krsnah. ramayati sarvam iti rama ananda-rupah. atra sloko bhavati || 12 || He who removes the knot in the heart in the form of material desire, is called Hari. The union by the remembrance of the root krs- and the affix - na, is the hymn of praise Krishna . He who gives pleasure to everything is the form of bliss - Rama. Thus the verse becomes. In the Padma Purana it is stated about the maha-mantra as follows: dvatrimsad-aksaram mantram nama-sodasakanvitam | prajapan vaisnavo nityam radha-krsna-sthalam labhet || "Those Vaisnavas who always chant the maha-mantra composed of sixteen names divided into thirty-two syllables (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare) attain Sri Vrndavana, the abode of Sri Radha-Krsna."

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Caitanya-candra In the Padma Purana the following statement on the congregational chanting of the mahamantra is also found: harer nama maha-mantrair nasyet papa pisacakam | harer agra svarair uccair nrtyam stan-namakrin- nar ah | punati bhuvanam vipra! gaggadi salilam yatha || hare pradaksinam kurvann uccais tan nama krin nar ah | karataladi sandhanam susvaram kala sabditam || Anyone who dances in front of Sri Hari and loudly chants the maha-mantra (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare) will destroy all witches of sin. Just as the water of sacred rivers like the Ganga purify the universe, similarly those who circumambulate Sri Hari and loudly perform nama sankirtana of the sixteen word maha-mantra with sweet voices and while clapping the hands, purify the entire universe. In the Agni Purana it is stated: hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare ratanti halaya vapi te krtartha na samsayah Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare: Whoever chants this mantra, even neglectfully, will attain the supreme goal of life. Of this there is no doubt. In the Smriti sastra it says: advitya yath mantra traka brahma nmakam | japitv siddhim pnoti satya satya vadmy aham | imam eva japan mantra tryamabakas tripur ntaka | Chanting the peerless taraka-brahma-mantra (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare / Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare), which is taraka-brahma-nama, the great chanting for deliverance in Kali-yuga, one obtains perfection. This is the truth. This is the truth. It is only by chanting this great mantra Lord Siva killed the Tripurasuras. Gopala Guru Gosvami, drawing from the Brahmanda Purana has presented the following meaning for the maha-mantra: vijjapya bhagavat-tattvam cid ghanananda vigraham | haratyavidham tatkaryamato haririti smrtah || harati sri-krsna-manah krsnahlada-svarupini | ato harety anenaiva sri-radha parikirtita || anandaikasukhah sriman syamah kamala locanah | gokulanando nanda-nandanah krsna iryate || vaidagdhi sarasarvasvam murtalila dhidaivatam | sri radham ramayan nityam rama ity abhidiyate ||

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Caitanya-candra The Lord is known as Hari because he takes away the ignorance of his devotees by revealing to them the actual nature of the Supreme Lord and his personal spiritual form. Because She steals Krishna's mind, because She is the incarnation of Krishna 's joy, Radha is also known by the name Hara. The dark, lotus-eyed lord, the only master of the highest joy, who brings pleasure to Gokula, the son of Nanda, is known as Krishna . Krishna is also known as Rama because the joys of conjugal life are the essence of his being, because He is the titulary deity of loving sports incarnate, and because he brings pleasure to Srimati Radharani. The fruit of chanting the thirty-two-syllable maha-mantra is described in the Padma Purana, Svarga Khanda 50.6 as follows: harir eva samaradhyah | sarva deve suresvarah || hari nama maha mantrair | nasyatpapa pisacakam || All the grievous sins of one who worships Lord Sri Hari, the Lord of all lords, and chants the holy name, the maha-mantra (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare), are removed. The dhyana that accompanies this maha-mantra is also found in the Sanat-kumara-samhita as follows: dhyayed vrndavane ramye gopa-gobhir alankrte | kadamba-padapa-cchaye yamuna-jala-sitale || radhaya sahitam krsnam vamsi-vadana-tat-param | tribhanga-lalitam devam bhaktanugraha-karakam || Sri Krsna is sporting in the cooling waters of the Yamuna, or in the shade of a kadamba tree in the beautiful Vrndavana forest. He is ornamented (surrounded) by the cows and gopas, and is accompanied by Sri Radha. He is very skillful at playing the flute as He stands in a charming tribhanga pose, bestowing mercy and kindness upon the bhaktas. By clearly pronouncing this mah-mantra, one can attain brahma (salokya, sampya, sarpya and syujya). Not only that, one can attain ka-prema, the fifth goal of human life (paca pururtha). r Bhakti-chandrika, 7th Paal states: atha mantra-vara vakye dvtrim-ad-akar anvitam sarva-ppa-praamana sarva-durvsan analam catur-varga-parada saumya bhaktida prema-prvakam durbuddhi-haraa uddha-sattva-buddhi-pradyakam sarva-ardhya sarva-sevya sarvem kma-prakam sarva-adhikr-samyuktam sarva-lokaika-bndhavam

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Caitanya-candra sarva-akarsaa-samyukta dua-bydhi-vinanam dk-vidhi-vihna ca kla-kla-vivarjitam v-mtrercita bhma-pja-avidhyan-apekakam jihv-sparan-mtrea sarvem phala-dyakam dea-kl-niyamita sarva-vdisusammatam This mah-mantra is endowed with thirty-two syllables and can destroy all sins. Just as fire destroys, this mah-mantra can destroy all evil habits and bestow dharma, artha, kma and moka. Its beautiful form (svarpa) is capable of stealing all of ones foolish, ignorant mentality, and it is the giver of uddha sattvika intelligence. It bestows the symptoms of prema-bhakti. It is worshipable and is worthy of being served by all. r nma fulfills everyones desires. All are qualified to serve this mah-mantra, meaning all are qualified to perform sakrtana of the mah-mantra. This mah-mantra is the personal well-wisher of everyone and is endowed with the potency to attract all. It is the destroyer of all afflictions. It does not consider the rules of dk, and is not restricted by time. The mah-mantra is worshipped just by saying it. No external paraphernalia is required. It is capable of giving results simply by its contact with the tongue, without considering the rules pertaining to time, place and circumstance. This mantras quality of yielding fruits to the devotees is apparent. By regularly chanting this mantra consisting of sixteen names, the devotees transcendentally cross beyond the state of being overcome by the illusory, material energy. There is no other means than this. Even the eternally perfect souls regularly repeat this mantra for the sake of their own dharma. Therefore it is clear that the yuga-dharma in this age is Hari-nama sankirtana, as proclaimed in the above Vedic references. Furthermore, the above verses clearly describe that the advent and purpose of Sri Caitanyadeva's appearance is to propogate the yuga-dharma Hari-nama sankirtan. 16.3 Sri Kalisantarana Upanisad harih aum | dvaparante narado brahmanam jagama katham bhagavan gam paryatan kalim santareyam iti | 1 "At the end of Dvapara-yuga, after traveling around the world, Sri Narada approached Lord Brahma and after offering his obeisances asked him: 'How may one overcome the evil effects of Kali-yuga?'" sa hovaca brahma sadhu prshto asmi sarvasrutirahasyam gopyam tacchrunu yena kalisamsaram tarishyasi | "Lord Brahma replied: 'You have asked me an excellent question. I shall reveal to you the most confidential secret of the entire Vedas, by which one will cross over the (ocean of) samsara filled with the bad effects of the Kali Yuga. This secret must be preserved and protected.'"

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Caitanya-candra bhagavata adi purushasya nar ayanasya namoccarana matrena nirdhrta kalirbhavati | Lord Brahma replied O son, you have asked an excellent question. Please hear the most confidential secret of the entire Vedas by which you can easily be freed from the clutches of Kali."'By merely uttering the names of that adi purusa who is Bhagavan Sri Narayana (Krsna), one is freed from the clutches of Kali.' naradah punah papraccha tannama kimiti | Narada asked again: 'What are those names of the Supreme Lord?'" sa hovaca hiranyagarbhah | hare krishna hare krishna krishna krishna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || iti shodasakam namnam kalikalmasha-nashanam | natah parataropayah sarvavedeshu drsyate || Lord Brahma instructed Narada as follows: The sixteen words of the Hare Krsna mahamantra - Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare - are especially meant for counteracting the sins of Kali-yuga. To save oneself from the contamination of Kali-yuga there is no other alternative, but to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. After searching through all the Vedic scriptures one cannot find a method of religion for this age (Kali-yuga) so sublime as the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. iti shodasa kalavrtasya jivasya varana vinasanam | tatah prakasate param brahma meghapaye ravirasmi mandaliveti | "'This mantra destroys the sixteen kalas of the jiva, beginning with the prana, which constitute the veil of ignorance. Then the Supreme Lord manifests before the jiva, just as the suns rays shine brightly after a covering of cloud is removed.'" pu nar nar adah papraccha bhagavan ko asya vidhiriti | Narada then asked, Oh Lord, what are the rules and regulations for chanting this mahamantra? tam hovaca nasya vidhiriti | Lord Brahma replied by saying, There are no rules and regulations for chanting this maha-mantra. sarvada sucirasucirva pathan brahmanah salokatam samipatam sarupatam sayujyatameti | "'By always properly chanting this maha-mantra, whether in a pure or impure state, one can attain Brahma i.e the four kinds of liberation, salokya, samipya, sarupya and sayujya.'" yadasya shodasikasya sardha-trikotir japati tada brahma-hatyam tarati| tarati virahatyam |
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"'One who chants this mantra of sixteen names, for a total of one and one half crore times, he becomes free from the sin of killing a brahmana. He overcomes the sin of neglecting his domestic fire.'" svarnasteyat puto bhavati | pitr-deva-manushya-nama-pakarat puto bhavati | "'He becomes free from the sin of stealing gold. He becomes free from the offenses committed against forefathers, Gods and human beings.'" sarvadharma-parityaga-papat sadyah sucita-mapnuyat | sadyo mucyate sadyo mucyate ity upanishat | "'He quickly becomes free from the sin of giving up all religious duties. He becomes liberated immediately; he becomes liberated immediately. Thus the Upanishad.'" **Thus ends Sri Kalisantarana Upanisad** 16.4 Lord Caitanyas Instruction to Chant Hare Krsna Maha-mantra Lord r Caitanya Mahprabhu, who preached the chanting of the Lords holy names, instructs everyone to perform sakrtana of the mah-mantra. Srila Vrindavana Das Thakura describes Lord Caitanyas instructions to Tapana Misra in the Sri Caitanya Bhagavata (1.14.143-147) as follows: sadhya-sadhana-tattva ye kichu sakala | hari-nama-sankirtane milibe sakala || 143 || harer nama harer nama harer namaiva kevalam | kalau nasty eva nasty eva nasty eva gatir anyatha || 144 || hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || 145 || ei sloka nama bali laya maha-mantra | sola-nama batrisa-aksara ei tantra || 146 || sadhite sadhite yabe premankura habe | sadhya-sadhana-tattva janiba se tabe || 147 || Everything is accomplished by Hari-nama sankirtana, including the goal of life (sadhya) and the means for its attainment (sadhana). In this age of Kali, the only means for deliverance is the chanting of the names of Hari. There is no other way, there is no other way, there is no other way. Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. This verse of names is called the maha-mantra. It

