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INTRODUCTION After the death of Joséphin Péladan in 1918, Émile Dantinne (1884-1969) started his attempts to reunite the Belgian rosicrucians under one major umbrella organization. In his writings Dantinne has always presented himself as one of the successors of Péladan, one of the key figures of the so-called ‘French occult revival’ at the end of the XIX century. Joséphin Aimé Péladan (1859 –1918) was involved with the development of the Martinist Order of Papus and the foundation of the Kabbalistic Order of the Rose- Croix. In 1891 he established his own (self-styled) Rosicrucian Order, ‘L’Ordre de la Rose-Croix du Temple et du Graal’, the Catholic Rose-Croix (R+C+C). And it was this Order which Dantinne wanted to restore. The whole history of Joséphin Péladan’s Order has already been told in the essay “1891 L’Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique et Esthetique du Temple et du Graal” , which includes a historical outline on Péladan’s Belgian disciples. Therefore, only a brief review of the events leading to the restoration of the Order in Belgium will be presented in this essay. More detailed information can be found in the above- mentioned essay.

THE GATHERINGS AT THE HOTEL RAVENSTEIN After Péladan had founded his R+C Order, he started to organize the now famous ‘Salons des Rose- Croix’ (art-exhibitions) in Paris. At the third exhibition, which was held in Brussels in 1894, a branch of the ‘Catholic Rose-Croix’ was established under the leadership of Jean Delville (1867-1953), the great symbolist painter. In the following years the Belgian rosicrucians gathered together at the Hotel Ravenstein in Brussels, Belgium. In reality, these ‘rosicrucians’ were a loose circle of followers of Péladan; some of them were Theosophists or Martinists, others spiritualists, free-thinkers or Freemasons. “The most prominent of these Belgian disciples were: Edmond Picard, Raymond Nyst, José Hennebicq, Georges M. Baltus, Jean Delville, Clement de Saint-Marcq, Francis Vurgey, and Nicolas Brossel.” (1) It was in 1904 that a young Émile Dantinne met Péladan at the Hotel Ravenstein, where the latter delivered a lecture. After this first meeting, Dantinne became a regular visitor at the rosicrucian gatherings at the rue Ravenstein. Dantinne goes into this subject in his work entitled "L’Oeuvre et la Pensée de Péladan" :

“In the course of these conferences in Belgium, Péladan created a circle of disciples who met at the Hotel Ravenstein which still exists in the vicinity of the ‘Palais des Beaux-Arts’.” On pages 37-38 Dantinne continues: "The Catholic Rose+Cross survived Péladan and its surviving initiates restored the Order in an adequate form which was disposed of - without modifying the great directives of the Master - its aesthetic side which only distorted the purity of it." (2) On the same page (38) Dantinne states that, in the end, only two initiates remained loyal to the ideals and the doctrines of the rosicrucian Order : Du Chastain and Dantinne. “After the death of Peladan it was Sâr Hieronymus who relighted the torch of the Order and restored it in the ancient tradition of the real Rose+Cross." (3)


“1891 L’Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique et …” (2003) M.Bogaard


"L’Oeuvre et la Pensée de Péladan ( La Philosophie rosicrucienne )" (1948) Émile Dantinne


an Addition to 'L'Oeuvre et la Pensée de Péladan', written by Émile Dantinne in 1952 ; ‘Sâr Hieronymous’ was the ‘nomen mysticum’ of Dantinne.

1923 ORDO AUREAE & ROSAE CRUCIS After the First World War (1914-1918) Émile Dantinne restored the Rosicrucian Order that died with Péladan, as it is stated. “On July 30, 1923 Jean Mallinger (Sâr Elgrim) is admitted to the Order. Shortly

thereafter, at the first convention held in Duinbergen, the ‘Rose-Croix universitaire’ was founded. Then, at Brussels, a Rosicrucian centre was established under the direction of François Soetewey, with Mallinger as secretary.” (4) Dantinne, who carried the title and (mystical) name of ‘Sâr Hieronymus’ (the title ‘Sâr’ was derived from Péladan, who used it as a title for his Grandmastership), and his disciples decided to reorganize the whole Order. The rosicrucian organization Dantinne had in mind was divided over three separate Orders:

1. ‘L’Ordre de la Rose+Croix Universelle’: an Order divided into nine degrees led by François Soetewey ( Sâr Succus ),

2. ‘L’Ordre de la Rose+Croix Universitaire’: led by Jean Mallinger, Georges van Steenbeek (both students at the University of Leuven, Belgium), and Jean Pastel (student at the University of Brussels, Belgium). Similar to the ‘R+C Universelle’ except this Order only admitted University students and graduates.

3. ‘L’Ordre de la Rose+Croix Intérieure’: the inner Order, divided into four degrees and led by Imperator Jules Rochat de Abbaye (Sâr Apollonius). The whole Order consequently consisted of thirteen degrees, the final one being the ‘Imperator-degree’. The outer heading of the Rosicrucian Order applied its original name: ‘Ordo Aureae et Rosae Crucis’. Émile Dantinne was the Imperator of the overall organization O.A.R.C. , with Soetewey as Co-Imperator.

