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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Department of Municipalities and Agriculture Abu Dhabi Municipality Roads and Transportation Directorate

ARAB EMIRATES Department of Municipalities and Agriculture Abu Dhabi Municipality Roads and Transportation Directorate

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1. Background 1 1.2. Need for
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1. Background 1 1.2. Need for

1. INTRODUCTION

1

1.1. Background 1

1.2. Need for Traffic Impact Studies

1.3. Need for Parking Requirements 2

1.4. Objectives of Traffic Impact Study and Parking Requirements

2

3

1.5. How These Guidelines were Developed 3

1.6. References 4

2. APPLICATION OF REQUIREMENTS

5

2.1.

How Do Traffic Impact Studies and Parking Studies Fit Within the

Development Review Process?

5

2.1.1. Land Development Review Process

5

2.1.2. Incorporation of Traffic Impact Study and Parking Study Requirements

into the Review Process

6

2.2.

When is a Traffic Impact Study Needed?

6

2.2.1. Criteria for Determining the Need for a Traffic Impact Study

8

2.2.2. Procedures for Obtaining Exemptions from the Requirements for

Traffic Impact Studies

8

2.3. When Do Parking Requirements Apply?

8

2.4. Qualifications of Study Preparer

8

2.5. Qualifications of Study Reviewer

9

3. SCOPE OF TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY

10

3.1. Summary of Traffic Impact Study Process 10

3.2. Initial Meeting and Development of Inception Plan 11

13

3.2.2. Initial Meeting 13

3.2.1. Notification

3.2.3. Inception plan for Traffic Impact Study

13

3.3. Study Area

14

3.4. Key Facilities to be Analyzed 14

3.5. Horizon Year(s)

15

3.6. Peak Hours of Analysis 15

3.7. Methodologies and Procedures 16

3.7.1. Level of Service Calculation Methodologies 16

3.8. Impact Analysis and Mitigation Strategies 18

3.9. References 18

4. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS

19

4.1. Development Site Location

19

4.2. Description of Current Land Uses on Development Site

19

4.3. Description of Surrounding Transportation System

21

4.3.1. Study Area

21

4.3.2. Existing Roadway System

21

4.3.3. Existing Public Transport and Taxi Service

23

4.3.4. Existing Pedestrian Facilities

23

4.4.

Data Collection/Traffic Count Requirements

23

4.4.1. Existing Data to be obtained from the Roads Directorate

24

4.4.2. Data to be Collected by Applicant

24

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 4.5. Reporting Existing Levels of Service on Key Facilities
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 4.5. Reporting Existing Levels of Service on Key Facilities

4.5. Reporting Existing Levels of Service on Key Facilities 26

4.6. References 29

5. ESTABLISHING FUTURE YEAR BASELINE CONDITIONS 30

5.1. Methods and Data Considerations

30

5.2. Assumptions Regarding Future Year Land Use and Population

30

5.2.1. Regional Growth Assumptions 31

31

5.3. Assumptions Regarding Future Transportation Improvements 32

5.2.2. Related Developments in the Study Area

5.3.1. Highway and TSM Improvements

32

5.3.2. Public Transportation Service and TDM

33

5.4. Determining Future Year Baseline Traffic Volumes 33

5.4.1. Manual Method for Determining Future Year Baseline Traffic

Volumes 33

5.4.2. Model Method for Determining Future Year Baseline Traffic Volumes

34

5.5. Evaluation of Baseline Traffic Conditions

5.6. References 35

35

6.

TRIP GENERATION

36

6.1. Development

Description

36

6.2. Development Trip Generation

37

6.2.1. Peak Hours 37

6.2.2. Trip Generation Rates 38

6.2.3. Primary vs. Linked Trips

38

6.2.4. Internal Capture

39

6.2.5. Mode Split Variations

40

6.2.6. Tables of Existing and Future Development Trip Generation

40

6.2.7. Information On Available Trip Generation Resources

40

6.3. Choice of Trip Rates

41

6.4. References 41

7.

SITE TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION AND ASSIGNMENT

42

7.1.

Trip

Distribution

42

7.1.1. Manual Methods

43

7.1.2. Model-Based Methods 45

7.2. Trip Assignment 46

7.3. References 46

8. ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT-RELATED TRANSPORTATION

IMPACTS

48

8.1. Quantifying Development-Related Transportation Impacts 48

8.1.1. Traffic Impacts 48

8.1.2. Other Transportation Impacts

49

8.2.

Thresholds for Determining Significant Transportation Impacts

50

8.2.1. Approaches to Defining Significance Thresholds

50

8.2.2. Significance Thresholds for Abu Dhabi

51

8.3. References 52

9.

DEVELOPMENT OF MITIGATION PLAN

53

9.1.

Developing the Mitigation Plan

53

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 9.1.1. Objectives of Mitigation Plan 53 9.1.2. Quantifying
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 9.1.1. Objectives of Mitigation Plan 53 9.1.2. Quantifying

9.1.1. Objectives of Mitigation Plan

53

9.1.2. Quantifying the Benefits of Mitigation Measures

53

9.2. Potential Mitigation Strategies 56

9.2.1. Intersection Improvements 56

9.2.2. New Roadways, Extensions, Roadway Widening, and Interchanges 57

9.2.3. Operational or Transportation System Management Improvements

57

9.2.4. Transportation Demand Management 57

9.2.5. Modifications to Definition of Development and/or Site Plan

58

9.3. Implementation and Phasing of Mitigation Measures

58

9.4. Review and Approval of Proposed Mitigation Plan

58

9.5. References 59

10. MULTIMODAL SITE ACCESS, CIRCULATION, AND PARKING DESIGN

60

10.1.

Importance and Scope of Site Access and Circulation

60

10.2.

Site

Plan

61

10.3.

Site Access, Circulation, and Parking Design

62

10.3.1. Site Access 62

10.3.2. Access Design 62

63

10.3.4. Delivery, Service and Emergency Vehicles 64

10.3.5. Taxi and Public and Private Transport Vehicle Access 64

10.3.6. Pedestrian and Bicycle Access and Circulation 64

10.3.7. Parking Design and Layout 65

10.4. References 66

11. PARKING REQUIREMENTS 67

11.1. Overview 67

67

11.2.1. Parking Rates in CBD and High-Density Sectors 67

10.3.3. Internal Roadways

11.2. Parking Rates in Abu Dhabi

11.2.2. Publicly Available Parking Supply vs. Reserved Parking Supply in the

CBD and High-Density Areas

69

11.2.3.

Parking Rates for All Other Developments

70

11.3. Parking Analysis Requirements 71

11.3.1. Simple Parking Analysis (Proposed Development Meets Parking

Requirements Directly) 71

11.3.2. Complex Parking Analysis (Proposed Development Does Not Meet

72

11.4. References 74

Parking Requirements Directly)

12. FORMAT OF TRAFFIC Impact Study and PARKING REQUIREMENT

STUDY Report

75

12.1. General Characteristics

75

12.2. Structure of Report 75

12.3. References 76

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Figure 2-1 7 Abu Dhabi Traffic Impact Study an
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Figure 2-1 7 Abu Dhabi Traffic Impact Study an

Figure 2-1

7

Abu Dhabi Traffic Impact Study and Parking StudyRequirements

7

Figure 3-1

12

Abu Dhabi Traffic Impact Study Process

12

Figure 3-2

17

Level Of Service Definitions For Signalized And Unsignalized Intersections

17

Figure

3-3

17

Figure

6-1:

39

Trip Types (Source: Institute of Transportation Engineers, Trip Generation Handbook, 2001)

39

Figure 7-1

45

Example Application of Area-of-Influence Method (Source: V. Stover and F. Koepke,

Transportation and Land Development, 2002)

45

Figure 11-1

68

Abu Dhabi CBD and High-Density Areas

68

Table 5-1 Summary Of Future Year Baseline Traffic Conditions

35

Table

8-1

49

Quantification of Development Related Traffic Impacts in Study Area

49

Table 8-2

52

Significant Thresholds for Development-Related Transportation Impacts

52

Table 9-1

55

Quantification Of Mitigation Measure Benefits

55

Table 11-1

71

Format For Simple Parking Analysis Table

71

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 1. INTRODUCTION This document is intended to provide pub
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 1. INTRODUCTION This document is intended to provide pub

1.

INTRODUCTION

This document is intended to provide public agencies, private landowners, their consultants, and Municipality staff with standards, guidelines, objectives and criteria to be used in the preparation of traffic impact and parking studies for developments. Such studies may be required for proposed developments prior to the issuance of Building Licenses. In order to ensure timely review by the Municipality Roads Directorate, the policies and procedures provided herein are to be followed in the preparation of Traffic Impact and Parking Study reports. This introductory chapter provides background regarding Abu Dhabi’s recent development, and explains the need and main objectives of establishing traffic impacts study and parking requirements.

Abu Dhabi Municipality’s Roads Directorate has published these policies and procedures to ensure that appropriate mitigation measures will be identified and implemented for those developments that cause traffic impacts, while not unnecessarily burdening smaller projects or those in less congested areas.