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Caitanya-candra contains sixteen names of the Lord, consisting of thirty-two syllables. Chanting this mantra again and again will awaken the sprout of prema within the heart, and thus the goal of life and the means for its attainment is understood. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has ordered all human beings of this age (Kali-yuga) to chant the 32-syllable Hare Krsna or taraka brahma maha-mantra, calling this Krishna nama, as stated in Sri Caitanya Bhagavata (2.23.75-78): apane sabare prabhu kore upadese | krsna-nama maha-mantra sunoho harise || 75 || hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || 76 || prabhu kohe kohilam ei maha-mantra | iha japa giya sabe koriya nirbandha || 77 || iha hoite sarva-siddhi hoibe sabara | sarva ksana bolo ithe vidhi nahi ara || 78 || The Lord ordered everyone in great joy: Listen to the Krishna- nama maha-mantra: Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. The Lord said: I spoke this maha-mantra. Perform japa of this mantra a prescribed number of times. All perfection will be attained through this. Chant this mantra every moment there is no other rule. In the above mentioned payara (verse) iha japa giya sabe koriya nirbandha it is said that the maha-mantra must be chanted in japa according to rules of counting, and in the verse sarva kSaNa bolo ithe vidhi nAhi Ara it has also been ordered to chant loudly without counting (asankhyata). Following the order of Sriman Mahaprabhu, it is understood that the 32syllable hare krishneti mantra is to be chanted both in japa as well as in loud kirtana. Some people say: There is no injunction that the mantra is to be chanted in loud kirtana. If the hare krishneti nama is a maha-mantra, it is to be chanted in japa while counting, and it is not be chanted in kirtana. In connection with this it must be said that a mantra that is only to be chanted in japa (this means chanting within the mind) and not in kirtana is a formula which contains a bija and words like svaha, and which appears in the fourth, dative case. There is nothing of the kind in the hare krishneti mantra, which is sambodhanatmaka (in the eighth, vocative case). Therefore a person in knowledge will have no doubt about it that this is for japa and for many kinds of kirtana as well. Especially in the shastras, in the words of the great acaryas and even in the orders and activities of svayam bhagavan Sriman Mahaprabhu we can find a lot of evidence for this. We will briefly quote a few. In Padma Purana it is described: harer nama maha-mantrair nasyet papa pisacakam | harer agra svarair uccair nrtyam stan-namakrin-narah | punati bhuvanam vipra! gangadi salilam yatha ||

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Caitanya-candra hare pradaksinam kurvann uccais tan nama krin narah | karataladi sandhanam susvaram kala sabditam || Anyone who dances in front of Sri Hari and loudly chants the Hari nama maha-mantra will destroy all witches of sin. Just as the water of sacred rivers like the Ganga purify the universe, similarly those who circumambulate Sri Hari and loudly perform nama sankirtana of the 16-word maha-mantra with sweet voices and while clapping the hands, purify the entire universe. Those who say that the maha-mantra can be chanted out loudly, but must nonetheless be counted while chanting, and that there is no evidence of kirtana without counting, will easily understand from the above-quoted verses from Padma Purana that kirtana in which dancing takes place and hands are clapped is kirtana without counting, not with counting. r Vsudeva Srvabhauma Bhacrya says: via-cittn kali-ghora-bhtn sanvkya gauro hari-nma-mantra svaya dadau bhakta-jann sam-diat sakrtaya dva nanu ntya-vdhyai Out of His causeless mercy, r Caitanya Mahprabhu Himself gave the mah-mantra to the helpless, fearful jvas of this Kaliyuga, and directed His devotees by saying, O bhaktas, you should collectively perform sakrtana by singing and dancing. harer-nma-prasdena nistaret ptak jana upade svaya ka caitanyo jagadvara ka-caitanya-devena hari-nma-prakitam yena kenpi tat-prapta dhanyo sau loka-pvana By the mercy of hari-nma, a sinner can also be delivered because the instructor of r hari-nma is the Lord of the universe, Svaya r Ka Caitanya Mahprabhu. Therefore, a person who is fortunate enough to receive this hari-nma, which has been inaugurated by r Ka Caitanya Mahprabhu Himself, can also purify others by his association. The great poet rla Kavi Karapra states in his epic poem, Caitanya-Carit (11-54): tatah r gaurgah samavadadtir pramudito hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare At the time of r Caitanya Mahprabhus sannysa ceremony, the barber who had been asked to shave Him felt morose and was perturbed. Although he held the razor in his hand, he could not bring himself to shave off r Caitanya Mahprabhus beautiful hair. Instead he simply wept. r Caitanya Mahprabhu, who was fully immersed in rdh-bhva, became deeply pleased and said, O Barber! You must constantly and loudly chant hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare. Upon hearing these instructions from r Mahprabhu, that barber began to chant, and, although he continued to

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Caitanya-candra weep in distress, he proceeded to shave off Mahprabhus hair. He became so absorbed in chanting the mah-mantra that he manifested horripilation (romaca) and his bodily hairs stood erect (pulaka). The following instance of Sri Caitanyas chanting the maha-mantra is found in the Sri Caitanya Mangala of Sripada Locana Das Thakura: bhu prasriy prabhu brhmae tulil tra ghare bhakti bhare gna rabhil brhmaera ghara yena haila vndvana hari-nma unibre ise sarva-jana hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare Once Mahaprabhu visited the home of a brahmana and embraced him. The kirtana that followed made that home become just like Vrindavana and a multitude of people gathered to hear and chant the holy names: Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. Sri Caitanya Magala also states: hare ka nma prabhu bole nirantara prasanna r mukhe hare ka ka bali vijaya hail gauracandra kuthal hare ka hare ka bali prema sukhe pratyaka haila si advaita-sammukhe r Caitanya Mahprabhu is always chanting r nma. One day when He came to the home of Advaita cary, His face filled with pleasure as He chanted the hare ka mahmantra. rla Raghuntha dsa Gosvm states in the introduction to his commentary on the mahmantra: ekad kavirahd dhyyant priyasangamam manovpanirsrtha jalpatda muhurmuhuha hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare yni nmni virahe jajpa vrabhnav tnye va tadbhvayukto gauracandro jajpa ha r caitanya-mukhod gra hare keti varaka majjayanto jagat premi vijayant tad vay Once, rmat Rdhik was feeling overwhelming distress due to separation from Her beloved ymasundara and She meditated upon meeting Him. To remove Her fire of separation, She began to chant the hare ka mah-mantra. r Caitanya Mahprabhu, who is absorbed in the mood of rmat Rdhik, also chanted these names. Thus, Kas sixteen names consisting of thirty-two syllables, the hare ka mah-mantra, came from the lotus

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Caitanya-candra mouth of r Caitanya Mahprabhu. May this mah-mantra, which makes the entire universe become absorbed in ka-prema, be graciously and conspicuously present above all else. Jaya ho! Jaya ho! Let there be complete victory for the mah-mantra! 16.5 Meaning Of The Hare Krsna Mahamantra By HH Srila Bhakti Caru Swami Germany , 2006 Hare Krishna means, the addressing the Supreme Personality of Godhead, calling out to the Supreme Personality of Godhead along with His eternal consort, His personification of His pleasure potency. In Sanskrit we just called hladini-shakti. You have seen our deities Radha and Krishna, here is the picture, here is Krishna and there is the picture of Srimati Radharani. Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He is the Supreme Energetic and Srimati Radharani is His energy. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is omnipotent or all-powerful. He has inconceivable potency. His potency is so great, that He can do all kind of wonderful things. He can say 'let there be light', and there was light. He can just glance, and the whole material creation becomes manifest. And through His glance all of us, all the living entities, have come to this material nature. Just through His glance. That is how powerful He is. And we're seeing, when we look at the night sky, we see that so many stars and planets are floating in the space. Now, how it is possible for something to float in the space? Like an aircraft goes up in the sky and floats in the sky and moves in the sky. But what an incredible amount of energy is record for that? How does the aeroplane fly? There are some very powerful engines. Those engines actually make the aircraft float. So, what an incredible amount of energy is needed just for a small little aircraft to fly? Now consider all these planets. This earth planet where is it, this earth planet? Is the earth flat or round? It is round, like a ball. And where is the earth it's in the space. And earth is static and, static in the sense as floating, and it's moving around the sun. I'm sure everybody knows. And then there is sun, huge so many million times larger than the earth. And then there are so many stars and planets. Compare to many of those stars, sun is just like a tiny spot. That is how inconceivable this creation is. And it's all floating in the space. Now, who is making it happened? Krishna , the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When we say Krishna we don't just mean some Indian persons. Krishna is God. Like, God doesn't have, doesn't need any name. But still His devotees like to address Him in a certain way according to His

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Caitanya-candra potency and according to His activities. Like His potency, we can see how, according to His power He is called like, in German also, you call, address God in the Christian way of calling you is 'almighty' or omnipotent, Latin expression is omnipotent. Omnipotent means allpowerful. Now who is all-powerful? (Devotee: Krishna ) God. You said Krishna , fine. Just as omnipotent means all-powerful. Krishna in Sanskrit means all-attractive. All-attractive! Just as God is all-powerful, God is all-knowing similarly God is also all-attractive. And the Sanskrit expression for all-attractive is K R I S H N A. The word Krishna is derive from the root word karshan, which means to attract. So one who attracts is Krishna . So, Krishna attracts everyone, therefore He is all-attractive. So, His names are not His identities. His identity is that He is God. But His names are indication of His qualities. Just as I mention, in Latin, in Bible you find God is addressed as omnipotent, omniscient or He is addressed as the Supreme Father. The similarly in Sanskrit He has many such names according to His qualities and according to His activities. But He is the Supreme Personality, who is the Supreme Creator and who is the Supreme Maintainer. Now, who created everything? God created everything. Now, when we have the opportunity to get to know about Him, it is important that we take advantage of that opportunity. This opportunity is available. Specially when God Himself comes and speaks about Himself. And He did that. He came here, He comes from time to time. Just like a king from time to time visits the prison, God also visits this place, which is like a prison. And we are the prisoners. So, the king comes and sees the prison, and we he comes then the prisoners get an opportunity to see the king and surrender to him by recognizing 'o, he is the king, so let me surrender to him.' And, they have an opportunity to tell the king, 'I'm sorry that I committed the crime. Please forgive me'. And then what the king does? The king says, 'Okay. You don't have to suffer in the prison. You can be released.' Can the king say that? So, similarly the Supreme Personality of Godhead can also release the prisoners, when they surrender unto Him. So, 5000 years ago, He came and He displayed His wonderful pastimes, His wonderful activities. And those who are present here at that time they could see, 'O, He's so beautiful'. Like, how will you feel if you see that somebody just lifted the alps? Or, what is the highest mountain in alps? Okay, Mont Blanc maybe? If you got the news, if you get to hear that somebody just lifted the Mont Blanc , how will you feel? Won't you feel awestruck? And he will not only lifted it, lifted it with his left hand, not only he lifted it with his left hand, he lifted it on the little finger of his left hand. And he kept it holding for seven days. How will you feel? He will feel fascinated. Isn't it? You will feel awestruck He will feel 'wunderbar'. (laughter) Isn't it? So, this is how the Lord came and performed His pastimes. Now tell me, a person who makes all these stars and planets are floating in the space, the person who makes all these stars and planets are floating in the space for Him is it difficult to lift a mountain? No. But for us it is. Because we are so tiny. Now, what to speak of a mountain, if somebody lifts a table with his little finger and holds it for seven minutes will feel awestruck. Isn't it?

