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FEASIBILITY & DESIGN OF WIND TURBINE FOR COASTAL REGION OF PAKISTAN

Group No 18

OF WIND TURBINE FOR COASTAL REGION OF PAKISTAN Group No 18 Batch: 2005-2006 Name Seat No.

Batch: 2005-2006

Name

Seat No.

Rashid Kareem Farhad Saeed Danish Khan Ghufran Ahmed Bala

ME-05125

ME-05304

ME-05124

ME-05080

Internal Advisor:

External Advisor:

Asst. Prof. Umair Najeeb Mughal

Mr. Arshad Lal Junejo

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

CERTIFICATE

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering)

FEASIBILITY & DESIGN OF WIND TURBINE FOR COASTAL REGION OF PAKISTAN

Group No 18

Batch: 2005-06

Name

Seat No.

Rashid Kareem Farhad Saeed Danish Khan Ghufran Ahmed Bala

ME-05125

ME-05304

ME-05124

ME-05080

Internal Advisor

Examiner-1

External Advisor

Examiner-2

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

There are so many names to thank to begin with the acknowledgement but first of all we would like to thank the Almighty Allah, who grant us the ability & opportunity to do this project.

This project would have never been accomplished without the reference to the work of others. We are thankful to our Internal Advisor Assistant Professor Umair Najeeb Mughal for his support and guidance which he provided us. As this project involves industrial visits and outdoor exposure, we are also thankful to all personnel from firms and consultants who helped us. We are also thankful to Mr. Arshad Lal Junejo, CEO, WindRose Consultancy, for his guidance and information which helped us in our project.

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ABSTRACT

The aim is to work in energy sector particularly in renewable and sustainable energy sector. In a country with a great wind corridor, wind energy is the best renewable source.

The project is about Feasibility Study of Wind Turbine and its Design Suitable for the coastal region of Pakistan including wind data, best potential sites, available resources & economical Analysis.

The project can give an idea about procedure to be followed for an Investor interested in Wind Harvesting in Pakistan. It also includes the application and designing of a system with suitable size and capacity according to the conditions available in Pakistan It includes the problem definition and analysis stage followed by designing stage.

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Chapter No.

Feasibility Section

TABLE OF CONTENT

Page No.

1. Introduction

2

1.1 Energy Crisis in Pakistan

2

1.2 Drawbacks of other Alternatives

3

1.3 Study of Wind

3-4

1.4 Study of Wind turbines

5-6

1.5 Important Consideration

7-16

2. Study of Wind of Coastal Belt

2.1 Wind profiles

17-20

2.2 Existing Companies

21-23

2.3 Visits to Consultants/ Firms

24-28

2.4 Resources/Facilities Available

29

2.5 Different Configurations of Wind Farm

30-31

2.6 Government Policies

32-34

2.7 Analysis of feasibility

35

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Design Section

3.0 Design Approach

35

3. Blade Design

36

3.1 Introduction

37

3.2 Tip Speed Ratio

37

3.3 Selection of TSR

38

3.4 Selection of Airfoil

39

3.5 Calculation of blade diameter

43

3.6 RPM

46

3.7 Thrust

48

3.8 Torque

48

3.9 Power Transmitted

48

3.10 Structural Design Calculation

49

3.11 Stress Due to Aerodynamic Loading of Blade

52

4. Hub Design

55

4.1 Tangential Stress

56

4.2 Radial Stress

56

4.3 Material of Hub

56

4.4 Radius of Hub

57

4.5 Hub Thickness

57

4.6 Volume of Hub

58

4.7 Mass of Hub

58

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5.

Design of Bolt

60

5.1 Forces acting of Bolts

60

5.2 Centrifugal Force

60

5.3 Force on each Bolt

60

5.4 Diameter of Bolt

61

6. Gear Design

62

6.1 Helical Gear

63

6.2 Design Consideration

63

6.3 Design Criteria

63

6.4 Step-up Ratio

64

6.5 Pitch Circle Dia

64

6.6 Pitch Line Velocity

64

6.7 Tangential Load

64

6.8 Geometric Factor

65

6.9 Inducing Stresses

65

7. Shaft Design

67

8. Coupling Design

72

9. Generator Selection

74

9.1 Asynchronous Induction Generator

75

9.2 Synchronous Unsynchronized

76

9.3 Synchronous Synchronized

76

9.4 Option No. 1

77

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9.5 Option No. 2

78

10. Yaw Mechanism

79

11. Braking and Shutdown System

80

11.1 Brake

80

11.2 Shutdown System

80

12. Conclusion

81

13. Economical Analysis

82

14. References

83

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Table

Page No.

Table 1: Cyclone Data

20

Table 2: Companies and Size of Lands Allocated

21

Table 3: Activity flow chart

32

Table 4 : Coordinates of RAF 6 From MATLAB

40

Table 5 : TSR and No. of Blades

43

Table 6: Velocity and Power (MATLAB)

45

Table 7: Coordinates and Area MATLAB code

47

Table 8: Gear Characteristics

66

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Figures

Page NO.

Fig. 1 : Comparative Payback Time of Micro Wind Turbine

3

Fig. 2 : wind current

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Fig 3: Components of Wind Turbine

5

Fig 4: How Wind Turbines Works

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Fig 5: Connection Layout

16

Fig 6: Graph b/w Speed & Month

18

Fig 7: Diurnal Wind Speed

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Fig 8: Frequency Distribution

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Fig 9: Zorlu Wind Turbine

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Fig 10: Prime Mover Transportation

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Fig 11: Crane, Lifting large Rotor

29

Fig 12: Cp Vs TSR

39

Fig 13 : RAF 6 Profile Characteristics from Profili2

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Fig 14 : Cross Section of RAF 6

42

Fig 15 : Rated Power Vs Velocity

45

Fig 16: Asynchronous- Induction Generator

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Fig 17 : Yaw Mechanism

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 ENERGY CRISIS IN PAKISTAN

Pakistan’s total energy requirement would increase by about 48 per cent to 80 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) in 2010 from about 54 MTOE currently, but major initiatives of meeting this gap are far from turning into reality, said a former petroleum minister on condition of anonymity for the simple reason that he had also served the government.

Major shortfall is expected in the natural gas supplies, he said. According to official energy demand forecast, he added, the demand for natural gas, having about 50 per cent share in the country’s energy consumption, would increase by 44 per cent to39 MTOE.

Partly contributed by gas shortfalls, the power shortage is expected to be little over 5,250MW by 2010, he said, adding that the oil demand would also increase by over 23 per cent to about 21 million tons in 2010 from the current demand of 16.8 million tons.

This would leave a total deficit of about nine million tons of diesel and furnace oil imports, he said. Since the gas shortfalls were expected to be much higher, the country would need to enhance its dependence on imported oil, thus increasing pressure .

Last year’s oil import bill amounted to about $6.5 billion compared with about $3.5 billion in 2004-05, mainly because of higher international oil prices - a burden expected to be even higher in future as a result of growing Middle East crisis.

Current year’s oil import bill has again been projected by the government at about $6.5 billion on last year’s average prices, which have started to rise in the recent days.

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1.2

DRAWBACKS OF OTHER ALTERNATIVES

1.2.1 Solar

Though we have the great solar energy throughout the year but still solar energy is very costly particularly in Pakistan because we are not manufacturing solar panels on a great extent. Besides this solar is not a bulk source of energy.

1.2.2 Thermal

Since the fossil fuel prices are going to be high and we are lacking in further exploration of natural gas reservoir .On the other it causes the pollution due to the emission of CO 2 and other green house gases like SO 2 . To construct a thermal power plant we require greater area, water reservoir for condenser, water treatment plant etc. Since these type of plants need more time to be install and our electrical crises do not allow us to wait for a couple of year .

1.3 STUDY OF WIND

1.3.1 Why Wind Energy?

Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source today. A continued interest in wind energy development worldwide has produced steady improvements in technology and performance of wind power plants. New wind power projects have proven that wind energy not only is cost competitive but also offers additional benefits to the economy and the environment. A steady supply of reasonably strong wind is necessary requirement for utilizing the power in the wind. Development of wind energy depends upon a clear understanding of wind resources. Site location, turbine performance and physical effects of turbulence and energy extraction represent a few of the issues that must be addressed by anyone interested in developing wind energy As such any plan to develop wind energy must begin by understanding the wind resource. Where are the best potential wind sites located? How much energy could be extracted from the wind at those sites? Wind energy, the fastest growing renewable energy source today.

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Comparative Payback Period of Micro Wind Turbine

[1] Fig. 1 : Comparative Payback Time of Micro Wind Turbine
[1] Fig. 1 : Comparative Payback Time of Micro Wind Turbine

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1.3.2 Characteristics of Wind

The global winds are caused by pressure differential across the earth’s surface. The amount of solar radiation absorbed at the earth’s surface is greater at the equator than at the poles. This variation in incoming heat sets up convective cells in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. In the simplest form air rises at the equator and sinks at the poles. The rotation of the earth complicates this simple heat transfer.

rotation of the earth complicates this simple heat transfer. [2] Fig: 2: Wind Current A series

[2] Fig: 2: Wind Current

A

series of circulations are set up in both northern and southern hemispheres. The areas

of

the globe where air is descending are zones of high pressure and where the air is

ascending, low-pressure zones are formed. The pressure gradient drives the flow of air from high to low pressure, thus causing the wind. The wind is then acted on the corriolis force due to the earth’s rotation. The

resultant wind is turned easterly or westerly. On a smaller scale, Wind is created because

of temperature difference between land and sea and mountains and valleys. The local

topographical features and roughness of the terrain also cause air movements.