1.1.

Background

Abu Dhabi is the capital of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), a country established in 1971 as a federation of seven Trucial States: Abu Dhabi; Dubai; Ras Al Khaimah; Fujairah; Umm Al Quwain; and Ajman. The booming economy of Abu Dhabi has led to a large increase in population, rising ownership of cars and trucks, and substantial growth in traffic. The population in the Abu Dhabi Emirate has grown from 200,000 in 1975 to over 900,000 in 2000. Greater Abu Dhabi, including Abu Dhabi Island and neighboring island and mainland developments, has a year 2000 total population estimated at 575,000.

Abu Dhabi Municipality has implemented major infrastructure projects to cope with the region’s growth. As a result, the city today has a modern transportation system. The road network is laid out in a rectilinear pattern, and the wide arterial streets typically have dual 3-lane carriageways.

Abu Dhabi continues to grow rapidly. Although much of the new growth is in the communities on the mainland, such as Shahama and Shamka, a substantial amount of growth still occurs in Abu Dhabi Island, including the Central Business District (CBD). The CBD is characterized by high-density mixed land uses. Much of the growth in the CBD is in the form of redevelopment of existing buildings to greater intensity.

This rapid growth places heavy demands on the transportation system, both in terms of roadway capacity and parking supply. Recognizing the future needs being created by this tremendous growth over the next two decades, the Municipality has proposed a series of strategies and actions to ensure that the city continues to enjoy adequate system performance in the coming years.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 1.2. Need for Traffic Impact Studies While the Municipality
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 1.2. Need for Traffic Impact Studies While the Municipality

1.2. Need for Traffic Impact Studies

While the Municipality is actively designing and implementing transportation improvements aimed at maintaining and enhancing transportation system performance, it is not possible for the Municipality to anticipate incremental impacts that may occur with the addition of each individual development.

In order to ensure that operational problems do not arise at the local level, the MTP proposed that Traffic Impact Study Guidelines be developed as quickly as possible, and that regulations be adopted that require new developments to conduct traffic impact studies prior to obtaining development approval. The MTP further recommended that parking requirements be included in these guidelines. Such guidelines are necessary to ensure a consistent process is followed for all proposed developments. They serve as an important tool for the management of urban growth, and greatly reduce the possibility that additional demand on the transportation network due to new developments results in local problems regarding traffic operations, traffic safety, or other problems.

Traffic impact study guidelines include procedures for estimating project traffic impacts on the surrounding transportation network, and for identifying mitigating measures that maintain a satisfactory level of service. Just as important, site access and circulation by automobiles, public transportation, pedestrians, and bicycles, are assessed and improvements recommended. Access requirements for the elderly and physically disadvantaged are also addressed

It should be stressed that effective implementation of these guidelines is of benefit to the city as well as the developer asked to prepare the study. Adequate transportation network performance in the area surrounding the planned development benefits those accessing the project as well as the community at large.

Moreover, even large and expensive developments often suffer from design oversights in regard to site access and on-site circulation that could lead to serious operational problems if left unsolved. These problems may be difficult and expensive to solve after construction of the development is complete. The Traffic Impact and Parking Requirements will help to identify such problems and develop appropriate solutions.

1.3. Need for Parking Requirements

Many cities have learned that the problem of increasing parking shortages can be reduced or eliminated if all new developments are required to meet their own parking needs. It is the objective of these policies and procedures to end the growth in parking shortfalls in the CBD and to ensure that similar parking shortfalls do not occur in other areas of the city. Parking requirements ensure that on-site parking demand is assessed and that adequate parking is provided on-site to ensure that parking problems in the area are not created or exacerbated.

Provision of parking by new developments, combined with the ongoing parking structure program of the Municipality and the comprehensive parking management

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES plan that is being developed, will eventua lly lead
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES plan that is being developed, will eventua lly lead

plan that is being developed, will eventually lead to a balance between supply and demand for parking in the city.

1.4. Objectives of Traffic Impact Study and Parking Requirements

Land development in urban areas often impacts the performance of the transportation system. Conducting traffic impact studies and establishing parking requirements is a prerequisite to orderly land development. The overall goal of traffic impact studies and parking requirements is to ensure that any negative impacts of the new development on the transportation system are identified and mitigated. Specific objectives serving this goal include the following:

To assess traffic impacts on the transportation network surrounding a proposed new development;

To assess site access and site circulation and propose measures to overcome any problems that are identified; and

To assess the parking demand of the new development and determine the manner in which that parking demand be met.

The development of guidelines for how to conduct traffic impact studies and determine parking requirements has the following aims:

To provide decision makers with a basis for assessing the transportation implications of approving proposed development applications;

To assist developers through the approval process by outlining the requirements and level of detail of traffic analysis that will be required of them during the approval process;

To standardize the types of analysis required in the assessment of traffic impacts and parking requirements for developments and thereby ensure consistency in the preparation and review of traffic impact studies; and

To

provide

a

basis

for estimating the cost of proposed

mitigation measures.

1.5. How These Guidelines were Developed

Due to its comprehensiveness, the ITE's "Traffic Access and Impact Studies for Site Development, A Recommended Practice” served as a basic reference for this study. Traffic impact study guidelines and parking requirements prepared for cities in the US, the UK, Dubai, and other locations were also consulted. These guidelines were prepared by reviewing these sources and developing the most appropriate approach for the conditions in Abu Dhabi. A list of all the documents consulted in the preparation of these guidelines is provided in Appendix A. Documents consulted for specific chapters are listed at the end of each chapter.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 1.6. References 1. Institute of Transportation Engineers ,
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 1.6. References 1. Institute of Transportation Engineers ,

1.6.

References

1. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Access and Impact Studies for

Site Development, 1991.

2. V. Stover and F. Koepke, Transportation and Land Development, 2002.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 2. APPLICATION OF REQUIREMENTS Traffic impacts study and parking
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 2. APPLICATION OF REQUIREMENTS Traffic impacts study and parking

2. APPLICATION OF REQUIREMENTS

Traffic impacts study and parking requirements are only one element of the land development review process. This chapter summarizes the manner in which planned developments are reviewed before approval for construction, and explains how the review process can include the traffic impact study and parking requirements.

Criteria are also defined that specify under which conditions a traffic impact/parking

The chapter concludes with a discussion of the

qualifications required of the transportation professionals who prepare or review these studies.

requirements study is required

2.1. How Do Traffic Impact Studies and Parking Studies Fit Within the Development Review Process?

In this section, an outline of the land development review process in Abu Dhabi is followed by a description of how the traffic impact study and parking requirements are to be inserted into that process.

2.1.1. Land Development Review Process

Before a development can proceed into construction, the development must successfully pass through the land development review process. This process includes review by the Municipality’s Town Planning, Engineering, and Sewerage Sections, as well as the Civil Defense Department. With the publication and application of these guidelines, this review process will also include a review by the Roads Directorate. This section summarizes the main features of the land development review process.

Once a parcel of land has been granted to a private individual or a public agency, and the land use specified, the land development review process of the Abu Dhabi Municipality and Town Planning Department ensures that the actual development of the land meets Municipality requirements. The landowner or the consultant hired to design the facility may notify the Town Planning Department of its plans and proceed with obtaining the necessary approvals. The Abu Dhabi Municipality and Town Planning have issued a detailed description of all the various regulations and ordinances in the form of a booklet named ‘Code Governing Construction Activities and Executive Ordinance’.

The Town Planning Department reviews the site plan, architectural drawings, and proposed land use, and ensures that regulations and guidelines related to architectural standards and building style, as well as building heights/number of floors, setbacks, and others, are observed. Following successful completion of this review, a Building Permit is issued. Despite its name, a Building Permit does not mean that a facility has been approved for development and construction quite yet.

The review process then shifts to the Engineering Section, who reviews the engineering drawings for structural adequacy, and issues a permit as appropriate. Additional permits have to be obtained from the Municipality’s Sewerage Section, and from the Civil Defense for compliance with their requirements.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES This process has recently been streamlined for greater
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES This process has recently been streamlined for greater

This process has recently been streamlined for greater efficiency, and is centrally administered in a separate building next to the ground floor of the Town Planning building. Even the Civil Defense permit can be obtained from within Municipality premises.

When all necessary permits have been obtained, the Municipality issues a Building License, which allows the owner to develop the land.

2.1.2. Incorporation of Traffic Impact Study and Parking Study Requirements into the Review Process

With the publication of these guidelines, the land development and review process now includes a review by the Roads Directorate of the Municipality and Town Planning Department. (While the Roads Directorate does not issue a “permit” as such, it does provide a letter signed by the Director of Roads Directorate which indicates that the Traffic Impact and Parking Requirements Study report has been reviewed and approved, or indicates that an exemption has been given enabling the development to proceed without the report). This letter carries the same level of significance as the development review permits described above. It is necessary to obtain the approval letter from the Director of Roads Directorate prior to obtaining the Building License.