“ Celestial Rose+Croix ”

ROSE+CROIX Intérieure

“ Celestial Rose+Croix ” ROSE+CROIX Intérieure 4º ROSE+CROIX Universelle 9º ROSE+CROIX Universitaire 9º The

ROSE+CROIX Universelle

ROSE+CROIX Universitaire

The OARC had a total of thirteen degrees of which the first nine carried the titles of the ‘classical’ rosicrucian degrees (Gold und Rosenkreutz Order) (5):

Zelator : in this degree the various religions and philosophical systems were studied

Theoreticus : a beginning was made in studying the occult forces

Practicus : a study of the life of the great Mystics, Alchemy and the works of H. Kunrath

Philosophus : a study of the heavenly hierarchies

Adeptus Minor : the theory and practical applications of Theurgy

Adeptus major : dedicated to the Christian mysteries

Adeptus Exemptus : mysticism

Magister Templi : practical training in mysticism

Magus : the occult doctrines of the Rose Cross

10º Ecuyer 11º Chévalier 12º Commandeur 13º Imperator The tenth up to and including the twelfth degree (Ecuyer, Chévalier, Commandeur) were adopted from Péladan’s R+C+C and belonged to the ‘Rose+Croix Intérieure’ (10º-13º). The final degree of the inner Order was (obviously) reserved for the Imperator. According to Marcel Roggemans the actual rituals attached to these degrees have never been discovered. Roggemans continues by stating that the question remains open as to whether there were rituals attached to the degrees or not.


Document : Roger Maréchal, 1982 . (Une analyse des documents constituant le Fonds Lelarge) source: Marcel Roggemans.


Originally, the first degree of the German R+C was entitled “Juniorus’. To my knowledge, it was the ‘Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn’ (1888) which used the appellation ‘Zelator’. The depicted degree-titles were derived from the archives of Belgian historian Marcel Roggemans (“Geschiedenis van de occulte en mystieke broederschappen”).

According to Alvin sen Evanger, there was another Order beyond the ‘Rose+Croix Intérieure’, the ‘Celestial Rose-Croix’ (R+C Céleste): “Beyond all this was the 'Celestial Rose-Croix' (signifying the initiates spiritual connection) which was only reserved to a very few, notably those who attained thus heights of illumination ('rare initiation').” (6) The French historian and AMORC member Christian Rebisse states that in the initial stages of the Order’s formation, the Belgian rosicrucians received negative response from (in particularly) the disciples of Max Heindel (Rosicrucian Fellowship), Rudolf Steiner and the Theosophists. “The majority of the members were Martinists and members of the Rite of Memphis- Misraïm.” Rebisse furthermore stresses that, although “Émile Dantinne presented himself as a disciple of Joséphin Péladan, he claimed that his initiatic filiation did not came from the Sâr (Péladan), but from the ‘Astral’ Rose-Croix. The philosophy, the rites and the teachings of the Order were derived from Renaissance Magic. In this the Order deviated from the Catholic Rose-Croix of Péladan, which rejected such practises.” (7) The personal testimonies of Dantinne ("L’Oeuvre et la Pensée de Péladan",1948) tend to contradict Rebisse’s claim regarding Dantinne’s initiatic filiation. In his testimonies Dantinne clearly speaks of a restoration of Péladan’s Catholic Rose+Cross, “without modifying the great directives of the Master” (8) Nevertheless, the possible existence of a special order (‘Celestial Rose-Croix’) reserved only for the highest adepts within the organization structure of the O.A.R.C. could well refer to the Astral Rose-Croix. The use of the expression ‘rare initiation’ (an initiation received from the higher planes) is well known within the world of initiatic societies and brotherhoods. But this is just mere speculation on my part. The storie continues… The rosicrucian philosophy started to flourish in Belgium as the Order expanded its activities. On December 31, 1925 Dantinne opened a Rosicrucian Centre in Brussels which came under the leadership of François Soetewey. Mallinger was appointed secretary. On February 12, 1926 the dignitaries were appointed for ‘L’Ordre de la Rose+Croix Universitaire’. Marcel Roggemans (transl.) : “Sâr Essenius was appointed secretary, Sâr Ignifer was appointed Archon of Sciences and of the Arts with Sâr a Mare as almoner (chaplain). At a later date Sâr Essenius was replaced by Jean Mallinger.” On May 9, 1927 Dantinne instructed his Rosicrucian Order to establish ‘Hermetic Centres’ in Belgium. These centres came under the leadership of François Soetewey. The foundation of these centres indicated the birth of a new Order which would become known as ‘L’Ordre Hermètiste Tétramégiste et Mystique’ (more on this organization later). In 1928 Dantinne established a new R+C Centre in Brussels under the name of ‘La vraie initiation occultiste’ and connected this centre to the ‘Ordre de la Rose+Croix Universitaire’. In that same year the Belgian historian Francois Wittemans received a honorary membership of the ‘Rose+Croix Universitaire’. In 1924 Wittemans had published a book on the history of the rosicrucians, “Geschiedenis der Rozenkruisers” (L.J.C. Bouchier, the Hague, Netherlands). Wittemans (i.a. member of the Theosophic Society) was also in contact with Harvey Spencer Lewis, Grandmaster of the American rosicrucian order A.M.O.R.C. It is more then likely that it was Fr.Wittemans who put H.S. Lewis into contact with Dantinne and Mallinger. On April 29, Jean Mallinger introduced Léon Lelarge (Sâr Agni) to the Rosicrucian Order. Dantinne, Mallinger and Lelarge together formed the nucleus of the whole organization. For instance, any correspondence addressed to Dantinne went through Lelarge (or Mallinger). Dantinne was a devote Christian, unlike Jean Mallinger (1904-1982) who was very anticlerical and even became involved with the Communist movement for a short period of time (until 1936-1938). Léon Lelarge, an engineer who would later i.a. become the Vice-President of the Council of Administration of the Belgian railwaycompany S.N.C.B., was the binding factor between the opposing personalities of Dantinne and Mallinger. Then, in 1933, a crisis occurred which threatened the Order’s existence. Mallinger alarms Lelarge by announcing that Émile Dantinne would have decided to abandone all his Order-activities. Mallinger sees in this decision the hand of the church. No one has ever known what led Dantinne to decide to stop all his Order activities at the time. Roger Maréchal asserts that Dantinne’s decision maybe had something to do with the constitution of ‘L’Ordre Maçonnique Oriental de Memphis-Misraïm’, published in the ‘Moniteur Belge’ of April 08, 1933, and signed by i.a. Jean Mallinger and other members of ‘L’Ordre Hermétiste’. Then, in 1934 Mallinger informs Lelarge of his intention to resign from the Rosicrucian Order.