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1.4 STUDY OF WIND TURBINE

1.4.1 Basic Definition A wind turbine is a rotating machine which converts the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as a pump or grinding stones, the machine is usually called a windmill. If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator, wind turbine, wind power unit (WPU), wind energy converter (WEC), or aero generator.

unit (WPU), wind energy converter (WEC), or aero generator. [3] Fig 3: Components of Wind Turbine

[3] Fig 3: Components of Wind Turbine

Wind turbines can be separated into two types based by the axis in which the turbine rotates. Turbines that rotate around a horizontal axis are more common. Vertical-axis turbines are less frequently used.

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[4] Fig 4: How Wind Turbines Works 1.4.2 Power Density in the Wind Amount of

[4] Fig 4: How Wind Turbines Works

1.4.2 Power Density in the Wind

Amount of energy transported across a unit area in unit time P W = ½ ρ v 3

1.4.3 Available Power Density

Max amount of power that can be extracted from the wind

Power Delivered

Efficiency of Wind Turbine

P

A = 16/27 . ½ ρv 3

P

D = 16/27 . ½ ρv 3 Aη

η = P D / P A

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1.5 IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR WIND TURBINE

There is really only one important measure of windmill size, the swept area. That's how many square feet (or meters, if you are into that sort of thing) of area the windmill's

blades cover during a rotation. The formula for swept area is Pi r^2, where Pi is 3.1415 and r is the radius of your prop. The available power from the wind increases

dramatically with the swept area

tail. More stress means stronger engineering and materials are required, and a much larger, more complicated and expensive project. Following are important consideration which we observed during our study.

but

so do the stresses on your blades, tower, bearings,

1.5.1 Site Location

First, figure out the direction from which the prevailing winds in your area usually come. You can determine this by observation during wind storms, and by looking at the trees near your site. Trees that are all leaning the same direction and that have branches mostly on one side of the trunk are a good indication of prevailing wind speed and direction. Local airports and weather stations can sometimes provide you with this information. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, CO publishes an excellent Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the United States on the internet, for free. A Logging anemometer that also records wind direction can be useful here too, though expensive.

1.5.2 Height

Flying a wind generator close to the ground is like mounting solar panels in the shade! Your wind generator should be located at least 30 feet above any obstruction within 300 feet in any direction-- many sources recommend even more. Short towers in turbulent locations cause drastically reduced power output, and extreme physical stresses on the turbine and tower.

1.5.3 Distance

The distance between your wind generator and your batteries can also be a problem--the closer the better, to avoid losses in long wires and to keep the wire size required down to a reasonable thickness and cost. 12 volt systems are the worst for power transmission losses--you end up needing very thick wire. A 24v or 48v battery bank can save you big money on wire!

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1.5.4 Tower

Your tower must be extremely sturdy, well-anchored, and tall enough to get above

obstructions. We've seen 1.5 inch steel pipe bend like a pipe cleaner in 50 mph winds, underneath a wind machine with only an 8-foot rotor. Some wind energy guidelines tell you to plan on spending at LEAST as much on your tower and power wiring as on the wind generator itself! Do you like to climb? The two basic kinds of tower are the Tilt-Up and Stationary. A stationary tower is the most sturdy and trouble-free, but you have to climb it to install, maintain or remove the wind machine. A crane is often used for installation, an expensive proposition--though you can do it yourself by climbing the tower and moving a gin pole up it as you add each new section. If climbing towers disagrees with you, go for a tilt -up. Then all maintenance can be performed while standing safely on solid ground. Roof mount? We strongly recommend against mounting a wind generator on your roof. The winds near rooftop level are very slow and turbulent, and power output will be drastically reduced. This goes for ALL types of wind turbine, not just ours. Again, your turbine needs to be mounted at least 30 feet above anything within 300 feet in any direction. Vibration is also an issue. Though the manufacturer of the AIR 403 says it works, we have observed first-hand the vibration and noise during a windstorm in two

is VERY noticeable and irritating. And keep in mind that

different roof installations

the AIR 403 is a very small unit (only a 1.3 meter prop) that makes very little power a larger mill would be unbearable, and possibly dangerous to your house itself. Most commercial and homemade wind generators don't make much physical noise, but some vibration is unavoidable due to the nature of permanent magnet alternators. Listen to the vibration of Ward's 7 foot diameter windmill (12 second .WAV file, 140K) and hear why we don't recommend roof mounts! Ward's mill is actually very quiet; this audio clip was taken with the microphone pressed against the steel mast to give an idea of the vibration that would be transmitted into your house with a roof mount. The buzzing sound is the vibration of magnets spinning past coils; the clanking is from the sectional tower itself. The windmill rotor itself makes very little noise.

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1.5.5 Anemometers

It is essential to know the real windspeed in any wind generator installation, commercial or homemade. This allows you to see if the machine is performing correctly, and extremely high windspeeds might be a clue that you should shut the mill down for the duration of the storm. If you plan on investing significant money in wind power, a logging anemometer might help you decide if your local wind resource is worth the investment.

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1.5.6 Generator or Alternator

We try to use the term Generator to describe a machine that produces Direct Current (DC), and use the term Alternator to describe a machine that produces Alternating Current (AC). However, the term Generator is also used generically to describe any machine that produces electricity when the shaft is spun. Options--The alternator or generator is the heart of your wind machine, and it must be both properly sized to match your swept area, and produce the right type and voltage of power to match your application. Unfortunately, there are no commercial or surplus

products than can be easily matched to a set of blades for building a wind turbine. It's MUCH more practical to build your own alternator than to try and adapt a commercial unit that was designed for a completely different purpose. If you try that anyway, PM converted induction motors, DC generators, DC brushless PM motors, vehicle alternators,

and induction motors are options

Application--Wind-generated electricity can be used for battery charging and for connection with the power grid. All of our designs and information are about battery charging at this time, since we all live 12 miles from the nearest power line. Single Phase vs. Three Phase--3 phase offers some advantages over single phase in most alternators. Most small commercial wind turbines use 3 phase alternators, and then rectify the output to DC (direct current) for charging batteries. When building an alternator from scratch, single phase seems attractive because it is simple and easy to understand. 3 phase

is not really any more difficult. Going 3 phase allows for squeezing more power from a smaller alternator. It significantly reduces line loss, and it runs with less vibration. Older single phase alternators we made vibrate much more (and make more noise) than 3 phase machines. Speed: The shaft speed is a very crucial factor in all types of alternator and generator. The unit needs to make higher voltages at lower rpms, otherwise it is not suited for wind

motors used as generators and alternators

should be rated for low rpms. This is also why vehicle alternators are not suited for wind power use. Start-Up Speed: This is the windspeed at which the rotor starts turning. It should spin smoothly and easily when you turn it by hand, and keep spinning for a few seconds. Designs that 'cog' from magnetic force or that use gears or pulleys to increase shaft speed will be poor at start up. A good design can start spinning in 5 mph winds and cut in at 7 mph. Cut-In Speed: A wind generator does not start pushing power into the battery bank until the generator or alternator voltage gets higher than the battery bank voltage. Higher shaft speed means higher voltage in all generators and alternators, and you want to try and get the highest shaft speed possible in low winds--without sacrificing high-wind performance. Most commercial wind generators cut in at 8-12 mph. The generator's low- speed voltage performance, the design of the rotor (the blades and hub), and the wind behavior all factor into where cut-in will occur.

power use. This goes for all power units

even

but

are marginal performers at best.

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Voltage Regulation: With battery-charging windmills, voltage control is not generally needed--until the batteries fill up. Even if your alternator is producing an open-circuit voltage of 90 volts, the battery bank will hold the system voltage down to its own level. Once the batteries are full, you'll need to send the windmill's output to a 'dump load' such as a heating element. This regulation can be done manually by simple turning on an electric heater, stereo, or lights. Automatic systems can be built or purchased too. Battery Bank Voltage--In addition to having less line loss, 24v and 48v power systems give other significant advantages in wind alternator systems. The primary consideration for the wind turbine builder or buyer, however, is that the alternator must be wound differently for different system voltages. Inefficiency--Every generator has a certain speed at which it runs most efficiently. But since the wind is not constant, we must try to design to a happy medium. As the wind speed rises, the raw power coming into the generator from the wind becomes more than the generator can effectively use, and it gets more and more inefficient. This power is wasted as heat in the stator coils. Alternators with wound fields can adjust the magnetic flux inside to run most efficiently, but PM alternators cannot. An alternator that uses many windings of thin wire will have better low-speed performance than one that uses fewer windings of thicker wire, but higher internal resistance. This means it will become inefficient more quickly when producing higher amperage as wind speeds and power output rise. The formula used to calculate power wasted from inefficiency is AMPS^2 * RESISTANCE = Power wasted as heat in the alternator windings (in watts).