Depending upon their size and characteristics, proposed developments may be required to have a traffic impact study, a parking study, both, or none. If a proposed development is required to have both a traffic impact study and a parking study, the two study reports may be submitted separately, or submitted in a single joint traffic impact and parking study report.

2.2. When is a Traffic Impact Study Needed?

A Traffic Impact Study is generally needed whenever a proposed development is likely to generate sufficient levels of additional traffic to cause an impact on the surrounding transportation system. The Director of Roads Directorate determines whether a Traffic Impact Study will be needed for any individual development proposal. This section provides criteria that will be used, in most cases, to determine the necessity for a Traffic Impact Study. It is possible, however, that other factors may contribute to the determination in some cases.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Figure 2-1 Abu Dhabi Traffic Impact Study and Parking
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Figure 2-1 Abu Dhabi Traffic Impact Study and Parking

Figure 2-1 Abu Dhabi Traffic Impact Study and Parking StudyRequirements

NOTIFICATION TO ROADS DIRECTORATE OF PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT

NOTIFICATION TO ROADS DIRECTORATE OF PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT ROADS DIRECTORATE REVIEW OF PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT

ROADS

DIRECTORATE

REVIEW OF

PROPOSED

DEVELOPMENT

Traffic Impact Study Needed? Yes
Traffic
Impact
Study
Needed?
Yes

ANALYZE TRAFFIC IMPACTS AND PREPARE MITIGATION PLAN

Parking Study Needed? Yes
Parking
Study
Needed?
Yes

No

No

PREPARE MITIGATION PLAN Parking Study Needed? Yes No No NO FURTHER ACTION REQUIRED NO FURTHER ANALYZE
PREPARE MITIGATION PLAN Parking Study Needed? Yes No No NO FURTHER ACTION REQUIRED NO FURTHER ANALYZE

NO FURTHER

ACTION

REQUIRED

NO FURTHER

ANALYZE

PARKING

REQUIREMENTS

ACTION REQUIRED NO FURTHER ANALYZE PARKING REQUIREMENTS SUBMIT OPTIONAL JOINT TRAFFIC IMPACT AND PARKING STUDY
ACTION REQUIRED NO FURTHER ANALYZE PARKING REQUIREMENTS SUBMIT OPTIONAL JOINT TRAFFIC IMPACT AND PARKING STUDY

SUBMIT OPTIONAL JOINT TRAFFIC IMPACT AND PARKING STUDY REPORT – DRAFT AND FINAL

SUBMIT TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY REPORT – DRAFT AND FINAL

SUBMIT PARKING STUDY REPORT – DRAFT AND FINAL

ACTION REQUIRED
ACTION REQUIRED

ACTION

REQUIRED

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 2.2.1. Criteria for Determining the Need for a Traffic
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 2.2.1. Criteria for Determining the Need for a Traffic

2.2.1. Criteria for Determining the Need for a Traffic Impact Study

Traffic Impact Studies will generally be required when a proposed development meets or exceeds one or more of the following criteria.

1. A residential development that has 30 or more housing units or provides housing for 150 or more workers.

2. Any other development that is expected to generate 100 or more vehicle trip ends (sum of departures and arrivals) during the AM or PM peak hour. Estimates of peak-hour development vehicle trip generation must be consistent with the parameters and procedures in Chapter 6 of these guidelines.

2.2.2. Procedures for Obtaining Exemptions from the Requirements for Traffic Impact Studies

Exemptions from the requirements to provide Traffic Impact Studies may be requested in writing addressed to the Director of Roads. Such requests must include a description of the proposed development and the factors to be considered in considering the request. The Roads Directorate will notify the applicant of its decision in writing within 30 days of receiving the request, indicating whether the request is granted or rejected. The Roads Directorate may request additional information from the applicant while considering the request.

2.3. When Do Parking Requirements Apply?

While a traffic impact study is not required of all developments, all proposed developments must demonstrate provision of sufficient parking spaces to meet the parking needs. Chapter 11 of these guidelines details the manner in which parking demand for a development is estimated, and how parking should be provided by the developer.

For small developments in certain locations (such as a villa in a particular mainland community), demonstration of adequate parking may be straightforward by submitting the site plan. In sectors with excess parking supply, credits may be granted for nearby excess parking spaces, at the discretion of the Roads Directorate. In sectors with parking shortages, the Municipality may be in the process of building additional parking spaces and it may be possible for the proposed development to benefit from these additional spaces. Financial contributions toward Municipality- supplied parking may be required. The Roads Directorate is developing a comprehensive parking management plan, which may result in additional mechanisms to ensure new developments do not contribute to a worsening of the parking situation.

2.4. Qualifications of Study Preparer

Traffic Impact Studies should be prepared under the supervision of a qualified and experienced transportation engineering/transportation planning professional who has training in traffic and transportation engineering and several years of experience in

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES preparing traffic impact studies for exis ting or proposed
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES preparing traffic impact studies for exis ting or proposed

preparing traffic impact studies for existing or proposed developments. A Masters degree in transportation or traffic engineering and 10 or more years of experience is desirable. Approval of the individual responsible for the Traffic Impact Study is at the discretion of the Roads Directorate. The qualifications of the individual responsible for the Traffic Impact Study are to be presented to the Roads Directorate concurrently with the proposed scope of work (see Chapter 3 of these guidelines).

2.5. Qualifications of Study Reviewer

Review of Traffic Impact and Parking Requirements Study reports is to be performed by one or more Roads Directorate staff who collectively have training and experience in traffic impact study methodology, land use planning and traffic engineering, including traffic safety and operations. The Head of the Roads Directorate will determine if individuals within the Roads Directorate have these qualifications to review the reports.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 3. SCOPE OF TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY The primary purpose
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 3. SCOPE OF TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY The primary purpose

3. SCOPE OF TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY

The primary purpose of a traffic impact study is to identify impacts of the proposed development on the surrounding transportation network, and to determine appropriate measures to mitigate these impacts. The severity of the traffic impacts depends on the size and characteristics of the proposed development as well as the design and operational characteristics of the surrounding transportation network. For example, if a large shopping mall were planned in a congested downtown area, traffic flow might slow down considerably as a result of the additional traffic generated by the mall, and numerous intersections could be impacted. By comparison, a small planned development in the same area might impact only immediately adjacent roadways and intersections.

If the same mall were to be located on the mainland adjacent to a wide and uncongested freeway, however, the nature of the impacts on the adjacent roads might differ significantly. The freeway adjacent to the mall on the mainland might have sufficient unused capacity to handle the increase in traffic, and only immediately nearby interchanges might be impacted measurably.

The differences in impacts due to type and size of development and location also result in different approaches to mitigation strategies. In the case of the shopping mall in the congested downtown, significant physical and operational improvements might be required to overcome the decline in level of service. On the other hand, the decline in level of service due to the mall located on the mainland might be too small to necessitate identification and implementation of any mitigation measures.

Because of these differences between individual developments, and between the nature of the neighborhood and transportation network within which the developments are located, it is not practical to define a single scope of work that is applicable in every case. This chapter provides procedures to be used in determining the work scope to be applied on a case-by-case basis, and serves as a starting point for consultants who develop a inception plan. The Roads Directorate will review that plan and determine whether additional factors warrant modifications to that plan before approving the precise work scope.

Following a summary of the traffic impact study process, this chapter describes how the inception plan is developed, followed by a discussion of how to determine the study area, the key facilities to be analyzed, the horizon years, and the peak hours. The methodologies to be used for assessing the level of service of the facilities to be analyzed in the study area is then provided, followed by a pointer to impact analysis and mitigation strategies discussed in later chapters of this report.

3.1. Summary of Traffic Impact Study Process

The overall traffic impact study process is shown in Figure 3-1. This process generally consists of the following steps:

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 1. Introduction – A brief description of the proposed
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 1. Introduction – A brief description of the proposed

1. Introduction – A brief description of the proposed development, issues discussed in the initial meeting, definition of the study area, and overall approach to the traffic impact study.

2. Analysis of existing conditions – Summary of current conditions on the major arterial streets and internal roads surrounding the proposed development.

3. Establishing future year baseline (without-development) conditions – Summary of future year conditions without the development, based on assumptions regarding growth and planned transportation improvements in Abu Dhabi approved by Town Planning and the Roads Directorate respectively.

4. Development description and trip generation – Description of development in sufficient detail to estimate trip generation.

5. Development trip distribution and assignment – Estimates of changes in traffic on the surrounding major arterial streets and internal roads due to the proposed development.

6. Impact analysis – Determination of traffic impacts due to the proposed development.

7. Mitigation plan – Summary of proposed measures to mitigate development traffic impacts.

8. Multi-modal site/sector access and circulation analysis – Evaluation of access and circulation on-site and within the sector for highway vehicles, public transportation pedestrians and bicycles, and the design of development parking.

9. Parking Requirement – Assessment of the demand for parking generated by the development, and the manner in which this demand is met.

With the exception of the introduction, a separate chapter of this report provides guidelines for each of the above elements.

