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Report On Industrial Training

Of Sinha Textile Group


(Research & Development)

COURSE NO : TEX-500 .

NAME OF THE STUDENT :-

● SIRAJUM MUNIR ROLL: 03.01.06.019

4TH YEAR 2ND SEMESTER , FALL – 2006


DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY
Report On Industrial Training
Of Sinha Textile Group
(Research & Development)

SUPERVISED BY :-

* PROF. DR. MUSTAFIZUR RAHMAN .


HEAD, DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY .

* ABU SYEED ATIQUZZAMAN .


Asst. Prof. , DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY .

4TH YEAR 2ND SEMESTER , FALL – 2006


DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY

2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A number of people have made significant contributions to the


preparation of this report . Their insights , advice and suggestions
helped us a lot.

Firstly, I am very much thankful to our head of the department


Prof. Dr. Mustafizur Rahman for his encouragement and valuable
suggestions for incessant improvement of the report. I would also
like to thank Prof. Dr. Mahbubul Haque & Mr.Abu Syeed
Atiquzzaman for all necessary information delivery as well as for
many technical help.

I would like to express my sincere gratitude & appreciation to


Mr. Sorwar Mohi Alam, Director (Technical),Sinha Textile Group.
My heartfelt thanks to him for allowing me to perform my
industrial attachment in the Sinha Textile Group. I am also very
greatful to Mr. Bala Chandra, Head of Research & Development
department & to Mr. Shakawat Hossain, Deputy General
Manager(Technical) of SDFL, Quality Assurance, for their
guidance, encouragement & keen interest in delivering thoughtful
advice during the period of industrial training

Finally I want to thank Mr. Saiful Islam, Senior Production Officer,


R&D department for his enormous support as well as all Managers
& Assistant Managers for helping to get proper information about
every section during industrial training.

3
CONTENTS
Topic Page
Number
Introduction
Brief Description Of Textile
General Information About Factory
Layout Of Different Section
Product Mix & Their Sequence Of Operation
Daily Production Of Different Unit
Quality Management System
Machines & Equipments
Wastage Of Different Unit
Inspection Of Fabric By 4 Point System
Social & Environmental Information
Research & Development
About Research & Development
Basic Flowchart Of Research & Development
Layout Of R&D Department
Organogram Of R&D
Manpower Of R&D
List Of Buyers
Fabric Types
Some Fabric Constructions
Details Of R&D Work
Required Formulas For R&D Work
Required Formats For R&D Works
Example Of A Program
Program Sheet For Solid Dyed Product Development
Fabric Swatches Of Different Design & Construction
My Achievement
Conclusion

4
♦INTRODUCTION:-
Textile technology education is based on industrial ground.
Theoretical background is not sufficient so, industrial training is an
essential part of study to make a technologist technically sound in
this field. Industrial training provides us that opportunity to gather
practical knowledge.

Sinha Textile Group is a truly integrated undertaking. The textile


division has the capability to offer a complete product range for the
export & domestic textile markets. The goal of the textile division
is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics
& clothing from Bangladesh. With high advanced technology & an
emphasis on developing local human resources, the textile division
has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation’s
growing ready made garments export sector.

The rational behind the existing structure & future expansion of the
textile division is to capture value added at each stage of the textile
manufacturing process. Despite Bangladesh’s lack of indigenous
cotton production capability, STG has leveraged Bangladesh’s
labor cost advantage & export competitiveness to maximum level.

5
♦BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TEXTILE:-

The term ‘Textile’ means originally a woven fabric, but textile &
the plural textiles are now also applied to fibre, filament & yarn.
Natural & manufactured & most products for which these are a
particular raw material.

This definition embraces, for example fibre- based products in the


following categories: threads, cords, ropes & braids; woven,
knitted & non woven fabrics, lace, nets & embroidery; hosiery
knitwear & made up apparels; household textiles, soft furnishing &
upholstery; carpets & other floor coverings; technical, industrial &
engineering textiles include geo textiles & medical textiles.

Some necessary terms in textile processing & production are given


below-
FIBRE: Textile raw materials generally characterized by fineness,
Flexibility & high ratio of length to thickness.

YARN: A product of substantial length & relatively small cross


section consisting of fibre(s) and/or filament(s) with or
without twist.

FABRIC: A manufactured assembly of fibres and/or yarns that


has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness
& sufficient cohesion to give the assembly useful
mechanical strength. Common processes of fabric
manufacturing are weaving, knitting & non woven.

a) Weaving: The action of producing fabric by


Interlacing of warp & weft threads.
b) Knitting: The process of manufacturing of fabric
by the intermeshing of loops of yarn.
c) Non-woven: The process of producing of fabrics by
chemical bonding of fibres.

6
7
•NAME OF FACTORY: Sinha Textile Group (STG).

•OWNER OF THE MILL: Mr. Anisur Rahman Sinha.

•LOCATION OF MILL: Kanchpur, Sonargaon,


Narayanganj.

•HEAD OFFICE: House No. 363


Road No. 02
New DOHS, Mohakhali,
Dhaka-1206.

•COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION: 1997.

•BUSSINESS LINE: Manufacturing & Marketing of high quality


yarn & fabric.

•TOTAL PRODUCTION: 50000-70000 m/day.(woven) 15


ton/day( knit.)

•TOTAL TURNOVER:

•VISION: Building a true marketing led enterprise with motivated


workforce, innovative vision, strong revenue based
product portfolio, customer satisfaction & understanding
of global market.

•MISSION: Each of the activities must benefit & add value to the
common wealth of our society. We firmly believe that,
in the final analysis we are accountable to each of the
constituents with whom we interact; namely our
employees, our customers, our business associates,
our fellow, citizens & our shareholders.

8
♦TOTAL MANPOWER & SECTION-WISE
MANPOWER:-
Sinha Textile Group is running with strong manpower in total.
Every section of STG has sufficient manpower to ensure it’s
smooth running of production in every shift. Total manpower &
section-wise manpower of some sections of Sinha Textile Group
those are related with R&D work is given below.

•TOTAL MANPOWER:-

UNIT MANPOWER
Sinha Rotor Spinning Ltd. 748
Sinha Yarn Dyeing & Fabrics Ltd. 1533
Sinha Dyeing & Finishing Ltd. 301
Power Generation & Utility 232
Administration 156
Accounts 20
Security 69

•SECTION-WISE MANPOWER:-

As I completed my industrial training on Research & Development


department so here I am giving the section-wise manpower of
those sections which are directly connected with the work of R&D
department. These sections are Sinha Rotor Spinning Ltd(SRSL),
Sinha Yarn Dyeing & Fabrics Ltd.(SYDFL) & finally of Sinha
Dyeing & Finishing Ltd(SDFL). Section-wise manpower is given
below one by one.

9
∗MANPOWER OF SRSL:-

SECTION MANPOWER
Blowroom 70
Carding 15
Breaker Drawframe 24
Finisher Drawframe 10
Simplex 40
Ring frame 210
Winding 120
Comber 10
Autoconer 120
Lap Former 09
Quality Control 09
Testing Laboratory 15
Maintenance 15
Administration 18
Store 12
Accounts 07

∗ MANPOWER OF SYDFL:-

SECTION MANPOWER
Central 21
Sizing-1 74
Sizing-2 39
Somet-1 205
Somet-2 191
Picanol 322
Toyota 84
Yarn Dyeing 458
Store 32
Accounts 07

10
∗MANPOWER OF YARN DYEING SECTION:-

SECTION MANPOWER
Soft Winding 92
Batch Preparation 24
Dyeing 64
Hydro-extraction 26
Drying 38
Random Winding 118
Packing & Delivery 29
Quality Control 18
Testing Laboratory 15
Maintenance 27
Store 17

∗MANPOWER OF SDFL:-

SECTION MANPOWER
Pre-treatment 66
Dyeing 63
Finishing 57
Printing 27
Inspection & Rolling 22
Quality Control 14
Testing Laboratory 12
Maintenance 32
Accounts 06
Store 08

11
♦ MANAGEMENT ORGANOGRAM:-
Chairman

Director

Deputy General Manager/ Executive Director

Prod. Quality Maint. Utility Store Accounts Admin. Marketing Security

Prod. Quality Maint. Utility Store Accounts Admin. Marketing Security


Mngr Mngr. Mngr. Mngr. Mngr. Mngr. Mngr. Mngr. Officer

Assist. Senior Maint. Utility Senior Accounts Admin. Marketing Assist.