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Caitanya-candra So this is how the Lord comes and enacts His activities or pastimes here, so that we can recognize how great He is. And when we recognize how great He is, then we naturally feel like surrendering unto Him. So, that's why the Lord comes and displays His activities and pastimes. And He tells us how to get out of this material nature. He tells us a very, very simple way to mitigate all our sufferings. You may think, 'oh material nature is so wonderful, there is so much fun. I have a nice car, I have a nice house, I have a beautiful family, so I'm so happy. This place is so wonderful. And you fell that, 'well, I don't want to leave this place. I want to always be here'. But can anybody be here all the time? And can anyone have these facilities of enjoyment for all the time? Right? Time comes when one becomes distressed. A person maybe very, very comfortably situated. But what happens all of us sudden if he gets cancer? What happens? His whole world actually crumbles. Or even worst things can happen. Just today Malati was telling me, Malati Manjari, that she got the news that yesterday her cousin died in an accident. She was young, she was of her age, and all of us sudden she is gone. Now, is it going to happen only to somebody else? Can't this thing happen to us? Can't we get cancer? Can't we meet with an accident? It can happen with us. So this is the reality of this material nature. And anyone, when he thinks deeply, realizes that the enjoyments are so short lasting, and the reality is suffering. So, when we realize that our condition is suffering, or we're suffering here, then what we naturally want to do? We want to get free of this suffering. Now Krishna comes and gives us that message that you surrender unto Me and I will free you from all your suffering. And this is why Krishna comes and displayed His pastimes. He gives us the message, that you come to Me and I will take care of you. Just like the father and mother. Do they take care of their children? But when the children runs away from their father, then he will suffer. If the children runs away from the father and mother and becomes an orphan what will be his condition? He'll be undergoing so many difficulties. But when he goes back to his father, and specially if his father is a very, very wealthy and influential and powerful person, what will be his situation like? Like just consider, let it maybe a fairy tale. Let's consider a fairy tale. There was a prince, and when the prince was a little baby he got lost. When this prince was a little child, he got lost. And when he got lost, then what will be his condition? What was his condition? He was suffering. Just to get a little food, he had to beg from door to door and people threat him in a very, very harsh way. They'll exploit him, they'll abuse him. But then somebody comes and tells him, look, you're actually a prince. And he is your father. And he takes the prince back to the father. Then what will be the condition of the prince? He becomes completely free from all his miseries and all his anxieties. Now in reality, that is our condition. That is what we are. Not only we are princes of a king, we are children of king, but we are the children of king of kings, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And our condition is not that we got lost but we deliberately rejected our father. We said: we don't want you!. We wanted to become independent. We decided that we won't take any help from my father, our father, but we'll become independent. I'll make all arrangements for myself. And the result is we're struggling. Like a statistic so was taken, the condition of our mention the name of the country, but this is an European country, the statistic so was taken like how was the condition of the people there? And the statistics was about 85% of the population was feeling miserable. And most of

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Caitanya-candra them had a very, very opulent situation. They're earning average about 7.000 Euro a month, that was the average income, and still they were felling that they didn't have enough. And they're miserable. So this is the state of affairs. From a distance it may appear, oh, everyone is so happy here. But you go and ask every individual what will they say? I'm not happy. I wish, I could have been something else. The house, that I am living in, is not good enough. I wish, I could be in a better house. The car that I have is not a good one. I wish I have a better car. The salary I'm getting is not good enough. I wish, I could get a better salary. And that is the condition of everyone in this world. A very rich man, he's one of the richest men in the world, when he was asked about his condition, he mention, that he didn't have enough. He didn't have enough. Although he had billions of dollars. But still he feels that he didn't have enough. Actually, what he meant is, he didn't have enough, is, that he realize that money can not buy what he actually wanted. What he wanted, money can not buy. Like actually this person, I will disclose his identity, he is considered to be the richest man in India his name is Birla. And he is 84 years old now. He is the richest man in India . But look at what happened; his only son, a brilliant person, he actually expanded the family business four times, five times, at the age of only 45, and he got cancer and he died. Now consider, who was the condition of the father his only son, although he has an empire, not only in India all over the world. His only son died. Now how does the father feel? Does all the money mean anything to him at that time? No. So, what we actually want, we want to be in a situation where we can be perfectly happy. And Krishna comes and tells us 'Yes, it's possible!' And Krishnas representatives come and they also repeat Krishna s words and say 'Yes, it is possible! You can be perfectly happy. The only thing, that we have to do, is, we have to surrender to your Supreme Father. And when we surrender to the Supreme Father then the Supreme Father takes us under His wings, und His shelter. Then all our miseries, all our sufferings are mitigated. When you read Krishna s pastimes, you will see how wonderful they were. Sometimes the demons would come. These demons were extremely powerful people. Some people can be very, very powerful with mystic power. Not masculine power or mental power but with mystic power. With the mystic power they can do all kind of wonderful things, they can change their forms, they can become very small. So small, that they can enter through a keyhole. And they can become big, they can become so big, they can become as big as a mountain. These are called yoga-siddhis. So, demons become powerful with their yogasiddhi. They perform yoga and as a result of their practicing yoga and perfecting yoga they achieve some power. And with this power they become very powerful, and when one becomes very powerful, what happens? When people become powerful they don't want to accept anybody more powerful than them. They don't even want to accept God. They say, 'Why God, if there is God, then that's me. I am God. But they are actually demons. Those who deny God and want to be God themselves, they're not God, they're demons. And these demons, when God comes, they become very, very antagonistic to Him. And what they try? They try to kill God. And they try to harm God's favourite ones, dear ones, His devotees. So when Krishna was performing His pastimes in Vrindavana, this demons use to come, trying to kill Him. But Krishna kills them one after another. And then ultimately as you know, Krishna arranged the battle of Kurukshetra. In the battle of Kurukshetra Krishna arranged, that the devotees will be on one side and the demons will be on another side. And the battle was arranged, and in that battle all the demons were destroyed.

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Caitanya-candra So in this way, Krishna comes to free this world from the demons and protect the devotees. That's what He broadcasted, that's what He told: paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge. In order to establish dharma and in order to protect the devotees and annihilate the demons, I come from time to time. So Krishna comes, and Krishna came and Krishna will continue to come. Now when Krishna comes, Krishna makes one thing very clear: if you are with Me, you will win. If you go against Me, no matter how powerful you are, and no matter how powerful the person you are taking shelter of is, you're going to lose. That's a very simple message that He parcel. Side with Me, you will win, go against Me, you will lose. So when you makes a proposal what should be the intelligent think to do? Side with Him. And side with Him means, surrender unto Him. And that's what Krishna is suggesting in Bhagavad gita: sarvadharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja. Giving up all your nonsense, just surrender unto Me. Then I will take care of you. Don't worry about it. A simple message. Very simple message. No the question is, how do we surrender unto Krishna ? We surrender to Krishna the way Krishna appears. 5000 years ago Krishna appeared as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But then, 500 years ago, He again came. He came as a devotee. He didn't come as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He came as a devotee of the Lord. But what was His message? His message was Krishna is God. Krishna Himself came to teach us Krishna is God. And in this way He is inducing us, He is aspiring us, He is encouraging us to surrender unto Krishna . Krishna says, 5000 years ago Krishna told, you surrender unto me and 500 years back He came and again He reminded us surrender unto Krishna . And when we surrender unto Krishna then what happens? As Krishna assure that we can become free from all anxiety. Now, you may think, well, I don't really have to surrender. What Swamiji is saying, it's all very nice, but I have made all arrangements. I'm fine. I've a nice situation. If you feel that way wonderful. You don't have to surrender now. But someday when you are in difficulty, then surrender unto Krishna . If you can't surrender now, at least when you are in difficulties please remember the words that I'm telling now and surrender unto Krishna at that time. If somebody comes with a gun and holds it on your head then please remember Krishna and see what happens. And I tell you, many wonderful things happen. I'll give you some examples; I'll give you two examples that happened in Germany . In the early days our centre was actually in Hamburg . And in Hamburg our devotees used to go out chanting the holy name. And sometimes they used to go at night to chant in the most sinful areas. What is the most sinful area of Hamburg ? Reeperbahn. So, they were chanting and there comes a huge person, gigantic, like a big man, and he was previously drunk or I don't know what happened, he came to attack the devotees. This was long time ago, it was in early seventies. And the devotees were wondering what to do now to run away, or confront the man, somebody was even thinking that he will take the karatalas and swing it, because they didn't have anything to defend themselves. But the leader of the group said, just chant Nrisimha prayer. So they started to chant namas te nara-simhaya. And the man was coming charging and they as soon as they started to chant Nrisimha prayer, the man came about 4-5 feet away from them, and then something happen his body just went up and felt flat on the ground. And in St. Pauli, Reeperbahn area, two things are always available: police and ambulance. So immediately an ambulance came, very soon an ambulance came, their

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Caitanya-candra people already gathered there, and they checked him and they said that he had a massive heart attack. Now tell me, was it a heart attack or something else? Lord Nrisimhadeva is real. Lord Nrisimhadeva takes care. Similarly another thing happened. I think that happened somewhere in south. I just heard this story. One girl was distributing books and one man just attacked her. It was a lonely kind of area. She was there, she was going door to door and when she was going from one building to another, she was just attacked. And she didn't have any place to go she was just corned practically. And she started to chant. She took shelter of Nrisimhadeva, started to chant His holy name. And the man just stopped, turned around and walked away. So all this kinds of wonderful things happen to the devotees when they take shelter of Krishna . And that's why I was saying that you , if you feel that this is not the right time for you to surrender to Krishna, then whenever you're in very, very critical difficulty, remember this words and please take shelter of Krishna and see what happens. When there is no one to take care of, when there is no one to submit yourself too, please remember Krishna , take shelter of Him. And you will see for yourself what actually happens. Krishna is real. We may not see Him, but He's seeing us. Like as I was giving the example of a father now what is our situation in relation to our father? Our situation is somewhat like we are bunch of children and we want to play. So, while we are playing in the field, in the garden, we forgot the father. Don't the children forget the father? Forget everything else. They're happily playing with their friends, and then the father is just sitting on a bench when the little boy plays or girl plays with their friends. What does the father do? The father sits on the bench and watches. And then it becomes dark, it becomes evening. It becomes dark everybody goes away, all the other friends go away, then the little child calls out to his father, 'Daddy, Daddy where are you?' So what does the Daddy do at that time? He comes and picks up the child. So our condition is somewhat like that. In one way of course I said that it's like a prison house. Another way to look at it is a beautiful garden. After all it's the fathers creation so why you don't be beautiful? Whatever is created by Krishna is perfect and complete. This material nature also is perfect and complete, it's so beautiful. The other day I was driving through Switzerland and I was telling, we are driving to the alps, and I was telling, the Swiss devotee was driving me, that if this material nature, which is like a prison house, can be so beautiful what must be Krishna s palace like? If the prison house is so beautiful what will be Krishna s palace like? What will be Krishna s own place like? We can't even imagine who beautiful the spiritual sky is. It was when I was going to Ferienlager (holiday camp), I think I told you of, I was going to the alps, where we have a Ferienlager for one week. And that's the thing, Krishna s creation is so wonderful. So its a beautiful garden Krishna created for us, and here we all are playing. Krishna is giving us the chance to play. We are playing. But when it becomes dark, and when you realize that there is no one there, then what you should do? We can call out to the father. "Krishna, Krishna please help me, please take care of me. And He will because He is the father.