3.2. Initial Meeting and Development of Inception Plan

The first step in the traffic impact study process is to notify the Roads Directorate of intent to perform a study, and to develop a inception plan documenting what is to be done and how it is to be performed. It is strongly recommended that the applicant (landowner, developer, or consultant) notify the Roads Directorate of its intent to perform a traffic impact study, and to meet with the Roads Directorate in order to determine the precise work scope to be followed.

Failure to notify the Roads Directorate of the intent to prepare a traffic impact study or to conduct an initial meeting may result in the rejection of the traffic impact study report when it is submitted. Without the notification and initial meeting, the applicant

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES would be conducting the study without an a ssurance
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES would be conducting the study without an a ssurance

would be conducting the study without an assurance that the Roads Directorate has reviewed and approved the work scope for the study.

Figure 3-1 Abu Dhabi Traffic Impact Study Process

Directorate has reviewed and approved the work scope for the study. Figure 3-1 Abu Dhabi Traffic

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 3.2.1. Notification Notification of intent to conduct a traffic
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 3.2.1. Notification Notification of intent to conduct a traffic

3.2.1. Notification

Notification of intent to conduct a traffic impact study is to be made in writing to the Director of Roads, P.O. Box 263, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The notification should include preliminary information about the proposed development, including location, size, and land use(s).

3.2.2. Initial Meeting

Depending upon the size and complexity of the proposed development and/or traffic impact study, the initial meeting may be a simple brief meeting or may grow to a series of meetings with many attendees. Issues to be addressed in the initial meeting include:

Details on Development type and size

How much information is needed for a “complete” study?

What study area should be evaluated?

What should be the horizon year(s)?

What peak hour(s) should be analyzed?

What technical analyses are required?

What technical procedures and parameters should be utilized?

What special requirements, if any, should apply to the traffic impact study for the proposed development?

Who, within the Roads Directorate, will be assigned to coordinate with the applicant and review submitted products?

What is the schedule for product submittal and review?

What are the costs, if any, incurred by the Roads Directorate and to be reimbursed by the applicant?

Other related issues

3.2.3. Inception plan for Traffic Impact Study

Either at the initial meeting or subsequent to the meeting, the applicant will submit a inception plan. The inception plan is the proposed work scope for the traffic impact study. It documents the approach agreed upon by the Roads Directorate and the applicant.

The inception plan for the traffic impact study should include but is not limited to the following:

1. A general description of the development including:

Preliminary site plan, including locations of driveways and parking areas;

Size (number of square meters by use and/or number of residential units by type); and

Other significant aspects of the development.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES If the proposed development is to be cons tructed
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES If the proposed development is to be cons tructed

If the proposed development is to be constructed in phases, then a description of each phase of the development is to be included, together with the anticipated opening date of each phase.

2. A description of the study area, including:

Intersections and roadway links to be studied; and

The area within the sector(s) to be analyzed.

3. A list of related developments planned within the study area.

4. An overall work scope, identifying those elements of the traffic impact study process to be included in the study.

5. A description of the methodologies and parameters to be used in performing the technical analyses.

6. Land-Use/Transportation assumptions to be used.

7. Names and qualifications of preparers.

3.3. Study Area

The size of the study area depends upon the location and size of the proposed development and the conditions prevailing in the surrounding area. The impact of large developments proposed in congested or poorly accessible areas may extend several intersections away from the development site. On the other hand, small developments may only require a study area that includes access driveways and immediately adjacent intersections. Thus the definition of the study area should only be as large as necessary to capture all significantly influenced facilities, in order to avoid unnecessary effort being spent analyzing and reviewing the study.

Since the area impact by the development is so closely related to both the nature of the development and the current and expected conditions in the surrounding neighborhood, there are no straightforward rules for defining the study area for a traffic impact study. At the minimum, the study area should include all development access points, adjacent intersections in the sector, and adjacent sector driveways, for development located in sectors. For developments elsewhere, the study area should include all development access points, plus major adjacent intersections (signalized and unsignalized). The Roads Directorate will determine the additional facilities to be included in the study area for each traffic impact study based on the specific characteristics of the proposed development, and the traffic conditions and transportation system characteristics of the surrounding area, as well as other concerns, factors, and policies. The inclusion of already congested facilities likely to be impacted by the proposed development will be an important criterion defining the study area.

3.4. Key Facilities to be Analyzed

The key facilities to be analyzed in traffic impact studies are determined by the Roads Directorate. In most cases, key facilities will include:

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES • All signalized intersections within the study area; •
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES • All signalized intersections within the study area; •

All signalized intersections within the study area;

All roundabouts connecting streets classified as collectors or higher within the study area;

All all-way-stop-controlled intersections of streets classified as collectors or higher;

All ramps connecting streets classified as arterials or higher within the study area;

All freeways and expressways in the study area;

All local circulator roads within the study area; and

All sector/arterial driveways within the study area.

3.5. Horizon Year(s)

The horizon year will generally be the year that the proposed development is expected to be fully operational. For phased developments, separate horizon years representing the anticipated completion date of each phase may be required. For very large developments, in which the anticipated completion year is uncertain, a fifteen or twenty-year time horizon may be required.

The Roads Directorate will determine the horizon year(s) for the study. The Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Forecasting Model forecasts for the years 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. Future updates to the model will extend the horizon years modeled. When modeling is used in the analysis, as described in section 3.7, the Roads Directorate may elect to define a horizon year as the nearest year modeled after development buildout.

3.6. Peak Hours of Analysis

The peak hours to be analyzed will be determined during the initial meeting and documented in the Inception plan. Typically two peak hours of analysis will be required. The hours selected for the analysis will be based on peak hour trip generation estimates for the proposed development and the peaking patterns of traffic on the roadway system within the study area.

With the possible exception of some retail developments, the morning peak hour (7:00-8:00 AM) will most likely be required for all traffic impact studies. Depending upon the type of development, the second peak hour may be the noon (11:00 AM- noon), afternoon (2:00-3:00 PM), or evening (7:00-8:00 PM) peak hour. For example, if the proposed development is located in a downtown sector, the noon or evening peak hour may be selected. If the development is not in a downtown sector, the afternoon peak hour may be selected. If the proposed development is a school, the afternoon peak hour may be selected regardless of the school’s location. Exceptions to the choice of peak hour may be made in response to specific local or global conditions.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 3.7. Methodologies and Procedures Methodologies and procedures to
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 3.7. Methodologies and Procedures Methodologies and procedures to

3.7. Methodologies and Procedures

Methodologies and procedures to be used in performing the traffic impact studies will be agreed to during the initial meeting and documented in the Inception plan. Some general rules for the choice and use of methodologies for level-of-service calculation of signalized and unsignalized intersections, roundabouts, and road segments are discussed in this section. Manual and model-based methods of forecasting travel for future scenarios both with and without the proposed development are discussed in Chapters 6-7 of this report

3.7.1. Level of Service Calculation Methodologies

Level of service analysis must be conducted in conformance to these guidelines. Alternative methodologies may be proposed by the applicant and, following review by the Roads Directorate, may be accepted.

Signalized and Unsignalized Intersections

Levels of Service for signalized and unsignalized intersections shall be based on average control delay following methodologies and procedures outlined in the most recent edition of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) published by the Transportation Research Board (1). Figure 3-2 defines the levels of service for signalized and unsignalized intersections. Commonly used software packages utilizing HCM methodologies and procedures such as HCS and SYNCHRO (using the HCM Signals Report to determine delay) are acceptable for determining levels of service on signalized and unsignalized intersections. Use of other methodologies and procedures will be accepted only after Roads Directorate review and approval of the proposed methodologies and procedures. In reviewing other methodologies, the Roads Directorate will assess whether the proposed methodology provides results that are comparable to the results obtained using HCM-based methodologies.

For both signalized and unsignalized intersections, it is not only the average intersection control delay that determines the level of service of the intersection. Approach LOS and movement LOS are also important. If any approach or movement at an intersection is LOS F, then the intersection is considered to be LOS F. As long as all approaches and movements of the intersection are at LOS E or better, then the average intersection control delay will be the basis for determining the LOS.

Roundabouts

Levels of service for roundabouts shall be based on average queuing delay following methodologies and procedures developed by the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) and documented in the ARCADY 5 (International) User Guide (3) or later version for right-hand-side driving. Figure 3-3 defines the levels of service for roundabouts. Use of ARCADY or other software based on the TRL methodologies and procedures are acceptable for determining levels of service on roundabouts. Use of other methodologies and procedures will be accepted only after Roads Directorate review and approval of the proposed methodologies and procedures. In reviewing other methodologies, the Municipality will assess whether the proposed methodology

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES provides methodologies. results that are comparable to the results
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES provides methodologies. results that are comparable to the results

provides

methodologies.

results

that

are

comparable

to

the

results

obtained

using

TRL-based

Figure 3-2 Level Of Service Definitions For Signalized And Unsignalized Intersections

SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

 

LOS

Average Control Delay in seconds (1)

Description of Traffic Conditions (2)

A

0

– 10.0

Excellent. No vehicle waits longer than one red light and no approach phase is fully used.