Mngr Officer Engr. Engr. Officer Officer Officer Officer Officer

Senior Sub Officer Cashier Assist. Security


Prod. Officer Foreman Assist. Admin. Guard
Officer Engr. Helper Officer.

Prod. Lab. Fitter Worker Worker


Officer Assist.

Assist. Lab. Helper


Prod. Boy
Officer Worker

M/c
Operator

Helper

Worker

12
13
LAYOUT OF SINHA YARN DYEING UNIT

R S E C M* B* E*

W*
P D*
R
H S

R
F

F
H

P A
L D*
S E*

EXIT
S L*
14
SINHA YARN DYEING UNIT:-

Here,

A- Mechanical Section.
B- Office In Charge’s Room.
C- File Store.
D- Dyeing Unit.
E- Electronic Board.
F- Radio Frequency Dryer.
H- Hydro-extractor.
L- Packaging & Delivery Section.
M- Manager’s Room.
P- Pressing Machine.
R- Random Winding Section.
S- Dyes & Chemical Store.
W- Soft Winding Section.
Emergency Exit Way.
- Fire Extinguisher.
Note: * Indicates Upstair.

15
LAYOUT OF WEAVING UNIT (TOYOTA)

EXIT
EB-1 EB-2 EB-3

M T
Y
N N L-22 P S

L-1 L-20 L-21 L-23 L-24

L-2 L-18 L-19 L-25 L-26


A
L-3 L-16 L-17 L-27 L-28

L-4 L-14 L-15 L-29 L-30

L-5 L-12 L-13 L-31 L-32 B


L-6 L-10 L-11 L-33 L-34

L-7 L-8 L-9 L-35 L-36 C

EXIT
16
WEAVING UNIT(TOYOTA):-

Here,

A- Mending Area.
B- Weavers Beam Area.
C- Time Keeper’s Zone.
EB – Electrical Board.
L- Loom.
M- Manager’s Room.
N- New Loom.
P- Mechanical Room.
S- Oil & Grease Store.
T- Toilet.
Y- Yarn Store.
Emergency Exit Way.
- Fire Extinguisher.
- Column

17
LAYOUT OF SIZING-2
EXIT

B
D
C

A
S

EXIT

18
SIZING UNIT(SIZING-2):-

Here,

A- Chemical Kitchen.
B- Warpers Beam Area.
C- Cone Winding Machine.
D- Direct Warping Machine
M- Compressor Machine.
S- Sizing Machine.
Y- Yarn Store.
- Emergency Exit Way.
- Fire Extinguisher.
- Column.

19
LAYOUT OF SIZING-1

S
E D

B A A S

L
E

EXIT
20
SIZING UNIT (SIZING-1):-

Here,

A- Sizing Machine.
B- Chemical Kitchen.
C- Cone Winding Machine.
D- Direct Warping Machine.
E- Exit.
L- Lizing Area.
S- Sectional Warping Machine.
-Emergency Exit Way.
-Fire Extinguisher.
-Column.

21
LAYOUT OF WEAVING SECTION (SOMET-2)

PB AC-1 AC-2 EXIT TK EXIT WB

L L L L L L L L L L
62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 F
L L L L L L L L L L
61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79
I
L L L L L L L L L L
42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60

I
L L L L L L L L L L
41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59

M
L L L L L L L L L L
22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

L L L L L L L L L L
M
21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39

L L L L L L L L L L M
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

L
1
L
3
L
5
L
7
L
9
L
11
L
13
L
15
L
17
L
19
M

EXIT T S MR ER O EXIT

22
WEAVING UNIT (SOMET-2):-

Here,

PB - Panel Board Room.


AC - AC Plant.
TK - Time Keepers Place.
WB - Weavers Beam Area.
F - Folding Machine.
I - Inspection Machine.
L - Loom.
M - Mending Table.
O - Manager’s Room.
ER - Electrical Room.
MR - Mechanical Room.
S - Store.
T - Toilet.
- Emergency Exit Way.
- Fire Extinguisher.
- Column.

23
LAYOUT OF WEAVING SECTION (SOMET-1)

L-5 L-4 L-3 L-2 L-1


E

L-6 L-7 L-8 L-9 L-10


E

L-15 L-14 L-13 L-12 L-11

L-16 L-17 L-18 L-19 L-20

L-25 L-24 L-23 L-22 L-21

L-26 L-27 L-28 L-29 L-30


M

L-35 L-34 L-33 L-32 L-31

L-36 L-37 L-38 L-39 L-40

L-46 L-45 L-44 L-43 L-42 L-41

L-47 L-48 L-49 L-50 L-51 L-52

C D
C I I T
A B I I I
24
E
WEAVING SECTION (SOMET-1):-

Here,

A - AC Plant.
B - Office Room.
C - Inspection Machine.
D - Folding Machine.
E - Exit.
I - Inspection Table.
L - Loom.
M- Main Power.
T - Time Keeper’s Area.
- Emergency Exit Way.
- Fire Extinguisher.
- Column.

25
LAYOUT OF SINHA DYEING & FINISHING LIMITED

FFS MM EXIT EM RFS GFS

F F F P
1 2 3
D
A A
T
E 1
1
I
C
K
H
S S S
1 2 3 E
D
2
2 B B
R L

PS DR QC TL CR DT Pr.M DM AdM SPZ ST

26
SINHA DYEING & FINISHING LIMITED:-
Here,
A- Singeing & Desizing Machine.
B- Continuous Scouring & Bleaching Machine.
C- Mercerizing Machine.
D1- Thermosol Dyeing Machine.
D2- Pad Steam Machine.
E1- Electrolyte Control Dyeing Machine.
E2- Washing Machine.
P- Screen Printing Machine.
K- Colour Kitchen.
L- Loop Steamer.
S- Stenter Machine.
F- Sanforising Machine.
I- Brush Machine.
H- Piech Machine.
R- Raising Machine.
T- Inspection & Rolling Machine.
FFS – Finished Fabric Store.
MR – Mechanical Room.
ER - Electrical Room.
RFS – R&D Fabric Store.
GFS – Grey Fabric Store.
PS - Printing Section.
DR – Design Room.
QC – Quality Control Section.
TL – Textile Testing Laboratory
CR – Conference Room.
DT – Director(Technical) Room.
Pr.M- Printing Manager’s Room.
DM – Dyeing Manager’s Room.
AdM- Administration Manager.
SPZ – Spare Parts Zone. – Emergency Exit Way
ST - Staff Toilet. - Fire Extinguisher.
27
LAYOUT OF SINHA ROTOR SPINNING LIMITED

