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# DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

GNANAMANI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING NH-7 A.K.SAMUTHIRAM, NAMAKKAL DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS&COMMUNICATION ENGG, TWO MARK Q&A Sem/Branch : VI/ECE Subject : Digital communication Prepared by : R.Shankar, AP/ECE UNIT -1 SAMPLING AND WAVEFORM CODING

1. Define Nyquist rate. Let the signal be band limited to w Hz. Then nyquist rate is given as, Nyquist=2w samples/sec. Aliasing will not take place if sampling rate is greater than nyquist rate. 2. What is meant by aliasing effect? Aliasing effect take place when sampling frequency is less than Nyquist rate under such condition, the spectrum of the sampled signal overlaps with itself. Hence higher frequency components are called aliasing effect. 3. Define PWM. PWM is basically width of the pulse changes according to amplitude of the modulating signal. It is also referred to as pulse duration modulation or PDM. 4. State sampling theorem. Sampling theorem states that a band limited signal of finite energy, which has no frequency components higher than W Hz, is completely described by specifying the values of the signal at the instants of time separated by 1/2w seconds. 5. Mention two merits of DPCM. i. Band width requirement of DPCM is less compared to PCM. ii. Quantization error is reduced because of prediction filter. iii. Numbers of bits used to represent one sample value are also reduced compared to PCM. 6. What is the main difference in DPCM and DM? Dm encodes the input sample by only one bit. It sends the information about + or - i.e. step rise or fall. DPCM can have more than one bit for encoding the sample. It sends the information about difference between actual sample value and predicated sample value. 7. How the message can be recovered from PAM? The message can be recovered from PAM by passing signal through reconstruction filter. The reconstruction filter integrates amplitudes of PAM pulses. Amplitude smoothing of reconstructed signal is done to remove amplitude discontinues due to pulses.

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17. What is the advantage of delta modulation over PCM? Delta modulation uses one bit to encode one sample. Hence bit rate of delta modulation is low compared to PCM. 18. Define Dirac comb or ideal sampling function. What is its Fourier Transform? Dirac comb is nothing but a periodic impulse train in which the impulses are spaced by a time interval of Ts seconds. The equation for the function is given By

## The Fourier transform of

is given by

19. Give the interpolation formula for the reconstruction of the original signal g(t) From the sequence of sample values {g(n/2W)}.

Where, 2W is the bandwidth N is the number of samples. 20. Define Quadrature sampling. Quadrature sampling is used for uniform sampling of band pass signals Consider The in-phase component gI(t) and the Quadrature component gQ(t) may be respectively and then suppressing the sum-frequency components by means of appropriate low pass filter. Under the assumption that fc>W, we find that gI(t)&gQ(t) are both low-pass signals limited to -W<f<W. Accordingly each component may be sampled at the rate of 2W samples per second. This type of sampling is called Quadrature sampling. 21. Give the expression for aliasing error and the bound for aliasing error.

Where, E is the aliasing error. |G(f)| is the amplitude spectrum of the signal g(t)

## Where, E is the bound for aliasing error.

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22. What is meant by PCM? Pulse code modulation (PCM) is a method of signal coding in which the message signal is sampled; the amplitude of each sample is rounded off to the nearest one of a finite set of discrete levels and encoded so that both time and amplitude are represented in discrete form. This allows the message to be transmitted by means of a digital waveform. 23. Define quantizing process. The conversion of analog sample of the signal into digital form is called Quantizing process. 24. What are the two fold effects of quantizing process? 1. The peak-to-peak range of input sample values subdivided into a finite set of decision levels or decision thresholds. 2. The output is assigned a discrete value selected from a finite set of representation levels are reconstruction values that are aligned with the treads of the staircase. 25. What is meant by idle channel noise? Idle channel noise is the coding noise measured at the receiver output with Zero transmitters input. 26. What is meant by prediction error? The difference between the actual samples of the process at the time of interest predictor output are called a prediction error. 27. Define delta modulation. Delta modulation is the one-bit version of differential pulse code modulation. 28. Define adaptive delta modulation. The performance of a delta modulator can be improved significantly by making the step size of the modulator assume a time- varying form. In particular, During a steep segment of the input signal the step size is increased. Conversely, When the input signal is varying slowly, the step is reduced , In this way, the step size is adapting to the level of the signal. The resulting method is called adaptive delta modulation (ADM). 29. Name the types of uniform quantizer. 1. Mid tread type quantizer. 2. Mid riser type quantizer. 30. Define mid tread quantizer. Origin of the signal lies in the middle of a tread of the staircase.

and the

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31. Define mid-riser quantizer. Origin of the signal lies in the middle of a riser of the staircase

32. Define quantization error. Quantization error is the difference between the output and input values of quantizer. 33. What do you mean by non-uniform quantization? Step size is not uniform. Non-uniform quantizer is characterized by a step size that increases as the separation from the origin of the transfer characteristics is increased. Non-uniform quantization is otherwise called as robust quantization. 34. Draw the quantization error for the mid tread and mid-rise type of quantizer. For mid tread type:

35. What is the disadvantage of uniform quantization over the non-uniform quantization? SNR decreases with decrease in input power level at the uniform quantizer but non uniform quantization maintains a constant SNR for wide range of input power levels. This type of quantization is called as robust quantization. 36. What do you mean by companding? Define compander. The signal is compressed at the transmitter and expanded at the receiver. This as companding. The combination of a compressor and expander is called a compander. 37. Draw the block diagram of compander? Mention the types of companding? Block diagram:

is called

38. What is the need for speech coding at low bit rates? The use of PCM at the standard rate of 64 Kbps demands a high channel bandwidth for its transmission, so for certain applications, bandwidth is at premium, in which case there is a definite need for speech coding at low bit rates, while maintaining acceptable fidelity or quality of reproduction.