B

10.1

– 20.0

Very Good. An occasional approach phase is fully utilized; many drivers begin to feel somewhat restricted within groups of vehicles.

C

20.1

– 35.0

Good. Occasionally, drivers may have to wait through more than one red light; backups may develop behind turning vehicles.

   

Fair. Delays may be substantial during portions of the rush hour, but

D

35.1

– 55.0

enough lower volume periods occur to permit cleaning of developing lines, preventing excessive backups.

   

Poor.

Represents the most vehicles that intersection approaches can

E

55.1

– 80.0

accommodate; may be long lines of waiting vehicles through several

 

signal cycles.

   

Failure. Backups from nearby intersections or on cross streets may

F

80.1

and above

restrict or prevent movement of vehicles out of the intersection approaches. Tremendous delays with continuously increasing queue lengths.

Figure 3-3

UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

 

Average

 

LOS

Control Delay

Description of Traffic Conditions

(Sec) 1

A

0

– 10.0

Excellent.

B

10.1

– 15.0

Very Good.

C

15.1

– 25.0

Good.

D

25.1

– 35.0

Fair.

E

35.1

– 50.0

Poor.

F

50.1

and above

Failure.

For roundabouts, it is not only the average intersection queuing delay that determines the level of service of the intersection. Approach LOS is also important. If any approach leg at a roundabout is LOS F, then the roundabout is considered to be LOS F. As long as all approach legs of the roundabout are at LOS E or better, then the average roundabout queuing delay will be the basis for determining the LOS.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Links Levels of service for segments of roadwa ys
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Links Levels of service for segments of roadwa ys

Links

Levels of service for segments of roadways and ramps shall be based on volume-to- capacity ratio (V/C). V/C is determined by comparing the observed hourly traffic volume to the capacity of the link. Link capacities are assumed as follows (4):

Expressways and freeways, 2,000 vehicles per hour per lane;

Arterial streets, 780 vehicles per hour per lane;

Arterial streets in the CBD, 580 vehicles per hour per lane;

Local roads, 580 vehicles per hour per lane; and

Ramps, 1,500 vehicles per hour per lane.

Other Operational Analyses

The Roads Directorate may request additional analyses, such as weave analyses or merge/diverge analyses, based on its review of a specific proposed development and its potential impacts. Such analyses must conform to the methodologies and procedures outlined in the latest edition of the Highway Capacity Manual.

3.8. Impact Analysis and Mitigation Strategies

The criteria and methods the consultant should use for defining and computing development impacts are discussed in Chapter 8. The chapter also discusses methods to determine whether these impacts are serious enough to warrant development of mitigation strategies. Chapter 9 discusses the manner in which mitigation strategies are to be developed. The manner in which on-site access and circulation are evaluated and improvements proposed is discussed in Chapter 10.

3.9. References

1. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, 1997 Congestion Management Program for Los Angeles County, November 1997.

2. Transportation Research Board, Highway Capacity Manual, 2000.

3. Transportation Research Laboratory, ARCADY 5 (International) User Guide,

2000.

4. Abu Dhabi Municipality and Town Planning Department, Abu Dhabi Master Transportation Plan, Phase II Report, July 2002.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 4. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS At the outset of
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 4. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS At the outset of

4. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS

At the outset of a study it is necessary to characterize the existing conditions in and

around the site under investigation, as well as to describe the area to be affected by

the development. The characterization should represent current conditions and should generally be no more than one year old. These baseline data will provide a foundation for assessing the land use and transportation implication of changes over time.

This chapter establishes requirements for the data to be collected and used in the study, as well as specifying the requirements for the existing conditions analysis. It specifies the required information to be included in the “Analysis of Existing Conditions” chapter of the traffic impact study report.

4.1. Development Site Location

A map showing the study site in relation to the surrounding roadway must be

provided in the traffic report. The map must be legible, and the size of the site and the

amount of frontage available on all adjacent streets must be noted on it or in the accompanying text. Figure 4-1 is a sample of a site location map.

4.2. Description of Current Land Uses on Development Site

Current land uses on the development site are to be described. Current land use is defined as the most intense use during the six-month period prior to approval of the preliminary plan. If the site currently contains structures or other uses, these are to be described in sufficient detail to allow for trip generation estimation.

The description of current land uses on the development site includes:

Number of dwelling units by type (villas, apartments, etc.);

Number of hotel rooms;

Number of group quarter units (labor camp rooms, student housing rooms, etc.);

Intensity of non-residential use quantified in square meters (gross floor area) and classified as retail, school, office, industrial, social-recreational, or medical; and

Other uses not identified above, quantified in square meters of gross floor area (where applicable) and/or estimated peak hour trip generation (for the peak hours to be analyzed in the traffic impact study as discussed in Chapter 6) if available.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 20

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Footprints of existing structures and other us es are

Footprints of existing structures and other uses are to be shown on a map. Figure 4-2 is an example of a Current Site Land Use map. Where reasonable, footprints of current uses can be included in the Site Location Map.

4.3. Description of Surrounding Transportation System

The traffic study shall include a description of the study area and the existing transportation system serving the site including any specific operational issues. The following will be addressed in this section:

Study area;

Existing roadway system and parking facilities;

Existing public transportation and taxi service; and

Existing pedestrian facilities.

4.3.1. Study Area

This section will describe the boundaries of the study area and give a general description of the land uses therein. Typically, the study area boundaries will be determined in the initial meeting and documented in the Preliminary Plan. In some cases, generally for large developments, the study area is defined following an analysis of development trips as described in Chapter 3.

4.3.2. Existing Roadway System

Detailed information regarding the physical and functional characteristics of the roadway system in the study area is provided in this section. Roadways to be described include all freeways, expressways, arterials and collectors that pass through the study area or pass within one-half kilometer of any part of the development site. If the development site is located in a downtown Abu Dhabi sector, a map of the sector is to be included and all local circulation roads in the sector are to be described. It is possible for some facilities outside the study area to be included in this description. Facilities may be added or subtracted at the discretion of the Roads Directorate.

Descriptions of facilities will include:

Name of facility;

Physical characteristics of the facility (e.g., number of travel lanes, median, sidewalks, amenities, etc.);

Posted speed limit;

Location and type of control used of key junctions on the facility within the study area (a key junction is defined as an intersection or roundabout, signalized or unsignalized, or a ramp connecting two or more facilities classified as arterials, expressways or freeways);

Parking facilities and regulations; and

Existing peak traffic volumes on the facility within the study area or (if outside of the study area) at its nearest location to the development site for all peak hours to be analyzed in the traffic impact study.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 22

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES An example of a facility description is as follows:

An example of a facility description is as follows:

“Khalifa bin Zayed Street is an east-west arterial with dual carriageways separated by a raised median, with a posted speed limit of 60 kph. Each carriageway has three lanes, with additional turning lanes at signalized intersections. Khalifa bin Zayed Street serves mixed land uses in the study area. Within the study area, Khalifa bin Zayed Street has signalized intersections at Fourth Street, Liwa Street and Airport Road. Parking is prohibited on both sides of the street in the study area. Current daily and peak hour traffic volumes on Khalifa bin Zayed Street are shown in the following table.”

4.3.3. Existing Public Transport and Taxi Service

In Abu Dhabi, public transport currently consists of a regularly scheduled bus service. This

section of the traffic impact study report will include a description of all bus transit lines

providing service in the study area.

A description of each bus line including route number, alignment within the study area,

terminal locations, frequency during peak hours and operating hours, should be included in

the report. A map showing the routing of each of the bus lines in the study area may help clarify the narratives.

Any taxi station or major taxi staging area located in the study area should be described in the report.

4.3.4. Existing Pedestrian Facilities

Main pedestrian facilities such as crossings at signalized intersections, mid-block crossings, pedestrian underpasses, should be identified and marked on a map. Within sectors, sidewalks should be identified.

4.4. Data Collection/Traffic Count Requirements

Prior to any fieldwork, consultation between the Roads Directorate and the applicant is recommended to reach consensus on data to be used in the traffic impact study. This consensus is typically achieved at the initial meeting and documented in the Preliminary Plan.

Current year traffic counts are required for all key facilities analyzed in the traffic impact study. Counts conducted during the twelve months prior to approval of the Preliminary Plan will be considered current. Counts conducted earlier than twelve months but not more than 24 months before approval of the Preliminary Plan will require a growth factor adjustment before being considered current. The Consultant should develop appropriate growth factors and seek the Roads Directorate’s approval before their use.

Within sectors, peak-hour link volume counts are required for all segments of the local circulator roads. A segment is defined as the portion of the road between two other roads that are classified as local circulator roads or higher. Turning movement counts are required at all

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES junctions of local circulator roads. Sector/arterial driveways

junctions of local circulator roads. Sector/arterial driveways within the study area are key facilities that require peak hour counts.

Outside of the sectors, all junctions of collectors, arterials, expressways and freeways, including roundabouts (signalized and unsignalized) and intersections (signalized and all- way-stop-controlled) within the study area require peak hour turning movement counts (except ramps, which require directional counts). Freeways, arterials, and ramps within the study area require directional counts on all segments. A freeway or expressway segment is defined as the portion of the facility between interchanges/ramps or junctions with any other roadway facility.