G H H I EXIT M T P

B UL
S

BD R
E RM C
CO
BD

B
UL

S R
FD

C BD

FD
BD FD
A
RO
28
SINHA ROTOR SPINNING LIMITED:-

Here,

A- Autoconer.
B- Blowroom Section.
C- Carding Section.
E- Emergency Exit.
G- Suction Device.
H- AC Plant 2.
I- Maintenance Room.
M- Manager’s Room.
T- Toilet
P- Chiller.
S- Simplex Section.
R- Ringframe Section.
BD- Breaker Drawframe.
FD- Finisher DrawFrame.
RM- Raw Material.
UL- Uni Lap Former.
CO- Combing Section.
RO- Rotor Section.
- Emergency Exit Way.
- Fire Extinguisher.
29
LAY OUT OF PICANOL UNIT
Gate-2
Sizing
Time
Office
Maintenance room Reed
Gate-1

A.
C.

P
L
A
N
T

Electrical
Room

Workers
Toilet

Manager
Room

Stuff
Toilet

30
= Machine
= Column
= Fire extinguisher
= Fire alarm
= First aid box
= Exit way
= Non hazards waste

31
32
♦RAW MATERIAL FOR SPINNING:-
Sinha Rotor Spinning Limited uses two types of raw materials,
- Cotton.
- Spandex.
The following types of cotton fibres are being imported by the
spinning section,

Raw Cotton Staple Length Country


CIS 1 1/8 Uzbeaykistan
TANZIN 1 1/32 Tanzania
GIZA 1 1/32 Egypt
PIMA 1 7/16 U.S.A
SUDAN 1 3/8 Sudan
SHANKAR 1 1/8 India

♦PRODUCT RANGE FOR WEAVING:-


In the Sinha Textile Group weaving mechanism is producing many
types of designed fabric. The most common designs that is
produced in the woven fabric are given below,

- Plain.
- Normal Twill.(2/1,3/1)
- Broken Twill.
- Sateen.(5 ends)
- Satin.(5 ends)
- Herringbone.(2/1 Twill, 3/1 Twill)
- Slub.
- Bedford cord.

33
•SOLID DYED FABRIC: Product range for woven fabric which
are commonly solid dyed further given below,

-Poplin.
-Canvas.
-Ottoman.
-Oxford.
-Rib stop.
-Pinpoint.
-Boxy.
-Seersuckers.
- Lycra

•YARN DYED FABRIC: Product range for woven fabric which


are commonly yarn dyed further given below,
-Gingham.
-Fil-a-fil.
-Oxford.
-Ottoman
-Lycra.
-Stripe.
-Pinpoint.
-Dobby.
-Chambrays.
- Seersuckers.

34
♦ SEQUENCE OF OPERATION OF SPINNING:

CARD PROCESS COMB PROCESS


Blowroom Blowroom

Carding Carding

Breaker Drawing Breaker Drawing

Finisher Drawing Lap Former

Simplex Comber

Ringframe Finisher Drawing

Winding Simplex

Ringframe
ROTOR PROCESS
Blowroom Winding
Carding
Breaker Drawing

Finisher Drawing

35
Rotor

♦SEQUENCE OF OPERATION OF WEAVING:

Winding

Warping

Direct Warping Sectional Warping

Sizing

Drawing & Denting Knotting

Looming

Weaving

Unwind the fabric from cloth roller

Mending

Inspection

36
Folding Packing Delivery

♦SEQUENCE OF OPERATION OF PROCESING:

•WOVEN DYEING-
Inspection of grey goods

Shearing & Cropping

Singeing & Desizing

Continuous Scouring & Bleaching

Souring

Washing

Drying

Mercerizing

Dyeing Printing

Washing Loop Steaming

Finishing

Inspection & Rolling


37
Packing Delivery

•PROCESSING OF YARN DYED FABRIC-

Inspection

Shearing & Cropping

Singeing & Desizing

Washing

Finishing

Inspection & Rolling

Packing

Delivery

38
♦SEQUENCE OF OPERATION OF YARN DYEING:

Grey Yarn

Soft Winding

Batch Preparation

Scouring & Bleaching

Washing

Dyeing

Soaping

Neutralization

Softening & Fixing

Washing

Hydro-extraction

Drying

39
Random Winding Packing Delivery

♦DAILY PRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT UNIT:-

•SINHA ROTOR SPINNING LIMITED:

Daily Production : 15 ton.


Ring Production : 10 ton/day.
Rotor Production : 05 ton/day.

•SINHA YARN DYEING & FINISHING LIMITED:


→Weaving Unit:

Picanol Section : 25530m-27250m.(60 ppm).


Toyota Section : 12300m (60 ppm).
Somet 1 Section : 13115m (60 ppm).
Somet 2 Section : 18280 m (60 ppm).

→Yarn Dyeing Unit:

Soft Winding : 15 ton/day.


Daily Production : 10 ton.

•SINHA DYEING & FINISHING LIMITED:-


Woven Dyed Fabric: 45000m/day.
Yarn Dyed Fabric : 10000m/day.
Printed Fabric : 20000m/day.

40
41
The Quality Management of Sinha Textile Group is done by the
Quality Assurance Department. Quality Assurance Department is
assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in
process & various stages of it’s manufacturing.

Normally the objects of quality control are,

- Planned Research & Development Process.


- Judicious Selection Of Raw Materials.
- Process Control.
-

Sinha Textile Group has strong Quality Assurance Department in


every unit to ensure the best quality of production. STG follows
internal quality management system. The quality standards of STG
are ISO, OEKO TEX.

Scope of quality control, quality assurance & testing laboratory-

- Testing Laboratory.
- Machineries Auditing System.
- A Good Training System.
- Excellent Analytical Back-up.
- Technical Expertise.

In the weaving areas the quality managements carried out by the


technical experience of the quality assurance team through daily
On-line & Off line check. The daily on-line & off-line check that is
carried out is given below.

42
The daily on-line check is done by following checking,

- Construction of fabric.
- Total ends of fabric.
- Reed Count.
- Reed Space.
- Fabric Width.
- Weft Count.
- Ends Per Inch.
- Picks Per Inch.
- Design Of Fabric
- Ends Per Dent.
- Selvedge Width.

The daily off line check is done by following checking,

- Tensile Strength.
- Tearing Strength.
- Shrinkage Of Fabric.
- Abrasion Resistance.
- Pilling Resistance.
- Thermal Stability.
- Stretch Ability & Growth Recovery.
- Smoothness Of Fabric Surface.
- Appearance Of Fabric
- GSM Of Fabric.

43
In the spinning section the quality of product mainly depends on
the following points of product,

- Type Of Fibre.
- Staple Length.
- Neps.
- Evenness.
- Strength.
- Elongation.
- Count.
- Twist.
- Trash.
- Noil.
- Slubs etc.

In the spinning section of Sinha Textile Group,the quality control is


done by the quality assurance department by maintaining the
quality in different major areas of spinning process. This is given
below,

Blowroom section:-
- Cleaning Intensity
- Relative Waste Amount.
- Commercial Staple Length.
- Recycling on/off.

Carding section:-
- Sliver Weight.
- Production.
- Cylinder Speed.

44
Breaker Drawframe:-
- Sliver Weight.
- Draft Gear.
- Roller Setting
- Speed.
- Doubling.

Finisher Drawframe:-
- Sliver Weight.
- Draft Gear.
- Roller Setting.
- Speed.
- Doubling

Simplex Section:-
- Hank
- Draft Change Pinion.
- Speed.
- Twist Per Inch.
- Winding length.
Ringframe Section:-
- Count.
- Twist Per Inch.
- Total Draft.
- Speed.

Winding Section:-
- Count.
- Lot
- Speed.
- Winding Length.
- Classimet Setting.

45
In the case of wet processing there are some major areas where
process control & quality control both are very essential.
Considering this fact Sinha Textile Group always do both process
& quality control in some major steps of wet processing. These are
given below.