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39. Define ADPCM. It means adaptive differential pulse code modulation, a combination of adaptive quantization and adaptive prediction. Adaptive quantization refers to a quantizer that operates with a time varying step size. The autocorrelation function and power spectral density of speech signals are time varying functions of the respective variables. Predictors for such input should be time varying. So adaptive predictors are used.

40. What are the components of a Digital Communication System? Sampler, Quantizer, Encoder, Modulator, Decoder, Channel, Demodulator, Reconstruction Filter are the components of a Digital Communication System. 41. What are the advantages of Digital Communication? Ruggedness to channel noise and other interferences. Flexible implementation of digital hardware system .Coding of digital signal to yield extremely low error rate and high fidelity. Security of information. 42. What are the different types of PTM systems? There are two kinds of PTM schemes they are: Pulse duration or pulse width or pulse length modulation (PDM (Or) PWM (Or) (PLM) Pulse position modulation 43. What is pulse duration modulation (PDM)? The method in which the samples of the message signal are used to vary the width of the individual pulses. This is referred to as pulse duration modulation.

duration

44. What is pulse position modulation? In PPM, the position of a pulse relative to its unmodulated time of occurrence is varied in accordance with the message signal. 45. What is pulse digital modulation scheme? It is the modulation in which the message and also the carrier are in discrete These are classified as Pulse code modulation, Delta modulation 46. What are the advantages of digital representation of analog signals? Ruggedness to transmission noise and interference Efficient regeneration of the coded signal along the transmission path. The possibility of a uniform format for the different kinds of baseband signals. 47. Discuss Noise effect in PCM. The performance of a PCM system is influenced by two major sources of noise. Transmission Noise: Which is introduced anywhere transmitter output and the receiver input. It is also named as channel Noise. Quantizing noise: This is introduced in the transmitter and is carried along to the receiver output. 48. What delta modulation and give the comparison between DM and DPCM? Delta modulation is one bit (or) two level version of DPCM. They are similar except for two important difference namely, the use of one bit quantizer in delta modulator and the prediction filter is replaced by a single delay element.

form.

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49. Discuss the noise effect in delta modulation? In delta modulation we observe quantization noise .there are two major sources of quantizing error in DM systems. They are Slope over load distortion, Granular noise 50. Define multiplexing. Multiplexing may be defined as a technique which allows many user to share a common communication channel simultaneously. There are two major types of multiplexing techniques; Frequency division multiplexing (FDM), Time division multiplexing (TDM). 51. Give the different types of multiplexer. There are basically two types of multiplexer Low speed multiplexer High speed multiplexer 52. State band pass sampling theorem? The band pass signal x(t) whose maximum band width is 2w can be completely represented into and recovered from its samples. if it is sampled at the minimum rate of twice the bandwidth. 53. What are the two limitation of delta modulation? 1. Slope overload distortion. It occurs due to limited step size and fast variation in the signal. 2. Granular noise It occurs due to too large step size and very small amplitude variations in the input signal. 54. Why compressors are used in PCM? 1. With linear quantization, the signal to quantization noise ratio reduces at low signal levels. 2. Compression uses nonlinear quantization. It improves the signal to quantization noise ratio at low level signals. 55. A band pass signal has the spectral has the spectral range that extends from 20khz to 82khz. Find the acceptable range of sampling frequency fs? Here bandwidth, Bw = 82khz-20khz = 62 khz fs= 2bw = 262khz = 124khz

56. What is the SNR of PCM system if number of quantization levels is 28? Quantization levels= 2 =28 =8 (s/n)db= 4.8+6db =4.8+68 =52.8db