Data to be used in the traffic impact study fall into one of two categories:

Existing data to be obtained from the Roads Directorate; and

New data to be collected by the applicant.

4.4.1. Existing Data to be obtained from the Roads Directorate

The consultant is to explore the availability of existing data relevant to the study with the Roads Directorate. The Roads Directorate may be in possession of data themselves or may refer the Consultant to another party. A charge may be levied by the Roads Directorate for providing certain data.

Data that may be available through the Roads Directorate include:

Traffic counts;

Maps showing land uses or street networks, or design plots of developments;

Recent studies – Copies of recent traffic impact studies in the study area and area- wide studies that include the development site, if applicable.

Plots of traffic volumes – Plots of current year and future year peak hour traffic volumes on freeways, expressways, arterials and collectors developed from Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model assignments.

4.4.2. Data to be Collected by Applicant

Any data required for the traffic impact study and not available from the Roads Directorate must be collected by the applicant.

The assembly of available data should be accompanied by a detailed reconnaissance of the development site, area roadways, and the surrounding vicinity. This should include recording all relevant characteristics needed for the analysis, plus observations of existing traffic conditions. Only data required to address issues to be studied in the traffic impact study need to be collected.

Traffic volume counts must be collected in accordance with the procedure and requirements in these guidelines. Peak hour counts are to be collected for each peak hour to be evaluated in the traffic impact study. Morning peak hour counts are to be collected for the period from 6:30 to 8:30 AM. Noon peak hour counts are to be collected for the period from 10:30 AM to

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 12:30 PM. Afternoon peak hour counts are to be

12:30 PM. Afternoon peak hour counts are to be collected for the period from 1:30 to 3:30 PM. Evening peak hour counts are to be collected for the period from 6:30 to 8:30 PM.

All peak hour and daily counts are to be taken on Sundays, Mondays, and Tuesdays during the period beginning on 15 September and ending on 15 May, and are not to coincide with holidays or Ramadan. Counts taken at other times must be reviewed by the Roads Directorate, and may need to be adjusted before being used in the traffic impact study.

Turning Movement Counts at Signalized or Unsignalized Intersections

Turning movement counts at intersections are to be conducted manually, either via direct observation or through the use of continuous video surveillance. The counted volumes are to be documented in tabular format as shown in Figure 4-3. An Excel spreadsheet containing the table is to be put on a disk, CD, or other electronic medium and submitted to the Roads Directorate prior to or at the time the draft traffic impact study report is submitted.

Roundabout Counts

The format for reporting roundabout counts is the same as for intersections. Obtaining reliable turning movement counts at roundabouts is a task that requires careful planning and competent execution. Roundabout counts should only be conducted by trained personnel.

Acceptable methodologies for conducting roundabout turning movement counts include:

Video surveillance, provided the entire roundabout and entry/exit arms are visible continuously throughout the survey period;

License plate surveys, provided the error rate is acceptable to the Roads Directorate; and

Procedures documented in “Counting Roundabouts, A Model to Obtain Detailed Roundabout Turning Movements” (1).

Other procedures for counting roundabout turning movements will require review and approval of the Roads Directorate before being accepted.

Link Counts

Link counts include directional traffic volume counts on roadway segments and ramps. The counted volumes are to be documented in tabular format as shown in Figure 4-4. An Excel spreadsheet containing the table is to be put on a disk, CD or other electronic medium and submitted to the Roads Directorate prior to or at the time the draft traffic impact study report is submitted.

Acceptable methodologies for conducting link volume counts include:

Manually, via direct observation;

Manually, via video surveillance;

Magnetic detectors;

Pneumatic tubes; and

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES • Any other proven technology. • Other procedures for

Any other proven technology.

Other procedures for counting link volumes will require approval of the Roads Directorate before being accepted.

4.5. Reporting Existing Levels of Service on Key Facilities

The analysis of existing conditions must include a summary of levels of service on all key facilities. Methodologies and procedures for determining levels of service are described in Chapter 3. All counts used in the report, whether obtained from the Roads Directorate or collected by the applicant, are to be included in an appendix to the report, both in printed and electronic format.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 27

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 28

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 4.6. References 1. Kathairi, R. Mufti, A. Garib, E.
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 4.6. References 1. Kathairi, R. Mufti, A. Garib, E.

4.6.

References

1. Kathairi, R. Mufti, A. Garib, E. Bierce, and B. Williams (2001). “Counting Roundabouts: A Model to Obtain Roundabout Turning Movements”, Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1769, pp. 103-112.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 5. ESTABLISHING FUTURE YEAR CONDITIONS The first step in
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 5. ESTABLISHING FUTURE YEAR CONDITIONS The first step in

5. ESTABLISHING FUTURE YEAR CONDITIONS

The first step in analyzing the impacts of a proposed new development is to establish future year baseline conditions. The future year baseline conditions represent a future year scenario without the proposed new development. This scenario will subsequently be compared to the with-development scenario to determine the development’s impacts. This chapter describes how the future baseline conditions are established.

BASELINE

5.1. Methods and Data Considerations

Future year baseline conditions are a quantitative assessment of traffic conditions in the study area in the horizon year(s), as determined in Chapter 3, assuming the proposed development is not built. Methods used for this step include modeling, manual, and mixed approaches that utilize the model for some steps and manual methods for others. Use of the model is most appropriate for very large developments with area-wide or regional impacts, and in situations in which the model forecasts have local credibility and network detail is consistent with that needed for site traffic analysis in the study area.

Manual methods are used for smaller developments, and/or near-future horizon years. A simple manual approach is to apply appropriate traffic volume growth rates in the study area, as described in this chapter. Other manual methods are described in ITE’s Traffic Access and Impact Studies for Site Development the traffic impact handbook

(1).

For modeling approaches, the future year baseline should include all changes in land use and socio-economic conditions within the study area other than those related to the proposed development. Future baseline conditions are to be established for each horizon year to be evaluated in the traffic impact study.

Establishment of future baseline conditions includes:

Obtaining approved assumptions regarding future year land use and population for related developments in the study area or at the regional level;

Obtaining approved assumptions regarding future transportation improvements, including highway and public transportation projects;

Determining future year baseline traffic volumes; and

Evaluating future year baseline levels of service on key facilities.

5.2.

Assumptions

Regarding

Future

Year

Land

Use

and

Population

Specific assumptions regarding future year land use and population are to be documented when the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model is used in the analysis, and when specific related developments are identified and integrated into the analysis. For

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES manual approaches, an assessment of new developments completed by
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES manual approaches, an assessment of new developments completed by

manual approaches, an assessment of new developments completed by the horizon year(s) may be limited to the study area. For modeling approaches, land use and population must be available or estimated for the entire region covered by the model.

5.2.1. Regional Growth Assumptions

When the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model is used in the analysis, the traffic impact study report should include an appendix showing assumptions for primary model input variables by zone and by sector, including:

Number of residential units by type (including group quarters);

Square meters of non-residential land use by type; and

Other data affecting trip generation such as special generators (airports, parks, etc.).

Any changes from the projected land uses in the model’s input database are to be noted in the traffic impact study report.

In the future year forecasts, the model input data may already include the development being proposed by the applicant. If this is the case, then the future year land use and demographic assumptions in the model’s input database for the zone (or zones) in which the proposed development is located needs to be appropriately modified such that the proposed development is not included in the baseline assumptions. These modifications must ensure that the intensity of land use and the number of residents of the new development are removed from the totals for these variables in the model database. The zonal totals were generally based on assumptions regarding growth and building height regulations for each sector. The rate of assumed growth within the model’s database for the zone, the size of the proposed development, and current Municipality density/building height regulations for the property to be developed, should all be considered in order to ‘subtract’ or remove correctly the assumed contribution of the new development to the future year database.

5.2.2. Related Developments in the Study Area

A related development is defined as a development in the study area that has been

approved or is being considered for approval by the Municipality, and is considered by the Abu Dhabi Municipality and Town Planning Department as highly likely to be built and occupied by the horizon year, and is not included in the database of existing development at the time the Preliminary Plan is approved. A list of ongoing related developments should be prepared and, if a model approach is used for the traffic estimation, the model database should be modified to include them.

All related developments, both within the same sector as the proposed development and outside the sector but within the study area, are to be integrated into the future year baseline.

Each related development to be included in the future year baseline is to be described

in sufficient detail to estimate trip generation. Any transportation improvements that

are identified as project elements or mitigation measures for a related development are

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES to be included in the description and incorporated into
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES to be included in the description and incorporated into

to be included in the description and incorporated into the transportation improvement assumptions for the future year baseline. A map showing the location of the related developments is also to be provided in the report. Procedures for integrating trips generated by related developments are provided in Section 5.4 of this chapter.

5.3.

Assumptions

Improvements

Regarding

Future

Transportation

The Municipality is continuously improving the transportation system in Abu Dhabi. Since these improvements often impact traffic conditions, it is important that the future year baseline incorporate all committed highway and public transportation improvements that will impact levels of service.

