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Figure 1. Complete avalanche pulse generator circuit.

– grayscaling etc of all the figures that follow can be adjusted using format
object/picture in MS word!!
Transistor Leakage Curve

2.5

2
ICES (mA)

1.5

0.097 mA
1
@ 280 V

0.5

0
5 46 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
VCE (V)

Figure 2. Empirically obtained leakage curve for the Zetex FMMT 417 avalanche transistor
- ICES is collector to emitter current under a reverse collector to emitter voltage = VCE
when base is shorted to emitter.
Pulse out Avalanche
(50-ohm Transistors
load)

PCBoard
Capacitors

2.5kV
Trigger In
DC-DC

8–14.5Vdc In Zener Chain

Figure 3. Avalanche pulse generator circuit board assembly – the PC Board capacitors are traces that integrate easily with the
avalanche transistor chain and supporting circuitry.
Another picture of the avalanche transistor pulser assembly. The green arrow points to the
pcboard capacitors
Figure 4a. Voltage Divider schematic

Figure 4b. Schematic of the voltage divider layout on a two layer pc-board. Components are labeled as in Figure 4a. The connectors
(with ground needles placed at the darkened circles) are SMA type with their leads protruding out on the component side. The divider
has a ground plane running uniformly underneath it.
60 dB @
910 MHz

63 dB @
50 MHz

Figure 5. Frequency response of compensated resistive voltage divider designed to measure subnanosecond rise time pulses.
Attenuation is amplitude of S21/ (1+S11) in dB, as measured on an Agilent 8720ET Network Analyzer. Measurement span is 50 MHz
to 1 GHz.
Rise
time
200
3.6 4.4
0
0
4.1 5.4
-200 Pulse
Width
-400
AMPLITUDE [V]

-600

-800

-1000
1110

-1200
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TIME [ns]
Figure 6. Output pulse into 50 Ω resistive load as measured by the custom divider in Figures 4, 5. Pulse width = (5.4 – 4.1) ns = 1.3
ns, and rise time = (4.4 – 3.6) ns = 0.8 ns
Slide Cover
Plate Insert stage PC Board to
(1/4 turn interface pulser with
fasteners) load and microscope

To 50 –ohm
transmission line
on insert stage
pcboard instead
of 50-ohm Through
resistive voltage
termination divider
High
Voltage board to
Supply scope
Board

Pulse out Avalanche


(50-ohm Transistors
load)

PCBoard Micro-machined
Capacitors glass slide – zoomed
out below
2.5kV
Trigger In
DC-DC

8–14.5Vdc In Zener Chain

Pulse Generator Unit


– Central module

Just a bonus pic – the pulse generator system and its constituent parts – and how they all
come together