Major areas of process & quality control in wet processing

Process Control Quality Control

- Grey Inspection.
- Desizing. Raw Materials Processed Materials
- Scouring.
- Bleaching. -Dyes. . -Desized goods.
- Mercerizing. -Chemicals. -Scoured goods.
- Dyeing. -Auxiliaries -Bleached goods
- Printing. -Mercerized goods.
- Finishing. - Dyed goods.
- Final Inspection. -Printed goods.
-Finished goods.

In this way maintaining the quality management system, quality


control is done by the quality assurance department of individual
sections of Sinha Textile Group in order to ensure the better quality
of products.

46
47
♦MACHINERIES OF SINHA ROTOR
SPINNING LIMITED:-

Type Model Manufacturer Origin Quantity


Of M/C
Uni-flock A-11 Rieter Switzerland 02
Uni-clean B-11 Rieter Switzerland 02
Uni-mix B-7/3 Rieter Switzerland 02
Uni-flex B-60 Rieter Switzerland 02
Carding C-51 Rieter Switzerland 21
Breaker SB-2 Rieter Switzerland 05
Drawing
Finisher RSB D-30 Rieter Switzerland 08
Drawing
Lap Former E-32 Rieter Switzerland 02
Comber E-62 Rieter Switzerland 10
Simplex FL-100 Toyota Japan 05
Simplex RM-670 Zinser Germany 03
Ringframe G-33 Rieter Switzerland 28
Winding 7-V Muratec Japan 07
Winding 21-C Muratec Japan 01
Winding Autocone338 Schlaforst Germany 01
Rotor R-20 Rieter Switzerland 04

48
♦MACHINERIES OF SINHA YARN DYEING
& FABRICS LIMITED:-
•MACHINERIES OF SINHA YARN DYEING LTD.:-

Type Of M/C Manufacturer Origin Quantity


Soft Winding SSM, Fadis. Switzerland, 09
Italy
Batch Preparation
Scholl Switzerland 02
Dyeing Scholl, Switzerland, 21
Galvanin. Italy.
Hydro-extractor Scholl Switzerland 02
Radio Frequency Stallam, England, 02
Dryer Strayfeild. Italy.
Hard Winding SSM, Fadis. Switzerland, 09
Italy

•MACHINERIES OF SINHA FABRICS LTD.:-

Type Of M/C Manufacturer Model Origin Quantity


Re-coning or Gao 14 MD China 02
Winding
Direct Warping Benninger BENTEX Germany 02
Sectional Benninger BENTEX Germany 02
Warping
Sizing Benninger BENTEX Germany 03
Weaving Picanol Delta, Belgium 86
Delta X,
OMNI
Weaving Toyota JAT-710 Japan 36
Weaving Somet Thema Italy 132
49
Excel

♦MACHINERIES OF SINHA DYEING &


FINISHING LIMITED:-
Type Of M/C Manufacturer Origin Quantity
Singeing & Parey Mather Belgium 01
Desizing
Singeing & Germany 01
Desizing
Scouring & Benninger Switzerland 01
Bleaching
Scouring & Kuster Germany 01
Bleaching
Mercerizing Sir James Farmer England 01
Norton
Pad Thermosol Monforts Thermex Germany 01
M/C
Pad Steam M/C Benninger Switzerland 01
Pad Dry Steam Monforts Thermex Germany 01
M/C 6500 B-C-C.
Washing M/C Kuster Germany 01
Printing M/C Stork Holland 01
Loop Steamer Stork Holland 01
Stenter M/C Morison Germany 01
Stenter M/C Monforts Montex Germany 01
Stenter M/C Icomatex Spain 01
Sanforizing M/C Monforts Montex Germany 03
Piech M/C Gessener Italy 02
Piech M/C Santex Italy 02
Brush M/C Denti-Paoloe Italy 01
Raising M/C Santex Italy 01

50
51
♦Wastage Of Spinning Unit:-
Section Amount Of Wastage As
Wastage
Blowroom 4% Dust, Dirt & Trash
Carding 3% Dust, Dirt & Trash
Breaker Draw 0.5% Sliver
Frame
Finisher Draw 0.5% Sliver
Frame
Lap Former 0.5% Sliver
Comber 12%-20% Noil, Lap, Sliver
Simplex 0.5% Sliver
Ring Frame 1% Roving, Hard Waste,Pneumafil
Auto Coner 2.5% Hard Waste

♦Wastage Of Yarn Dyeing Unit:-


Section Amount Of Wastage Wastage As
Soft Winding 0.2% - 0.5% Hard Waste
Pretreatment, Dyeing 3.0% - 3.5% Weight Loss
& After treatment
Hard Winding 0.5% - 1% Hard Waste

♦Wastage Of Warping Section:-

52
In the warping section wastage is mainly the left over yarns. This
amount is normally 1200mm per package that is almost 6%.

♦Wastage Of Sizing Section:-


In the sizing area wastage comes mainly from the portion of yarn
sheet that is being kept as backing after completion of sizing for
easy passing of the next beam’s yarn sheet through the sizing
machine. So, wastage comes mainly from two portion. That is
from unsized yarn sheet & sized yarn sheet.

-For Yarn dyed beam the amount of waste is approx. 20m.


-For Grey beam the amount of waste is approx. 30m.

♦Wastage Of Weaving Unit:-


In the weaving unit waste comes from warp yarn & weft yarn. At
first, during running of loom some portion of wastage is there due
to different fabric faults. Then after weaving some fabric is being
kept as backing, that portion is wasted. Weft yarn that goes over
filling length, that portion is cut & this amount is waste portion.
Due to friction of warp yarn with heald eye & reed some fibre
flies, that is wastage. During every weaving operation 12 yarns of
the warp length is waste. So some amount of wastage of weaving
unit is given below from practical observation.

- During running of weaving of fabric 10 m warp yarn wastage


with some portion of weft yarn.
- After completing the weaving approximately 3m-4m warp yarn
wastage that remains for backing.
- 80 mm of each weft yarn is waste that is over the filling length.

53
- Except these 0.2% other wastage are involved as fly and as hard
waste during every filling stop.

♦Wastage Of Processing Unit:-


In the processing unit the amount of waste is given depending on
the liquid waste that means water & chemical wastage. The amount
of waste is given here for certain length of fabric processing & this
amount is very high because there is no recovery system is
available.

Process Production Water Effluent Total Total Waste


Hour Consumption Discharge Water Effluent %
Rate Rate Consumption Dischaged
(m3/hr) (m3/hr) (m3) (m3)
Singeing & Desizing 8 1.5 0.2 12 1.6 13.33
Scoring & Bleaching 8 12.5 11.5 100 92 92
Mercerizing 8 8.0 7.0 64 56 87.5
Dyeing 8 11.5 10.5 92 84 91.3
Washing 8 9.5 8.5 76 68 89.47
Finishing 8 1.1 0.2 8.8 1.6 18.18

•Comments:-
From the above information we see that the amount of wastage
varies from section to section. We must should develop the
accuracy of different process to reduce the amount of wastage. In
case of processing we should introduce a system that may help to
recover few portion of water & chemical so that the amount of this
huge percentage of waste can be minimized.

54
♦INSPECTION OF FABRIC BY 4 POINT SYSTEM:-

• Fabric Inspection:-

The inspection of fabric is a procedure by which the defects of


fabric are identified and fabric is classified according to degree or
intensity of defects.

In Sinha Textile Group the fabric inspection is done by 4 point


inspection system. The details of it given below.