A committed transportation improvement is defined as a highway, transportation

system management (TSM), public transportation, or transportation demand management (TDM) improvement (physical improvement, operational improvement, service improvement or policy action) that may affect levels of service within the study area and is considered by the Roads Directorate as highly likely to be implemented by the horizon year. Committed transportation improvements may be:

Under construction;

Funded for construction in an existing budget at the time the Preliminary Plan is approved;

Project elements or mitigation measures for related developments;

Other improvements being considered by the Roads Directorate that are considered highly likely to be implemented by the horizon year.

Identification of committed transportation improvements will typically be determined during the initial meeting and documented in the Preliminary Plan. If the committed

transportation improvements are of sufficient regional significance that they are likely

to substantially change traffic volumes on study area roadways, then a model run of

the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model will be required to establish future year baseline conditions (refer to Section 5.4 of this chapter). The impact of substantial

changes to the transportation system on traffic flows is more accurately estimated by the model, which redistributes traffic by taking into to account these changes in transportation system performance.

5.3.1. Highway and TSM Improvements

Highway and TSM improvements that may affect levels of service include physical improvements (such as new roads, roadway widening and adding lanes at intersections), signal synchronization and/or revisions to phasing and timing, adding new signals, converting roundabouts to signalized intersections, charging tolls, addition or removal of truck restrictions, and other improvements.

When the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model is used in establishing future year baseline conditions, all committed highway and TSM improvements are to be incorporated into the highway networks, wherever possible and reasonable, to determine future year baseline traffic volumes. In calculating future year baseline

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES levels of service, physical characteristics of committed
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES levels of service, physical characteristics of committed

levels of service, physical characteristics of committed transportation improvements (such as number of lanes and signal phasing) are to be integrated into the calculations as appropriate.

5.3.2. Public Transportation Service and TDM

Public transportation and TDM improvements that may affect level of service include new public transportation routes or connections (bus or rail), changes in service frequency, changes in public transportation and/or taxi fares, changes affecting public transportation vehicle speeds, creation of new transfer centers, policy actions to reduce the number of taxis in an area such as downtown, changes in parking costs and/or availability, and other improvements.

When the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model is used in establishing future year baseline conditions, all committed public transportation and TDM improvements are to be incorporated into the highway and/or public transportation networks and into the mode split model parameters, wherever possible and reasonable.

5.4. Determining Future Year Baseline Traffic Volumes

Future year baseline traffic volumes on specific roadways may be determined by the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model or manual methods. The choice of method depends upon the size of the proposed development and the size of the study area. Future year traffic volumes on local circulator roads will generally be determined using manual methods. Manual or modeling methods may be used to determine future year baseline traffic volumes on arterials and collectors when the study area boundary does not extend beyond the nearest arterial intersection. When the study area boundary includes more than one sector, the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model may be used to determine future year baseline traffic volumes on all freeways, expressways, arterials and collectors. However, the model representation of roads in the study area should first be reviewed and modified if possible to provide the necessary detail for an adequate analysis.

5.4.1. Manual Method for Determining Future Year Baseline Traffic Volumes

The manual method for determining future year baseline traffic volumes consists of three steps:

Quantification of existing volume based on traffic count data;

Application of ambient growth rates; and

Incorporation of traffic from related developments (see Section 5.2.2 above).

Procedures for quantifying existing traffic volumes based on traffic count data are provided in Chapter 4.

For arterials and collectors, the applicant is expected to propose appropriate ambient growth rates based on traffic count data collected by the Abu Dhabi Municipality

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Roads Directorate through their Traffic Monitoring Program,
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Roads Directorate through their Traffic Monitoring Program,

Roads Directorate through their Traffic Monitoring Program, information in the Master Transportation Plan, other traffic impact studies for nearby developments, other transportation planning studies, Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model runs, or other sources. The ambient growth rates for arterials and collectors proposed by the applicant should be submitted to the Roads Directorate for review and approval.

For local circulator roads, ambient growth rates are to be determined at the sector level, based on projections of peak hour trip generation in the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model. The ambient growth rates are to be applied to the existing traffic volumes to obtain initial future year baseline traffic volumes.

If related developments within the sector are to be integrated into the analysis, then related development traffic must be added to the initial volumes to obtain the final future year baseline traffic volumes. If no related developments are located within the sector, then the initial volumes after application of ambient growth rates will be the final future year baseline volumes.

Incorporation of traffic from related developments requires an estimate of trips and manual distribution of these trips. Wherever practical, it is recommended that the trip generation and distribution of related developments be obtained directly from the traffic impact study or from the persons performing the traffic impact study for the related development. When this is not practical, the applicant will need to estimate trip generation and distribution for the related developments following the procedures in Chapters 6 and 7 and add these trips to the interim future year baseline traffic volumes.

5.4.2. Model Method for Determining Future Year Baseline Traffic Volumes

In most cases where the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model is to be used, the results of the model runs, incorporating appropriate land use/demographic and transportation improvement assumptions, will be used directly to determine future year baseline traffic volumes on freeways, expressways, arterials and collectors. In some cases, the applicant may wish to propose an adjustment to the model output (for example, the applicant may wish to correct for an apparent high or low bias in the model estimate, based on a comparison of the existing conditions model runs to ground count data). Such adjustments must be approved by the Roads Directorate.

In some cases, the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model is to be used in determining future year baseline traffic volumes on local circulator roads within sectors. As described in Section 5.2 above, this will occur when committed transportation improvements are of sufficient regional significance that they substantially change traffic volumes on local circulator roads. In these cases, model runs are to be performed representing future baseline conditions both with and without the regionally significant transportation improvements. The results of these two runs are then to be used in determining the future year baseline traffic volumes on the affected local circulator roads.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 5.5. Evaluation of Baseline Traffic Conditions Once the future
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 5.5. Evaluation of Baseline Traffic Conditions Once the future

5.5. Evaluation of Baseline Traffic Conditions

Once the future year baseline traffic volumes have been estimated, an assessment of the future year baseline levels of service is to be performed, following the procedures described in Chapter 4. All key facilities identified in the Preliminary Plan are to be included in the assessment of future year baseline levels of service. These facilities include the links, signalized and unsignalized intersections, and roundabouts in the study area potentially influenced by the new development. Table 5-1 shows the type of information to be included in the evaluation of future year baseline traffic conditions.

Table 5-1 Summary Of Future Year Baseline Traffic Conditions

 

EXISTING

FUTURE (Year) BASELINE CONDITIONS

LOCATION

(Year)

CONDITIONS

Signalized

Delay

LOS

Delay

LOS

Intersections

Intersection #1

       

Intersection #2

       

Intersection #3

       

Unsignalized

Delay

LOS

Delay

LOS

Intersections

Intersection #1

       

Intersection #2

       

Intersection #3

       

Roundabouts

Delay

LOS

Delay

LOS

Roundabout #1

       

Roundabout #2

       

Roundabout #3

       

Links

V/C

LOS

V/C

LOS

Link #1

       

Link #2

       

Link #3

       

5.6. References

1. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Access and Impact Studies for Site Development, 1991.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 6. TRIP GENERATION In order to identify impacts of
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 6. TRIP GENERATION In order to identify impacts of

6. TRIP GENERATION

In order to identify impacts of the proposed development on the surrounding transportation network and to determine appropriate measures to mitigate development impacts, it is first necessary to estimate the trips generated by the development. The estimation of development trip generation is usually based on a detailed description of the specific types and intensities of the land uses the development comprises. This chapter establishes the necessary elements of the development description, discusses the technical requirements for estimating trip generation, and reviews important sources of trip rates likely to be of use in the conduct of traffic impact studies in Abu Dhabi.

The technical requirements for estimating trip generation include the choice of trip rates, the critical time periods to be examined, and the need to take into account internal trip capture, linked trips, and mode split variations, as appropriate. The chapter highlights important aspects of trip rates by means of a discussion of two important sources of such rates.

6.1. Development Description

The description of the proposed development includes:

Preliminary site plan, including locations of driveways and parking areas;

Size (number of square meters by use and/or number of residential units by type);

Other significant aspects of the development.

In general, the development description provided in the Preliminary Plan may serve as an adequate description for the Traffic Impact Study Report, assuming the definition of the development has not changed and a sufficient level of detail is provided to estimate trip generation.

If the development definition has changed since submittal of the Preliminary Plan, then a revised development definition will be required in the Traffic Impact Study report. For developments that are to be constructed in phases, a description of each phase of the development is to be included, together with the anticipated opening date of each phase.

The development description should describe the intensity of each land use. For large developments whose precise mix of uses is not known at the time Traffic Impact Study is initiated, an estimated mix of land uses is to be established for purposes of trip generation.