1.5.7 Alternator Design

Factors: Making PM alternators from scratch is sort of a "black art"--there are many factors that enter in to it, we try to discuss some of them below. And then, you must add in another important factor, the design of the blades. We discuss that below also. We

didn't start building windmills and alternators by doing a bunch of math

right in, made lots of mistakes, and eventually wound up with a satisfactory design by observing performance and changing one variable at a time. The difficult part is getting the best match between the blades and the alternator. Bearings: The operative word here is STRONG. Besides having to withstand vibration and high rotation speed, there is a significant amount of thrust back on the bearings from the wind, and it increases geometrically as the prop size increases. That's why we've moved to using standard trailer wheel bearings in our designs, they are tapered and designed to take the thrust loads. The front bearings in our converted AC induction motors have so far held up well, but they are not designed for that kind of load. DC tape drive motors are especially vulnerable--the front bearing will eventually fail dramatically in high winds if extra bearings are not added. Air Gap: This is the distance between the magnets and the laminates in a single magnet

we just jumped

rotor design, or between two magnets in a dual magnet rotor design. The smaller the distance, the better the alternator performs. This means it's important to keep the coils as

flat as possible, and to make the armature fit very precisely near the stator

perfectly square, the air gap will be larger on one side of the alternator than the other, and

if it is not

performance will be compromised. Halving the air gap gives 4 times as much magnetic flux.

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Number of Poles: A 'pole' is either the North or South pole of a magnet. Generally when building an alternator we need a separate magnet for each pole. The faster that alternating north and south magnets poles pass the coils, the more voltage and current are produced. But surface area is important as well. If we have a very narrow magnet (required for using many poles), the field strength would be much weaker over a distance than a wider magnet. So like all things with making wind turbines, there is a compromise to be made. We choose a number of poles that allows for reasonably sized coils and a good strong magnetic field through whatever air gap we wind up with. It must always be an even number. For a 3 phase machine we like 4 poles for every 3 coils, although there are certainly other very feasible options. In most cases, for a 3 phase machine we'd have somewhere between 8 and 16 poles (magnets) unless perhaps the machine were to be very large. Series or Parallel? Star or Delta? When coils are connected in series, the voltage increases and so does resistance. When connected in parallel, voltage stays the same but amperage increases and resistance decreases. Also, parallel connections in an alternator can cause current to flow where you don't want it to, called 'parasitic losses.' The correct configuration for your project depends on many factors. Magnets: The stronger, the better. The larger and stronger your magnets are, the more power you can produce in a smaller alternator. Neodymium-Iron-Boron ("rare earth", NdFeB) are by far the strongest permanent magnets known to man, and are ideal for building permanent magnet alternators. Many older designs call for strong ceramic magnets, this was mainly because of price. Wire: Enameled magnet wire is always used for winding the stator, because the insulation is very thin and heat-resistant. This allows for more turns of wire per coil. It is very difficult to strip, use a razor knife or sandpaper, and be sure to strip each lead thoroughly! Choosing the gauge of wire is yet another trade off--thinner gauge wire allows for more turns per coil and thus better voltage for low-speed cut-in, but using longer, thinner wire gives higher resistance and therefore the unit becomes inefficient faster at high speeds. Magnetic Circuit: Picture a magnet to be almost like a battery. The lines of force from a magnet are said to originate at one pole and return to the other, just like a battery. Air is a poor conductor, both for electricity and for magnetic lines of force. In order to make best use of a magnet (and our copper wire) in an alternator, we need to have the strongest possible magnetic field. Just like copper is a good conductor of electricity, steel is a good conductor of magnetic fields. A good magnetic circuit involves steel between the poles with a gap (the airgap) where we need to utilize the field. In an alternator, our wires should occupy the airgap, it should be no wider than necessary, and every other part of the magnetic circuit should be of steel. We can either use steel laminates (laminated steel reduces eddy currents) or we can have magnets on each side of the coil(s) moving together with steel behind them. Again, look at our various wind turbine experiments to see. It should be said that some of them, like the wooden alternator and the all wooden windmill have very poor magnetic circuits.

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1.5.8

Rotor

A wind generator gets its power from slowing down the wind. The blades slow it down, and the alternator collects the power. BOTH must be correctly designed to work together and do this efficiently.

Blade Material: Wood is really an ideal material for blades. It is very strong for its weight, easy to carve, inexpensive, and is resistant to fatigue cracking. Choose the best, straightest, most knot-free lumber you can find; pine and spruce are excellent. Hardwoods are generally too heavy. Steel and aluminum blades are much too heavy and prone to fatigue cracking; sheet metal would be a poor choice, and extremely dangerous Diameter: Blades that are too short attached to a large alternator will not be able to get it moving fast enough to make good power. Blades that are too large for a small alternator will overpower and burn it up, or overspend to the point of destruction in high winds-- there's not enough of an alternator available to collect the energy coming in from the wind. Number of Blades: The ideal wind generator has an infinite number of infinitely thin blades. In the real world, more blades give more torque, but slower speed, and most alternators need fairly good speed to cut in. 2 bladed designs are very fast (and therefore perform very well) and easy to build, but can suffer from a chattering phenomenon while yawing due to imbalanced forces on the blades. 3 bladed designs are very common and are usually a very good choice, but are harder to build than 2-bladed designs. Going to more than 3 blades results in many complications, such as material strength problems with very thin blades, even one-bladed designs with a counterweight are possible. Tip Speed Ratio (TSR): This number defines how much faster than the wind speed the tips of your blades are designed to travel. Your blades will perform best at this speed, but will actually work well over a range of speeds. The ideal tip speed ratio depends on rotor diameter, blade width, blade pitch, RPM needed by the alternator, and wind speed. Higher TSRs are better for alternators and generators that require high rpms--but the wind speed characteristics at your particular site will make a big difference also. If in doubt, start in the middle and change your blade design depending on measured performance. Taper: Generally, wind generator blades are wider at the base and narrower at the tips, since the area swept by the inner portion of blades is relatively small. The taper also adds strength to the blade root where stress is highest, gives an added boost in startup from the wider root, and is slightly more efficient. The ideal taper can be calculated, and it varies depending on the number of blades and the tip speed ratio desired. Hugh Piggott's

1.5.9 Airfoil

There are great lengths that you can go to for designing an airfoil

information and calculations out there on the net. But all an airfoil needs to do is maximize lift and minimize drag. You will do fine if you do like we did--find a likely looking airfoil cross section from a working wind generator blade, and copy it. A power

NASA has some great

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planer makes quick work of carving it, and a drawknife is great for carving too, especially with the deep cuts near the blade root.

Balancing: The blades must be very well balanced to prevent vibration. This is more easily accomplished with a 2-blade rotor than a 3 bladed one. But generally, we simply use a homemade spring scale to make sure that each blade weighs exactly the same, and that each has the same center of balance. A simple balancing jig for any rotor configuration can be made with an upright spike that sticks into a dimple punched at the exact center of the hub. Excess material from the heavy areas can be removed quickly with a power planer. You'll also need to balance the blade in place on the alternator. It's weight distribution can be adjusted by attaching lead strips to the blade root.

1.5.10 Furling and Shutdown Systems

Furling Systems: We use the term "furling system" to describe a mechanism that turns the wind generator rotor at an angle out of the wind, either horizontally or vertically, to protect the machine from damage during high winds. Ideally it will keep power output levels near the maximum even when fully furled. Our early wind turbine designs didn't use furling systems, and we feel fortunate that some of them are still flying. A wind turbine that furls is also much more gentle on your tower and guy wires--the force on an overspeeding wind turbine increases as the wind gets stringer

There is a variety of furling system designs:

Variable Pitch: An ideal but extremely complicated solution is to use blades which

also have the advantage of keeping

power output at the most efficient point for the current windspeed. During low winds, the blades are pitched for best startup. In higher winds, they rotate and adjust shaft speed to

the ideal RPMs for the generator. In extreme winds, they turn the blades even further to protect the unit from damage. The problem is the complexity of making a system work

it can be done! Large commercial wind generators use this system

reliably

exclusively, as do antique and modern Jacobs turbines, and some old WindChargers.

change pitch depending on the wind speed

these

but

Tilt-Back: In these designs, the generator body is hinged just behind the nacelle. When wind speed gets too high, the entire nacelle, hub and blade assembly tilts back out of the wind to nearly vertical. As the wind slows down, it returns to normal horizontal operating position by either springs, wind action on a tilted tail, or a counterweight. Commercial wind generators that use this method are the old Whisper models (from before the buyout), the Windstream, and many homemade designs. Furling Tail: The generator is mounted off-center horizontally from the yaw bearing. The tail is also angled in this axis. The tail is also angled in the vertical axis, and hinged. When the wind force back on the rotor is strong enough to overcome the off-axis generator making it want to yaw and the angled tail trying to keep it from yawing, the tail folds up and turns the alternator away from the wind direction, forcing the wind turbine to yaw out of the wind. When wind speeds drops, the tail is returned to normal operating

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position by gravity, or springs. Many commercial and homemade designs (including ours) use this system, and it has proven to be very reliable.