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Caitanya-candra Who is more concern, the son or the father? Is the son more concerned, is a little child more concerned about his father or is the father more concerned about his child? The father is more concerned about the child. So, if we have a Supreme Father, we can really imagine how concerned He is about us. And that is what Prabhupada used to tell us. That if you take one step towards Krishna, Krishna will take thousand steps to pick you up. Krishna 's interest to take us back to Him is thousand times, million times more than our desire to go back to Him. And He will act in that way. He is always waiting to take us back to Him. Now, the question is what we need to do? What we have to do is simply chant His name. As I said, 'Daddy, Daddy where are you', that's about all we have to say. Krishna, Krishna we are you? HARE KRISHNA HARE KRISHNA KRISHNA KRISHNA HARE HARE / HARE RAMA HARE RAMA RAMA RAMA HARE HARE. This is the meaning of Hare Krishna maha mantra. Krishna, Krishna we are you? Krishna , please take me back to your lap. Krishna , please deliver me from my miserable condition here. I'm afraid, I'm worried. Yesterday someone was telling that, I think in their 'Spiegel' there was a big article last week, the article was on 'Angst fear'. How everybody in this world is in total anxiety today. So everyone is living in constant fear. Now when we are in such fearful condition what will we do? We try to get some shelter from somebody who will say 'Don't worry. I will take care of you'. And there is somebody I can assure you, I can guarantee you there is somebody who is there to take care of you. And that is Krishna . Please take shelter of Him. And the way to take shelter of Him is just call out for Him. You don't have even come to the temple to call out to Him. Many of you come to the temple only on Sunday. So does it mean that you'll take shelter of Krishna only on Sundays? No. Krishna made arrangements. You can take shelter of Him anytime anywhere. All you have to do is just call out to Him. Whether at your home, whether in the office or factory or school or collage or university or in the playground, or in prison house wherever you are. You can simply call out to Krishna . Krishna please take me back to You. Please deliver me from this difficult situation that I am in. And that is the meaning of chanting Hare Krishna. HARE KRISHNA HARE KRISHNA KRISHNA KRISHNA HARE HARE / HARE RAMA HARE RAMA RAMA RAMA HARE HARE. If you chant, than your life will be perfect. If you chant, well I'll make a little correction of this statement, if you chant, than your life will be half perfect. The other half is the responsibility that you have to make others chant Hare Krishna. So these two is what constitutes the yuga dharma of this age. The perfect spiritual practice of this age is chant yourself with full conviction and make others also chant the holy name of the Lord by taking shelter of Him. So that is why it is called sankirtan. Sankirtan means perfect glorification of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Perfect glorification. We glorify Him and we also induce others to glorify Him. Now the question is, is it a difficult process? No. Or should I ask you. I just said no. Let's hear what you think. Is it a difficult process to chant the holy name of the Lord? Why you're thinking for so long? (Laughter) Or are you feeling shy? Germans are brave, they're not shy. (Laughter) There's no need to feel shy about it. Chant the holy name of the Lord, take shelter of your Supreme Father. You do not know how much He loves you. Because He loves you so much that's why He's taking care of you all the time in so many wonderful ways. So just take shelter of His lotus feet and see for yourself what happens to you. Sometimes there is some fear, 'oh, if I want to become a devotee of Krishna , then I can

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Caitanya-candra not do this, I can not do that or I have to do this' don't worry about that. Just chant the holy name. Everything else is secondary. Krishna is not standing with a notebook and pen and taking notes, how many times you went off. No, Krishna is not worried about the mistakes you are making. Krishna is simply concerned about how much you are surrendering yourselves to Him. It is not that first we have to become sinless and then we have to become a devotee, then we have to chant the holy name. No, you can chant the holy name in which ever condition you maybe in. Don't worry, Krishna will take care. If the child is dirty, does the mother care? Does that mother think, 'well, let the child first become clean and then I'll pick him on my lap? No. No matter how dirty the child is, the mother picks up the child and cleans him, cleans the baby herself. So if we have some defects, Krishna will cover them. Don't worry about them. Just take shelter of Krishna and He will take care of you in all respects. Don't worry about it. So that's how wonderful, that's how easy this process is. You can chant anytime, anywhere. If you don't have time, when you are going to your work, or when you're doing your household, chores, you can chant. We you are cooking, you can chant 'Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna', is that difficult? Or when you are driving your car, you can chant Hare Krishna. But don't chant on your bead. I tell the devotees, not to drive and chant in beads. Sometimes devotees have a anxiety how to finish sixteen rounds. And they try to get all kind of times to finish their rounds. But, don't worry. At least when you are driving don't risk it, because just as I mentioned, only today we got to know that someone who is quite known left her body in an accident. So why risk it? Give both hands free. Give both hands on your steering wheel while driving. Make it appoint. You can chant with your mouth and you can hear with your ears. That's about all that is needed. Tongue to chant and ears to hear. You don't need your hands all the time to chant. Nor that we have to always keep count. If you just chant, Krishna will be happy. In this respect I'll give you an example that Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself has said. Caitanya Mahaprabhu came out of the toilet one morning, and the devotee saw, that He was biting onto His tongue with His teeth. So everybody ask, what happen? Why you are biting onto Your tongue? Then Mahaprabhu said, 'See, I was in a dirty place and even in that dirty place my tongue was chanting the holy name. I couldn't stop my tongue from chanting. So that's why I'm holding onto my tongue, so that my tongue doesn't chant in a dirty place. Those was a five year old boy, his name was Gopal. When Mahaprabhu said that, Gopal just asked a simple question. He asked Mahaprabhu: "If the time comes to leave the body in a dirty place, should we chant the holy name?" And Mahaprabhu said: "Yes. Today I learned something from Gopal." And from that time, this little boy, got the name Gopalguru. Gopalguru Goswami. Because Mahaprabhu accepted him as His guru; because He learned something from Gopal. So in this way Mahaprabhu reminded us we can chant the holy name anywhere at anytime on the any circumstances. (Sanskrit-verse) Krishna has invested His entire potency in the holy name and there are innumerable names, in each name Krishna has invested His entire potency. Entire potency means, if Krishna 's entire potency is in the holy name, that means, Krishna Himself is in the holy name. So name of Krishna is Krishna Himself. And there is no restriction of chanting this holy name of time, place and circumstances. Anytime, anywhere on the any circumstances we can chant the holy name. Does the father make any condition for his son to call out for him? Does the father say, 'only when you are clean you can call me

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Caitanya-candra father?' Does he make any condition like that? No, because of his love for his son he is happy to hear him call out to him anytime. And that is the condition that Krishna is giving us. We can call Him anytime, anywhere, on the any circumstances. And as soon as we call Him, He will be there for us. That is the assurance that He has given. 16.5.1 Mahamantra-vyakhya - The Lord's divine qualities revealed in the Mahamantra hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare Commentary on the Mahamantra harati tri-vidham tapam janma-koti-satodbhavam papam ca smaratam yasmat tasmadd harir iti smrtah The Lord is known as Hari because He takes away the sins and three types of suffering accumulated over millions of births, of those who remember him. krsir bhur-vacakah sabdo nas ca nirvrti-sucakah tayor aikyam param brahma krsna ity abhidhiyate The root krs indicates the supreme attractiveness of the Lord, the suffix na indicates the supreme joy. Thus, the name Krsna indicates the Supreme Brahman who is the acme of these two characteristics. ramante yogino'nante satyananda-cid-atmani iti rama-padenasau para-brahmabhidhiyate The yogis take pleasure in the Supreme Self which is existence, knowledge and bliss absolute. Therefore that truth, known as the Param Brahman is also called Rama. (Ramatapaniyopanisad, 1.6) 16.5.2 Mahamantrasya madhuryamayi vyakhya - The Lord's intimate qualities revealed in the Mahamantra vijnapya bhagavat-tattvam cid-ghanananda-vigraham haraty avidyam tat-karyam ato harir iti smrtah The Lord is known as Hari because he takes away the ignorance of his devotees by revealing to them the actual nature of the Supreme Lord and his personal spiritual form. harati krsna-manah krsnahlada-svarupini ato harety anenaiva sri-radha parikirtita Because she steals Krsna's mind, because she is the incarnation of Krsna's joy, Radha is also known by the name Hara. anandaika-sukha-svami syamah kamala-locanah

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Caitanya-candra gokulanandano nanda-nandanah krsna iryate The dark, lotus-eyed lord, the only master of the highest joy, who brings pleasure to Gokula, the son of Nanda, is known as Krsna. vaidagdhya-sara-sarvasvam murta-liladhidaivatam sri-radham ramayan nityam rama ity abhidhiyate Krsna is also known as Rama because the joys of conjugal life are the essence of his being, because he is the titulary deity of loving sports incarnate, and because he brings pleasure to Srimati Radharani. 16.5.3 Mahamantrasya yugalasmaranamayi vyakhya - Remembering the Divine Couple through the Mahamantra mano harati krsnasya krsnahlada-svarupini tato hara sri-radhaiva tasyah sambodhanam hare Because she steals Krsna's mind and because she is the embodiment of Krsna's divine joy, Radha is known as Hara. Hare is the vocative form of that name. apagrhya trapam dharmam dhairyam manam vraja-strinam venuna karsati grhat tena krsno 'bhidhiyate Because he robbed the women of Vraja of their shame, their religious principles, their selfpossession, and their pride, and through the playing of his flute drew them out of their homes and into the forest, he is known as Krsna. ramayaty anisam rupa-lavanyair vraja-yositam manah-pancendriyaniha ramas tasmat prakirtitah Krsna is glorified by the name Rama because he constantly causes the Vraja cowherd women's minds and senses to enjoy the charms of his beauty. 16.6 Commentary On The Maha-Mantra by rla Jva Gosvm HAREr Kacandras transcendental beauty captivates the minds of all, but rmat Rdhik captivates the mind of r Ka by exercising Her unrivalled cleverness. Therefore, She is known as Har. The vocative case of Har is Hare. KAr Hari, who is adorned with qualities which bewilder the three worlds, attracts rmat Rdhik by His youthful beauty and the sweet sound of His flute.Therefore, He is called Ka, the all-attractive one. HAREr Ka kidnapped doe-eyed rmat Rdhik, taking Her to a secluded kuja within the rsa-maala. This has been learned from the words of mah-puruas. Therefore, Rdhik is known as Har. Har in its vocative case becomes Hare.