Yarn fault Penalty points

Thick/thin The yarn is thick/thin than normal 1 to


yarn 4
Slub Bunch of fiber in the yarn 1
Coarser yarn Thicker than normal yarn 1 to
4
Uneven yarn Thick/thin yarn continuously at 1 to
random interval in yarn. 4
Contamination Jute, hair color fiber etc. foreign fiber 1
presence in the yarn/fabric.
Neps Entanglement of fiber in the yarn 1

55
Weaving fault

Warp way Penalty points

Missing yarn 1 or more yarn missed from the 1 to 4


cloth.
Float No interlacement of warp and 1 to 4
weft.
Stitches/Warp 1 or more warp yarn not properly 1 to 4
float interlaced with weft for some
distance.
Double end 1 extra warp yarn woven along 1 to
with regular warp yarn. 4/Reject
more
than 1
yd.
Tight/Loose 1 or more warp yarn having more “
warp tight/loose than normal yarn.
Wrong drawing Warp yarn wrongly drawn through “
heald wire.
Wrong denting Warp yarn wrongly drawn in the “
reed.
(Line mark visible in the warp
way)
Reed mark Reed is having more gap than the “
normal.
(Warp way line mark visible)
Bad leno Lino yarn broken & loom not Segregate
bending stopped few cm separately
Temple mark Along with temple 1 or more pin 1 to 4/
mark visible. Reject

56
Temple cut hole Along with temple 1 or more weft 4/
yarn cut by temple pin. Reject
Ball formation Due to improper sizing, warp fluff 1
forms as a ball and woven in the
cloth.
Multiple warp More than three warp broken. 1 to 2
back

Weft way Penalty points

Crack More than 3 pick missing gap on weft 1 to


way. 4/
Reject
more
than
1 yd.
Starting mark 1 or 2 pick missing or no gap on weft 4
way only line mark visible.
Thick place 1 or more pick closer (crammed) on 1 to
weft way (no gap) 4
Broken pick Pick less tha full width. 1 to
4
Double pick Full width 1 extra pick in the cloth. 4
Slough Bunch of weft yarn in 1 place. 1 to
off/Snarling 2
Weft loops Weft yarn loosely placed and form 1
loops on the cloth surface.
Generated Fluff interwoven in the cloth. 1
fluff/gout
Size particles Full width or spot type hard/color Desi
variation in the cloth. zable
Short/Drop pick RHS of the cloth missing for few cm. 1
Reverse pick RHS extra weft yarn for 2 cm length. 1 to
2

57
Wrong pick Designs broken on weft way/Double 4/
Reject
pick.

General Penalty points

Improper Removing extra yarn from the cloth 1 to


mending and not mended properly. 4
Wrong color Weaver put wrong color cone. Reject

Wrong design Wrong placement of color/wrong Reject


drawing order by the weaver.

Note: 4 point system:


0-3” = 1 ,
3- 6” = 2 ,
6- 9” =3 ,
More than 9” = 4

Actual Points Counted


Points Per 100 Sq. Yards = *
Actual Roll Length(Yds)

36 * 100
Fabric Width (Inch)

58
♦ SOCIAL & ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION:-
• Environmental pollution control:-

SDFL is still an example to the industries in the country of a


conscientious and civil and socially responsible manufacturer.
Their commitment to improve the environment to provide their
workers with a health and friendly workspace and their neighbors
with a pollution free clean area continues to be strong as ever. All
their chemically contaminated water is treated, neutralized, cleared
and given to neighboring farmers. They provide Ecotex label to
their customer which is proof of Azo free dyes and are accepted as
a very environment friendly production unit.

• Health, Safety and hygiene awareness:-

SDFL believes that all employees are to work in a safe, healthy and
hygienic work atmosphere. In each and every unit, First Aid and
Hygiene team along with appropriate training to care for its people.
In all our industrial units we have both male and female physicians
with necessary aid and medical facilities.
In order to increase the awareness level of the employees the
management also takes great initiative to take part in ergonomics
area such as child care, Family Planning, Pure drinking water,
Arsenic, Diarrhea. This has been practiced in order to aware them
and their families.

• Internship Program:-

SDFL offers a very promising internship program to post graduate


and under graduate students across Bangladesh and spends huge

59
amount of money and time on them. Every year SDFL gives
opportunity to a large number of internees. All the renowned
educational institution in Bangladesh highly prefer their students to
attend internship program in SDFL because of its modern art of
state, high profile of manpower, recognition of superb
management.

• Scope of employment opportunity:-

As SDFL is continuously expanding with new innovation and


advanced modernization in a diversified manner it creates ample
opportunity for employment in our country. Here in SDFL people
have the opportunity of intensively learning about worldwide
textile technology.

The management spends a substantial amount of fund on its people


by sending them abroad for further development and improvement
thus creating a very competent and knowledgeable work for the
company as well as for the nation.

60
61
♦ ABOUT RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT:-
The word “Research” is closely related with the way of wearisome
to invent something or giving a new technique as solution of any
requirement. On the other hand “Development” stands for the
physical appearance of any researched or planned agenda. For this
reason the globe of “Research & Development” is based on both
speculative job as well as convenient. In the textile sector
department of “Research & Development” i.e. R&D is very much
essential. Specifically for an industry which is running with an
complete industrial park. When an industry can stand up with all
the projects like spinning, yarn dyeing, weaving & processing
together in a region, then it is very much logical to construct a
department like R&D.

Research & Development department mainly works for


development, most of the time. Very few time the works of
research is being done whenever it is requisite. In the big woven
composite factories this department is subjected as “ Gate Of
Order” of the products. This title is not a fiction, R&D department
means it beyond doubt. This department has it’s own way to ensue
the regular production of an industry. As a department it is
diminutive but it’s effect is prominent all over in an industry.

In the vicinity of Sinha Textile Group, R&D department is playing


as a imperative role which helps the industry to run it’s yearly
production effortlessly on the decisive way of business & trade of
world.

During my industrial training stage, I have tried my level best to


comprehend all the works & also the way of implementation those
works of the research & development department. The information
62
related to this department & it’s job are discussed critically towards
the end.

♦BASIC FLOWCHART OF RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT:-

Getting Swatch From Buyer For Duplication

Analysis

Planning For Sampling

Yarn Ordering
S/D Y/D

Direct Warping Yarn Dyeing


&
Sizing Random Program

Weaving Sectional Warping

Processing Sizing

Finishing Weaving

Testing Processing

Finishing

Testing

Sending Fabric For Buyer’s Approval


If Approved If Not Approved

63
Order For Next Program Order Cancelled

LAYOUT OF R&D DEPARTMAENT

B B
A
E
A A

A A
T
A
C F
A
M
A
E
L
G

H
I S
H
64
E D
Here,

A- Officer’s Table.
B- Cloth Stock.
C- Fabric Cutting Machine.
D- Desk loom.
E- Book Shelf.
F- File Space.
G- Yarn Lee Machine.
H- Handloom
I- Toilet
L- Leg Panel’s Hangers.
M- Manager’s Room.
T- Table.
Way.

65
♦ORGANOGRAM OF R&D:-
Chairman

Director

General Manager

Manager

Senior Production Officer

Production Officer

Assistant Technical Officer

Supervisor

Helper

Worker
♦MANPOWER OF R&D:-
POST MANPOWER
Manager 01
Senior Production Officer 02
Production Officer 04
Assistant Technical Officer 03
66
Supervisor 02
Helper 03
Worker 12

♦ LIST OF BUYERS:-
The directory of buyers for which Research & Development
department works through-out the year are given below-

- Levi Strauss
• Levi’s Guys.
• Levi’s Girls
• Levi’s Europe
• Levi’s Canada.
• Levi’s USA
• Levi’s Signature
• Levi’s Dockers
- VF
•VF Asia
•VF Nautica
• VF Europe
- H&M
- Medlar
- AMC
- TCP
- Li & Fung
- Marksrauft
- Marks & Spencer
- Hanes
- JC Penny
- Mirza Fashion
- Sears
- Oxford

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♦FABRIC TYPES:-
The types of fabric that is developed in R&D department of STG
are given below-

- Canvas -Chambrays
- Poplin - Lycra
- Oxford - Pinpoint
- Boxy - Rib stop
- Ottoman

The designs of fabrics may be Plain, Twill, Satin, Herringbone(2/1


Twill, 3/1 Twill), Slub etc of both woven dyed & yarn dyed.