Folding Vane: Similar to the furling tail, but the tail boom is fixed, with a hinged vane underneath. Used on some older Wind chargers and homemade designs, the disadvantage is that tail and vane are more highly stressed from wind force during furling, as they still are sticking out there in the gale.

Flexible Blades: The theory is that the blades flex both back toward the tower and around their main axis, and therefore protect themselves from overspeeding. It does work if the

materials and details are correct

example, the blades must not flex back far enough

to hit the pole, and they must withstand flexing during cold weather too.

for

Air Brakes: Noisy and full of vibration, but they do work. Older WindChargers used this system. Metal cups extend from the hub from centripetal force during high winds, and noisily slow the machine down; they retract back into the hub when the wind slows.

Shutdown Systems: This is a manual control that completely shuts the wind generator down. It is not allowed to spin at all, and should be able to survive extremely violent winds in this condition. It can be electrical or mechanical.

Electrical Shutdown: With permanent magnet alternator machines, simply shorting the

main AC power output leads together should effectively shut down the wind turbine. The problem is that when the machine is spinning at high RPMs during a windstorm, the shutdown may be either impossible electrically (the turbine is performing too inefficiently for shorting the output to have any effect), or too damaging to the alternator (the heat produced in the stator coils by shutdown at high speeds turns the coils into molten slag.) Our normal method is to simply wait for a space between high wind gusts to short the mill with a switch. We have successfully shut down Ward's turbine while it

was putting 30 amps into 12vdc

shutdowns at 10-20 amps of output have

caused no vibration or problems. You can use a manual switch, or simply a shorting plug to do this.

numerous

Mechanical Shutdown: These systems physically break the wind generator, or force it out of the wind by turning the tail parallel to the blades. Even the mighty Bergey Excel 10kW wind turbine has a mechanical crank for emergency shutdown. Generally, a cable is attached to a hinged tail, with a small hand winch located at the bottom of the tower for the operator.

14

1.5.11

Regulation

With battery-charging wind generators, regulation of the incoming voltage is accomplished by the battery bank itself, until it is fully charged. Though a PM alternator or DC generator's open-circuit voltage might be 100 volts, the battery bank keeps the wind generator circuit voltage at its own level. Once the battery bank fills, system voltage will rise rapidly and something must be done with the uneeded incoming power. Simply disconnecting the windmill is not an option--a windmill allowed to 'freewheel' will quickly blow itself up from overspeed. The power must be diverted into some sort of load.

Shunt Regulation: These systems simply sense the battery voltage and divert power

directly from the batteries into heating elements (known as a 'dump load'), thus keeping a load on the windmill while avoiding overcharging of the batteries. The very simplest solution is a manually thrown switch that disconnects the incoming power from the

batteries and connects it to some heating elements

requirements of the heaters must be a good match to the alternator for braking to occur. Simple systems that divert all the incoming power at once can be built using Trace C- series charge controllers or relays and voltage sensors. More complicated systems use power transistors or pulse width modulation to divert only part of the incoming power, or the entire amount, as charging needs require. Some commercial solar charge controllers can be set to function as dump load controllers, like the Trace C40. A controller intended only for solar power will NOT function with a wind turbine, nor will an automotive voltage regulator. Diodes: A permanent magnet DC generator (such as a surplus tape drive motor) does need a diode in the line--otherwise, the battery bank will simply spin it as a motor. The diode should be rated for higher amperage than the maximum output of the motor, and must be well heat-sinked. Bridge Rectifiers: Since alternators make AC power and batteries need to charge with DC power, conversion is needed. This is accomplished with bridge rectifiers, which are simply an array of diodes. For single-phase alternators, standard bridges with 4 diodes are used. The biggest bridge that's commonly available at a reasonable cost is 35 amps--for larger wind generators multiple 35 amp bridges can be hooked in parallel to give greater power handling capacity. The bridges must be well heat-sinked to a large piece of finned aluminum or steel.

keep in mind the voltage

just

1.5.12 Slip Rings

The power produced by the generator must be transferred down the tower to your power system. Since the actual wind generator must yaw to keep pointed into the wind, the main power wires must be able to handle this.

15

1.5.13

Pendant Cable

Our personal experience up here in Colorado is that it is much easier to simply use a length of flexible cable and a steel safety cable instead of slip rings. Use the highest quality stranded, flexible cable you can find and attach it in a loose loop from the wind generator power terminals to where your feed wire comes up the pole. Use a length of wire that allows about 3 or 4 wraps around the pole. Or, run the wire down the center of the tower pipe and let it twist inside. Our experience is that while the cord can eventually wind itself around the pole, it will also eventually unwind itself. Some of our models have flown for years with this kind of system and required no maintenance. With a properly designed wind turbine and furling system, you should hardly ever see the mill make a 360 degree yaw. We simple use a power plug and socket at the bottom of the tower and unplug it once or twice a year to untwist the wire. We've seen commercial turbines on 120 foot towers that successfully use the pendant cable system.

1.5.14 Connection with Batteries

Wind Turbine can be connected to grid station a well as isolated. Batteries are mean of storing electric energy and they can be used with few electronic accessories. We prefer use of deep cycle dry batteries as compared to locomotive batteries as the former are suitable for wind turbine fluctuating output.

to locomotive batteries as the former are suitable for wind turbine fluctuating output. [5] Fig 5:

[5] Fig 5: Connection Layout

16

2. FEASIBILITY

The tasks included in the feasibility were getting the data of wind profiles in coastal wind corridor and analyze it. It also included analysis of availability of logistics and official procedure to be followed for wind farming in Pakistan and using the results, objective is to suggest suitable configuration and size for this region. This feasibility will further help in designing the wind turbine the later part of project.

2.1 WIND PROFILES

Wind profiles help in understanding the wind resources. It tells us that where are the best potential wind sites located? How much energy could be extracted from the wind at those sites? Will the wind turbine performance be affected by the turbulence or other wind resource characteristics? It gives wind resource database for different sites. Phase I covers the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan Provinces. 1100 kilometers along Sindh and Balochistan Coast spreading over latitude 25°N approximately and up to 100 kilometers deep northward over land from the coast. The list of stations located along Sindh is given below. Badin, Baghan, Chuhar Jamali, DHA Karachi, Gharo, Golarchi, HawksBay, Hyderabad, Jamshoro, Jati, Karachi, Kati Bandar, Matli, MirPurSakro, Nooriabad, Sajawal, Shah Bandar, Talhar, Thano Bula Khan, Thatta

30-meter high towers

Anemometers at the height of 10 m and 30 m

Wind vane at 30 m height.

Temperature sensors at 10 m height.

Wind speed average at 10 & 30 m at every minute

Max speeds during 10 minutes at 10 & 30 m

Min speeds during 10 minutes at 10 & 30 m

Wind direction One minutes average at 30 m

Temperature 5 minutes average in °C at 10 m

17

2.1.1

Average

Wind

Speed:

[6] Fig 6: Graph b/w Speed & Month
[6] Fig 6: Graph b/w Speed & Month
Average Wind Speed: [6] Fig 6: Graph b/w Speed & Month 2.1.2 Diurnal Wind speed Variation:

2.1.2 Diurnal Wind speed Variation:

b/w Speed & Month 2.1.2 Diurnal Wind speed Variation: [7] Fig 7: Diurnal Wind Speed Source

[7] Fig 7: Diurnal Wind Speed

Source : Pakistan Meteorological Department

18

2.1.3 Anuual Frequency Distribution

[8] Fig 8: Frequency Distribution
[8] Fig 8: Frequency Distribution
Frequency Distribution [8] Fig 8: Frequency Distribution It shows frequency distribution over speed of wind

It shows frequency distribution over speed of wind throughout the year.

Source : Pakistan Meteorological Department

19

2.1.4

Cyclone Data

[9] Table 1: Cyclone Data
[9] Table 1: Cyclone Data

Source : Pakistan Meteorological Department

20

2.2

EXISTING COMPANIES

2.3

 

[10] Table 2: Companies and Size of Lands Allocated

 
       

Size

of

S. No.

COMPANY

 

CONTACT PERSON

Location

of Land

Land

(Acres)

1

NEW PARK Energy Ltd H#.12, St#.33, F-8/1 Islamabad

Mr. Saeed Akhtar, CEO, Brig Khaliq, Mr.

Gharo

842

Sohail

Akhtar,

 

Director

 

Tenaga Generasi Ltd. 19, E-

     

2

Street, Khayaban-e-Tauhid, DHA, Karachi

Syed Javed Hussain Director, Abdul Basit

Kuttikun

4881

 

Green Power (Pvt) Ltd, Ameejee

Mr.

Mustafa

Tapal,

   

3

Chambers, Campbell, Street, Karachi

Director

Mr.

Adnan

Kuttikun

1656

Tapal, Director

   

Mr.

