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# Electrical Interview questions Part 14

Electrical interview question:What is the power factor of an alternator at no load? Answer:At no load Synchronous Impedance of the alternator is responsible for creating angle difference. So it should be zero lagging like inductor.

What is electromagnetic induction? It is the phenomenon where an electromotive force is produced by introducing a changing magnetic field to a conductor or by moving a conductor in a magnetic field How does a diode work? Diodes are two-terminal semiconductors that allow energy flow in one direction only. What are the semiconductors used transistors? Germanium, silicon, silicon carbide, gallium arsenide What is CMOS? What are its advantages? CMOS is Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. Its advantages are increased noise immunity, decreased power consumption, less heat wastages. Do you have product design experience? This is a general question for most engineers where the interviewer tries to find some spots in your answer to question you back. It is to evaluate your knowledge in the design work done by you. What is Meissner effect? It is the phenomenon of a magnetic field being expelled from a superconductor. Explain superconductivity with examples. Superconductivity is a phenomenon where the conducting material shows zero resistivity and exhibits meissner effect. Superconductivity is observed at very low temperatures. The temperature below which a material exhibits superconductivity is called the critical temperature. Cuprate superconductors have found to show the property up to 92K. Mercury based cuprate superconductors show the property up to 130K. How many joules is 1 electronvolt? 1 eV is 1.602176*(10^-19) joules How is a megawatt electrical different from a thermal megawatt? Megawatt electrical (MWe) indicates the electrical power generated, whereas thermal megawatt (MWt) indicates the thermal power generated. What is a vacuum circuit breaker? A vacuum circuit breaker is an automated switch that is used in protecting a circuit in case of overload. It interrupts current by using a vacuum container to create an arc and breaking it as a result of increase in dielectric strength. What is power factor? Power factor is the ratio of working power to apparent power. What s renewable energy? List some renewable energy sources. Renewable energy is the energy generated by using naturally restorable resources. Some renewable energy sources include solar, wind, tidal and geothermal energy. Biofuels produced from biomass is also classified as a renewable energy source. Explain the functioning of a solar cell. A solar cell converts energy from sunlight to electrical energy. The underlying principle

is the photovoltaic effect. Solar cells are made using silicon crystals or silicon thin film wafers. Explain your team leading or team playing experience. Team leading or team playing experience is a major requirement in power generation plants. People as a part of a team in a power plant get major opportunities to learn in detail the operation and maintenance procedures. A team experience is a positive factor for recruiters.

## Electrical job Questions:Thermal Power Plant (Set 1)

What are the main circuits in the Thermal Power Plant? Answer:Thermal Power plant consists of four main circuits, they are:

Feed water and steam flow circuit Coal and ash circuit Air and gas circuit Cooling water circuit

Steam power plant works on which cycle? Answer: Steam power plant works on the principle of Rankine Cycle What is the Thermal efficiency of steam power plant? Answer: Thermal efficiency of steam power plant is defined as the ratio of heat equivalent of mechanical energy transmitted to the turbine shaft to the heat of combustion. Generally Thermal efficiency of the steam power plant will be in the range of 30-35% What is the overall efficiency of the Thermal Power Plant or Steam Power Plant? Answer: Overall efficiency of the system is defined as the ratio of heat equivalent of electrical output to the heat of combustion. Generally Overall efficiency of the steam plant will always be less than the thermal efficiency of the steam plant, it will be of the order of 29-33% Overall efficiency of steam plant is determined by multiplying the thermal efficiency of the plant with efficiency of the generator (electrical efficiency) Why the Thermal efficiency of the steam power plant is quite low? Answer: In Steam power station, more than 50% of the total heat of combustion is lost as heat rejected to the condenser and the loss is unavoidable as the heat energy

cannot be converted in to mechanical energy with out a drop in temperature. Steam in the condenser is at lowest temperature. This is the reason that the thermal efficiency of the power plant is quite low. On what factors efficiency (thermal) of the steam plant depends? Answer: Efficiency of the thermal plant depends on three factors, they are 1. pressure of steam entering the turbine 2. temperature of the steam entering the turbine 3. pressure in the condenser Thermal efficiency increases with increase in temperature and pressure of the steam entering the turbine. For this reason high temperature and pressure are used. Thermal efficiency is effectively increased by decreasing the pressure in the condenser, so pressure in the condenser is kept as low as possible. Thermal efficiency also increases by reheating the steam between turbine stages

## Why Generation Voltage in Power Plant is Low (11kV to 33kV) ?

Answer: In Electrical Generation plants, the generation voltage will be in the range between 11kV and 33kV. Generator designers wishes to generate the electricity at high voltages as possible to limit the stator current required to achieve the desired output. But certain technical and economical problems will arise which results in designing the generator for particular voltage and current ratings.