“Manifestations of the Neo-Rosicrucian Current”

Fr. Melchior’. It is noteworthy that Alvin sen Evanger (Fr.Melchior) mentions


a degree-structure that differs from Roggemans’, namely: R+C Universitaire (9 degrees), R+C Universalis (3 degrees) and R+C Interioure (the inner order). “Histoire du Rosicrucianisme / des origines jusqu'à nos jours” Chapter XIX Christian Rebisse F.R.C.


“L’Oeuvre et la Pensée de Péladan” 1948 E.Dantinne (P.37-38)

“A true R+C is a revolutionists and wants to pulverize the triple diadem of the pope. It has nothing in common with Judaism nor Christianity.”, thus Mallinger in his criticism against the Christian belief of such Order-members as Dantinne, who was a convinced Catholic. There was clearly a crisis goin on between both men. The crisis was solved through the intervention of Jean Mallinger’s wife Marcelle, who asked Raymond Baltus to contact Lelarge to make an appointment for a personal meeting between the Imperator and Mallinger. “God alone knows what’s been said between the two” but it is sure that such a

crisis would never occure again. Until the end of his life Mallinger is said to have venerated his old Master (source: Roger Maréchal). The earlier mentioned constitution of the masonic Order of Memphis-Misraïm,

of which Mallinger was one of its high dognitaries at the time, caused a confrontation between the Belgian

Order and Jean Bricaud, head of the Sovereign Sanctuary of France, to which the Belgian M:.M:. belonged. In 1933 the Belgian MM proclaimed its independence. The Belgian lodges of the M:.M:., left insulated, “made overtures to certain lodges in France, the United States and South-America. It was during these turbulent times in the history of Belgian occultism that the Belgian dissidents came into contact with Harvey Spencer Lewis, Imperator of A.M.O.R.C.” (9) As stated on the previous page, through the mediation of Fr. Wittemans, Mallinger wrote to H.S.Lewis on January 11, 1933: “We would be very honoured if we would be able to affiliate with the eminent Rosicrucian Order, of which you are the head and its guide ….” Out of this first contact was to develop an international federation of initiatic societies and brotherhoods which was founded in 1934 in Brussels, Belgium, the F.U.D.O.S.I. (10)

in 1934 in Brussels, Belgium, the F.U.D.O.S.I. ( 10 ) Fr.F.Wittemans , the original Dutch 1924

Fr.F.Wittemans, the original Dutch 1924 publication of “A New Authentic History of the Rosicrucians”

A copy of one of the documents (correspondence between Mallinger and HSL) is preserved at the

municipal library of Lyon, France. The document is signed by Mallinger, Dantinne, Lucien François (who was the archivist of the Order) and Sâr Sapiens, the principal of the branch (L’Université de la Rose+Croix’). This document concerns a certificate that was granted to HS Lewis in 1933. The certificate granted HSL the title of ‘Doctor in Psychological and Hermetic Sciences’ of the‘Université de la Rose+Croix’ of Belgium. On October 5, 1934 Jean Mallinger requested from the Imperator the full powers

to create in Switzerland, together with Edouard Bertholet and August Reichel, a branch of the ‘R+C

Universitaire’. According to A.M.O.R.C. there already existed a ‘exoteric’ R+C Order in Switzerland, under the direction of August Reichel. I suspect that the ‘Confrérie des Frères Illuminés de la Rose+Croix’ is

ment, founded by the French alchemist François Jollivet-Castelot around 1920. Jollivet-Castelot was i.a. also a member of the O.A.R.C. “Amorc-Suisse (Antiquae Mysticae Ordinis Rosae Crucis) remained independent until 1937” The whole Swiss R+C Order went over to A.M.O.R.C. in 1937. In 1938 Jules

Rochat de Abbaye was, probably, entrusted with the responsibility to implement, or to extend, the ‘Rose- Croix Universitaire’ in France. In a letter written to his friend Léon Lelarge, Mallinger dwells on the subject

of the Rose-Cross as a symbol. The letter dates from around the middle of the 1930’s after Mallinger had

broken with the (co-masonic) M:.M:. in 1934.


“Rite Ancien et Primitif de Memphis-Misraïm”, Chapter XIII “1934 - The Egyptian Rite of the F.U.D.O.S.I.” Milko Bogaard 2003


The complete history of this federation, its main personalities etc. can be found in my paper “1934-1951 History of the F.U.D.O.S.I.”

After his resignation from the masonic Egyptian Rite, Mallinger started to purge the various organizations (R+C, L’Ordre Hermètiste Tétramégiste, Ordre Martiniste & Synarchique etc.) of all the possible masonic influences.