Miftah

Ismail,

   

4

Ismail

Banglore

Karachi

Power,

Candy

17

Shara-e-Faisal,

Land,

Town,

Director,

Munsarin

Director

Mr.

saif,

Bhanbore

1420

 

NYM Power (Pvt.) Ltd. (Gatelene

Mr.

Altaf

Bilwani,

   

5

Industries Pvt Ltd.) D-14/A, BadaBoard Site Karachi

Director, Mr. Rizwan Diwan, Director

Bhanbore

1210

 

WIN Power Ltd. 1500-A Saima

Mr. Rafique Dawood, Chairman, Mr. A.V.M. Raza

   

6

Trade Tower, II Chundrigar, Road Karachi 74000

Bhanbore

1720

7

Al-Karam Textile Mills (Ltd), Third Floor, Karachi Dock Labour Board Building, 58 West Warf Road, Karachi 74000.

Mr. Umer Haji Karim, CEO, Ahmed Ibrahim Director, Arshad Chief Engineer

Bhanbore

1330

 

NYM Power (Pvt.) Ltd. [Hilton

Mr. M. Yasin Malik, Chairman, Mr. Shahid Malik, Director

   

8

Pharma Pvt. Ltd.], Progressive Plaza, Beaumont Road Karachi

Bhanbore

1448

9

Master Wind Energy Ltd, 82-C/1, Gulberg III, Lahore, Pakistan

Mr. Naveed Malik, Chairman, Brig soorti

Jhimpir

1408

21

 

ZEPHYR POWER LTD (OMEGA

Mr.

Zia

Khaleeli,

   

10

LTD) 68-B, SMCHS, Behind Roomi Masjid, Karachi 74400

CEO,

Mr.

Hussain

Bhanbore

2540

Akbar, Manager

 

Beacon Energy Ltd.,

10-11,

Mr.

   

11

Gurumangat Road, Gulberg III, Lahore

Nassir

Director

 

Kasuri,

Kuttikun

1460

   

Mr.

Ejaz

Hussain

   

HOM Energy (Private) Ltd, St#.

Malik,

Executive

12

42-S, Dr. Mehmood Hussain Road, Block#. 6, PECHS, Karachi

Director,

Mr. Danyal

Jhimpir

1000

Rashid,

Company

 

Secretary

 

Sachal Energy Development Pvt

Mr.

     

13

Ltd,

Islamabad

59

E, Street

No.

7, I-10/3

Abdul

Khadim

Karim

Jhimpir

680

14

Fauji Fertilizer Company Ltd. 93, Harley Street, Rawalpindi

Mr. S. Iqtadar Ahmed, General Manager

Jhimpir

1283

(Technology

&

 

Operations)

   
 

Midroc Tussonia (Pvt.) Ltd. (Z- Tech Inc/IIG ), P.O Box 36843,

     

15

Raas Salimiya 24759, Kuwait, Pakistan, 62/1 D, Model Town, Lahore

Mr.

Coordinator

Zafar

Ali,

Chief

Lakha

2550

 

Lucky Energy (Pvt) Ltd (Gadoon

     

Textile Mills Ltd), L-A, 2/B, Block #. 21, Federal B Area , Rashid Minhas Road Karachi

Mr.

Sohail

Tabba,

Jhimpir

16

Chief Executive

696

 

Metro Power Co. (Pvt) Ltd, 36-F,

Mr,

Iqbal

   

17

Block-6, P.E.C.H.S, Karachi-

Alimohamed,

Chief

Jhimpir

1553

75400

 

Executive

 
 

Gul Ahmed Energy Ltd,

35-B,

Mr.

     

18

Block-6, P.E.C.H.S, Karachi-

75400

Danish

Iqbal,

General Manager

Jhimpir

648

19

Zorlu Enerji, Zorlu Plaza 34310 Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey

Mr. Mehmet Erdogan Gunes, General Manager, Mr. Osman Ipek

Jhimpir

1148

 

Wind Eagle Ltd. (Technology Plc

Mr. David Heffernan, Director, Mr. Amer

   

20

Ltd), House No. 1m Peach Street, PO, NIH, Islamabad

Raza,

Director,

Jhimpir

1382

Business

 

Development

 

22

List of Consultants working in wind power projects in Pakistan

WindRose Consultancy O2-C Clifton garden II Blk 3, Clifton Khi.

Mr. Arshad Lal Junejo, CEO

AEDB, FFC, Zorlu

9221-5292614

 

info@windroseone.com

 

Cube Engineering GmbH Tannenweg 11, 25813 Husum, Germany

Jorg Beland General Magager & Director planning and Project Dept. Ph: +49(0) 48419677-0 Fax:-15 j.beland@cube-engineering.com

Beacon

Energy

Pvt. Ltd.

Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd. St Vincent’s Works, silverthrone Lane, Bristol BS2 0QD, England www.garradhassan.com

Richard Whiting MEng Team Leader Asia

Wind Farm project Group

 

Green

Power

Pvt.

Ltd.

Ph:

+44(0)117 972 9900 +44(0)117 972 9901

Fax:

 

Direct: +44(0) 117 9729716 Email:richard.whiting@garradhas san.com

Ipek Energy GmbH Marktplatz 4

Osman Ipek Managing Director Ph: +49-5971-914619-11 Fax: +49-5971-914619-20 Mobile: +49-176-23527465 Email:oi@ipek-energy.com

Zorlu

Enerji

Pakistan ltd.

 

48431

Rheine- Germany

 

www.ipek-energy.com

Lahmeyer

International

Phone:

+49

6101

55-0

Fauji

Fertilizer

GmbH

Fax:

+49

6101

55-2222

Company

 

Friedberger

Str.173

E-Mail: info@lahmeyer.de

 

61118

Bad Vilbel

Germany.

 

www.lahmeyer.de/e/index.

html

Ipek Energy GmbH Marktplatz 4

Osman Ipek Managing Director Ph: +49-5971-914619-11 Fax: +49-5971-914619-20 Mobile: +49-176-23527465 Email:oi@ipek-energy.com

New park Pvt. Ltd.

48431

Rheine- Germany

www.ipek-energy.com

Global Energy Concepts (GEC)

Ph: +1(206) 387-4200 Fax: +1(206) 387-4201

 

Zepyhr Power Ltd.

1809

7 th Avenue, Suite

www.globalenergyconcepts.com

900, Seattle, Washington

98101

USA

23

2.3 VISITS

1

Maxco (Pvt) Ltd. ( Textile base Firm interested in Wind Power)

2

WindRose Consultancy (Pvt) Ltd. ( Experts in Installations of Wind Turbines)

3

Fabricon (Pvt) Ltd. ( Manufacturar having Expertise in Manufacturing of Wind Turbines)

4

Alternative Energy & Power Asia Exhibition ( Opportunity to meet and have an exposure of Different Consultants and professionals in Renewable energy sector)

5

Technical Presentation on ― Wind Energy Harnessing‖ at IEP ( Institute of Engineers Pakistan )

2.3.1

Zorlu Energy Wind Farm - Jhampir

2.3.1.1

About the Visit:

The Visit was arranged on date April 14, 2009 by the approval of Mr Javed Shah (ZORLU) and authorized by the Chairman Office, Mechanical Engineering Department, NED University.

Before visiting the site, we had the following motives in our mind:

o

Extract the necessary technical information regarding the project.

o

Practically sense the operations that are being carried out in the Wind Farm.

o

What other help can ZORLU provide us regarding our project.

2.3.1.2 About Zorlu Energi

Zorlu Energi is a Turkish based group of Companies that have pioneered in the field of Energy, Operation and Maintenance, Industrial management, Petrogas, Electricity, Oil & Gas Distribution as well as Exploration. Zorlu energy Group also attaches a great deal of importance in the fields of Renewable Energy.

2.3.1.3 Zorlu Energi in Pakistan:

Zorlu Energy Group signed a 20-year-long electric power generation agreement with the Pakistan Alternate Energy Development Board (AEDB) in 2007. Acting upon the agreement, in the initial phase, it has installed a 6MegaWatt capacity wind farm, with a total number of 5 Turbines in which 4 are in working condition. The setup will reach up to 50MegaWatt incoming couple of years.

24

2.3.1.3

Site Specification at Jhampir

Zorlu Wind Farm site is situated few km away from Jhampir Railway Station. It has a total land area of 4500Acres.

2.3.1.4 Landscape:

Land of Jhampir and near by districts is plain and dry. The soil of the site comes in the category of hard Soil that is preferable for the installation of long towers without digging too deep.

2.3.1.5 Wind Potential:

towers without digging too deep. 2.3.1.5 Wind Potential: [11] Fig 9: Zorlu Wind Turbine Pakistan is

[11] Fig 9: Zorlu Wind Turbine

Pakistan is blessed up with high potential wind resources. The Jhampir district rests on the high potential wind corridor that have a wind velocity range upto 3m/s to 7.7m/s. This Wind corridor passes from rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan and includes cities like Jamshoro, Gharo, and Nooriabad.