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UNIT-2 BANDLIMITED SIGNALLING 1. What is PAM? PAM is the pulse amplitude modulation. In pulse amplitude modulation, the amplitude of a carrier consisting of a periodic train of rectangular pulses is varied in proportion to sample values of a message signal. 2. What is ISI? Inter Symbol Interference arises when the communication channel is dispersive. Inter symbol interference is caused by overlapping tails of the pulse with adjacent pulses. The residual effect due to the occurrence of pulses before and after the sampling instant ti is called ISI. It is a major source of bit errors in the reconstructed data stream at the receiver. 3. Define Eye pattern. Eye pattern is defined as the synchronized superposition of all possible realizations of the signal of interest viewed within a particular signaling interval. The interior region of the eye pattern is eye opening. 4. What is the information provided by the eye pattern? The width of the eye opening defines the time interval over which the received signal can be sampled without error from ISI. The sensitivity of the system to timing error is determined by the rate of change of eye as the sampling time is varied. 5. What is correlative coding? Correlative level coding is used to transmit a base band signal with the signaling rate of 2Bo the Chanel of bandwidth Bo. This made physically possible by allowing ISI transmitted controlled manner. This ISI is known to the receiver. The correlative coding is implemented by duo binary signally and modified duo binary signaling. 6. What is an intersymbol interference in base band binary PAM system? In base band binary PAM symbol are transmitted one after another. These symbols are separated by sufficient time duration. The transmitter channel and receiver acts as filter to this base band data. Because of the filtering characteristics transmitted PAM pulses are spread in time. Let the transmitted wave form be represented as , X(t)= AK g(t-kTb) k=- 7. Define duobinary base band PAM system. Duo binary encoding reduces the maximum frequency of the base band signal. The word duo means to double the transmission capacity of the binary system. Let the PAM signal ak represents kth bit. Then the encoder generates the new wave form as Ck=ak+ ak-1 Thus two successive bits are added to get encoded value of kth bit. Hence Ck becomes a correlated signal even though ak is not correlated. This introduces intersysmbol in the controlled manner to reduced the band width.
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8. What is the main disadvantage of duo binary scheme? The output of duo binary encoder is given as Ck=ak+ ak-1 Let ak represents an estimate of ak at the decoder. Then above equation becomes Ck=ak+ ak-1.Hence ak can be obtain as ak=ck+ ak-1 .This shows that if ck is received with error then ak will have error. This error will propagate the output sequence. This is the main draw back of duo binary encoding. 9. What are eye patterns? Eye pattern is used to study the effect of ISI base band transmission i. Width of eye opening defines the interval over which the received wave can be sampled without error from ISI. ii. The sensitivity of the system to timing error is determined by the rate of closer of the eye has the sampling time is varied. iii. Height of the eye opening at sampling time is called margin over noise.

10. What is the value of maximum signal to noise ratio of the matched filter? When it become maximum. Maximum signal to noise ratio of the matched filter is the ratio of energy of the signal to psd of white noise Pmax=E/No/2 This maximum value of occurs at the end of bit duration Tb. 11. What is the effect of thermal noise on PCM system? The effect of thermal noise on PCM system is to cause the matched filter detector to make an occasional error in determining whether a binary 1 or binary 0 was transmitted. If the thermal noise is white and Gaussian, the probability of error depends on the ratio Eb/. 12. What is precoding? A practical means of avoiding the error propagation phenomenon is to use precoding before duobinary coding. The precoding operation performed on the binary data sequence {bk} converts into another binary sequence {dk} defined by dk = bk + dk-1, where the symbol + denotes modulo- two addition. 13. What is modified duobinary signaling? Modified duobinary signaling or Class IV partial response technique, which involves a correlation span of two binary digits. This special form of correlation is achieved by subtracting amplitude modulated pulses spaced 2Tb seconds apart. 14. What is meant by forward and backward estimation? AQF: Adaptive quantization with forward estimation. Unquantized samples of the input signal are used to derive the forward estimates. AQB: Adaptive quantization with backward estimation. Samples of the quantizer outputs are used to derive the backward estimates.

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APF: Adaptive prediction with forward estimation, in which Unquantized samples of the input signal are used to derive the forward estimates of the predictor coefficients. APB: Adaptive prediction with backward estimation, in which Samples of the quantizer output and the prediction error are used to derive estimates of the predictor coefficients. 15. What are the limitations of forward estimation with backward estimation? Side information Buffering Delay 16. How are the predictor coefficients determined? For the adaptation of the predictor coefficients the least mean square (LMS) algorithm is used. 17. Define adaptive sub band coding. It is a frequency domain coder, in which the speech signal is divided in to number of sub bands and each one is coded separately. It uses non masking phenomenon in perception for a better speech quality. The noise shaping is done by the adaptive bit assignment. 18. What are formant frequencies? In the context of speech production the formant frequencies are the resonant frequencies of the vocal tract tube. The formants depend on the shape and dimensions of the vocal tract. 19. What is the bit rate in ASBC? Nfs= (MN) (fs/M) Nfs->bit rate M->number of sub bands of equal bandwidths N->average number of bits fs/M->sampling rate for each sub band 20. Define Adaptive filter. It is a nonlinear estimator that provides an estimate of some desired response without requiring knowledge of correlation functions, where the filter coefficients are data dependent. A popular filtering algorithm is the LMS algorithm. 21. Define data signaling Rate. Data signalling rate is defined as the rate measured in terms bits per second which data are transmitted. Data signaling rate Rb=I/Tb Where Tb=bit duration.