ROSE-CROIX ORDER SIGIL In one of his reports to Dantinne Mallinger elaborates on the Rose-Cross symbol: ”From one R+C to another, there are gradiations of identification and selection. It is necessary to avoid all that is masonic. However, the Cross on the Rose is not masonic. But a Rose on a Cross is specifically masonic. “ Mallinger continues by stating that the Rosicrucian symbol of the Rose + Cross is composed of “a Rose below, with a Cross on top”. Mallinger returned to Freemasonry in 1936 when he created a Belgian Sovereign Sanctuary which worked the so-called ‘Arcana Arcanorum’ degrees. (11)

The Rosicrucian Order symbol of the OARC (R+C Universelle) is depicted below on a letter written by Dantinne, dated 1948. The Order symbol (a Cross on a Rose with five petals) is used as header

(a Cross on a Rose with five petals) is used as header 11 ) “Rite Ancien


“Rite Ancien et Primitif de Memphis-Misraïm”, Chapter XIII “1934 - The Egyptian Rite of the F.U.D.O.S.I.” Milko Bogaard 2003


“I swear it by him who has transmitted into our souls the Sacred Quaternion, the source of nature, whose cause is eternal.”

Golden Verses - Pythagoras

On May the 9 th , 1927 Sâr Hieronymus (Émile Dantinne) instructed the R+C Universitaire to create Hermetic centres in Belgium under the leadership of François Soetewey. This decision indicated the birth of a new Order, which would become known as ‘L’Ordre Hermètiste Tétramégiste et Mystique’, shortened: ‘L’Ordre de Hermès’. In the beginning, during the development of the Order, various names were used indifferently, or so it seems. For instance, according to Belgian Roger Maréchal, in his analysis of the so-called ‘Lelarge collection’, the Order would finally became known under the initials O::H::T::M::, which stood for ‘Ordre Hermétiste Tetramégiste’ or ‘Ordre Hermétiste Traditionnel et Mystique’, two names which were apparently used indifferently under the same initials. According to Christian Rebisse, it was Dantinne who named the Order L’Ordre d’Hermès Trismégiste’, which Mallinger later renamed into ‘L’Ordre d’Hermès Tétramégiste’, also named ‘L’Ordre Hermétiste Tétramégiste et Mystique’ or ‘L’Ordre Pythagoricien’. ‘Tétramégiste’ stands for the ‘Perfect Square of Nature’ which we know as the four elements. The Greek word ‘Mégiste’ stands for ‘Grand’, ‘the greatest’, “four times the perfect square”, because the expression refers to a state which evolves towards natural perfection on the four planes of manifestation. The symbol of the Order is a Perfect Square. The O::H::T::M:: was a restoration of the Pythagorean Order (12) under the form of a rectified Hermetic rite. According to Alvin sen Evanger (Fr.Melchior), “In the early years, Mallinger and Dantinne had been initiated into distinct branches of this order, and now merged it together under mutual leadership.” Unfortunately, no further information regarding these initiations is presented by the author. A personal source of mine, who wishes to remain anonymous, presents some insight into the matter.

ORDO LIBORIUM INITIATORUM PYTHAGORIE In the historical archives of the Belgian Pythagoreans mention is made of a (seemingly) distinct branch, next to the O::H::T::M::, named the ‘Ordo Liborium Initiatorum Pythagorie’ (O::L::I::P::). It is claimed that in Belgium the O::H::T::M:: and the O::L::I::P:: co-existed next to each other. This infers that there were some differences between them, “it may be that the Pythagoreans were O::L::I::P:: and O::H::T::M:: were purely Hermetic? “ (anonymous, e-mail correspondence 2006}. “It is commonly asserted - even by some folk who know the area very well - that O::H::T::M:: was the Pythagoreans, but the info from the horse's mouth would appear to indicate it's not so.” This same source states that the Belgian brothers wanted to include the ‘Ordo Liborium Initiatorum Pythagorie’ in the F.U.D.O.S.I., but he believes there were criticisms by Harvey Spencer Lewis [A.M.O.R.C.] He states that HSL asserted that “involving O::L::I::P::

in F.U.D.O.S.I. was just 'padding' the group with another order.” (anonymous, former member of S.O.F.I.) The Order, O::H::T::M:: / O::L::I::P::, was probably made up by Jean Mallinger. Mallinger and Dantinne did not receive an initiation, or so it seems. A direct chain of initiation has not been discovered. In general it is asserted that Mallinger probably used the Tobaccologist rituals or material that was derived from “another thing called the Order of the Luminous Ring”, as my source puts it. This was a French masonic rite that was founded in, or around, 1780 under the name of “l’ Académie des Sublimes Maîtres de l'Anneau Lumineux”, the Academy of Sublime Masters of the Luminous Ring. This rite is also known as “Les Nicotiates”, or “L’Ordre des Priseurs” (“snuff-takers”); in England the Order was known as the Tobacco-logical Sociery, the Tobacconists Albert C. Mackey claims that the “Académie des Sublimes Maîtres de l'Anneau Lumineux” was founded in France, in 1780, by Baron Blaerfindy, one of the Grand Officers of the Philosophic Scottish Rite. The Academy of the Luminous Ring was dedicated to the philosophy of Pythagoras, and was divided into three Degrees.The first and second were principally occupied with the history of Freemasonry, and the last with the dogmas of the Pythagorean school, and their application to the highest grades of science. The historieal hypothesis which was sought to be developed in this Academy was that Pythagoras was the founder of Freemasonry.( Albert C. Mackey M.D. “Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry and its kindred sciences”, 1878). According to a number of French sources, the Academy of the Luminous Ring was an Alchemical Rite. One of these sources specifically asserts that the rite was a depository of a system of

internal alchemy (“En effet, l'Académie des Sublimes Maîtres de l'Anneau Lumineux fut dépositaire d'une alchimie interne”, source: Revue Renaissance traditionnelle, n°127-128, July-August 2001). The Supreme Lodge of this Rite (Maçonnerie Pythagoricienne) was located in Douai, France (L’Orient de Douai). The lodge allegedly closed down in 1864. On a side-note, it was in the city of Douai where in 1896 François Jollivet-Castelot (1874 -1937).founded “La Sociéte Alchimique de France”.