2.3.1.6 Wind Farm utilities:

Since the Wind Farm is situated some kms away from the city of Jhampir , it is not yet provided by water and natural gas. The power needs of Wind Farm are completely fulfilled by using a Diesel Generators. Despite standing concrete walls, all offices, rooms, kitchen and dining halls are laid down in Porta Cabins.

2.3.1.7 Grid Connectivity:

This Wind project is connected to the nearby HESCO Substation (132 KVA Electric Grid), which is located about half a kilometer away from Wind farm.

2.3.1.8 Turbine Specification

All Turbines belong to the German, World Wide distributor and manufacturer of Wind Turbine VENSYS Group. Each Turbine has a maximum capacity of producing 1200KW electricity and an average capacity of 500KW.

25

2.3.1.9 Various Dimensions:

Tower length

= 62m.

Vane length

= 29m.

Total Height of Turbine ~ 92m

2.3.1.10 Various Tonnages:

Generator

Propeller Hub

= 40 Ton

=12.5 Ton

Singe Blade (Vane) = 4 Ton

Nacelle

= 13 Ton

2.3.1.11 Mechanical Power Transmission Mechanism:

The Wind Turbine comprises of a single shaft connected along the Propeller and Generator causing the absence of Gear Box, which eventually leads to minimize aggregate tonnage of Wind Turbine.

2.3.1.12 Wave Form Stabilization:

Since Wind Turbine operation is not a uniform one. The Generator shaft’s rotation varies with the Wind velocity that leads to a Variation in frequency. To accommodate this undesired phenomena a bunch of Capacitor Bags are installed, that cuts out the Non- uniformity and hence allow constant frequency Voltage.

26

2.3.2

WindRose Consultancy

WindRose Consultancy has expertise in alternative energy in Pakistan. They are pioner in installation of Wind turbines and solar panels in Pakistan. WindRose is also authorized distributor of wind profiling equiment from WILMERS (Germany) in Pakistan.

The services provided by WindRose are:

2.3.2.1 Land Right Aspects:

a. Government/private/other options

b. Soil Testing

2.3.2.2 Digital Mapping

a. Satellite Imagery

b. Identification/Demarcation of boundaries

c. Calculation of Total Areas

d. Scaled Maps

e. GPS Survey & Physical Identification of Boundaries.

2.3.2.3 Wind Resource Monitoring

Apart from having a good wind turbine, the most critical aspects for the success of investment in the wind energy sector are (i) having a good site and (ii) an accurate assessment of the wind resource at the site

Wind Resource Monitoring which consists of following activities:

Siting Wind Monitoring Wind Resource Mapping Optimization and Micrositing

27

Siting:

Identification of good windy sites is the first and most important aspect in this business. The combination of field experience and knowledge of the wind flow pattern, terrain, and grid etc., backed by the latest GIS, GPS Survey techniques and use of latest satellite images enable the successful identification of the good windy sites.

Wind Monitoring:

The Wind monitoring masts are installed with required sensors for recording accurate data, related to wind and weather. The mast is equipped with Automatic Data Logging System. The measurements are carried out at different levels for assessing the vertical wind profile.

Wind Resource Mapping:

Wind Rose Consultancy has the latest software tools for wind flow modeling and resource mapping. Wind Resource Mapping is critical for a given site to decide the optimized placement of turbines resulting in maximum wind farm output.

Optimization in Micro-Siting:

Even if we have a good site and a good wind turbine it is important to see that the turbines are put at the right places to extract maximum generation out of the wind farm. Wind Rose Consultancy takes great pride to provide best services to our clients in this regard.

Pre-Feasibility of the project.

Assist

for

Power

Purchase

Agreement

(PPA)

including

negotiation

with

concern

departments.

 

Final installation and production output

 

28

2.4 AVAILABLE RESOURCES AND FACILITIES

2.4.1 Basic Infrastructure For Development Of Wind Industry

Areas with Wind Potential are facing Logistic Problems like the roads are not wide enough for transportation of large parts of turbines. Railway track is not that wide and accessible to remote areas.

[12] Fig 10: Prime Mover Transportation
[12] Fig 10: Prime Mover Transportation
to remote areas. [12] Fig 10: Prime Mover Transportation Ports Facility is good as we have

Ports Facility is good as we have Bin Qasim port and Karachi port capable of handling shipments of parts. Gawadar is a deep sea port but it is too far away from cities like Karachi as the Prime Mover will have to travel long rough distance to Site of installation. Heavy Lifting Cranes are not available. Easily available cranes can lift 10 tons to 120 feet.

Cranes are not available. Easily available cranes can lift 10 tons to 120 feet. [13] Fig

[13] Fig 11: Crane, Lifting large Rotor

29

2.5 DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS OF WIND FARM

2.5.1 According To Consumer

High End User

More Revenue

More Requirements

Steady Supply

Sophisticated Appliances like Computers & Machines

Urban Cities

2.5.2 According To Electricity Distribution

Grid Connected

Grid Standard ( 50 Hz)

Load Distribution

More Transmission & Theft Loss

More Cost (Transmission, Maintenance)

Favorable for High End User

2.5.3 According To Size Of The Turbine

Low End User

Less Revenue

Less Requirements Individually

Not Much Effected by Fluctuations

Timely Demand

Rural Cities & Remote Area

Stand Alone System

Fluctuations Acceptable

Preferable if Load is on DC.

Less Transmission & Theft Loss

Social Benefits for Remote Areas

Favorable for Low End User

Large Wind turbines

Micro Wind turbines

More Electricity

Less Electricity

Per Unit Fixed Cost Reduce

More Per Unit Fixed Cost

Preferable for Off Shore

Low Cost of Transportation & Installation

Preferable for Weak grid.

Preferable if there is Area Shortage

Being Used in Europe

Preferable for Pakistan

30

2.5.4

Reasons for Choosing Large Turbines

There are economies of scale in wind turbines, i.e. larger machines are usually able to deliver electricity at a lower cost than smaller machines. The reason is that the cost of foundations, road building, electrical grid connection, plus a number of components in the turbine (the electronic control system etc.), are somewhat independent of the size of the machine.

Larger machines are particularly well suited for offshore wind power. The cost of foundations does not rise in proportion to the size of the machine, and maintenance costs are largely independent of the size of the machine.

In areas where it is difficult to find sites for more than a single turbine, a large turbine with a tall tower uses the existing wind resource more efficiently.

You may take a look at some megawatt-sized wind turbines in the picture gallery.

2.5.5 Reasons for Choosing Smaller Turbines

1 The local electrical grid may be too weak to handle the electricity output from a large machine. This may be the case in remote parts of the electrical grid with low population density and little electricity consumption in the area.

There is less fluctuation in the electricity output from a wind park consisting of a number of smaller machines, since wind fluctuations occur randomly, and therefore tend to cancel out. Again, smaller machines may be an advantage in a weak electrical grid.

The cost of using large cranes, and building a road strong enough to carry the turbine components may make smaller machines more economic in some areas.

Several smaller machines spread the risk in case of temporary machine failure, e.g. due to lightning strikes. Aesthetical landscape considerations may sometimes dictate the use of smaller machines. Large machines, however, will usually have a much lower rotational speed, which means that one large machine really does not attract as much attention as many small, fast moving rotors. (See the section on wind turbines in the landscape).

31

2.6 GOVERNMENT POLICIES

United Nation Development Program (UNDP) has initiated project "Sustainable Development of Utility Scale Wind Power Generation Project" referred to as Wind Energy Project (WEP). The project is being funded by Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implemented through Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) & Government of Pakistan. As a part of its institutional strengthening program of relevant government institutions, WEP is intending to conduct baseline capacity assessment of PMD, NEPRA, and AEDB through consultants. The Consultant Firm working on Baseline Capacity Assessment Study will develop implementation plan - capacity building strategy for a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained activities. Wind tariff determination, performance standards, relevant grid codes, as well as issuance of licenses to wind power investors on part of NEPRA, and Alternative Energy Development Board acting as one-window facility for Wind Energy Investors, taking into account existing activities, capacities, and building on existing infrastructure, systems and initiatives.

Source : Policy for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation,

2006

Government of Pakistan

for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation, 2006 Government of Pakistan [14] Table 3: Activity
for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation, 2006 Government of Pakistan [14] Table 3: Activity
for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation, 2006 Government of Pakistan [14] Table 3: Activity

[14] Table 3: Activity flow chart

for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation, 2006 Government of Pakistan [14] Table 3: Activity

32

33

33

2.6.1. Capacity Assessment Of NEPRA

The capacity assessment study of NEPRA will focus on their capacity and understanding of Wind Power with reference to tariff determination, and issuance of licenses to wind power investors;

• Based on the desired objective, determine the technical assistance required by NEPRA

for smooth and efficient running of matters pertaining to abovementioned task.

• Identify minimum qualified staff requirements along with requisite qualification and experience for carrying out above-mentioned task for Wind Power IPP’s.

• Identify and recommend relevant software/hardware requirements.

• Based on current capacity and capabilities of staff dealing in wind energy matters,

identify and recommend specific training/s programs. 3. Capacity Assessment of AEDB:

Capacity assessment of AEDB will look into their capabilities to act as one window facility for wind power investors.

