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Electrical Symbols and

Schematics
Electrical/Electronic
Symbols
In addition to the
schematic
symbols initially
introduced, there
are a few more
that are used.
Electrical schematic diagram styles
found in GM service manuals.
Service Manual Symbols
In addition to the electrical/electronic
symbols. Service manuals commonly
use different symbols.
Typical Power and Ground
Distribution.
This is an
example of a
power distribution
schematic.
It shows how
voltage is applied
from the positive
battery terminal
to the various
circuits on the
car.
Typical Power and Ground
Distribution.
Battery voltage is applied through the B
terminal of the starter solenoid, fusible link B,
the red wire, and connector C100 to the CTSY
fuse and tail fuse and the fuse block.
These fuses are “HOT at all TIMES,” since
battery voltage is always supplied to them.
Typical Power and Ground
Distribution.
Battery voltage is also applied through fusible
link C and the RED wire to the ignition switch.
The ignition switch supplies voltage in RUN,
BULB TEST or START through the PNK wire to the
turn fuse and gauge fuse.
Therefore, these fuses are “HOT in RUN, BULB
TEST, or START.”
Ground Distribution
This is an example of the Ground
Distribution.
It shows which components share this
ground.
This information can be a timesaver when
troubleshooting ground circuits.
Circuit Faults and Diagnosis
Circuit Faults
 The various failures that occur in a
circuit will, dictate what must be done
to repair the problem. These failures
can be categorized as follows.
Open
The open is a physical break in the path
of current flow.
In a series circuit, the circuit stops
operating.
In parallel circuits, an open in one
branch will stop operation of that
branch, but the other branches will
continue to operate.
The ohmmeter is useful in finding the
open with continuity checks.
Short to Ground
The short to ground is where the circuit
is grounded due to insulation
breakage.
The conductor touches a ground,
causing the fuse or fusible link to blow.
If there is no fuse, the circuit may burn,
and even cause flames.
If the short occurs after the load, circuit
may be lost causing operation when it
is not wanted.
The test light is a good device in this
case.
Short to Ground
Place the test light in place of the fuse.
Disconnect circuit components in a
systematic and logical manner.
When the test light goes out, the part of
the circuit with the condition will be
found.
Short to Voltage
The short to voltage is a condition
where a circuit, due to insulation
breakage, causes the conductor to
touch the voltage of another circuit.
This will cause the circuit to operate
improperly.
This problem can cause odd things to
occur, and can be difficult to find.
To Locate this problem, a thorough
examination, using steps one and two
of “Troubleshooting Philosophy.”
Short to Voltage
Observe the symptoms to recognize
associated circuits involved.
Isolation by removing fuses will help
isolate the circuit branches involved.
Then voltage and resistance checks at
strategic locations will isolate the
problem.
High-Resistance Problems

A high-resistance problem is often the


hardest to find.
This is a condition where it’s important
to use test meters.
High resistance could be caused by
loose, dirty, or corroded connectors.
Current flow is lowered, which can
cause dimmed or flickering lamps, or
inoperative components.
Troubleshooting
Philosophy
Step 1 Check the Malfunction
 Operate the faulty circuit to be sure to
understand what’s wrong.
 Don’t waste time fixing part of the
condition!
 Check for missing, cut or damaged wires,
defective, misaligned or malfunctioning
components, ect.
Troubleshooting
Philosophy
Step 2 Read the Electrical Diagran
 Study the diagram to understand how the
circuit should work.
 Read the detailed description.
 Start your troubleshooting At a readily
accessible point in the circuit.
 If it is functional at your “check point,”
continue checking “downstream.”
 If not, check “upstream.”
Troubleshooting
Philosophy
Step 3 Find the Cause and Repair it
 Use the troubleshooting section for each
circuit problem.
 Use the wire repair procedures that follow.
Troubleshooting
Philosophy
Step 4 Test the Repair
 Check soldered joint integrity visually and
physically (pull-test), connector pin and
socket alignment.
Troubleshooting
Equipment
Electrical troubleshooting requires
the use of common electrical test
equipment.
Test light
Use a test light to check for voltage.
A test light is made of a 12-volt light
bulb with a pair of leads attached.
After grounding one lead, tough the
other lead to various points along the
circuit where voltage should be
present.
When the bulb goes ON, there is
voltage at the point being tested.
Voltmeter/Digital
Multimeter
A voltmeter can be used instead of a
test light.
While a test light shows whether or not
voltage is present, a voltmeter indicates
how much voltage is present.
Voltages with a 10-megohm or higher
impedance should be used.
Test for Voltage
Connect one lead
of a test light to a
known good
ground.
Connect the other
lead of the test
light or voltmeter
to a selected test
point.
Test for Voltage
If the test light
glows, there is
voltage
present.
Voltage should
be within one
volt of battery
voltage.
Test for Continuity
Disconnect the
car battery.
Connect one
lead of a self-
powered test
light or
ohmmeter to
one end of the
part of the
circuit.
Test for Continuity
Connect the other
lead to the other
end of the circuit.
If the self-powered
test light glows,
there is continuity.
If using an
ohmmeter, low or
no resistance
means good
continuity.
Testing for Voltage Drop
With a Voltmeter or DMM
Connect the
positive lead of a
voltmeter or
DMM to the end
of the wire that is
closer to the
battery.
Connect the
negative lead to
the other end of
the wire.
Testing for Voltage Drop
With a Voltmeter or DMM
Operate the
circuit.
The voltmeter or
DMM will show
the difference in
voltage between
the two points.
A difference of
more than one
volt indicates a
problem.
Testing for short to
Ground
Remove the
blown fuse and
disconnect the
load.
Connect a test
light or
ammeter/DMM
across the fuse
terminals.
Testing for short to
Ground
Beginning near the
fuse block, wiggle the
harness from side to
side.
Continue this at
convenient points
while watching the
test light or ammeter.
When the test light
glows, or the
ammeter registers,
there is a short to
ground in the wiring
Self-Powered Test Light or
Ohmmeter/DMM
Remove the blown
fuse and
disconnect the
battery and load.
Connect one lead
of a self-powered
test light or
ohmmeter/DMM to
the fuse terminal
on the load-side.
Self-Powered Test Light or
Ohmmeter/DMM
Beginning near the
fuse block, wiggle
the harness from
side to side.
Connect the other
lead to a known
good ground.
Continue this at
convenient points
while watching the
self-powered test
light or ohmmeter.
The End
Circuit Diagnosis
Troubleshooting Philosophy
Step 1. Check the
Malfunction
Operate the faulty
circuit to
understand
what’s wrong.
Don’t waste time
fixing part of the
condition!
Step 2. Read the Cause
and Repair It
Study the
diagram to
understand how
the circuit work.
Read the detailed
description.
Step 3. Find the Cause and
Repair It
Use the
troubleshooting
section in the
service manual
for each circuit
problem.