(b/s) at

22. Define modulation rate. It is defined as the rate at which signal level is changed depending on the nature of the format used to represent the digital data. It is measured in bauds or symbols per second. 23. State NRZ unipolar format. In this format binary 0 is represent by no pulse and binary 1 is represented by the positive pulse.
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24. State NRZ polar format. Binary 1 is represented by a positive pulse and binary 0 is represented by a negative pulse. 25. State NRZ bipolar format. Binary 0 is represented by no pulse and binary one is represented by the alternative positive and negative pulse. 26. State Manchester format. Binary the first half bit duration negative pulse and the second half bit duration positive pulse. Binary first half bit duration positive pulse and the second half bit duration negative pulse. 27. What is the width of the eye? It defines the time interval over which the received waveform can be sampled without error from intersymbol interference. 28. What is sensitivity of an eye? The sensitivity of the system to timing error is determined by the rate of closure of the eye as the sampling time is varied. 29. What is margin over noise? The height of the eye opening at a specified sampling time defines the margin over noise. 30. How eye pattern is obtained? The eye pattern is obtained by applying the received wave to the vertical deflection plates of an oscilloscope and to apply a saw tooth wave at the transmitted symbol rate to the horizontal deflection plate. 31. Mention the need of optimum transmitting and receiving filter base band data transmission. When binary data is transmitted over base band channel noise interference with it. Because of this noise interference error introduced in signal detection. Optimum filter perform to functions while receiving the noisy signal. i. Optimum filter integrate a signal during the bit interval and check the output at the time instant where signal to noise ratio is maximum. ii. Transfer function of the optimum filter is selected so as to maximize signal to noise ratio. iii. Optimum filter minimizes the probability of error. iv. 32. How is eye pattern obtained on the CRO? Eye pattern can be obtained on the CRO by applying the signal tonone of the input channels giving an external trigger of (1/Tb)hz.this makes one sweep of beam equal to Tb seconds. 33. What is the condition for zero inter symbol interference? Zero ISI can be obtained if the transmitted pulse satisfies the following condition: Time domain: [(i-k)]= {1 for i=k 0 for ik Frequency domain: = p (f - nfb) =Tb k=-

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34. From the eye pattern, how is the best time for sampling determined? It is preferable to sample the instant at which eye is open widest. At this instant chances of error are minimum. 35. What is the purpose of using an eye pattern? Eye pattern can be used for: 1. To determined an interval over which the received wave can be sampled without error due to ISI. 2. To determine the sensitivity of the system to timing error. 3. The margin over the noise is determined from the eye. 36. Why do you need adaptive equalization in a switched telephone network? In a switched telephone network the distortion depends upon 1. Transmission characteristics of individual links. 2. Number of links in connection. Hence fixed pair of transmit and receive filters will not serve the equalization problem. The transmission characteristics keep on changing. The adaptive equalization is used. 37. What is an ideal nyquist channel? P(t)=sin(2Bot)/2Bot Such pulses have the spectrum of, P(f)={1/2B0 for b0<f<b0 0 for elsewhere 38. What are the types of adaptive equalization? 1. Prechannel equalization. 2. Post channel equalization. 39. Define prechannel equalization. When equalization is done at the transmitting side is called prechannel equalization. 40. Define post channel equalization When equalization is done at the receiving side is called post channel equalization.

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9.

What is matched filter receiver? A filter whose impulse response is a time reversed & delayed version of some signal j (t) then it is said to be matched to j (t) correspondingly, the optimum receiver based on the detector is referred to as the matched filter receiver.

10. What is maximum likelihood detector? Maximum likelihood detector computes the metric for each transmitted message compares them and then decides in favor of maximum. The device for implementing the decision rule i.e.; set ^m = mi if In [ fx(x/mk)] is maximum for k=i is called maximum likelihood detector and the decision rule is called maximum likelihood. 11. Define antipodal signals. A pair of sinusoidal signals that differ only in a phase shift of 180 degrees are referred to as antipodal signals. 12. Explain how QPSK differs from PSK in term of transmission bandwidth and bit Information it carries? For a given bit rate 1/Tb, a QPSK wave requires half the transmission bandwidth of the corresponding binary PSK wave. Equivalently for a given transmission bandwidth, a QPSK wave carries twice as many bits of information as the corresponding binary PSK wave. 13. Give the equation for average probability of symbol error for coherent binary PSK. Average probability of signal error, Pe = 1 / 2 erfcEb / No 14. Give the signal space characterization of QPSK.

15. Define QPSK. QPSK is Quadriphase shift keying. In QPSK the phase of the carrier takes on one of the four equally spaced values Such as /4 , 3/4, 5/4 and 7/4. 16. Define Dibit. A unique pair of bits is called a dibit. Gray encoded set of dibits 10, 00, 01 & 11 17. Give the transmitted signal of Non-coherent binary FSK. Si(t) = {2Eb/Tb Cos(2f i t) , 0 t Tb O, elsewhere fi = nc+ i/ Tb 18. Give the two basic operation of DPSK transmitter. 1. Differential encoding of the input binary wave 2. Phase shift keying hence, the name differential phase shift keying.
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19. Define deviation ratio in MSK? The parameter h is defined by h= Tb(f1-f2) h is deviation ratio , measured with respect to bit rate 1/Tb. 20. Define MSK signal in interval 0 t Tb. S(t) = 2Eb/Tb Cos [ 2f 1t + (0)] for symbol 1 2Eb/Tb Cos [ 2f 2 t + (0)] for symbol 0 21. What is nominal carrier frequency in MSK? Nominal carrier frequency is the arithmetic mean of the two frequencies f1 and f2 and it is given as fc = (f1 + f2) Where f1 is the frequency for symbol 1 f2 is the frequency for symbol 0 22. What is carrier synchronization? The carrier synchronization is required in coherent detection methods to generate a coherent reference at the receiver. In this method the data bearing signal is modulated on the carrier in such a way that the power spectrum of the modulated carrier signal contains a discrete component at the carrier frequency. 23. What are the three broad types of synchronization? 1. Carrier synchronization 2. Symbol & Bit synchronization 3. Frame synchronization. 24. What are the two methods for carrier synchronization? Carrier synchronization using Mth Power loop Costas loop for carrier synchronization 25. What is called symbol or bit synchronization? In a matched filter or correlation receiver, the incoming signal is sampled at the end of one bit or symbol duration. Therefore the receiver has to know the instants of time at which a symbol or bit is transmitted. That is the instants at which a particular bit or symbol status and when it is ended. The estimation of these times of bit or symbol is called symbol or bit synchronization. 26. What are the two methods of bit and symbol synchronization? Closed loop bit synchronization Early late gate synchronizer 27. What are the disadvantages of closed loop bit synchronization? If there is a long string of 1s and os then y(t) has no zero crossings and synchronization may be lost. If zero crossing of y(t) are not placed at integer multiples of Tb, the Synchronization suffers from timing Jitter.