• Based on the desired objective, determine the technical assistance required by AEDB

specifically with reference to wind power for providing comprehensive and up-to-date

information for prospective wind investors.

• Identify minimum qualified staff requirements along with requisite qualification and experience.

• Identify and recommend software/hardware requirements,

• Based on current capacity and capabilities of wind section in AEDB, identify and

recommend specific training/s programs for this section. In order to avoid duplication of activities, and effective resource utilization, specific recommendations shall be made for PMD, NEPRA, and AEDB for their roles and responsibilities in promoting Wind Energy (WE), keeping in consideration their assigned task. This will ensure clear understanding of roles and responsibilities of each institution in performing their duties and avoid confusion of prospective Wind Power Investors to get required information. Study will be carried out in close consultations with all stakeholders, and input from Wind Energy Project (WEP) team. The consultant/s will organize a conference/workshop of all the stakeholders to reach consensus on the findings/recommendations of study before finalization of assignment

Source: Policy for Development of Renewable Energy for Power Generation,

2006

Government of Pakistan

34

2.7 ANALYSIS OF FEASIBILITY

From the collected data, Wind profiles, Available logistics, other miscellaneous factors and after consulting from a number of related bodies working in Wind energy in Pakistan we concluded the following result of our analysis:

There is a lot of Potential for Wind Energy in Pakistan as we have studied the profile of wind data in the coastal belt which is situated in the Great Wind Corridor.

Wind Farming is Feasible in Coastal Belt Wind Corridor as we have a large area on shore. We can import turbines as we have Sea ports as well, but due to lack of transportation facilities, larger turbine (e.g. > 500 KW) is an issue.

Though we have Lack of Infrastructure, yet alternatives are available that is we can move toward clusters of turbines having moderate capacities and moderate sizes that is (< 500 KW).

For Remote Areas, Stand Alone Systems are suitable as they don’t have to follow Grid Code as well as can bear fluctuation due to changing wind speed. They will reduce load on National Grid thus, saving up country’s energy.

Much Larger Wind Turbines are not preferable due to lack of Logistics. We can import Second hand turbines since Europe is upgrading itself to Larger Turbines; we can get smaller ones in low cost. Smaller turbines are easy to handle, install and maintain.

Utilization of Used Wind Turbine for experimental Study purpose is preferred.

Rotor Blade designing should be given Preference. Since, we are not designing Rotor Blade according to our required conditions in Pakistan. This can lead us to new era of Cheaper, Greener and efficient Wind turbines.

35

DESIGN SECTION

3.0 DESIGN APPROACH

After the completion of feasibility section, we now proceed toward design section. On the basis of local metrological conditions available in Karachi we have collected data for DHA and established Wind Rose which will help us in designing an appropriate wind turbine. We have adopted average velocity 7 m/s. Data is available in feasibility section.

velocity 7 m/s. Data is available in feasibility section. Fig 15: Windrose plotted by the data

Fig 15: Windrose plotted by the data at 30 m height at DHA Karachi by Pakistan Meteorological Department

BLADE DESIGN

BLADE DESIGN 36

36

3. BLADE DESIGN

3.1 INTRODUCTION:

The object of blade is to convert the straightforward pull or push of the wind into turning effect. The blade design f a horizontal axis wind turbine is approached by blade element theory discussed previously.

The method of blade design consists of the following steps.

o

The selection of suitable airfoil.

o

The selection of design tip ratio.

o

Selection of number of blades.

o

Determination of power coefficients corresponding to design tip speed ratio.

o

Determination of diameter

o

Determination of R.P.M of rotor

o

Determination of geometrical shapes of the blade at various sections

o

Determination of torque and thrust coefficient

o

Calculation of power

o

Determination f blade loads and stresses (structural analysis)

As we have already discussed the selection of airfoil in previous section, we now proceed our design from step two of the above mentioned steps.

3.2 TIP SPEED RATIO:

The selection of tip speed ratio is largely depended upon ratio. It is because C d /C L ratio increases, the drag effects the expected power coefficient and this influences the size and even more speed ratio of the design.

From C p -r variation curve it is clear that for a range of design speed 1 10 the maximum theoretically attainable power coefficient lies between 0.35< C pmax <0.5. Due to deviation, however, of the ideal geometry and hub losses for example these maximum will be between 0.3 and 0.4.

This result shows that the choice of the design tip speed ratio. One is the character of the load. If it is a piston puma scoop wheel or some other slow running loads, the design speed of the rotor is usually chosen slow. This allows the designer to use simple airfoils.

If the load is running fast like a generator or a centrifugal pump then a high speed ratio is selected and airfoil with a low C d ratio will be preferred.

37

The second C L factor is that the locally available technologies will often restrict the possibilities of manufacturing bladders with airfoil having a low C d /C L ratio.

Also the tip speed ratio directly depends upon the solidity ratio. This is the ratio of blade area to swept area of wind turbine rotor.

T

ncR nc

R

2

R

Where c = Average Chord

A high solidity ratio rotor similar to the old praise wind mill, will have a high starting torque and turn relatively slow, thus small tip speed ratio. Increasing the number of blocks compensates the decrease in power coefficient. However, with modern wind turbine designed for electric power generation, high rotational speeds are desirable in order to minimize gearing.

Since the first order rotational speeds are inversely proportional to solidity, a low solidity would be indicated for this application and obviously a high tip speed ratio.

From above discussion, it is concluded that, the design of tip speed is usually taken between 1&10. A small value of tip speed is selected for slow running turbine ( usually 1< <4 ). A large tip speed is selected for fast running turbine ( usually 5< <10 ).

38

3.3 SELECTION OF TIP SPEED RATIO:

3.3 SELECTION OF TIP SPEED RATIO: The RAF 6 airfoil  C d / C L

The RAF 6 airfoil

C

d

/ C

L

min

1

103.77

[15] Fig 12: Cp Vs TSR

0.009637

C

d

/ C

L

min

1

103.77

0.009637

It is clear from r and C pmax curve that highest value of C p is 0.54 at r =5.25

However from r =5.25 to r =8.5, the change in C p is small and only 1.6%. For designing purpose we take =8

3.4 SELECTION OF TURBINE BLADES:

The Number of blades for fast running turbine used for the generation of electricity is usually 2 or 3. Here another selection criterion is established to choose the number of blades.

Most performance theories in common use neglect the number of blades because of difficulties in analyzing the complex three-dimensional and inter blade effect and use the

39

assumption of infinite number of blades. This assumption result in remarkable simple solution, using either the momentum or vortex theory for the rotor. With 3 blades the assumption results in only a few percent error.

Clear argument has not yet been settled between two blades and three blades partition. While two blades improve the economy of rotor, difficulties due to vibration etc. by and large appear during orientation. Thee difficulties disappear completely for three blades, so that three blades rotor operate more reliably and allow a more primitive design for the rest of the machine.

We are selecting RAF 6 instead of NACA series. The reason behind it is the ease of manufacturing of RAF 6 as it is Flat bottom as compared to NACA 0012. For micro w ind turbine RAF 6 can give good result because of it light weight. For larger WT, we move towards NACA which is more complex.

Airfoil coordinates for: RAF 6

[16] Table 4 : Coordinates of RAF 6 From MATLAB

Upper X

Upper Y

Lower X

Lower Y

0.00000

0.00000

0.00000

0.00000

2.48700

3.59900

2.50200

-0.50100

4.98100

5.40800

5.00200

-0.49200

9.97300

7.42600

10.00200

-0.47400

19.96700

9.06200

20.00200

-0.43800

29.96600

9.57800

30.00100

-0.40200

39.96600

9.53400

40.00100

-0.36600

49.96700

9.17000

50.00100

-0.33000

59.97000

8.40600

60.00100

-0.29400

69.97400

7.14200

70.00100

-0.25800

79.98100

5.37800

80.00100

-0.22200

89.98800

3.31400

90.00100

-0.18600

100.00000

0.15000

100.00000

-0.15000

40

[17] Fig 13 : RAF 6 Profile Characteristics from Profili2 Max Thickness 9.98% at 30.0%

[17] Fig 13 : RAF 6 Profile Characteristics from Profili2

Max Thickness 9.98% at 30.0% of the chord

Max camber 4.59% at 30% of the chord (modified to 0% camber flat bottom) Leading edge radius 1.6744 % Trailing edge thickness 0.30%

13

coordinate on upper side

13

coordinate on lower side

0 precomputed polar in Db

41

[18] Fig 14 : Cross Section of RAF 6
[18] Fig 14 : Cross Section of RAF 6

42

A three blade rotor is suitable for medium high tip speed ratio i.e. 7.2< λ <9.2, and four blade rotor is suitable for a small value of λ < 7.2. Jensen and Smolders prefer more comprehensive result for the selection of number of blades ―B‖ with respect to design tip speed ratio λ. The ranges of and corresponding ranges of ―B‖ are shown in Table:

[19] Table 5 : TSR and No. of Blades

λ

B

1

620

2

412

3

36

4

24

58

23

85

12

In our case = 8,

Therefore 3 blades rotor is suitable.