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KAThe magnificent effulgence that emanates from His limbs can convert gold into yma vara (a dark sapphire lustre). That Rdh-Ramaa ymasundara is called Ka. KAr Hari manifested yma Kua, the topmost of all sarovaras, in the forest of Vraja near Govardhana. He did this in accordance with the desire of His beloved r Rdhik, and He attracted all trthas to it. Learned people, who call Him Ka, understand this deep secret. KAAlthough His pastimes on the banks of the Yamun in Vndvana bewilder the world, the all-attractive dhra-lalita-nyaka r Hari is attracted by the transcendental mahbhva of r Rdhik. That is why learned people call Him Ka. HAREWhilst living in Vraja, r Ka stole the life force of the strong bull-like demon, Aristsura, and at that very moment rmat Rdhik, in great jubilation, loudly chanted Hari Hari! For this reason r Rdh is known as Har. Har is addressed as Hare. HAREr Rdhik sings the pastimes of r Ka in indistinct tones and sometimes, out of intense affection, She sings loudly. Therefore, when learned scholars discriminate between rasas, they refer to Her as Har. Har is addressed as Hare. HAREIn Vndvana, r Rdhik is so absorbed in playful pastimes and rasa, that She steals away the flute which falls from the hands of r Ka.This is why Rdhik Dev is known as Har. The address for Har is Hare. RMAr Ka, crest-jewel of the ingenious, knows the art of embracing. He is known as Rma because He wanders with r Rdhik, playing and enjoying with Her in the kujas of Govardhana. HAREr Rdhik is most merciful. She steals all the miseries of the bhaktas and daily bestows inner happiness upon them. Thus, She is known as Har and is addressed as Hare. RMAThe minds of the bhaktas who perform bhajana wander in the topmost ocean of bliss, r Ka. For this reason that ymasundara vigraha, r Ka, is known as Rma. RMAIn the kujas rmat Rdhik pleases r Hari with Her prema . Therefore, according to the definition of ramayati nandayati, He who gives happiness, He is called Rma. r Ka is known as Rma because He unites with r Rdh. RMAWhen r Ka, the giver of pleasure to the bhaktas, saw all the Vrajavss fearful and weeping, He swallowed the forest fire, thus giving them great pleasure. Therefore, r Ka, who arranges for His bhaktas to enjoy with Him, is called Rma. HAREr Ka went to Mathur Pur to kill Kasa and other demons. His sole intention was to return to Vraja and meet with r Rdhik. She attracts r Ka from dhmas like Mathur and brings Him to Vraja. For this reason She is called Har (one who steals). Har is addressed as Hare.

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Caitanya-candra HAREr Nanda-nandana came from Mathur and Dvrak to steal away all the miseries of the Vrajavss. That Nanda-nandana, who is endowed with pastimes that captivate the mind of r Rdhik, is called Hari. The word Hari becomes Hare in the vocative case. Thus ends the commentary on the mah-mantra by rla Jva Gosvm 16.7 Explanation of the Hare Krsna Maha-mantra by Srila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura O Hari! Having captured my mind, please free me from material bondage. O Krsna! Please attract my mind by pulling it to You. O Hari! Please capture my mind by Your unsurpassed sweetness. O Krsna! Please purify my mind with knowledge about devotional service given to me by Your own devotee. O Krsna! Please make me able to relish Your transcendental name, form, qualities, pastimes, etc. O Krsna! Please make me able to relish Your transcendental name, form, qualities, pastimes, etc. O Hari! Please make me fit to serve You. O Hari! Please make me able to relish Your transcendental name, form, qualities, pastimes, etc. O Hari! Please direct me to do some particular service for You. O Rama! Let me hear about Your most cherished pastimes in the company of Your dearest devotee. O Hara (Radha)! Please reveal to me Your most cherished pastimes with Your beloved Sri Krsna. O Rama! Please reveal to me Your most cherished pastimes with Your beloved Sri Radha. O Rama! Please engage me in remembering Your transcendental name, form, qualities, pastimes, etc. O Rama! Please make me fit to serve You while remembering Your transcendental name, form, qualities, pastimes, etc. O Hari! Having accepted me as one of Your own servitors, please enjoy me as You please. O Hari! Please enjoy with me in Your transcendental way. This is my humble request at Your lotus feet. 16.8 Explanation of the Mahamantra by Srila Gopala Guru Goswami (Translated by Jagadananda Dasa) (1) hare - he hare, mac-cittam hrtva bhava-bandhanan mocaya | Hare! O Hari, steal my mind and deliver me from bondage to this material world. krsna - he krsna, mac-cittam akarsaya | Krsna! O Krsna, attract my mind. hare - he hare, sva-madhuryena mac-cittah hara |

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Hare! O Hari! Capture my mind with the sweetness of your name, form and pastimes. krsna - he krsna, sva-bhakta-dvara bhajana-jnana-danena mac-cittam sodhaya | Krsna! O Krsna! Send me the association of your devotees who will purify my mind through instructions about your devotional service. krsna - he krsna, nama-rupa-guna-liladisu man-nistham kuru | Krsna! O Krsna! Give me unflinching faith in your name, form, qualities and pastimes. krsna - he krsna, rucir bhavatu me | Krsna! O Krsna! Give me a taste for your name, form, qualities and pastimes. hare - he hare, nija-seva-yogyam mam kuru | Hare! O Hari! Make me worthy to engage in your service. hare - he hare, sva-sevam adisaya | Hare! O Hara, Radha! Order me personally in the service you wish me to perform. hare - he hare, sva-presthena saha svabhista-lilam sravaya | Hare! O Hara, Radha! Give me the opportunity to hear about your own favorite pastimes with your beloved Lord rama - he rama, presthaya saha svabhista-lilam mam sravaya | Rama! O Rama! Give me the opportunity to hear about your own favorite pastimes with your beloved Radha. hare - he hare, sva-presthena saha svabhista-lilam darsaya | Hare! O Hara, Radha! Give me the opportunity to see your intimate pastimes with your beloved Lord. rama - he rama, presthaya saha svabhista-lilam mam darsaya | Rama! O Rama! Give me the opportunity to see your intimate pastimes with your beloved Radha. rama - he rama, nama-rupa-guna-lila-smaranadisu mam yojaya | Rama! O Rama! Engage me in hearing, chanting and remembering your name, form, qualities, pastimes.

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rama - he rama, tatra mam nija-seva-yogyam kuru | Rama! O Rama! As I enter into those pastimes by the path of meditation, make me worthy to engage in your service. hare - he hare, mam svangikrtya ramasva | Hare! O Hari! Please accept me and take pleasure from the service that I offer you. hare - he hare, maya saha ramasva | Hare! O Hari! Take pleasure in me and enjoy with me. (2) hare - krsnasya mano haratiti hara radha, tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! Radha is known as Hara because she steals Krsna's mind. I call out to her, O Hare! O Radhe! krsna - radhaya manah karsatiti krsnah, tasya sambodhane he krsna | Krsna! The Lord is known as Krsna because he attracts Radha's mind. Therefore I call out to him, O Lord! O Krsna! hare - krsnasya lokalajjadhairyadi sarvam haratiti hara radha, tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! Radha steals Krsna's sense of public shame and his self-possession. She steals everything of his and is thus known as Hara. I therefore call out to her, O Radhe! O Hare! krsna - radhaya lokalajjadhairyadi sarvam karsatiti krsnah, tasya sambodhane he krsna | Krsna! He drags away all of Radha's sense of shame and her self-possession. Therefore I call out to him, O Lord! O Krsna! krsna - yatra yatra radha tisthati gacchati va tatra tatra sa pasyati krsno mam sprsati balat kancukadikam sarvam karsati haratiti krsnah, tasya sambodhane he krsna | Krsna. Wherever Radha is standing, or wherever she happens to be going, she thinks, Krsna is watching me, he is touching me, he he is pulling on my bodice. He is pulling on me. I call out to him, O Lord! O Krsna! krsna - punar harsatam gamayati vanam karsatiti krsnah, tasya sambodhane he krsna | Krsna! Then Krsna makes her feel a thrill of excitement as he pulls her to the woods. I call out to him, O Lord! O Krsna!

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Caitanya-candra hare - yatra krsno gacchati tisthati va tatra tatra pasyati radha mamagre parsve sarvatra tisthatiti hara, tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! Wherever Krsna goes, wherever he is situated, he sees Radha in front of him, by his side, all around him. In this way she disturbs his mind. I call out to her, O Radhe. O Hare! hare - punas tam krsnam harati sva-sthanam abhisarayatiti hara radha, tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! She once again steals Krsna away, making him come to her kunja. She is thus known as Hara. I thus call out to her, O Radhe! O Hare! hare - krsnam vanam harati vanam agamayatiti hara radha, tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! She once again steals Krsna away, making him come to her kunja. She is thus known as Hara. I thus call out to her, O Radhe! O Hare! rama - ramayati tam narma-niriksanadiniti ramah, tasya sambodhane he rama | Rama! Krsna is known as Rama because he brings Radha pleasure with his joking words and his loving glances. I thus call out to him, O Krsna! O Rama! hare - tatkalikam dhairyavalambanadikam krsnasya haratiti hara radha, tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! She robs Krsna of the momentary self-control he is able to muster in her presence. She is thus known as Hara, and so I call out to her, O Radhe! O Hare! rama - cumbana-stana-karsanalinganadibhi ramate iti ramah, tasya sambodhane he rama | Rama! Krsna delights in kissing Radha, in touching her breasts and in embracing her. He is thus known as Rama, and so I call out to him, O Lord! O Rama! rama - punas tam purusocitam krtva ramayatiti ramah, tasya sambodhane he rama | Rama! Krsna causes Radha to reach the pinnacle of sexual excitement, so that she becomes aggressively active in the love battle, like a man. He is thus known as Rama, and so I call out to him, O Lord! O Rama! rama - punas tatra ramate iti ramah, tasya sambodhane he rama | Rama! All this brings extra delight to Krsna. He is thus known as Rama, and so I call out to him, O Lord! O Rama! hare - punah rasante krsnasya mano hrtva gacchatiti hara radha, tasyah sambodhane he hare |