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28. In minimum shift keying what is the relation between the signal frequencies and bit rate? Let the bit rate be fb and frequency of carrier be f0.the higher and lower MSK signal frequencies are given as, fH= f0+(fb/4) fL=f0+(fb/4) 29. Write the expression for bit error rate for coherent binary FSK? The bit error rate of coherent binary FSK is given as Pe=1/2erfc(0.6/n0) 30. What is the error probability of MSK and DPSK? Error probability of MSK: Pe=1/2erfc(eb/n0) Error probability of DPSK: Pe= 1/2e(-eb/n0) 31. Highlight the major difference between a QPSK signal and a MSK signal. MSK signal have continuous phase in all the cases, whereas QPSK signal abrupt phase shift of /2 or . has

32. Compare the probability of error of PSK with that of FSK? BPSK: Pe= 1/2 erfc(eb/n0) BFSK: Pe=1/2 erfc (0.6eb/4n0) For the fixed value of eb/n0, error probability of BPSK is less than BFSK. For the given probability of error, the eb/n0 of BPSK is 3db less compared to that BFSK. 33. Why synchronization is required? The signals from various sources are transmitted on the single channel by multiplexing. This requires synchronization between transmitter and receiver. Special synchronization bits are added in the transmitted signal for the purpose. Synchronization is also required for detectors to recover the digital data properly from the modulated signal. 34. What is noncoherent modulation? Whenever it is impractical to have knowledge of the carrier phase at the receiver, noncoherent modulation is employed. One of these two signals is sent over an imperfect channel that shifts the carrier phase by an unknown amount. Let g1(t) and g2(t) denote the phase shifted versions of s1(t) and s2(t), respectively. It is assumed that the signals g1(t) and g2(t) remain orthogonal and have the same energy E, regardless of the unknown carrier phase. Such a signaling scheme is referred as noncoherent modulation.

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35. What are the needs for data compression? The data compression is employed in two types of situations: a. In source coding where the permitted coding alphabet cannot exactly represent the information source. b. I n f o r m a t i o n transmission at a rate greater than the channel capacity. 36. When M-ary signaling schemes are preferred over binary signaling schemes and why? M-ary signaling schemes are preferred over binary signaling schemes when the requirement is to conserve bandwidth at the expense of increased power. In binary PSK, bandwidth required in inversely proportional to Tb, whereas in M-ary, the bandwidth required is inversely proportional to nTb, reduction in bandwidth by the factor n = log2M over binary PSK. UNIT-4 ERROR CONTROL CODING 1.What are the error detection and correction capabilities of hamming codes? The minimum distance (dmin) of hamming codes is 3. Hence it can be used to detect double errors or correct signal error. Hamming codes are basically linear block codes with dmin=3. 2. How syndrome is calculated in hamming codes and cyclic codes? In hamming codes the syndrome is calculated as, S=YHT Here Y is the received and HT is the transpose of parity check matrix. In cyclic codes the syndrome vector polynomial is given as, S(p)=rem[Y(p)/G(p)] Here Y(p) is received vector polynomial and G(p) is generated polynomial . 3. What is BCH code? BCH codes are most extensive and powerfull error correcting cyclic codes. The decoding of BCH codes is comparatively smaller. For any positive inter m and t (where t<2m-1) there exists a BCH code with following parameter: Block length:N=2m-1 Number of parity bits: n-k<= mt. Minimum distance: dmin>=2t+1. 4. What is RS code? These are non binary BCH codes. The encoder for RS codes operates on multiple bits simultaneously. The (n,k) RS code take the group of m-bit symbols of the incoming binary data stream. It takes such k number of symbols in one block. Then the encoder adds (n-k) redundant symbols to form the code word of n symbols. Rs codes have: Block length: N=2m-1 symbols Message size: K symbols Parity checks size: N-k=2t symbols Minimum distance: dmin=2t+1 symbols.

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5. What is the difference between block code and convolution code? Block code take k number of message bit simultaneously and from n bit code vector. This code vector is also called block. Convolutional code takes one message bit at a time and generates two or more encoded bit. Thus convolutional code generates a string of encoded bit for input message string. 6. Define free distance and coding gain? Free distance is the minimum distance between code vectors. It is also equal to minimum weight of code vector. Coding gain is used as bases of comparison for different coding method. To achieve the same bit error rate the coding gain is defined as A=(Eb /No) encoded/ (Eb /No) coded For convolutional coding gain is given as A=rdf/2 7. What is linear code? A code is linear if the sum of any two code vectors produces another code vector. 8. What is code rate? Code rate is the ratio of message bits (k) and the encoder output bits (n). It is defined by r (i.e.) r= k/N 9. Define code efficiency. It is the ratio of message bits in a block to the transmitted bits for that block by the encoder i.e.