O::H::T::M:: [Continued ] Returning to the Hermes Order, the following information is derived from a document of the so-called ‘Lelarge-collection’ (13 ), presumably written by Jean Mallinger. The text expounds the purpose of the Pythagorean Order/ O::H::T::M:: -“The restoration of the Pythagorean Order under the form of a rectified hermetic Mas:: superior to all the usual symbolic Orders of the modern Mas:: can only be realized by a through modification of the Scope and Rituals of the Order. The greatest stringency should govern the recruitment of members of the Order. For, just as the R+C, although in a different domain and with different means, the Hermetists should be the Masons' guides. THE SQUARE OF PERFECTION, made up of 4 members, the Sublime Grand Master of the Order and his 3 secretaries or Unknown Superiors, should be the only executive, legislative and judiciary and administrative organ of the Order. The 4 grades may be called:

1) PYTHAGOREAN LODGE or First Degree. 2) SOVEREIGN OCCULT CHAPTER or Second Degree. 3) GRAND HERMETIC AREOPAGUS (Learned Assembly) or Third Degree. 4) SUBLIME LUMINOUS CONSISTORY or Fourth and final Degree.

These are ritual titles and their names originate from Ancient Traditions. Each of these Degrees will be unknown to the others. Their locations will be separated. The Masters to be studied in each of these Degrees will be designated by the Imperator or G::M:: of the Order". “ The Order was divided into four initiatic degrees :


during the eighteenth century, the Order adopted different names for (obvious) reasons of safety and became known as ‘Les Nicotiates’ or the ‘Ordre des Priseurs’ in France and the Tobacco-logical Sociery in England. In the ninetheenth century we’ll find in Italy the Pythagorean ‘Schola Italica’ in which i.a. Arturo Reghini was initiated. At the beginning of the twentieth century Dario Velloso, a Brasilian Martinisist, founded the ‘Instituto Neo-Pitagórico’. 13) The ‘Lelarge-files’ contain numerous documents which were found in Leon Lelarge’s former house in 1982 by the French author and historian Serge Caillet. Caillet’s book “Sâr Hieronymous et la F.U.D.O.S.I.” , published in 1986 by Cariscript in

It is claimed that the modern Pythagorean Orders are a continuation of the Italian ‘Fratelli Obscuri’, constituted in 1575. Later,

Paris, is the main source on Dantinne, the F.U.D.O.S.I. etc.

Apprenti de Hermès

Compagnion de Hermès

Maître de Hermès

- unknown - (Arcana Arcanorum )

According to Marcel Roggemans the title of the fourth degree is (still) unknown (14). What is known is that all who wanted to be admitted into the Rosicrucian Order were obliged to obtain the fourth degree of the

O::H::T::M:: first. “The candidates for the R+C order were recruted from the Pythagorean Order.” In Chapter II of the ‘History of the Antient and Primitive Rite of Memphis Misraïm’ I’ve stated that the fourth degree probably incorporated the so-called ‘Arcana Arcanorum’. It is indistinct whether these ‘Arcana’ are the ‘Arcana’ of Memphis Misraïm. Some sources claim that the A.A. degrees (Arcana Arcanorum) of the Belgian M.M. (Rombauts-Mallinger) were derived from the O::H::T::M::, while other sources claim that Rombauts and Mallinger only recovered the texts of the 19 th century French historian/Freemason Ragon.

Rebisse states that the 4 th degree i.a. consisted of instructions concerning the

Frenchman Christian

magical personality of the initiate ( in the official Fourth Grade Documents of the O::H::T::M:: these instructions are filed under the title “Cours sur la magie personnelle de l'initié” – subjects “I-D, I-C et III”.)

Whatever the truth was, it seems that the ’Ordre Pythagoricien’ had it’s own Arcana. The O::H::T::M:: was a mixed Order and clearly carried influences derived from Freemasonry, despite the aversion Dantinne seemed to have towards Freemasonry. More information concerning the position of Émile Dantinne in