Low voltage generation for particular power level (say 500MW) requires large size of the stator conductors as huge currents flow through the stator because of low voltage. ( Any current carrying conductor size is decided by the amount of current flowing through the conductors). Thereby increase in the cost and size of the machine takes place. On the other hand, increase of the machine voltage significantly beyond the minimum necessary value results in more insulation required on the generator stator windings, thus increasing its size and cost.

Therefore an optimum value of Voltage and Current values are attained for designing the generator considering the cost and size factors of the generator. Example: 660 MW generation plant usually operate at 23.5 kV with line currents of about 19 000 A at 0.85 power factor.

## Interview questions for electrical maintenance?

Describe the electrical systems you have worked on and how did you get your training? 2. What is your experience with electrical schematics? 3. What is your experience with ladder logic? 4. Describe the malfunctions you have experienced with PLC hardware? 5. Describe a tough electrical troubleshooting problem you have experienced, and briefly explain the steps you used to solve the problem. 6. What is the difference between a digital signal and an analog signal? 7. How often do you use a personal computer in a typical day? What do you do with it? 8. Describe a process problem you have experienced and how did you solve it? 9. Give an example of a tough loop you had to tune. What were the problems? And how did you solve them? 10. What brands of VFD's are you familiar with. 11. Describe some of the malfunctions associated with VFD's, and give an example of a tough VFD problem you had to solve. 12a. Using Ladder logic, write a program that will START and STOP a motor with momentary START and STOP push buttons. (Provide a sheet of paper) 12b. Add ladder logic that will turn the motor OFF after running for two minutes. 13. Describe the steps you take to troubleshoot a 3 phase, 480 volt motor that continually trips the heaters. 14a. Why is the earth pin in a 3-pin plug the longest and the thickest? 14b. Explain the purpose of grounding. 15. Describe a control panel you wired, designed, or modified. What was the purpose of the panel and state each component you used. 16. Describe the difference between a sourcing input and a sinking input. 17. Why do you want this job?

Electrical Engineering Interview Questions (Power System) Electrical Design Engineering, Hydro Power, Thermal Power Station Questions, Switchyard 220kV/ 400kV/ 765 kV, Substation Questions 1. HTC Interview: (as told by RS) 1. Preparation of DPR, How dimension are made for generator. 2. Favorite BOP item. 3. Ring / Bus topography in SCADA 4. SCR and its value ? 5. What to specify in Generator Transformer tender ? 6. Transformer Losses Penalty ? 7. Specifications (415 Switchgear) 8. What u did in different projects? 9. Tell about your current Team in Company. 10. How work is done (Special Team or Project wise) in your company ?

11. Expected Package ? 12. Why HTC? 13. How u come to know us? 14. Why in short span of time, you post your cv on website? 15. About tender floating process ? 16. What was your involvement during pre-bid meeting etc. 2. Voith (Telephonic Interview as told by RS) 1. 2. 3. 4. Tell me about vector group Ynd11 what its technical mean ? Protection of GT ? Differential and REF. Ratio of REF CT ? Why single phase transformer is used ?

3. Alstom (As told by RS, UP) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. SLD Any Hydro Electric Plant. Schemes of Bas bars CBIP : Main and Transfer BB Explanation SS Equipments LA Rating Why less than rated V ? : Fault level 40 kA, Current rating Breaker : Types and ratings CBIP Disconnector Switch / Isolator Post Insulator Civil

## Structures Foundations Stool

9. Clearances for different Voltages 132/220/400kV Sectional Equipment Earth 1. Layout of switchyard 2. Auto-Transformer: Function and why used ? 3. Transformer specification / Datasheet Tx. Protection

WTI OTI Buckohles Transformer Oil Functions : Cooling, Insulation between Windings

Tea Break (Upto this 1hr) 1. What u have doneTell. 2. Earthing : Start IEE-80, IS 3043, CBIP. By flow chart of IEEE 80 Rg <1 ohm Conductor spacing Touch V, step v Earthing rod : dia, length Optimise the worst condition by these various standards.

## 3. Bus Bar Types: Rigit and Flexible ACSR AAC Al Pipe

4. SLD Full Protection from Gen. Transformer, Line, BB : Full SLD of HPP. C & R Panel

Relaying Scheme : Diffential Protection, Distance Protection, Relay Setting (OC, EF, Trip Ckt Healthy, OV, UV) REF settings

5. Lightning (RIL,Rangit)

Mast or Shield Wires Methods : Mousa and Rizvig Method Protection Area (Cone), Protection Angles : CBIP Rolling square Method

Fuse 11kV

## 13. Tower Height CBIP 400 kV (17+8) 220kV

14. Factor affecting at High Elevation Air dielectric strength becomes less, so Temperature will reduces, so the pressure and dielectric strength. Power f withstand and dynamic rating will changes

## 15. Corona Loss Will be less in Pipe conductor

16. Cables 11kV 220kV FRLA Cable testing: HV test, IR test and outer area/sheath of cable stretch A 3m piece of cable is put in fire for testing FRLS.