10. What is hamming distance? The hamming distance between two code vectors is equal to the number of elements in which they differ. For example let the two code vectors be X= (101) and Y= (110).These two code vectors differ in second and third bits. Therefore the hamming distance between x and Y is two. 11. What is meant by systematic & non-systematic code? In a systematic block code, message bit appear first and then check bits. In the non-systematic code, message and check bits cannot be identified in the code vector. 12. What are the conditions to satisfy the hamming code? 1) No. of Check bits q 3 2) Block length n = 2q 1 3) No of message bits K = n-q 4) Minimum distance dmin =3 13. Define code word & block length. The encoded block of n bits is called code word. The no. of bits n after coding is called block length. 14. Why RS codes are called maximum distance separable codes ? ( n,k) Linear block code for which the minimum distance equals n k + 1 is called maximum distance separable codes. For RS code minimum distance equals n k + 1 so it is called as maximum distance separable code 15. What are Golay codes? Golay code is the (23, 12) cyclic code whose generating polynomial is, G(p) =P11+P9+p7+P6+p5+p+1 This code has a minimum distance of dmin=7. This code can correct up to 3 errors. It is perfect code.
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16. What are the advantages of cyclic codes? 1. Encoders and decoders for cyclic codes are simple 2. Cyclic codes also detect error burst that span many successive bits. 17. What is meant by syndrome of linear block code? The non-zero output of the produce Yht is called syndrome and it is used to detect the errors in y. syndrome is denoted bys and it is given as, S=YHt 18. What is convolutional code? Fixed number of inputs bits is stored in the shift register and they are combined with the help of mod-2 adders. This operation is equivalent to binary convolution and hence it is called convolution coding. 19. Define constraint length in convolution codes. Constraint length is the number of shifts over which the single message bit can influence the encoder output. It is expressed in terms of message bits. 20. What is the difference between block codes and convolutional codes? Block codes take k number of message bit simultaneously and form n-bit code vector. This code vector is called block. Convolutional code takes one message bit at a time and generates two or more encoded bits. Thus convolution codes generate a string of encoded bits for input message string. 21. Define channel data rate. It is the bit rate at the output of encoder. If the bit rate at the input of encoder is Rs, then channel data rate will be, Channel data rate (Ro) = (n/k) Rs] 22. Mention any two methods used for error control coding. 1. Forward acting error correction 2. Error detection with retransmission 23. Mention the two types of errors introduced during transmission on the data. 1. Random errors 2. Burst errors 24. What are the properties of cyclic code? 1. Linear property 2. Cyclic property 25. What are the needs for error control coding? The needs for error control coding are (i) To change the data quality from problematic to acceptable one (ii) To reduce the required Eb/No for a fixed bit error rate. (iii) This reduction in Eb/No may be exploited to reduce the required transmitted power or reduce the hardware costs by requiring a smaller antenna size in the case of radio communications. 26. What are the types of error correcting codes? The codes are classified in to block codes and convolution codes. The distinguishing feature for the classification is the presence or absence of memory in the encoders for the two codes.

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27. What is discrete memory-less channel? The waveform channel is said to be memory-less, if the detector output in a given time interval depends only on the signal transmitted in that interval, and not on any previous transmission. 28. What are systematic codes? Block codes in which the message bits are transmitted in unaltered form are called systematic codes. For application requiring both error detection and error correction, the use of systematic codes simplifies implementation of the decoder. 29. Give the structure of the code word. Consider a (n,k) code word, in which k bits of the n code bits are always identical to the message sequence to be transmitted. The remaining n-k bits are computed from the message bits in accordance with a prescribed encoding rule that determines the mathematical structure of the code and these bits are referred as generalized parity check bits or simply parity bits. b0, b1, . . . , bn-k-1 30. What are repetition codes? Repetition codes represent the simplest type of linear block codes. A single message bit is encoded into a block of n identical bits, producing a (n,1) block code. Such a code allows provision for a variable amount of redundancy. There are only two code words in the code: all zero code word and all one code word. 31. State the properties of syndrome. The syndrome depends only on the error pattern and not on the transmitted code word. All error patterns that differ by a code word have the same syndrome. 32. What are cyclic codes? Cyclic codes form a subclass of linear block codes. A binary code is said to be cyclic code if it exhibits two fundamental properties: 1. Linearity property: The sum of any two code words in the code is also a code word. 2. Cyclic property: Any cyclic shift of a code word in the code is also a code word. 33. State Channel coding theorem. The channel coding theorem states that if a discrete memory-less channel has capacity C and a source generates information at a rate less than C, then there exists a coding technique such that the output of the source may be transmitted over the channel with an arbitrarily low probability of symbol error. 34. Define Hamming weight. The Hamming weight w(c) of a code vector is defined as the number of nonzero elements in the code vector. 35. Define minimum distance dmin. The minimum distance dmin of a linear block code is defined as the smallest Hamming distance between any pair of code vectors in the code word. m0, m1, . . . , mk-1