relation to Freemasonry can be found in the earlier mentioned essay on the history of the F.U.D.O.S.I. “Purely initiatory, the O::H::T::M:: is the agent of the Egyptian-Hellenic Tradition and has nothing in common with Freemasonry which groups profane interests under a veil of pseudo-initiation, a parody of the ancient mysteries.” (1932, O::H::T::M:: ). The Lodge was called “Perfect Square’. The Order payed tribute to the symbolical Quaternity instead of the usual Trinity. The motto of the Order: “Freedom, Equality, Fraternity, Wisdom”. The Grand Lodge, the ‘Perfect Square’, consisted of a Grandmaster and three secretaries “or Unknown Superiors”. The Order was lead by the ‘Grand Maître Universelle Inconnu’, which was Sâr Hieronymus/ Émile Dantinne. In the lodge-documents of the Order four dots are used in the following fashion: G::M::, Mas:: etc. The four dots represent the symbolical ‘Perfect Square’. In classical Freemasonry the usage of three dots is applied in the same manner (an indication of a claim to possess the Lost Word ). In Martinism the usage of six dots is applied. François Soetewey was the Grandmaster of the Perfect Square for Belgium from 1927 up to 1938, with Jean Mallinger as Archon of the Order. Georges Lagrèze (Sâr Mikaël, 1882-1946) was the Grandmaster of the Perfect Square for France and Switzerland. In December 1934 an independent jurisdiction for Switzerland was established with August Reichel as Grandmaster (Sâr Artemis). Luis Fitau (Sâr Ludovicus), consul for Chile in Brussels, was authorized by Dantinne to create a Perfect Square for Chile. Fitau was Grandmaster for Chile until 1939. A certain Hunin (Sâr Pascal) was the Archon for Foreign Relationships of the Hermes Order until he was killed by the Nazi’s at Neuengamme (near Hamburg, Germany) in 1945. “The doctrines of the Order were based on the teachings of Pythagoras. Jean Mallinger wrote two books related to the Order: ‘Les secrets ésotérique des Pythagoriens’ (1946) and ‘Pythagore et les mystères’ (1944). Both works were republished by F. Planquart in Lille, France. Both books were dedicated to Luis Fitau and François Soetewey.” (Roggemans). The question whether the O::H::T::M:: has to be considered to act as a portal to the Rosicrucian Order is still left (partly) unanswered. In Roger Maréchal’s document (“Une analyse des documents constituant le Fonds Lelarge”) there’s an interesting section where the author publishes (and comments on) a correspondence between Georges Lagrèze and Émile Dantinne in 1934. Maréchal explains: In 1934 Georges Lagrèze informed the Grand Master of the O::H::T::M:: ( “au très Illustre Frère Sâr Hieronymus, Souverain Grand Maître de l’O.H.T.M." - 1934/09/17) on the French attacks on Freemasonry by the public opinion. Lagrèze states that this is due to “a horde of cheap politicians” which are leading the various masonic organizations. “The public confuses our sacred Order with the masonic Order” (freely transl.), thus Lagrèze.

14) Elias Ibrahim, in his essay “Victor Blanchard: a summary of his life”, states that Victor Blanchard had obtained the fourth degree of the Pythagorean Order to which the text refers as the degree of “Archonte of the Arts and Sciences”. To my knowledge the ‘Archonte of the Arts and Sciences’ was an administrative title. On page 3 we can read that “Sar Ignifer was appointed Archon of the Sciences and of the Arts” (in 1926). The O::H::T::M:: used the title of Archon for their dignitaries, eg Sar Pascal, who was the ‘Archon for foreign relationships’

“The Grand Orient of France and the majority of the French masonic lodges once again assassinated the master Hiram.” Consequently, Lagrèze proposes the following changes to avoid any future confusion; to authorize the Perfect Square of France to abolish the title of ‘Lodge’ and to rename it to ‘Square’ or ‘Grand Square’ ( “Carré ou Grand Carré" ), dependent on the number of members.” Lagrèze also suggested “to replace the motto Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité with a Greek or Latin motto, dignified to the Children of Pythagoras. “ Finally, he suggested to replace the title of ‘Venerable Master’, “carried by a too large number of pseudi-initiates”, with the title of ‘Révérend Maître ès Sciences’ (Reverend Master of Sciences). Dantinne accepted all of Lagrèze’s proposals, with the exception of the last title, which was shortened to ‘Révérend Maître’, Reverend Master (the term ‘of Sciences’ was considered too superfluous.). The above-mentioned section suggests that , at least, a part of the symbolical definitions, as used by the O::H::T::M::, were introduced by Lagrèze in 1934. As stated before on page 7, the doctrines were based on Pythagoras’ teachings. Dantinne’s Pythagorean Order allegedly concerned itself with the roots of Pythagorism, the pre-Christian doctrine of Pythagoras. In their approach to the origins, the doctrine was disposed of the Christian-, and other later, influences. Alvin sen Evanger states that this approach i.a. resulted in the fact that they even “grew a bit weary of Martinism, which I find somewhat puzzling.” (Fr. Melchior). It is true that Dantinne and the others were much more involved in Rosicrucianism and the Pythagorean Order then Martinism. This preference is i.a. reflected in Dantinne’s

donation of the complete Martinist archives, which included the material of Chaboseau's ‘L’Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel’ and Blanchard's ‘L’Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique’, to his friend and associate Emile Ehlers (1886-1953). Nevertheless, it is also known that Dantinne was an ardent Christian (15). Evanger continues by stating that “The Pythagorean groups that survived Dantinne maintained this non- christian identification (especially their leaders).”

O.A.R.C. AND O.H.T.M. AFTER 1951 After the F.U.D.O.S.I. disbanded in 1951, the ‘Ordre de la Rose+Croix Universelle’ and the ‘Ordre de la Rose+Croix Universitaire’ allegedly also disbanded. Émile Dantinne is said to have resigned from his office as early as in 1952. Léon Lelarge died in 1954. In 1956 several former dignitaries from the F.U.D.O.S.I. tried to establish a new federation. The dignitaries concerned were Jean Mallinger, Jean- Henry Probst Biraben, and Ambrogio Gerosa. Gerosa was the Grandmaster of the Italian branch of the O::H::T::M:: (16 ). I don’t know If this was actually the case. All I know is that Mallinger and Probst-Biraben founded a new International Sovereign Sanctuary of Egyptian Masonry, with Mallinger as Grand Chancellor and Jean-Henri Probst Biraben (33°97°) as Grand Master. Constantin Platounoff, another former F.U.D.O.S.I. dignitary, affiliated with this masonic group somewhere around 1960. Dantinne died in 1969, Mallinger in 1982. But what happened to the Pythagorean Order? Well, back in 1953 the O::H::T::M:: did split up in two major branches :