3.5 CALCULATION OF BLADE DIAMETER:

Power extracted from the wind is given by the formula:

where:

P

P = Power extracted

C

P

1 2
1
2

AV

3

C P = Coefficient of Power

ρ= Density of air

V = Speed of wind

43

We have to design for 500Watts ( 0.5 kW ) output, assuming overall efficiency as 60%.

P

500

0.6

833.33watts

at = 8 , C p = 0.53

Due to deviation from ideal geometry, the C p is reduced by 10 20%, for conservation design we take:

C P actual = 0.8C P = 0.80.53 = 0.4

V

7 m/s

ρ = 1.225 kg/m 3

A

A

R

2

R

D

4

D

R

2

2

P

C

2

p

1

2

(



833.33

2

R )V

3

0.4

1.225

1.77m

3.55m

44

7

3

Power (Watts)

Power (Watts) Velocity

Velocity

Rated Power Vs Velocity 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5 10
Rated Power Vs Velocity
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
5
10
15
Velocity (m/s)

20

25

Rated Power Vs Velocity 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5 10 15

Rated Power Vs

2000 1000 0 0 5 10 15 Velocity (m/s) 20 25 Rated Power Vs Fig 15

Fig 15 : Rated Power Vs Velocity for r= 1.7

2000 1000 0 0 5 10 15 Velocity (m/s) 20 25 Rated Power Vs Fig 15

[20] Table 6: Velocity and Power (MATLAB) r= 1.7

 

Velocity

Power

0

0

1

0.724608

2

5.796864

3

19.56442

4

46.37491

5

90.576

6

156.5153

7

248.5405

8

370.9993

9

528.2392

10

724.608

11

964.4532

12

1252.123

13

1591.964

14

1988.324

15

2445.552

16

2967.994

17

3559.999

18

4225.914

19

4970.086

20

5796.864

45

3.6

R.P.M:

The R.P.M (ω) corresponding to a wind velocity (V) and maximum power is chosen to suit the type of load the wind turbine will require to drive but it must be chosen that the peripheral velocity of the blade tip is between 1 & 8 times the wind velocity. If the ratio is 8, the wind turbine would be a high-speed type suitable for driving an electric generator and the number of blades required will be either two or three. If the ratio is one, the wind turbine would be a lower speed type requiring 12 blades.



  

V

2

60

D

2

 

8

 

7

120

2



3.55

 301rpm

 5rad / sec

46

The coordinate points of RAF6 airfoil section are plotted and given in a number of stations as:

 

[21] Table 7: Coordinates and Area MATLAB code

   

X

Y

A

0.347479

0.181751

1.026482

9.6910 -4

0.657521

0.245835

0.694449

0.001232

0.986812

0.254921

0.480078

7.2910 -4

1.317146

0.256175

0.361829

4.5510 -4

1.647423

0.255079

0.288225

3.0510 -4

1.977565

0.25304

0.288225

2.1810 -4

2.307597

0.250552

0.202221

1.6310 -4

2.637548

0.247823

0.175016

1.2610 -4

2.967439

0.244953

0.153768

110 -4

3.297287

0.241996

0.136721

8.1510 -5

Area under X-Curve is calculated by Simpson’s Rule:

A h 3 yy

[(

n

1)

4(

odd ordinate)

here, h = interval between ordinates

h

b a

n

where,

b r

tip

1.77

m

 

hub

V

0.8

7

a r hub

 

31.64

a 0.1769

47

2(

even ordinate)]

h

2

[

y y

n

1

n

]

n = number of intervals = 9

3.7 THRUST:

h

1.77

0.1769

9

ydr

xdr

0.177

A

A

0.495358

3.865275

y dr 0.792573

V 0.000682

The total thrust applied on the 3 blades can be calculate by the formula:

3.8 TORQUE:

T

T

1

2

B

V

2

xdr

1

2

2

(3)(1.225)(7 )(3.865275)

348.02

N

T 116

N Blade

/

Torque can be calculated by the formula:

2 Q  B  1   V  ydr 2   3
2
Q
B
1 
 V
 ydr
2
 
3
1 
1.225
7
2 
0.495358
2
Q
 44.6N.m
48

3.9 POWER TRANSMITTED:

The Power transmitted is given by:

0r P = 1.4kW

1.4kW > 500W

P

P

Q

2



60

44.6

2

300

60

P

1400Watt

i.e. the Blade Power is sufficient for our design.

3.10 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION

The design calculation for wind turbine is done on the rated speed of wind. So as the wind turbine could with stand the extreme conditions.

3.10.1

Thrust:

The thrust on each blade at a wind speed of 10.5m/s is given as

T

T

1

2

1

2

V

2

tip

r

hub

r

xdr

2

(1.225)(10.5) (3.865275)

261N / Blade

T

783N

49

3.10.2

Tangential / Centrifugal Force:

The Tangential Force ―F C ‖ (which is along the chord of the blade) on the blade of wind turbine at a wind speed of 10.5m/s is given by

3.10.3 Mass of the Blade:

F

C

1

2

V

2

r

tip

r

hub

y dr

F

C

1

1.225

10.5

2

 

2

F

C

53.52N / Blade

F

C

160.56N

 

0.792573

The Volume of the blade is determined by the trapezoidal rule, which is given as:

where,

V

h

2

[(a

a )

n

2(a

1

a

2

a

a

1

)]

a o ,a 1 ,a 2 ,…,a n are the cross-section areas at station 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, … the length of the blades.

h = Interval between two sections

, n along

The General cross-section area of blade ate different chord length is given as:

A

B

81.4

10

9

[c

2

(c

2

t

0.06

)

2

]

where,

 

t = thickness at different station

c

= chord length at different stations.

Here,

V = 2000m 3

50

Mass of Blade is given as

Mblade V

where,

ρ = density of fiber glass = 0.000682

M

blade

0.000682

2000

M

blade

1.364kg / blade

M

blades

4.1kg

Total Weight=4.1

9.81=40.14N

3.11

STRESSES DUE TO AERODYNAMIC LOADING OF THE BLADE:

3.11.1 Stress due to Aerodynamic Force (Bending Sress)

M y

a

 

M

a

 

J

a

z

a

2

b

a

 

4

I

 

 

y

 



z

10

3

(

69

ba

z

a

M

B.M

1.25

2

10

6

a

0.0773m

 

z

a

3.62

10

5

ba

1.25

10

3

3.62

10

5

)[

4

a

2

2

(0.1a )]

ba

34.5MN / m

2

52

3.11.2

Stresses Due to Centrifugal Force (Tensile Stress)

tc

F

C

mV

2 R
2
R
 

A

V

 

V

2

A



( AR ) 
( AR ) 

( AR )

V

2

tc

RA

2

 

R

2

RA
RA

RA

2000

(1.77)

2

(31.64)

2

 

tc

6.27MN / m

2

 

53

DESIGN OF MECHANICAL COMPONENTS

54

HUB DESIGNING

HUB DESIGNING 55

55

Design of Mechanical Components

4. DESIGN OF HUB

4.1 TANGENTIAL STRESSES:

St ba 34.5MN / m 510 psi 0.91psi

Sr tc 6.27MN / m

2

3

2

3

4.2 RADIAL STRESSES:

4.3 MATERIAL OF HUB:

AISI 1006, Mild steel:

ρ = 7850 kg/m 3 = 0.283 lb/in 3

σ t = Tensile Strength = 330 MPa = 48 Kpsi

σ y = Yeild Strength = 280 MPa = 41 Kpsi

υ = Poisons Ratio = 0.3

56

4.4

CALCULATION FOR RADIUS OF HUB

4.4.1 On the Basis of Radial (Centrifugal) Stresses

2

Sr cwN [(3)(R

2

r

2

)]

c

= 0.00000355

r

= shaft radius = 0.4in

N = 300rpm

4.4.2 On the Basis of Axial (Tangential) Stress

St cwN [(3)R (13)r ]

2

2

2

St = 510 3 psi

R

= 0.4in

R

= 6.61in = 0.168m

4.5 CALCULATION FOR HUB THICKNESS

S

r

F

A

t

F

N

F

C

2(R

r)t

t

Where,

(F

t

100)

2

S (R

r

r)

57

F T = 800N

S

r = 0.91 10 3 psi = 6.27MN/m2

r

= 0.01016

t

= 0.02m

t = 21.95mm

4.6 CALCULATION OF VOLUME OF HUB

Volume of Hub

A

t

V

R

2

t

(0.168)

2

(0.02195)

   

V

8.86

10

4

m

3

 

4.7 MASS OF HUB

Mass of Hub

Volume of Hub

7850

8086

10

4

Mass of Hub=7kg

58

DESIGN OF BOLTS

DESIGN OF BOLTS 59

59

5. DESIGN OF BOLTS

5.1 FORCES ACTING ON BOLTS

Using Cast Iron Bolts having UTS = 180Mpa

Total force acting on the bolt = F T = F N + F C

F N = 800N/m

F T = 800

1.77

F T = 1.416kN

5.2 FOR CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

F

C

m

2

m(R

)

2