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36. Define constraint length of a convolutional code. The constraint length of a convolutional code , expressed in terms of message bits, is defined as the number of shifts over which a single message bit can influence the encoder output. 37. Define maximum likelihood decoding of convolutional codes. Let p(r|c) denote the conditional probability of receiving r, given that c was sent and the loglikelihood function equals log p(r|c). Then the maximum likelihood decoder or decision rule is described as follows: Choose the estimate c for which the log likelihood function log p(r|c) is maximum. 38. Define free distance of a convolutional code. The free distance of a convolutional code is defined as the minimum Hamming distance between any two code words in the code. 39. How many errors can be corrected by a convolutional code? A convolutional code with free distance dfree can correct t errors if and only if dfree is greater than 2t. 40. What does the term catastrophic cyclic code represent? 000 is not a state of the shift register sequence in PN sequence generator, since this results in a catastrophic cyclic code i.e. once the 000 state is entered, the shift register sequence cannot leave this state. UNIT-5 SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEMS

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22. What is called jamming effect? In the frequency band of the interest, somebody else transmits the signals intentionally since these signals the in the frequency band of transmission, they interface the required signal. Hence it becomes difficult to detect the required signals. This is called jamming effect.

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UNIT I 8 MARKS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Drive the expression for the sampling process in time domain. Explain the quantization process with PCM block diagram Explain the generation of PPM and PWM with neat circuit diagram. Explain the frame format and signaling scheme used in T1 carrier system. Obtain an expression for the processing gain of a DPCM system. Explain the principle of Delta modulation and derive an expression for average output noise power in delta modulation 7. Explain the generation of PAM signals. 8. Explain in detail about TDM. 9. Explain briefly about the effects of under sampling. 10. A PCM system uses a uniform quantizer followed by a 7-bit binary encoder. The bit rate of the system is equal to 50X106 b/s. (a) What is the maximum message bandwidth for which the system operates satisfactorily? (b) Determine the output signal-to-(quantization) noise ratio when a full-load sinusoidal modulating wave of frequency 1MHz is applied to the input. 16 MARKS

1. Describe the following systems by presenting appropriate diagrams. (i) Time Division multiplexing (ii) delta modulation 2. Draw block diagram of differential PCM and explain the function performed by each block. 3. Explain the process of quantization, encoding and decoding in PCM? In what way differential PCM is better than PCM? 4. Discuss the basic issues involved in the design of a regenerative repeater for pulse code modulation. 5. What are all the types of sampling technique and explain about any two. 6. Compare DM with ADM and explain linear prediction filter. 7. Write brief notes on 1) TDM 2) FDM. 8. With necessary sketches and expressions, briefly explain about flat top sampling and chopper sampling. 9. Derive the expression for SNR in PCM system and compare it with delta modulation. Explain how can the SNR be improved in a PCM system? 10. Explain in detail about DPCM.

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UNIT II 8 MARKS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

With neat sketches, explain the duo binary signaling scheme. With neat sketches, explain the modified duo binary signaling scheme. Write briefly about eye pattern. Derive the Nyquist criterion for distortion less transmission. Explain the cross talk produced due to high frequency cutoff of the channel in PAM. What is the effect of pulse width on the cross talk factor? 6. Compare the power spectra of different binary formats. 7. Generate the code words for (7,4) Hamming code. 8. State and prove the properties of syndrome decoding. 9. Sketch the time response and frequency response of signal with raised cosine pulse spectrum. 10. Briefly explain the Viterbi decoding algorithm. 16 MARKS 1. Discuss on the following: (i)Baseband M-array PAM transmission(ii) Adaptive equalization 2. Derive the expression for the matched filter and prove any one property. 3. Prove the effect ISI using necessary block diagram and design. 4. (i) Explain briefly about linear block codes.(4) (ii) Evaluate the syndrome S for all five probable single error patterns in (5,1) Repetition code.(6) (iii) Briefly explain the Viterbi decoding algorithm .(6) 5. Find the optimum filter frequency response How that maximizes the output SNR When the input noise is not a white noise. 6. What do you understand by the term Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)?Discuss in detail the Nyquist criterion for minimizing ISI.Explain the difficulties in implementing it in a practical system. 7. (i) Draw the block diagram of an adaptive filter and explain the LMS algorithm. (ii) Explain how eye pattern is used to study the performance of a data transmission system. 8. Derive and plot the power spectra of NRZ uni polar and bipolar format signals. 9. Draw the block diagram of the duo binary and modified signaling scheme and explain with and without pre coder. 10. (i)Discuss the merits and demerits of Duobinary Signalling.(6) (ii)The binary data(0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 ) are applied to the input of a duobinary encoder.Construct the duobinary encoder output and corresponding receiver output,without a precoder .Suppose due to error during transmission ,the level produced by the third digit is reduced to zero,construct the new receiver output(10).