Ordo Hermetis Trismégisti’ : successors of Christian Anthonis based on the doctrines of Louis Cattiaux (1904-1953). Cattiaux was a painter, poet and alchemist. It is said that he was introduced into the hermetic art in 1938 by the ‘alchemist of Fiers’, Nicolas Valois. The followers of Cattiaux introduced Cattiaux’ interpretations of the Holy Scriptures, as published in his work ”Le Message Retrouvé”: “Elie artiste is the Christ Triumphant within the sons of God, united at the end of days. The Rose-Croix, or the brothers of the dew, are the Adepts of Hermes without statutes which are dispersed around the world, like diamonds in the rough earth.” Cattiaux met Emmanuel d' Hooghvorst (1914-1999) somewhere at the end of the 1940’s. In 1949 he met Emmanuel’s brother, Charles d’Hoogvorst (1924-2004). An intense correspondence started. Other branches did not recognize the group as Pythagorean because of their focus on (esoteric) Christianity. A journal was founded, ‘Fil d’Ariane’, under the editorship of E. d’Ansembourg. In 2002 ‘Fil d’Ariane’ changed its name to ‘Miroir d’Isis’.

The continuation of the original Order (Mallinger) which would finally

develop into, at least, five independent branches :

1) O::H::T::M::/ O.R.A. of Sar Philosophtos and Martin Erler (Albinus), with lodges in Belgium and Germany. The O.R.A., ‘Ordo Rosae Aureae’, was founded in 1956 in Germany. 2) O::H::T::M:: lead by René de Louvroy with lodges in Belgium. De Louvroy is the successor of Jean Mallinger of Memphis-Misraïm. Sar Philosophotos claims that this group works on a forged charter. 3) O::H::T::M:: of the successors of Ambrogio Gerosa in Italy. 4) S.O.F.I. of Ronald Strong /Sar Elaa in England. Strong received his initiation from Émile Dantinne. S.O.F.I. stands for ‘Society of Free Initiates’. 5) Pythagorean branch founded under the auspices of the Grand Orient of Greece within the Greek Lodge PROMETHEUS, lead by V:.M:. Nagos. The Greek branch was in contact with Jean Mallinger, through the successor of Nagos, Sar Aelios. Sar Aelios authorized Triantaphyllos Kotzamanis and Rémi Boyer to establish ‘L’Ordre d’Hermes et Orpheus’. Roggemans states that this branch came in conflict with the Belgian branch of René de Louvroy. Boyer and Kotzamanis were also involved with the "Groupe de Thèbes" (17), something which was not appreciated by de Louvroy.

Ordo Hermetis Tetramégisti’ :

15 ) see “History of the F.U.D.O.S.I. 1934-1951”

16 ) Michel Monereau , ‘Les secrets hermétiques de la Franc-maçonnerie’




The O.R.A. (“The Pythagorean Initiatic Order of the Golden Rose” ) was founded in the South of Germany (Munich area, Bavaria) in 1956 by Martin Erler (1920 - …) with i.a. some members of the Fraternitas Saturni (source: Koenig) as well as other interested colleagues. Martin Erler is said to have replaced Émile Dantinne from his office, when the latter resigned in 1952 (source: Fr. Melchior). Marcel Roggemans states that Erler (Albinus) received his initiation from Dantinne in 1957. Martin Erler was involved in reviving rosicrucianism in Post-War Germany. It is stated by various sources that Erler was a Grandmaster of A.M.O.R.C. (1949 -1954) who resigned his office as GM in 1954. But this seemed not to be the case. After the War the Orders started to develop their activities again (Under Hitler all initiatic organizations were forbidden) and Martin Erler is said to have acted as official representative of A.M.O.R.C. in Germany from the beginning of 1952 until his resignation in the summer of 1953. Erler allegedly also acted as Grand Secretary under the German Grandmaster Fischer. With regard to Dantinne’s succession it is stated that Erler suggested to Dantinne to appoint a Belgian or a Frenchman as his successor. After the War the German rosicrucians in general were namely distrusted. When Dantinne resigned from office in 1952, he therefore allegedly appointed Dr.Christian Anthonis (Sar Thalassaphilos), a Professor in Biology at the ‘Université Libre de Bruxelles’, as his successor. He was generally recognized as the rightful heir of Émile Dantinne and his organization of initiatic orders. But Dr.Anthonis already died within a year of taking office. This forced Martin Erler to take over all the responsibilities. Later on the whole organization was taken over by another Belgian, Sar Philophotos.

“O.R.A.” stands for ‘The Order of the Golden Rose’. ‘The Golden Rose’ in the name possibly comes from the book “The Secret of the Golden Flower”, translated and explained by Richard Wilhelm, with a commentary by C.G. Jung and published in 1931, that discusses chinese taoistic ways to develop an

immortal body. It is worth noting that Erler was part of the Emmaus group, that included C.J. Jung and

Joseph Campbell. This group allegedly focused itself on the study of the mysteries (18).

claims a documented history of the O.R.A. dating back until the XI th century. He is said to have built the

Order on Dantinne’s O::H::T::M:: as well as the ‘Asiatic Brethren’; ‘Orden der Ritter und Brüder St. Johannis des Evangelisten aus Asien in Europa’. Erler is said to have claimed that his Order, through the Asiatic Brethren, is the successor of the “Rose+Croix d’ Orient”. The line of succession of this branch of the Asiatic Brethren starts with Gustav Meyrink (1868-1932), who’s allegedly listed as the last Grandmaster of the ‘Asiathic Brethren’ from Prague (19). Erler knew Meyrink as a little boy, and although he cannot prove it, Erler is convinced of Meyrink’s involvement with the Asiatic Brethren. From whom Meyrink received his succession is not known. It is claimed that Meyrink’s widow reactivated the Order after the Second World War “with a couple of friends”. Alexander von Bernus (1880-1965), a prominent German alchemist, supposedly was also a Grandmaster of this branch. He was succeeded by frater Victorius. It was frater Victorius who appointed Erler (Albinus) as his successor.