♦SOME FABRIC CONSTRUCTIONS:-


R&D develops fabrics of different constructions. Some fabric
constructions that commonly developed in R&D are here,

- 144×90/ 50×50 - 100×80/ (20+20S)×(16+70D)


- 130×108/ 60×60 - 175×83/ 30×(30+40D)
- 76×70/ 40×40 - 130×80/ (50+40S)×(50+40S)
- 108×56/ 20×16 - 100×70/ 32/2×20
- 144×130/ 60×60 - 108×56/ 20×20
- 120×80/ 40×40 - 116×74/ 50×50
- 154×61/ 30×10 - 100×52/ 40/2×40/2
- 108×56/ 16×12 - 130×70/ 32×32
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- 124×58/ 40/2×10 - 116×54/ 80/2×80/2
- 96×48/ (40+40)× 21/2 - 128×70/ (20+20)×(16+16)
- 156×76/ 50×(40+40D) - 110×62/ 21×16 etc.

♦DETAILS OF R&D WORK:-


Previously the basic flow chart of R&D had been discussed. Now
this is the time to describe every steps broadly, those are critically
followed during the development period of sample in the Research
& Development department.

• Getting Swatch From Buyer For Duplication:-

The work of research & development section starts by getting


order letter & swatch or CAD from buyer for duplication. The
order letter comes through marketing section after getting the
signature of the Director(technical). Following the order letter &
swatch or CAD the next step is decided. Normally when a fabric
order comes then all the necessary instructions that is required, are
being given by buyers.

• Analysis:-

Normally after getting the swatch, the work of analysis is being


done. The fabric analysis mainly includes following works-

- Ends per inch measurement.


- Picks per inch measurement.
- Warp count measurement
- Weft count measurement.
- Weight of fabric measurement.
- Design, Lifting plan & Drafting plan measurement in
case of designed fabric.

69
- Pattern making by analysis of the standard in case of
yarn dyed fabric.
- Yarn cones, Cone length, Amount of yarn
measurement in total as well as of each colour.
- Reed count, Reed space measurement.
- Total ends measurement according to fabric width.
- Colour matching after dyeing with standard.
- Pattern matching at the starting of weaving of fabric.

• Planning For Sampling:-

After completion of analysis it is necessary to develop a plan for


sampling. In the R&D section the development work starts
normally with desk loom or handloom sample. In the section there
is one desk loom available which is operated by an weaver. On the
other hand one handloom is available which is operated manually
in total. To develop a desk loom or handloom sample it is required
to make an accurate pattern of fabric. Normally yarn dyed fabrics
are developed regularly in the desk loom or handloom. So at first,
planning for sampling may start with desk loom. After producing a
handloom swatch from the analyzed information, that swatch is
being submitted to the related buyers through merchandises for
pattern & colour approval. If buyer approves then R&D makes the
program to develop 150m fabric at first then 650 m fabric for LF &
CS sample. This is for normal yarn dyed development. For solid
dyed fabric the planning for development mainly depends on the
quantity requirement of buyer. For both cases, first of all papers are
being made from analysis data & then the programs for yarn
requisition from SRSL, for yarn dyeing (in case of yarn dyed
fabric),for warping & sizing, for weaving & finally for processing
are supplied to complete the work.

• Yarn Ordering:-

After planning of sample it is necessary to order the required


amount of yarn for development of the sample. From analysis we
70
can measure the total amount of yarn that is required for a
development. That much amount of yarn have to take from Sinha
Rotor Spinning Limited. So, in the yarn requisition paper of R&D
every information related to yarn order like name of buyer, fabric
construction, the count of yarn, amount of yarn, type of yarn etc
have to write & send the paper taking the signature of production
officer & manager to SRSL. In that paper we have to inform also
in which section the grey yarn shall be provided. In this way we
can order the yarn for a particular development. In the R&D
section we maintain a record book where we keep the reference
number for a particular yarn order. In future when we need that
yarn again, we just follow the reference number & give that
number to store or SRSL to get the yarn.

• Yarn Dyeing & Random Program:-

This step comes in case of producing yarn dyed fabric. The ordered
yarn directly goes to the yarn dyeing section for dyeing purpose.
R&D section informs the yarn dyeing section all the necessary
information related to yarn dyeing like the shade of colours, the
quantity of each colour to be dyed, warp way colours & weft way
colours, number of cones of each colour for random program as
well as the cone length. Following these instructions yarn dyeing
& random program is being done. When the yarn dyeing section
receives the order of R&D section then they make a time & action
plan(TAP) & send this to R&D. Following that plan we get
informed when we can receive the dyed & random yarn from yarn
dyeing section.

• Warping:-

The purpose of warping is to arrange a convenient number of warp


yarns so that they can be collected on a single warper’s beam.
There are two types of warping. These are-

- Beam Warping Or Direct Warping.


71
- Sectional Warping.

Now for the solid dyed fabric after yarn ordering when we receive
the required quantity of yarn then the next step is direct warping.
On the other hand for the yarn dyed fabric after completion of
dyeing & random of yarn we have to do the sectional warping or
beam warping(less than 15% coloured yarn of total).
So we can say that the beam warping or the direct warping is used
for long runs of grey fabrics & simple patterns where the amount
of coloured yarn involved is less than about 15% of the total.
On the other hand sectional warping is used for short runs,
especially of fancy patterned where the amount of coloured yarn is
more than about 15% of the total.

Now we have to know how the grey yarn or dyed yarn will run for
warping. During the analysis & planning for sampling period we
make a paper that is supplied taking the approval of manager &
GM to warping & sizing section as well as to the weaving section.
There the pattern is given & following the pattern the warping
people carry the warping process. Here we have maximum creel
capacity of 560 for sectional warping & 640 for direct warping.
In case of direct warping R&D section informs the cone length,
no. of beams according to the fabric requirement which have to be
produced, through a paper.
It takes 3-4 hours to complete warping for a sample. So after
completion of warping we are getting the warper’s beam which is
ready for sizing now.

• Sizing:-

The process of application of size solution to yarns by immersion


into the solution & squeezing, which is followed by drying to make
the warp yarn more suitable for wearing is known as sizing.
The primary purpose of warp sizing is to produce a warp, which
will suffer the least damage in wearing. In some cases it is also
used to modify the characters of the yarn so as have as effect on
72
the fabric weight, hand feel. But sizing is mainly done to make the
warp yarn stronger, smooth & better lubricated.
In the steps of producing the sample fabric the sizing is a vital step,
which is done after producing the warper’s beam. In the sizing unit
of Sinha Textile Group the chemicals used for sizing are here,

-Finnfix 30(For Finer Yarn Count Like Above 26’s)


-Finnfix 150(For Coarser Yarn Count Like 8’s-24’s)
-Finnfix 700(For Coarser Yarn Count Like 8’s-24’s)
-Trifix (Wax)

Normal recipe for sizing of coarser yarn count is-


-Water--- 500 Litres
-Finnfix 700--- 20 Kg
-Finnfix 150--- 13 Kg
-Trifix (Wax)--- 02 Kg
-Chemical Coating Time--- 25 min.
-Sizing Time--- 02 hours(For 5000m Length at 35-40m/min speed)

In this way sizing of the warp yarn is done & finally we are getting
the weaver’s beam of the ordered sample.