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UNIT III 8 MARKS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Explain the Quadriphase Shift keying (QPSK) modulation. Enumerate on carrier and symbol synchronization. Write a note on DPSK. Explain the technique used for generating N orthonormal basis functions. Compare the BER of coherent PSK coherent QPSK and coherent FSK. Obtain probability of error in terms of Eb/No for QPSK. In a PSK system, the received waveforms S1(t)=A Coswt,S2(t)=-A Coswt are Coherently detected with a matched filter. The value of A is 20 mV, and the bit Rate is 1 Mbps. Assume that the noise power spectral density h/2=10-11 W/Hz. Find the probability of error Pe. 8. With necessary equations and signal space diagram, explain briefly about FSK system. 9. Discuss briefly about Minimum Shift Keying for a Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying(CPFSK) signal. 10. With necessary equations and signal space diagram, explain briefly about FSK system. 16 MARKS 1. Draw the block diagram of QPSK transmitter and coherent QPSK receiver and explain their operation. 2. Draw the block diagram of MSK transmitter and explain the function of each block. 3. With necessary equations and signal space diagram, obtain the probability of error for coherent binary FSK systems. 4. Explain BPSK signal transmission and coherent BPSK reception with suitable diagrams. Derive an expression for the probability of symbol error for the scheme. 5. Describe the following: (i)Signal space dimensionality and processing gain. (8) (ii). Maximum length and Gold codes. (8) 6. Explain the MFSK and derive the pe. 7. Compare the all types of Passband transmission. 8. Derive the error probability expression for the MPSK. 9. Give the block diagram for the generation and detection of BFSK signal and Give a brief explanation of the same. 10. Explain the direct sequence spread spectrum modulation with coherent binary Phase shift keying.

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UNIT IV 8MARKS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Write the generator matrix and parity check matrix of (7,4) hamming code. Briefly explain the viterbi decoding algorithm. State and prove the properties of syndrome decoding. Give the special features of Trellis codes. Describe a decoding procedure for linear block code. Give the details of implementation of cyclic encoder and decoder based on Linear feedback shift registers. 7. Explain the features of RS code. 8. State and explain the properties of maximal length sequence. 9. Explain the syndrome S for all five probable single error patterns in(5,1) repetition code. 10. Generate the code words for (7, 4) Hamming code. 16 MARKS 1. Consider a rate , non-systematic convolutional code with, g(1)(p)={1,0,1}, g(2)={1,1,1}. Determine the encoder output corresponding to the data sequence {1,0,1,0,1}. If the first and the fourth bits of the encoded sequence are affected during transmission, demonstrate the error correcting capability of the viterbi algorithm Draw the block diagram of DS-SS transmitter and receiver and explain the function performed by each block in brief. 2. For a (2,1,3) convolution code with g1 = ( 1 0 1 1) and g2 = ( 1 1 1 1), design the encoder and find the following. (i) Generator matrix (ii) Transfer function matrix Compute the coded output using both the methods assuming the input u = (101101). 3. A (15,5) linear cyclic code has a generator polynomial, g(D)=1+D+D2+D4+D5+D8+D10 Draw block diagrams of an encoder and syndrome calculator for this code. Find the code polynomial in systematic form, for the message pol n al y omi m (D)=1+D2+D4. Is y(D)=1+D4+D6+D8+D14, a code polynomial? If not, find the syndrome of y(D). 4. Explain any four characteristics of the following block codes (i) BCH codes (ii) CRC codes (iii) maximum length codes. 5. Let g(x) is the generator polynomial of a cyclic code C. Find a scheme for encoding the data sequence(d0,d1.dk-1) into (n,k) systematic code C. 6. The generator matrix for a (6,3) block code is given below. Find all code vectors for this code. 100 011 G= 010 : 101 001 : 110 7. Explain the construction of Block Code and Explain how error syndrome is calculated. 8. Explain the channel coding technique used in the Block codes. 9. What are all the message vectors can be extracted from the code vector that was generated by 1+X+X3. 10. Explain in detail about Orthogonal codes, Bi orthogonal codes and Trans orthogonal codes.

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UNIT V 8MARKS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Write shorts notes on Probability Error. Write shorts notes on Jamming Margin. Write shorts notes on (S/N) of the DS System. State and explain the properties of maximal length sequences. Discuss the antijam characteristics. With neat sketches, explain the frequency hop spread spectrum techniques. Explain about Maximum length and Gold codes. Discuss the ways in which fast hopping scheme and slow frequency hopping (spread spectrum) schemes could be used to mitigate multipath effect. 9. Obtain the expression for the processing gain in DS-SS(PSK) system. 10. Explain the principle of operation of frequency hopped M-ary FSK spread spectrum system.

16 MARKS 1. Generate the PN sequence for [5, 4, 3, 1] and prove the all properties of the same. 2. List out and prove the Properties of the PN sequence. 3. Discuss the configuration of a Direct Sequence spread spectrum system with BPSK in detail. 4. With suitable block diagrams, discuss hopping spread spectrum systems. the structure of the transmitter and Receiver of frequency

5. Draw the block diagram of DS- spread spectrum system transmitter and receiver and explain the function Performed by each block in brief. 6. Derive an expression for Jamming margin for direct sequence spread spectrum system with BPSK modulation. ii) An PN sequence is generated using a feedback register of length m = 4. The chip rate is 107 chips per sec. Find the length, chip duration and the period of the PN sequence. 7. List out the uses of the FH. Explain the FH techniques with the frequency spectrum. 8. Explain the direct sequence spread spectrum modulation with coherent binary phase shift keying. 9. Draw the block diagram of FHSS system and explain. 10. Discuss a suitable method for generating PN sequence. Explain with suitable diagrams, how the PN sequence is used in frequency hopping spread spectrum transmitter and receiver.

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