## Teaching, Any work done in Life with full enthusiasm.

4. CPRI, Bangalore (As told by RS) Q1. HVDC Studied? Q2. Do u know about Power Evacuation? Q3. If we have 1050 MW to transmit from 1 substation to another. What electrical parameters you will think. Q4. If we have a 440 kV line of 400km. what will be its characteristics impedance? Q4. If we have a 400kV of 400 km ? if line a another end is not connected to grid, then what will be the voltage level there and it is less, then how much ? what to do to remove that effect ? which element we connect in line and where ? Q: BOP Work Experience ? Q: Difference in Tendering and DE ? Q: Master in which field of Layout / System Engineering ? Q: Which Layour You Make ? Upto 220kV Double Bus. Q: How equipments are arranged in substation ? Q: List of Equipments in Switchyard ? Q: Power Transformer Parameters ? MVA, Vp, Vs, Cooling, Vector Diagram, Temperature, Insulation, Switching voltage Q: 15/ 18 or 8/10 or 9/10 MVA Transformer. What are these two ratings ? and which is best ? Ans. Generally we take 20 % difference in two ratings. so 8/10 is best. Q: Difference between ONAN and ONAF. Q: 433V why this voltage ? Q: Winding Temperature of Transformer ? Q: Oil Temrperature of transformer ? Q: Vector diagram which you used : DYn11 step up Ynd11 Stepdown Q: % impedance of Transformer Value ? IS-2026 Q: Earthing, What we CAlsulate ? - R <1.0 ohm Q: Fault Current for 132kV, 220kV, 400kV ? - 220kV 40kA - 132kV 31.5 kV Q: Why for 220kV system LA used is of less rating ? Q: For 220 kV which conductor is used ? - Moose / Zebra Q: Cable Sizing Parameters ?

- Voltage, Current, Temp., Type of arrangement, V drop, Length of Cable, Min. cross-section Q: V Drop Formula for Cable ? Motor delta-star are: DOL : 6 times Star-Delta: 3 times Q: Full Form of ACSR and AAC Q: Notice Period 5. BOP, ABB (As told by AS) Q: BOP Work Experience ? Q: Difference in Tendering and DE ? Q: Master in which field of Layout / System Engineering ? Q: Which Layour You Make ? Upto 220kV Double Bus. Q: How equipments are arranged in substation ? Q: List of Equipments in Switchyard ? Q: Power Transformer Parameters ? MVA, Vp, Vs, Cooling, Vector Diagram, Temperature, Insulation, Switching voltage Q: 15/ 18 or 8/10 or 9/10 MVA Transformer. What are these two ratings ? and which is best ? Ans. Generally we take 20 % difference in two ratings. so 8/10 is best. Q: Difference between ONAN and ONAF. Q: 433V why this voltage ? Q: Winding Temperature of Transformer ? Q: Oil Temrperature of transformer ? Q: Vector diagram which you used : DYn11 step up Ynd11 Stepdown Q: % impedance of Transformer Value ? IS-2026

Q: Earthing, What we CAlsulate ? - R <1.0 ohm Q: Fault Current for 132kV, 220kV, 400kV ? - 220kV 40kA - 132kV 31.5 kV Q: Why for 220kV system LA used is of less rating ? Q: For 220 kV which conductor is used ? - Moose / Zebra Q: Cable Sizing Parameters ? - Voltage, Current, Temp., Type of arrangement, V drop, Length of Cable, Min. cross-section Q: V Drop Formula for Cable ? Motor delta-star are: DOL : 6 times Star-Delta: 3 times Q: Full Form of ACSR and AAC Q: Notice Period 6. Electrical Design (As told by HT) Q1. What is fault current ? Q2. Earthing Design steps ? Q3. Touch & Step Voltages Definations ? Q4. Switchyard SLD Q5. Fault Model Calculations ? Q6. CAble Sizing and Calculations ?

Q7. % Z in Transformer - Explain ? Q8. Define Synchronizing ? Q9. Faults Ph-Ph, Ph-G, Ph-E ? Q10. Sectionsal Clearances ? Q11. CB GTP ? Q12. GTP Main Parameters (Xer , CB) Q13. Two Generators are connected to common bus then a common transforemer having all necessary details. If fault occurs at bus, what will be fault current ? 7. Electrical Design Hydro (As told by RS) Q1. Firm Power Q2. Power Formula in Hydro ? Q3. Hrdels in Hydro Power Plant ? Q4. How capacity is decided for Hydro Power Plant ? Q5. Power Potential Study