Erler supposedly

The O.R.A. is a mixed Order, except for the higher degrees where the sexes are separated. The rite is part Egyptian-style but more Greek in the higher degrees. Martin Erler claims that “some of its Egyptian rites have found strong resemblans to recently translated Egyptian texts. This he beliefs makes the link stronger to the mysteries of ancient Egypt.” With regard to the Order its study system a member states:

“The teaching material is in monograph similar to AMORC but of different quality. More based on historic research than fantasies. The meditative practices are more on purifying the senses than the occult/ psychic of AMORC. More based on historic research than fantasies”. (20) Up to now, O.R.A. have been

operating quietly in restricted, small groups. The Order has always kept a low profile until recently, when the Order obviously decided to make themselves known through the internet. It is known that the original OHTM teachings and rituals originate with Dantinne and Jean Mallinger. Whether the rituals are still worked in their original form within O.R.A. is not known to me. The ORA has lodges in Germany and Belgium. Allegedly, the Order is lead in Belgium by a professor in psychology, a certain Dierkens (although the source is not sure whether Dierkens is his correct name). It is also stated by members of the O.R.A. that Erler told them that the O.R.A. was active (or in the process of introducing the Order) “in many countries including Greece.” For instance, England has an active branch of the original Order which is led by Ronald Strong, the ‘Society of Free Initiates’, S.O.F.I. Mr. Strong (Sar Elaa) was initiated by Émile Dantinne and lives near Plymouth in the South of England. The Order’s activities are for the most part centrered in this area, although there is a Lodge in London but it is said that this Lodge is barely surviving. A former member of the Order states that the S.O.F.I. was [and is] not involved with anything related to the original O::H::T::M::, most of its members probably don’t even know what the Hermes Order actually stood for. “Comments are that SOFI and ORA both stick quite rigorously to the tradition as passed on through Mallinger and Dantinne. It's said that there are small ritual differences but these are well accepted between them.” (anonymous, former member of S.O.F.I.). The students’ first year is taken up with merely reading and meditation. Any participation in a lodge must be silent. One of my sources on S.O.F.I. states that his experience “with them was very positive; I think they are the real thing, they are sincere and intellectual, and work in the authentic way. They don't charge fees so far as I know. They make no silly claims.” Around the year 2001 several Norwegian O.R.A. members created a branch of the Pythagorean Order in Norway under the initials ‘B.O.R.E.A.’ Some of the members of this branch were members of the two Martinist Orders “that are active in Bergen”, Norway. As we’ve seen, Martin Erler, who’s now in his eighties, inherited most of the Orders from Dantinne. He was also involved, together with Eduard Munninger (at first), in the revival of rosicrucianism in post-war Germany. Erler also received the higher degrees of Egyptian Masonry. But in a telephone conversation with the author in 2001, Mr. Erler stated that he’d recently distanced himself from his masonic higher degrees. It is also said that Erler was asked to preside at the consecration of Christian Bernard as the new Imperator of A.M.O.R.C. in 1990, an offer which Mr. Erler allegedly turned down (21). It is also rumoured that A.M.O.R.C. had a great interest in taking over O.R.A. for a big sum of money. During his esoteric career mr. Erler published several books, among which “Das Symbol des Lebens im alten Ägypten“ [Eine Symbolgeschichtliche Studie] (München:

ORA 1965) –and- “Die große Legende vom Tempelbau“ [Ein Vergleich mit alten Quellen].(München: ORA 1969, 55 p.)

17) more information on Boyer and his federation of esoteric Orders and Societies , which was known as the" Groupe de Thèbes” ; see “History of the F.U.D.O.S.I. 1934-1951” 18) Dr. Haraldur Erlendsson Filius Templi, 2001. Dr. Erlendson is (i.a.) a member of the English S.O.F.I. and German O.R.A. who kindly provided me with information on the O.R.A. (email-correspondences in 2002). 19) According to Marcel Roggemans, Meyrink’s Grandmastership was confirmed to Martin Erler by Meyrink’s widow. Documented proof although is lacking. It is a fact that Meyrink, especially in his younger days, had affiliated himself with a number of initiatic orders and societies. More information on Gustav Meyrink is presented in the appendix. 20) Dr. Haraldur Erlendsson Filius Templi – email 2001. 21) Christian Bernard was elected as the new Imperator of A.M.O.R.C. by its Board of Directors after the A.M.O.R.C. reorganization in 1990 when the Board dismissed its former Imperator, Gary L. Stewart. More information on the A.M.O.R.C. reorganization can be found in the essay “1915 Antiquus Mysticusque Ordo Rosae Crucis- A.M.O.R.C.”

a Greek publication of “ Die Große Legende Vom Tempelbau ” * Martin Erler 1969

a Greek publication of “Die Große Legende Vom Tempelbau” * Martin Erler 1969 [ “The Great Legend Of The Building Of The Temple“]

1969 [ “The Great Legend Of The Building Of The Temple“] Italian publication [1999] of “

Italian publication [1999] of “Pythagore et les mystères” by Jean Mallinger, originally published in 1944

c) Milko Bogaard

July 17, 2005

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