• Weaving:-

After getting the sized weaver’s beam at first that beam is being
received by the weaving unit. Then firstly drawing-in or Knotting
is done following the pattern made by R&D section. After
completing the drawing-in then denting is done. Finally according
to the design weaving of the fabric starts. For weaving the required
weft yarn is being supplied by store(in case of grey fabric) or by
the yarn dyeing unit(in case of yarn dyed fabric). In STG there are
two types of loom available. One is Rapier & the other I Air Jet
loom. So in both type of loom it is possible to produce the fabric.
In this way after few days we get the required amount of fabric in
grey condition from weaving unit.
• Processing & Finishing:-
73
Processing actually stands for wet processing of the grey fabric
that makes the fabric suitable for use. Processing of the grey fabric
involves the steps like singeing, desizing, scouring, bleaching,
mercerizing, dyeing (in case of demand of coloured fabric) or
printing (in case of demand of printed fabric) & finally finishing.

Singeing of grey cloth or yarn is performed to remove all


protruding fibers imparting external appearance of ready articles
and impeding further treatment. Almost all fabrics are singed
except for those that are subjected to napping, pile fabrics, gauze
and terry fabrics.

Desizing is the process by which sizing material is removed from


the surface of the fabric. These sizing materials are starch,
polyvinyl alcohol, carboxy methyl cellulose, polyamides, poly-
acrylates etc.

The example of using singeing and desizing or singeing/desizing is


as follows:

• All cotton color fabric (singeing and desizing)


• All cotton color peach finish (desizing only)
• Yarn dyed fabric and PC/CVC fabric (singeing and desizing)
• PC/CVC/yarn dyed peach finish fabric (desizing only)

The main purpose of scouring textile material is to remove natural


as well as added impurities of essentially hydrophobic character as
completely as possible and leave the material in a highly
absorptive condition without undergoing chemical or physical
damage significantly and also to make the goods suitable for
removing the natural coloring matter of the cotton during the
subsequent bleaching process.
In the bleaching process the colored material is destroyed and thus
to confer a pure white appearance to the fabric. Bleaching should
also decolorize or remove any residual impurities left by scouring.
74
Mercerizing is the process that increases the tensile strength,
dimensional stability & luster of the fabric that initiates to further
increase in the dye affinity of fibre.

The dyeing of textiles is usually understood to mean giving them a


color, which is of comparative performance. This implies it should
not be possible to wash the color out easily in laundering, nor
should it fade rapidly when exposed to light. The condition of
performance distinguishes dyeing from tinting (When the material
is given a color which is very easily removed with a detergent and
water). Yarns are tinted occasionally so that different counts and
quantities can be identified during weaving or knitting or any
operation, which precedes dyeing.

Printing can be considered as a technique of localized dyeing


where in the coloring material is applied only to restricted areas.
The main objective in textile printing is the production of attractive
designs with well defined boundaries made by the artistic
arrangement of a motif or motifs in one or more colors.

Bleached dyed and printed fabrics are subjected to certain


processes known as finishing processes in order to alter their
appearance, feel and sale value before sending them to the market
for sale. Depending to the end use of the materials, various
finishing processes are carried out. These may be mechanical or
chemical processes and effects produced may be temporary, semi
permanent or permanent. They may involve mechanical deposition
or chemical reaction with the fabric substance or both.

So, we can see that each & every steps of processing are equally
important for grey goods to be a finished product that can be used
by people. In case of grey goods that will be solid dyed further,
must be subjected to all the processes described above. In case of
75
yarn dyed grey fabric the processes that have to be followed are
singeing & desizing, washing & finally finishing in the stenter
machine & in the sanforise machine.

In this way we can complete the processing of the fabric within


few hours.

• Testing:-

Testing of the finished fabric is done mainly to identify the final


performance of the fabric. This is also done to clarify that either
the fabric is ready to fulfill the demand of the buyer or not. The
testing of the finished fabric is carried out in the laboratory of
Sinha Dyeing & Finishing Limited. Some very useful tests are
done in the laboratory. These are like-

- Testing Of Stretch, Growth & Recovery.


- Shrinkage.
- Tensile Strength.
- Tearing Strength.
- Colour Fastness To Wash.
- Colour Fastness To Light.
- Colour Fastness To Rubbing.
- Shade Sorting.
- Listing & Tailing Of Dyed Fabric etc.

Many other tests are done in case of requirement of buyers but


these are the common tests that are done in all the cases.

• Send The Fabric To Buyer For Approval:-

After testing if we see that the fabric’s performance is appropriate,


then we send the fabric for buyer’s approval through merchandiser.
• Rejection Or Approve For Bulk Production:-

76
If buyer see that the produced fabrics are satisfying their demand
then they may approve it. On the other hand if we cant satisfy them
the order will be rejected. But in most of the cases R&D satisfies
the buyers need & carry on the bulk production.

In this way R&D department regularly doing their task to get the
bulk order in every season & satisfy the buyer. To do the work all
these steps comes in the way of research & development
♦ REQUIRED FORMULAS FOR R&D WORK:-
During the work of Research & Development we have to do lot of
calculations in every steps. There are some formulas, which we
followed to do the calculations. These formulas are given below-

Normally when buyers send CAD then they give the construction
& weave of the fabric. Otherwise in case of their supplied fabric
swatch, we have to identify the construction & weave. The
calculation that I am representing is based on CAD.

• Formula to calculate the coloured yarns in warp direction

Length in scale of that coloured portion(cm)


No. of colored yarn = * EPI
25.4

• Formula to calculate the coloured yarns in weft direction

Length in scale of that coloured portion(cm)


No. of coloured yarn = * PPI
25.4

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• Formula to calculate the total ends of fabric

Total Ends = EPI * Required width of fabric.

• Formula to calculate the no. of section for sectional warping

Total no. of section = Total Ends/ Total no. of cone of warp yarn

• Formula to calculate the cone length

Cone length = Required warp length * Total no. of section.

• Formula to calculate the reed count

STG followed Reed count in stock port system,

EPI* 0.9(Considering10% Shrinkage)


Reed count = *2
Ends per dent

• Formula to calculate the reed space

Reed space = Total Ends / EPI*0.9(considering 10% shrinkage)

• Formula to calculate no. of cones in case of direct warping

No. of cones = Total Ends / No. of warper’s beam

• Formula to calculate cone length in case of direct warping

Cone length = No. of warper’s beam * Warp length

• Formula to calculate quantity of yarn for yarn dyed fabric


For warp yarn,
No. of cones of the colour * Cone Length * .5905
Yarn quantity for specific colour=
78
(Kg) Count of yarn * 1000
For weft yarn,

Yarn quantity for specific colour = Quantity of warp yarn * 60%

• Formula to calculate quantity of yarn for solid dyed fabric

EPI or PPI * Warp Length * Fabric Width * .5905


Yarn quantity(Kg) =
Count of yarn * 100

♦ REQUIRED FORMATS FOR R&D WORKS:-


Research & Development department’s work is related with all the
sections of textile sector like spinning, weaving, yarn dyeing, wet
processing. So with these sections all the required communication
must be maintained with formats. The formats those are required
for R&D department are –

-Format of requesting for grey yarn from SRSL.


-Format for yarn dyed product development.
-Format for solid dyed product development.
-Format for requesting for yarn dyeing & random.
-Format for processing unit as program sheet.
-Format for requesting for lab test/lab treat.

In these formats every required information related to product


development are placed & approved by the manager & general
manager before sending the format to different unit. Then the top-
level management persons of different units as are receiving the
format as document of R&D & follow the information that is given
through the format.