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Caitanya-candra Hare! Once again, at the end of the Rasa dance, as she leaves to return home, she steals Krsna's mind and takes it away with her. She is thus known as Hara, and I therefore call out to her, O Radhe! O Hare! hare - radhaya mano hrtva gacchatiti harih krsnah tasya sambodhane he hare | Hare! Krsna also steals Radha's mind, taking it with him as he leaves. He is thus known as Hari, and I call out to him, O Krsna! O Hare! 16.9 The Glories Of The Holy Name In the Brhad-visnu-sahasranama-stotra, Uttara-khanda, Padma Purana (72.335) it is said: rama rameti rameti rame rame manorame sahasra-namabhis tulyam rama-nama varanane Lord Siva addressed his wife, Durga: "O Varanana (lovely-faced woman), I chant the holy name of Rama, Rama, Rama and thus constantly enjoy this beautiful sound. This holy name of Ramacandra is equal to one thousand holy names of Lord Visnu (Visnu-sahasranama-stotram)." In the Padma Purana it is mentioned: visnor ekaika namapi, sarva vedadhikam matam tadrk nama sahasrena, rama nama samasmrtam "Each Name of Lord Vishnu is greater and more potent than the entire Vedas combined together, and Lord Rama's Name alone is more superior that a thousand Names of Lord Vishnu." In the Brahmanda Purana (quoted in Laghu-bhagavatamrta, 1.354) it is stated: sahasra-namnam punyanam, trir-avrttya tu yat phalam; ekavrttya tu krsnasya, namaikam tat prayacchati. "The pious results (punya) achieved by chanting the thousand holy names of Visnu (Visnu-sahasra-nama-stotram) three times can be attained by only one utterance of the holy name of Krsna." [cited: Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya-lila 9.33] The Prabhasa Khanda of Padma Purana states: namnam mukhyataram nama, krishnakhyam me parantapa prayascittam asesenam papanam mocakam param. "O Arjuna, the Holy of Krishna is the most principal (mukhyataram) among all Names of God. One can atone for unlimited sinful deeds by chanting the Name of Krishna which is the supreme destroyer of all sins."

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Caitanya-candra A Vaishnava chants only one name. He has only one dharma, which is hari-nama. If you chant the holy name without offense - in other words, the pure name - then the all-beautiful form of Krishna, the transcendental pastimes of Krishna, and the attributes of Krishna everything will be manifested to you. Name prasphutita haya rupa, guna, karma. The name is everything! The name is everything! The ata-nma-stotra states: vior-ekaika nmpi sarva-veddhika matam tdk-nma-sahasrea rma-nma-sama smtam One name of Sri Vishnu is superior to all the Vedic mantras, and one name of Sri Rama is more potent than a thousand names of Sri Vishnu. The Brahma Pura states: sahasra-nmn puyn trir vtty tu yat phalam ekvtty tu kasya nmaika tat prayacchati When the thousand transcendental names of Sri Vishnu are chanted three times they are equivalent to chanting one name of Krishna. From this it is evident that one thousand names of Visnu is equivalent to one name of Rama and three names of Rama is equivalent to one name of Krsna.Thus, we see that Krishna is the supreme name. Therefore, we should always follow the instruction of Sri Gauranga and chant the mah-mantra: hare ka hare ka ka ka hare hare hare rma hare rma rma rma hare hare. So from the above three very important verses we can easily come to the following conclusion: 1000 x Names of Lord Visnu = 1 x Name of Lord Rama (Visnu-sahasra-nama-stotram) 3 x Names of Lord Rama = 1 x Name of Lord Krsna (or 3000 Names of Lord Visnu) In Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.3.22 it is stated: etavan eva loke 'smin pumsam dharmah parah smrtah bhakti-yogo bhagavati tan-nama-grahanadibhih [Yamaraja to the Yamadutas]: "Devotional service, beginning with the chanting of the holy name of the Lord, is the ultimate religious principle for the living entity in human society."

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In Srimad-Bhagavatam 1.5.38 it is stated: iti murty-abhidhanena mantra-murtim amurtikam yajate yajna-purusam sa samyag darsanah puman [Narada Muni to Vyasadeva]: "Thus he is the actual seer who worships, in the form of transcendental sound representation, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, who has no material form." In the Padma Purana it is stated: nama cintamanih krsnas caitanya-rasa-vigrahah purnah suddho nitya-mukto 'bhinnatvan nama-naminoh "The holy name of Krsna is transcendentally blissful. It bestows all spiritual benedictions, for it is Krsna Himself, the reservoir of all pleasure. Krsna's name is complete, and it is the form of all transcendental mellows. It is not a material name under any condition, and it is no less powerful than Krsna Himself. Since Krsna's name is not contaminated by the material qualities, there is no question of its being involved with maya. Krsna's name is always liberated and spiritual; it is never conditioned by the laws of material nature. This is because the name of Krsna and Krsna Himself are identical." In Sri Brhad-bhagavatamrta (1.9) it is stated: jayati jayati namananda-rupam murarer viramita-nija-dharma-dhyana-pujadi-yatnam kathamapi sakrd-attam muktidam praninam yat paramam amrtam ekam jivanam bhusanam me "All glories, all glories to the all-blissful holy name of Sri Krsna, which causes the devotee to give up all conventional religious duties, meditation and worship. When somehow or other uttered even once by a living entity, the holy name awards him liberation. The holy name of Krsna is the highest nectar. It is my very life and my only treasure." In Namastaka (verse 1), it is stated: nikhila-sruti-mauli-ratna-maladyuti-nirajita-pada-pankajanta ayi mukta-kulair upasyamanam paritas tvam hari-nama samsrayami "O Hari-nama! The tips of the toes of Your lotus feet are constantly being worshiped by the glowing radiance emanating from the string of gems known as the Upanisads, the crown

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Caitanya-candra jewels of all the Vedas. You are eternally adored by liberated souls such as Narada and Sukadeva. O Hari-nama! I take complete shelter of You." [cited: Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Antya-lila 4.71] Narada-pancaratra states: trayo vedah sad-angani chandamsi vividhah surah sarvam astaksarantahstham yac canyad api van-mayam sarva-vedanta-sararthah samsararnava-taranah "The essence of all Vedic knowledge-comprehending the three kinds of Vedic activity [karma-kanda, jnana-kanda and upasana-kanda], the chandah or Vedic hymns, and the processes for satisfying the demigods-is included in the eight syllables Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna. This is the reality of all Vedanta. The chanting of the holy name is the only means to cross the ocean of nescience." Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.103) it is stated: tam nirvyajam bhaja guna-nidhe pavanam pavananam sraddha-rajyan-matir atitaram uttamah-sloka-maulim prodyann antah-karana-kuhare hanta yan-nama-bhanor abhaso 'pi ksapayati maha-pataka-dhvanta-rasim "O reservoir of all good qualities, just worship Sri Krsna, the purifier of all purifiers, the most exalted of the personalities worshiped by choice poetry. Worship Him with a faithful, unflinching mind, without duplicity and in a highly elevated manner. Thus worship the Lord, whose name is like the sun, for just as a slight appearance of the sun dissipates the darkness of night, so a slight appearance of the holy name of Krsna can drive away all the darkness of ignorance that arises in the heart due to greatly sinful activities performed in previous lives." [cited: Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Antya-lila 3.62] Brhad- Visnu Purana it is stated: namno hi yavati sa papa-nirharane hareh tavat kartum na saknoti patakam pataki narah "Simply by chanting one holy name of Hari, a sinful man can counteract the reactions to more sins than he is able to commit." [cited: Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.2.7] In the Garuda Purana it is stated: avasenapi yan-namni kirtite sarva-patakaih

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Caitanya-candra puman vimucyate sadyah simha-trastair mrgair iva "If one chants the holy name of the Lord, even in a helpless condition or without desiring to do so, all the reactions of his sinful life depart, just as when a lion roars, all the small animals flee in fear." [cited: Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.2.7] In the Srimad-Bhagavatam 1.1.14 it is stated: apannah samsrtim ghoram yan-nama vivaso grnan tatah sadyo vimucyeta yad bibheti svayam bhayam [The sages at Naimisaranya to Suta Gosvami]: "Living beings who are entangled in the complicated meshes of birth and death can be freed immediately by even unconsciously chanting the holy name of Krsna, which is feared by fear personified." In the Skanda Purana it is stated: sakrd uccaritam yena harir ity aksara-dvayam baddha-parikaras tena moksaya gamanam prati "By once chanting the holy name of the Lord, which consists of the two syllables ha-ri, one guarantees his path to liberation." [cited: Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.2.7] In Srimad-Bhagavatam 11.2.40 it is stated: evam-vratah sva-priya-nama-kirtya jatanurago druta-citta uccaih hasaty atho roditi rauti gayaty unmada-van nrtyati loka-bahyah [Kavi to Maharaja Nimi]: "When a person is actually advanced and takes pleasure in chanting the holy name of the Lord, who is very dear to him, he is agitated and loudly chants the holy name. He also laughs, cries, becomes agitated and chants just like a madman, not caring for outsiders." [cited: Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya-lila 9.262] In Vidagdha-madhava (1.15) it is stated: tunde tandavini ratim vitanute tundavali-labdhaye karna-kroda-kadambini ghatayate karnarbudebhyah sprham cetah-prangana-sangini vijayate sarvendriyanam krtim no jane janita kiyadbhir amrtaih krsneti varna-dvayi "I do not know how much nectar the two syllables 'Krs-na' have produced. When the holy

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Caitanya-candra name of Krsna is chanted, it appears to dance within the mouth. We then desire many, many mouths. When that name enters the holes of the ears, we desire many millions of ears. And when the holy name dances in the courtyard of the heart, it conquers the activities of the mind, and therefore all the senses become inert." [cited: Sri Caitanyacaritamrta Antya-lila 1.99] Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.234) states: atah sri-krsna-namadi na bhaved grahyam indriyaih sevonmukhe hi jihvadau svayam eva sphuraty adah "Therefore material senses cannot appreciate Krsna's holy name, form, qualities and pastimes. When a conditioned soul is awakened to Krsna consciousness and renders service by using his tongue to chant the Lord's holy name and taste the remnants of the Lord's food, the tongue is purified, and one gradually comes to understand who Krsna really is." [cited: Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya-lila 17.136] In the Skanda Purana it is stated: yasya smrtya ca namoktya tapo-yajna-kriyadisu nunam sampurnatam eti sadyo vande tam acyutam "I offer my obeisances unto Him, the infallible, because simply by either remembering Him or vibrating His holy name one can attain the perfection of all penances, sacrifices or fruitive activities, and this process can be universally followed." [cited: Srimad-Bhagavatam 2.9.36] Srimad-Bhagavatam 3.33.6 states: yan-namadheya-sravananukirtanad yat-prahvanad yat-smaranad api kvacit svado 'pi sadyah savanaya kalpate kutah punas te bhagavan nu darsanat [Devahuti to Lord Kapila]: "To say nothing of the spiritual advancement of persons who see the Supreme Person face to face, even a person born in a family of dog-eaters immediately becomes eligible to perform Vedic sacrifices if he once utters the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead or chants about Him, hears about His pastimes, offers Him obeisances or even remembers Him." Srimad-Bhagavatam 3.33.7 states: aho bata sva-paco 'to gariyan yaj-jihvagre vartate nama tubhyam

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Caitanya-candra tepus tapas te juhuvuh sasnur arya brahmanucur nama grnanti ye te [Devahuti to Lord Kapila]: "Oh, how glorious are they whose tongues are chanting Your holy name! Even if bom in the families of dog-eaters, such persons are worshipable. Persons who chant the holy name of Your Lordship must have executed all kinds of austerities and fire sacrifices and achieved all the good manners of the Aryans. To be chanting the holy name of Your Lordship, they must have bathed at holy places of pilgrimage, studied the Vedas and fulfilled everything required." In the Padma Purana it is stated: namaparadha-yuktanam namany eva haranty agham avisranti-prayuktani tany evartha-karani ca Even if in the beginning one chants the Hare Krsna mantra with offenses, one will become free from such offenses by chanting again and again. [cited: Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.3.24] Srimad-Bhagavatam 2.3.24 states: tad asma-saram hrdayam batedam yad grhyamanair hari-nama-dheyaih na vikriyetatha yada vikaro netre jalam gatra-ruhesu harsah [Sukadeva Gosvami to Maharaja Pariksit]: "If one's heart does not change, tears do not flow from his eyes, his body does not shiver, nor his hairs stand on end as he chants the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, it should be understood that his heart is as hard as iron. This is due to his offenses at the lotus feet of the Lord's holy name." Srimad-Bhagavatam 4.30.35 states: naham tisthami vaikunthe yoginam hrdayesu va tatra tisthami narada yatra gayanti mad-bhaktah "My dear Narada, actually I do not reside in My abode, Vaikuntha, nor do I reside within the hearts of the yogis, but I reside in that place where My pure devotees chant My holy name and discuss My form, pastimes and qualities." In the Brahma-rahasya it is stated: krsna-caitanyeti nama, mukhyan mukhyatamam prabhoh helaya sakrd uccarya, sarva-nama-phalam labhet.

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Caitanya-candra "The holy name Krsna Caitanya is the topmost even among all the important primary holy names of the Lord Krsna. By chanting this name just once, a person attains the results of chanting all the other holy names of the Lord." In the Visnu-yamala it is said: krsna-caitanya-namna ye, kirtayanti sakrn narah; nanaparadha-muktas te, punanti sakalam jagat. "Those who chant the name of Krsna Caitanya even once, become free from all offenses and purify all the worlds by their very presence." Srila Jagadananda Pandita says in Prema-vivarta: gaura ye visala nama sei nama gau; anya saba nama-mahatmya sei name pau. "The most powerful names of God are the names of the most merciful incarnation of God, who is known as Lord Gaura. The glories and power of all the other names of God are completely present in the names of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu." In the Padma Purana (Brahma khanda 25.1518) it is stated: sivasya sri-visnor ya iha guna-namadi-sakalam dhiya bhinnam pasyet sa khalu hari-namahita-karah To consider the names of demigods such as Lord Siva and Lord Brahma as well as other demigods as good as the name of Lord Visnu -- or, in other words, to think that Lord Siva and the other demigods are other forms of God and therefore equal to Lord Visnu -- is also a great offence. Therefore equating any person with Lord Visnu (Krsna, Rama) and His holy name is a great offence which must be avoided at all times. Hence adding someones name with the holy names of Lord Hari is one of the greatest offences. One must not commit such an offence. mriyamano harer nama grnan putropacaritam ajamilo py agad dhama kim uta sraddhaya grnan While suffering at the time of death, Ajamila chanted the holy name of the Lord, and although the chanting was directed toward his son, he nevertheless returned home, back to Godhead. Therefore if one faithfully and inoffensively chants the holy name of the Lord, where is the doubt that he will return to Godhead. (Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.2.49) In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Madhya-lila 15.110 it is stated: ki kta-cetas su-manasm uccana chasm calam amka-loka-sulabho vaya ca mukti-riya

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Caitanya-candra no dk na ca sat-kriy na ca puracary mang kate mantro ya rasan-spg eva phalati r-ka-nmtmaka The holy name of Lord Ka is an attractive feature for many saintly, liberal people. It is the annihilator of all sinful reactions and is so powerful that, save for the dumb who cannot chant it, it is readily available to everyone, including the lowest type of man, the cala. The holy name of Ka is the controller of the opulence of liberation, and it is identical with Ka. When a person simply chants the holy name with his tongue, immediate effects are produced. Chanting the holy name does not depend on initiation, pious activities or the puracary regulative principles generally observed before initiation. The holy name does not wait for any of these activities. It is self-sufficient. The Nrada-pacartra also praises the Hare Ka mah-mantra as follows: trayo ved a-agni chandsi vividh sur sarvam akarnta-stha yac cnyad api v-mayam sarva-vednta-srrtha sasrrava-traa The essence of all Vedic knowledgecomprehending the three kinds of Vedic activity [karma-ka, jna-ka and upsan-ka], the chandas, or Vedic hymns, and the processes for satisfying the demigodsis included in the eight syllables Hare Ka, Hare Ka. This is the reality of all Vednta. The chanting of the holy name is the only means to cross the ocean of nescience. rla Jva Gosvm has also cited the Cturmsya-mhtmya of the Skanda Pura concerning the necessity of chanting Hare Ka in this age: tath caivottama loke tapa r-hari-krtanam kalau yuge vieea viu-prtyai samcaret In this way the most perfect penance to be executed in this world is the chanting of the name of Lord r Hari. Especially in the age of Kali, one can satisfy the Supreme Lord Viu by performing sakrtana. In Srimad Bhagavatam (2.1.11) it is stated: etan nirvidyamnnm icchatm akuto-bhayam yogin npa nirta harer nmnukrtanam O King, constant chanting of the holy name of the Lord after the ways of the great authorities is the doubtless and fearless way of success for all, including those who are free from all material desires, those who are desirous of all material enjoyment, and also those who are self-satisfied by dint of transcendental knowledge.

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16.10 The Holy Name Is Everything


Sri Caitanya-caritmta states: ka nma mah-mantra ei tasvabhva yei jape tre ke upajaye bhva [Isvara Puri to Lord Caitanya]: The nature of the hare ka mah-mantra is such that when a person chants it, he immediately develops his loving ecstatic relationship with Ka. (C.c.di-ll 7.83) ka viayaka premparama purusrtha yra ge ta-tulya cri pururtha Dharma (religiosity), artha (economic development), kma (sense gratification) and moka (liberation) are known as the four goals of life, but before love of Godhead, ka prema, the fifth and topmost goal, these appear as insignificant as straw in the street. (C.c. di-ll 7.84) pancama pururtha-premnand amta sindu brahmdi nanda yra nahe eka bindu The pleasure derived from dharma, artha, kma and moka appear like a drop in the ocean in the presence of a person who has developed bhva. (C.c. di-ll 7.85) ka-nmera phala prem, sarva stre kaya The conclusion of all stra is that one should awaken his dormant love of Godhead, ka-prema. (C.c. di-ll 7. 86) There is no difference between the name of Krishna and Krishna Himself, and especially in Kali yuga Krishna has incarnated Himself in the form of his holy name. No other incarnation is there in Kali-yuga. He is nama-avatara. kali-kle nma rpe ka-avatra nma haite haya sarva-jagat-nistra In this Age of Kali, the holy name of the Lord, the Hare Krsna maha-mantra, is the incarnation of Lord Krsna. Simply by chanting the holy name, one associates with the Lord directly. Anyone who does this is certainly delivered.(C.c. di-ll 17.22) anyse bhava-kaya, kera sevana eka ka-nmera phale pi eta dhana As a result of chanting the Hare Ka mah-mantra, one makes such great advancement in spiritual life that simultaneously his material existence terminates and he receives love of Godhead. The holy name of Ka is so powerful that by chanting even one name, one very easily achieves these transcendental riches. (C.c. di-ll 8.28)

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avatari caitanya kaila dharma pracraa kali kle dharmaka-nma-sakrtana r Caitanya Mahprabhu has descended in Kali-yuga to propagate the dharma of the age, chanting the holy names of Ka. (C.c. Madhya-ll 11.98) sakrtana-yaje tre kare rdhana sei ta sumedh rakali-hata-jana A person who worships r Caitanya Mahprabhu by performing sakrtana should be considered to possess great intelligence. It is understood that one who does not perform sakrtana has no intelligence and is a victim of Kali. (C.c. Madhya-ll 11.99) nirantara kara ka-nma-sakrtana helya mukti pbe, pabe prema-dhana Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu continued, Always discuss Srimad Bhagavatam and constantly chant the holy name of Krsna. In this way you will be able to attain liberation very easily, and you will be elevated to the enjoyment of love of Godhead. (C.c. Madhyall 25.154) eka nmbhse tomra ppa doa ybe ra nma la-ite ka-caraa-pibe Begin chanting the hare ka mah-mantra and, at the stage of nmabhasa, when your chanting is almost pure, all your sinful reactions will go away. After you chant perfectly, you will get shelter at the lotus feet of Ka. (C.c. Madhya-ll 25.199) nmera phale ka-pade prema upajaya The result of chanting nma without offence is that a person will awaken his ecstatic love for the lotus feet of Ka. (C.c. Antya-ll 3.178) kali-klera dharmaka-nma-sakrtana The fundamental religious system in the age of Kali is the chanting of the name of Ka. (C.c. Antya-ll 7.11) hare prabhukalena suna svarpa-rma-rya nma-sakrtana-kalau parama upya In great jubilation r Caitanya Mahprabhu said, My dear Svarpa Dmodara and Rmnanda Rya, know from Me that the easiest way to attain salvation in this age of Kali is by chanting of the holy names of Krsna. (C.c. Antya-ll 20. 8) sakrtana-yaje kalau ka rdhana sei ta sumedh pya kera caraa

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In this age of Kali, the system for worshipping Ka is to perform yaja by chanting r Bhagavns name. One who does so is considered to be intelligent, and he will definitely attain the lotus feet of Ka. (C.c. Antya-ll 20.9) nma-sakrtane haya sarvnatha-na sarva-ubhodaya ka-premera ullsa Simply by chanting the holy name of Lord Krsna, one can be freed from all anarthas, undesireable habits. This is the means of awakening all good fortune and initiating the flow of waves of love of Krsna. (C.c. Antya-ll 20.11) khite uite yath tath nma laya kla-de-niyama nhi sarva siddhi haya Regardless of time or place, one who chants the name even while eating or sleeping, attains all perfection. (C.c. Antya-ll 20.18) ei-mata ha yei ka-nma-laya r ka-carae tra prema upajaya If one chants the holy name of Krsna in this manner, he will certainly awaken his dormant love for Kas lotus feet. (C.c. Antya-ll 20.26) Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Adi-lila 8.26 states: 'eka' krsna-name kare sarva-papa nasa premera karana bhakti karena prakasa "Simply chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra without offenses vanquishes all sinful activities. Thus pure devotional service, which is the cause of love of Godhead, becomes manifest." Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Adi-lila 7.73 it is stated: krsna-mantra haite habe samsara-mocana krsna-nama haite pabe krsnera carana [Srila Isvara Puri to Lord Caitanya]: "Simply by chanting the holy name of Krsna, one can obtain freedom from material existence. Indeed, simply by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra one will be able to see the lotus feet of the Lord." Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Antya-lila 4.71 it is stated: tara madhye sarva-srestha nama-sankirtana niraparadhe nama laile paya prema-dhana