79
Now the formats that are the most important part of R&D work are
given in the following page.

• Format of requesting for grey yarn from SRSL :

80
• Format for yarn dyed product development :

81
• Format of solid dyed product development:

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• Format for requesting for yarn dyeing & random:

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• Format for processing unit as program sheet:

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• Format for requesting for lab test/ lab treat:

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♦ EXAMPLE OF A PROGRAM OF A YARN
DYED PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF R&D:-

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Now I am going to present the program of yarn dyed product
development as an example including the format works.

• Receiving the CAD from buyer:-

• Pattern making from CAD:-

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• Requesting for the required amount of yarn & follow up:-

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• Requesting for dyeing & random & follow up:-

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• Requesting for processing & follow up:-

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• Requesting for lab test & follow up:-

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• Delivery of the fabric to buyer:-

During the delivery of the fabric we have to submit the director


signed letter to the delivery section, From that letter the required
amount of fabric they matched & delivered the fabric to buyer
through merchandiser then.

♦ PROGRAM SHEET FOR SOLID DYED


PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT:-

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For the development of solid dyed fabric the program sheet that we
make are given below-

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• Yarn dyed fabric :

Serial Fabric Specification Sample Sample name


No.
Construction: 78×100/40×40+12/2
01. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type : C×C+K Plain
Finish: Regular Canvas
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 6.20 Oz/Yd2
Construction: 100×50/40+40×21/2
02. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: C×K
Finish: Regular Plain
Type of dye: Reactive Oxford
Weight: 5.3 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 100×48/40+40×10
03. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Dobby
Yarn type: C×K
Finish: Regular Oxford
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 5.3 Oz/Yd2
Construction: 100×50/40+40×32/2
04. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: C×K
Finish: Regular Plain
Type of dye: Reactive Oxford
Weight: 4.1 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 168×90/60×60
05. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: C×C
Finish: Regular Poplin
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 2.98 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 70×54 / 32/2×32/2


06. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×K Pinpoint
Finish: Regular Canvas
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 5.75 Oz/Yd2

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Serial Fabric construction Sample Sample name
No.
Construction: 90×80/16×16
07. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×K R.H.Twill
Finish: Regular Canvas
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 7.75 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 128×60/20×16
08. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×K L.H.Twill
Finish: Regular Canvas
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 3.8 Oz/Yd2
Construction: 150×100/ 100/2×50
09. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: C×C L.H.Twill
Finish: Regular Poplin
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 3.5 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 115×51/40+40×21/2
10. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: CC×K
Finish: Regular Chambrays
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 5.65 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 78×60/10×10
11. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: OE×OE
Finish: Brush Heavy Brush
Type of dye: Reactive Fabric
Weight: 10.5 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 105×86/40×40
12. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: C×C
Finish: Regular Dobby
Type of dye: Reactive Fabric
Weight: 3.5 Oz/Yd2

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• Plain fabric :

Serial Fabric construction Sample Sample name


No.
Construction: 110×60/20×16
01. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×K Canvas
Finish: Peach
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 6.45 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 144×105/40×40
02. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: C×C
Finish: Regular Poplin
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 4 .77 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 140×120/20×20+12
03. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×OE
Finish: Regular Ottoman
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 11.5 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 128×60/ 80/2× 80/2


04. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: C×C
Finish: Regular Pinpoint
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 3.33 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 116×56/20+20×7+7
05. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×OE
Finish: Regular Boxy
Type of dye: Reactive Canvas
Weight: 9.7 Oz/Yd2

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Serial Fabric construction Sample Sample name
No.
Construction: 78×34/10+10×6
06. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: OE×OE
Finish: Regular Oxford
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 9.5 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 128×74/32+32S×12+12S
07. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×Slub
Finish: Light Peach Slub
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 7.25 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 102×66/20S×20S
08. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: Slub×Slub
Finish: Regular Slub
Type of dye: Reactive Canvas
Weight: 5.57 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 105×48/16×12
09. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×K
Finish: Regular
Type of dye: Reactive Rib stop
Weight: 7.6 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 133×72/40×40+40D
10. Fabric content: 98%Ctn-2%Lycra
Yarn type: C×C
Finish: Peach
Type of dye: Reactive Stretch
Weight: 4.4 Oz/Yd2

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• Twill Fabric:

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Serial Fabric construction Sample Sample name
No.
Construction: 108×56/16×12
01. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×K
Finish: Wrinkle Free L.H.Twill
Type of dye: Reactive Canvas
Weight: 8.2 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 140×70/32×32
02. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×K
Finish: Regular Twill
Type of dye: Reactive Poplin
Weight: 4.8 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 160×80/ 60/2× 60/2


03. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: C×C
Finish: Regular Twill
Type of dye: Reactive Pinpoint
Weight: 5.72 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 110×72/20+16S×16
04. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K+S×K
Finish: Regular Slub
Type of dye: Reactive Twill
Weight: 7.75 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 160×65/30×20+16S
05. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K× K+S
Finish: Regular Slub
Type of dye: Reactive Twill
Weight: 6.22 Oz/Yd2

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Serial Fabric construction Sample Sample
No. name
Construction: 118×72/20+20S×20S
06. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Herring
Yarn type: K+S×S
Finish: Regular Bone Twill
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 6.54 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 146×70/30×7
07. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×OE
Finish: Regular Dobby
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 10.76 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 128×58/20×10
08. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×OE
Finish: Regular Dobby
Type of dye: Reactive
Weight: 8.9 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 108×56/16×12
09. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×K
Finish: Regular Broken
Type of dye: Reactive Twill
Weight: 8.2 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 163×71/32×14S
10. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type: K×Slub
Finish: Regular Slub Twill
Type of dye: Reactive 4/1 Sateen
Weight: 7.5 Oz/Yd2

Construction: 120×65/16×16
11. Fabric content: 100% Cotton
Yarn type : K×K
Finish: Regular Bed Ford
Type of dye: Reactive Cord
Weight : 9.4 Oz/Yd2

♦MY ACHIEVEMENT:-
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• I got the general information of such a large factory that gives me
the clear idea about the requirements of a composite industry setup
with all necessary manpower & machineries.

• I have earned some knowledge about the quality management


system of different sections of the industry.

• I have identified the process sequence of different units that gives


me the better idea about running of a program.

• I got the information related to amount of wastage of different


unit that will help me to calculate the benefit & loss of any project
that can be run.

• I have developed my knowledge in a very important sector like


research & development that will help me to enrich my working
experience in all area of textile in spite of a specific machine or
section.

• Different types of fabric of diverse design & construction are


being analyzed by me that given me much better idea about
manufacturing of individual types of clothing.

• Communication with different buyers & merchandiser helped me


to develop my personal skills & self-confidence.

• I have harmonized myself with the industrial environment, work


& administration that will help me to do job in any industry.

• Furthermore I achieved some practical knowledge about every


steps related to production of a woven fabric that will facilitate me
to develop my experience more in this field.

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♦CONCLUSION:-
For every person who is fresher in the field of textile, industrial
training works like learning route. This course given me the
opportunity to move liberally in every section of the industry to
learn the industrial work & follow the process sequence virtually.
From my two months observation of the industry along with
research & development section specially, I can say that in the
weaving sector this industry has very strong possibility because the
industry is running with all modern machineries & very
knowledgeable persons are working all the time with their
maximum oomph. I just think the capacity of the industry should
be developed with the amount of order the industry is being taking.

In the production floor the commanding power of the officers,


compliance, administration rules everything are appealing. I hope
that this industrial training will help me a lot to work in the future
period wherever I want to develop my career. Finally wishing the
best prospect of both the industry & myself I want to conclude.

Thank you.

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