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Caitanya-candra [Lord Caitanya to Sanatana Gosvami]: "Of the nine processes of devotional service, the most important is to always chant the holy name of the Lord. If one does so, avoiding the ten kinds of offenses, one very easily obtains the most valuable love of Godhead." Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Antya-lila 3.268 it is stated: krsna-adi, ara yata sthavara-jangame krsna-preme matta kare krsna-sankirtane "The holy name of Krsna is so attractive that anyone who chants it-including all living entities, moving and nonmoving, and even Lord Krsna Himself-becomes imbued with love of Krsna. This is the effect of chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra." Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Antya-lila 20.13-14 states: sankirtana haite papa-samsara-nasana citta-suddhi, sarva-bhakti-sadhana-udgama krsna-premodgama, premamrta-asvadana krsna-prapti, sevamrta-samudre majjana [Lord Caitanya to Svarupa Damodara and Ramananda Raya]: "By performing congregational chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra, one can destroy the sinful condition of material existence, purify the unclean heart and awaken all varieties of devotional service. The result of chanting is that one awakens his love for Krsna and tastes transcendental bliss. Ultimately, one attains the association of Krsna and engages in His devotional service, as if immersing himself in a great ocean of love." Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya-lila 16.72 states: "krsna-nama nirantara yanhara vadane sei vaisnava-srestha, bhaja tanhara carane [Lord Caitanya to an inhabitant of Kulina-grama]: "A person who is always chanting the holy name of the Lord is to be considered a first-class Vaisnava, and your duty is to serve his lotus feet." ataeva nama matra vaisnavera dharma name prasphuita haya rupa, guna, karma Chanting the holy name is the prime religious activity of a vaishnava. From the holy name gradually blossom the Lord's form, qualities and pastimes. krsna-nama cintamani anadi cinmaya yei krsna, sei nama-eka-tattva haya Lord Krishna's name is like an eternal and transcendental touchstone. Krishna and His name are identical; They are one and the same absolute truth.

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Caitanya-candra Cintamani means desire. Whatever you desire the name will give you. Krishna - nama cintamani anadi cinmaya - the holy name is spiritual, transcendental, and without beginning or end - anadir adir govindah sarva-karana-karanam. namera smarana ara nama-sankirtana ei matra dharma jiva karibe palana This is the only dharma in Kali-yuga: chanting the holy name and thinking of the holy name. Only this. This is the one dharma the jives in Kali-yuga should perform. In all the Vedas it has been said, harinama-sara, the holy name is the essence. veda punah bale, 'yata mukti mahajana paravyome sada kare nama-sankirtana Again the Vedas say that all the liberated mahajanas, always chant Hare Krishna in the spiritual sky. Yei krishna, sei nama - eka-tattva haya - there is no difference between the name of Krishna and Krishna Himself - 'bhinnatvan nama-naminoh. There is no difference between the name of Krishna and Krishna Himself, and especially in Kali yuga Krishna has incarnated Himself in the form of his holy name. No other incarnation is there in Kali-yuga. He is nama-avatara. nama vinu kali-kale nahi ara dharma sarva-mantra-sara nama, ei shastra-marma In this Age of Kali there is no religious principle other than the chanting of the holy name, which is the essence of all Vedic hymns. This is the purport of all scriptures. hare nama harer nama harer namaiva kevalam kalau nasty eva nasty eva nasty eva gatir anyatha In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy, the only means of deliverance is the chanting of the Holy Names of the Lord. There is no other way. There is no other way. There is no other way. Paibe parama priti ananda apara - by chanting this Holy name of Krishna: hare krishna hare krishna, krishna krishna hare hare hare rama hare rama, rama rama hare hare you'll get extreme pleasure, supreme pleasure. CONCLUDING WORDS After going through the scriptural evidences and the explanations of the great purva-acaryas presented above, every intelligent person should have no difficulty in accepting Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu as Sri Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Every future incarnation of the Supreme Lord has been mentioned in the vedic texts which is accepted as the ultimate authority to distinguish a genuine incarnation from an imposter. Sri Caitanya has been accepted as the yuga-avatara on this basis along with his bodily markings, features and extraordinary activities. According to the sriptures there are only three incarnations of the Lord in Kali-yuga, namely that of Lord Buddha, Lord Caitanya, and finally Lord Kalki. Apart from these three principal bonafide incarnations of the Lord there is no other incarnation to appear in this age of Kali. One must guard against accepting someone as an avatara without any reference from the scriptures. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is not a God of a particular sect

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Caitanya-candra of people only. He has been accepted as the Supreme Lord by all the four bonafide vaisnava sampradayas namely Brahma Madhva sampradaya, Sri Ramanuja sampradaya, Kumara Nimbaditya sampradaya, and Rudra Visnuswami sampradaya. However because the Lord took initiation in the Brahma Madhva sampradaya, His principal biographers were devotees of that sampradaya. A person who accepts Sri Rama and Sri Krsna as bhagavan must also accept Sri Caitanya as the Supreme Controller without any hesitation. The present day Hare Krsna movement started by His Divine Grace A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami in Western countries is not a new religion as many think. It is the same sankirtana movement started by Lord Caitanya Himself. Lord Caitanya is a merciful incarnation having appeared especially to claim the claim the fallen souls. The more fallen one is, the greater ones claim to the favour of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. One must only be sincere and serious. Despite being contaminated by all the bad qualities in this Kali-yuga, if one surrenders unto the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Lord will surely and certainly deliver him. Hence one must take shelter at feet of Sri Sri Gaura-Nitai6 and follow Their teachings which is nothing other than worshipping The Divine Couple Sri Sri Radha Krsna through the sankirtana movement. Warning: one must not give more importance to Lord Caitanya and less importance to Lord Nityananda. Instead one must give equal importance to Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda as there is no difference between Their Lordships. Srila Narottama dasa Thakur says that anyone who does not make a relationship with Lord Nityananda is simply spoiling the boon of his human form of life. He advices that if one actually wants to enter into the dance party of Radha-Krsna, he must accept the shelter of the lotus feet of Lord Nityananda. In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda are compared to the sun and moon. Hence both the sun and the moon had risen simultaneouslly to dissipate the darkness of the material world. In his song Srila Locana dasa Thakur says: The two Lords, NitaiGauracandra Lord Nityananda and Lord Caitanya are very merciful. They are the essence of all incarnations. The specific significance of these incarnations is that prosecuting Their way of self-realization is simply joyful, for They introduced chanting and dacing. Within the three worlds there is no one like Lord Caitanya or Lord Nityananda, because Their merciful qualities are so great that They make even birds and beasts cry, what to speak of human beings. There is no difference between the teachings of Lord Caitanya and the teachings of Lord Krsna in Bhagavad-gita. Lord Caitanya does not give the information about the spirit soul that is already described in Bhagavad-gita. Rather, He begins from the point where Krsna ended His instruction. The teachings of Lord Caitanya are practical demonstrations of Lord Krsnas teachings. Lord Krsnas ultimate instruction in Bhagavad-gita is that everyone surrender unto Him, Lord Krsna. Lord Krsna promises to take immediate charge of such a surrendered soul. At the conclusion of the Ninth Chapter of Bhagavad-gita, Lord Krsna directly says: Engage your mind always in thinking of me, offer obeisances and worship Me. Being completely absorbed in Me, surely you will come to Me (Bg. 9.34) However, the scholartly demons misuide the mass of people by directing them to the impersonal, unmanifest, eternal, unborn truth rather than the Personality of Godhead. Lord Caitanya taught direct worship of Lors
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Gaura refers to Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Nitai refers to Lord Nityananda Prabhu.

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Caitanya-candra Krsna who appeared as the foster child of Nanda Maharaja. He also explained that the place known as Vrndavana is as good as Lord Krsna because there is no difference between the name, quality, form, pastimes, entourage and paraphernalia of Lord Krsna and Lord Krsna Himself. He taught that in Kali-yuga, there is no use doing tapasya (meditation), yajna (fire sacrifice) and arca-puja (temple worship) to achieve perfect self-realization, as they were recommended processes in the previous yugas. In Kali-yuga, however, simply by performing hari-nama sankirtana (congregational chanting of only Lord Haris holy names and no one elses names) all that is achieved that was achieved by performing meditation, fire sacrifice and temple worship. Lord Caitanya Himself performed hari-nama sankirtana in order to set an example to teach the general mass of people as to what should be done in this age of Kali. Lord Caitanya condemned the worship of demigods as people of less intelligence worships the demigods for their various purposes. But intelligent people only worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is clearly stated by the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (7.20-28). In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, (Adi-lila, 13.123) it is stated: paiya manusa janma, ye na sune gaura-guna hena janma tara vyartha haila paiya amrtadhuni, piye visa-garta-pani janmiya se kene nahi maila Anyone who attains a human body but does not hear the qualities of Lord Gauranga is baffled in his opportunity. Amrtdhuni is a flowing river of the nectar of devotional service. If after getting a human body one drinks the water in a poison of material happiness instead of the water of such a river,it would be better for him not to have lived, but to have died long ago. Similarly, Sripada Prabodhananda Sarasvati has composed the following verses in his Sri Caitanya-candramrta: acaitanyam idam visvam yadi caitanyam isvaram na viduh sarva-sastra-jna hy api bhramyanti te janah This material world is without Krsna consciousness. Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Krsna consciousness personified. Therefore if a very learned scholar or scientist does not understand Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, certainly he is wandering uselessly in this world. prasarita-mahaprema-piyusa-rasa-sagare caitanyacandre prakate yo dino dina eva sah A person who does not take advantage of the nectar of devotional service overflowing during the presence of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhus cult is certainly the poorest of the poor. avatirne gauracandre vistirne prema-sagare suprakasita-ratnaughe yo dino dina eva sah The advent of Lord Caitanya is just like an expanding ocean of nectar. One who does not collect the valuable jewels within this ocean is certainly the poorest of the poor.

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Caitanya-candra Hence one should take shelter at the lotus feets of Their Lordship Sri Sri Gaura-Nitai, who are very merciful upon the fallen conditioned souls in Kali-yuga. One may read Sri Caitanya Bhagavata written by Srila Vrndavana das Thakura, Sri Caitanyacaritamrta written by Srila Krsnadas Kaviraja Goswami and Sri Caitanya Mangala written by Srila Locana das Thakura authorized biographies of Lord Caitanya-complete with the Lords nectarial pastimes and teachings. All Glories to His Divine Grace Srila A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada by whose mercy the name and glories of the most merciful incarnation of Sri Krsna as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in kali-yuga is being heard in every part of the world. All Glories to Sri Sri Gaura Nitai All Glories to Srila Prabhupada For more information on this subject matter, please contact your nearest ISKCON Temple.

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