The development description should also include a site plan, which shows the locations of driveways, circulation roads, and parking facilities. Numbers of lanes, roadway widths and numbers of parking spaces are also to be included in the development description.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 6.2. Development Trip Generation The estimation of the traffic
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 6.2. Development Trip Generation The estimation of the traffic

6.2. Development Trip Generation

The estimation of the traffic generated by the development is a crucial element of the Traffic Impact Study process. This will usually include the use of trip generation rates, as discussed in detail in this chapter. It is the responsibility of the applicant to develop peak-hour trip generation estimates for the proposed development and to fully document the assumptions and methods used in developing those trip generation estimates. The trip generation estimates, with full supporting documentation, are to be submitted to the Roads Directorate for review and approval.

In certain rare cases, the proposed development to be studied may be so large as to warrant the use of the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Forecasting model for estimating trip generation. The possibility of using the model instead of the trip generation rate approach outlined below should be explored with the Abu Dhabi Municipality.

6.2.1. Peak Hours

The choice of appropriate peak hours is crucial to the accurate assessment of the impacts. As described in Chapter 3, the specific peak hours to be analyzed will be determined in the initial meeting and documented in the Preliminary Plan. The critical traffic time period for a given development is directly related to the peaking characteristics both of the development-generated traffic and of the adjacent road network. Generally, it has been found that the following peak hours are likely to cover the peak hours for many locations in Abu Dhabi:

Morning peak hour (7:00-8:00 AM);

Noon peak hour (11:00 AM - 12:00 Noon);

Afternoon peak hour (2:00-3:00 PM); or

Evening peak hour (7:00-8:00 PM).

These should cover typical locations in the CBD. However, local area characteristics may result in other peaks for the adjacent road network, and traffic counts. The peaking characteristics of the adjacent road network can be determined through analysis of traffic count data, which, if not available, may need to be collected for the purposes of the study.

The peaking characteristics of the development result from the trip-making characteristics of the land uses within the development site, and may differ from that of the adjacent road network. For the design and evaluation of access drives to the development, the peak periods for development traffic should obviously be used. The periods that result in the highest cumulative directional traffic demands should be used to assess the impact of site traffic on the adjacent road network and to define the roadway configuration and traffic control measures changes needed in the study area. The consultant should explain his choice of peak hours for both the development and the adjacent road network.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 6.2.2. Trip Generation Rates The most frequently used approach
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 6.2.2. Trip Generation Rates The most frequently used approach

6.2.2. Trip Generation Rates

The most frequently used approach to estimating trip generation is to apply trip generation rates to the number of square meters and/or number of residential units of individual land uses. The trip generation rates typically represent the average number of peak-hour vehicle arrivals and departures per unit of development, established from surveys or other procedures.

Trip generation rates estimated for the city of Abu Dhabi do not currently exist. The Roads Directorate will provide samples of approved trip generation estimation procedures from completed Traffic Impact Studies, to assist the applicant in estimating trip generation for the specific development being analyzed. Until local Abu Dhabi data becomes more common or an Abu Dhabi trip rate manual is developed, alternative sources for trip rates, including the Dubai and ITE trip generation manuals (1,2), may be considered. It may be necessary to apply adjustments as appropriate to the trip rates obtained from these sources to obtain suitable peak hour trip generation rates for developments in Abu Dhabi.

If in the process of developing trip generation rates the applicant carries out trip generation surveys for existing land uses, whether in Abu Dhabi or elsewhere, then the results of those surveys are to be included in the documentation, and submitted both in printed and electronic format. The Roads Directorate will archive these surveys results. As time progresses, the Roads Directorate will make the growing database of such survey results available to others as appropriate to assist them in developing trip generation estimates.

Some important adjustments to trip rates are discussed below. These may need to be performed as a result of the nature of the development and the surrounding road network. Other adjustments may be proposed or used by the consultant.

6.2.3. Primary vs. Linked Trips

Trip generation rates such as those reported in ITE and Dubai are derived from actual measurements of traffic generated by individual sites, representing vehicles entering and exiting at the development’s driveways. Therefore, these volumes are appropriate for determining the total traffic to be accommodated by the development’s driveways.

There are instances, however, when the total number of trips generated by a development is different from the amount of new traffic added to the surrounding street system. For example, retail-oriented developments such as shopping centers, restaurants, banks, service stations, and convenience markets are often located adjacent to busy streets in order to attract the motorists already on the street. These developments attract a portion of their trips from traffic passing the site on the way from an origin to an ultimate destination different from the new development. Trips attracted in this way clearly do not represent new traffic on the surrounding road network. Such pass-by or undiverted linked trips are defined as trips attracted to a particular development from the traffic “passing by” on the adjacent roadway (3,4). These trips are not newly generated trips made for the purpose of visiting the new development. For such uses, a reduction in the effective trip generation may be warranted when estimating the amount of new traffic on the adjacent road network.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES A similar type of trips attracted by the pr
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES A similar type of trips attracted by the pr

A

similar type of trips attracted by the proposed development but not newly generated

is

that of diverted linked trips. These trips divert from their original route to travel to

the development site, thereby adding traffic volume to the roadway links that connect the original route to the development. On the other hand, trips that are made solely for the purpose of visiting the development are named primary trips. The different trip types are illustrated in Figure 6-1.

The percentage of pass-by and diverted linked trips varies by the type and size of land use, time of day, day of the week, geographic location of the site, and nature of the roadway network serving the site. A reduction in trip generation for the two types of linked trips may hence be applied.

Figure 6-1:

Trip Types (Source: Institute of Transportation Engineers, Trip Generation Handbook, 2001)

Transportation Engineers, Trip Generation Handbook, 2001) 6.2.4. Internal Capture For large mixed-use developments

6.2.4. Internal Capture

For large mixed-use developments there is potential for interaction in the form of trips made between the different land uses within the development site. This applies

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES especially when these within-site trips can be made on
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES especially when these within-site trips can be made on

especially when these within-site trips can be made on foot. As a result, the total generation of vehicle trips entering and exiting the multi-use site may be less than the sum of the individual, discrete trips generated by each land use. A common example

is a multi-use development that contains offices as well as a shopping/service area.

Some of the trips made by office workers to shops, banks, or restaurants are accomplished on site. These trips are defined as internal to (i.e. “captured” within) the multi-use site.

A reduction in trip generation rates to account for internal capture may therefore be

needed in some cases, when applying the trips sequentially to the different land uses comprising the development. (Trip rates calibrated for multi-use developments do obviously not have to be modified). This should be appropriately justified and documented.

6.2.5. Mode Split Variations

Whenever the mode split conditions for the traffic impact study are expected to differ significantly from those under which the trip rates were calculated (in a manner that affects vehicle trips), then appropriate adjustments should be made. For example, ITE trip rates are calculated for sites at which the private car is the almost exclusive mode used to access the site. To use ITE areas to estimate trip generation for a development located in an area well served by public transit would require some adjustment to account for the reduced proportion of vehicles traveling to the site that results from the higher public transportation mode share.

Smaller mode share for automobiles will reduce vehicle trips if auto trips are replaced by pedestrian or bus trips. In Abu Dhabi, taxis have a larger mode share than typical

in North America. However, a taxi trip is still a vehicle trip, and may not reduce total

trip generation, only parking demands.

A modification to trip generation for mode-split variations may therefore be applied in

some cases. This modification should be appropriately justified and documented.

6.2.6. Tables of Existing and Future Development Trip Generation

The results of the trip generation estimation procedures are to be documented in the Traffic Impact Study report. Tables of existing conditions on the development site and future conditions after the development is built out and fully occupied are to be developed. Each phase of development is to be included separately in the tables. The tables should include all trips within the development site. If the proposed development is located on a site that contains existing trip-generating land uses, then the tables of existing and future trip generation can be used to calculate the net increase in trips due to the proposed development.

6.2.7. Information On Available Trip Generation Resources

Since the objective is to find the number of trips generated by the yet-to-be-completed development undergoing the Traffic Impact Study, some form of estimation must be used. A discussion of both the ITE and Dubai trip rates as sources of trip generation

40

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES data that may be used in developing trip generation
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES data that may be used in developing trip generation

data that may be used in developing trip generation estimates for proposed developments in Abu Dhabi is provided in Appendix A.

6.3. Choice of Trip Rates

The consultant is to choose appropriate trip rates, make adjustments as necessary, and provide the estimates together with the assumptions and methods used to the Municipality for review. General advice as to the choice of trip rates would suggest the use of Abu Dhabi trip rates should they be available, followed by resorting to Dubai trip rates if available. For land uses not covered in the Dubai manual, ITE rates may be used. ITE rates are comparable to Dubai rates in light of the limited comparisons made above, and thus may be considered for use for some of the land uses in the ITE trip rates for which no counterpart exists as yet in the Dubai manual. Nevertheless the reasonableness of using ITE trip rates should be decided on a case- by-case basis.

6.4. References

1. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Trip Generation – 6 th Edition, 1996.

2. Dubai Municipality, Trip Generation and Parking Rates Manual, 1999.

3. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Trip Generation Handbook, 2001

4. Los Angeles Department of Transportation, Traffic Study Policies and Procedures, March 2002.

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 7. SITE TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION AND ASSIGNMENT The distribution and
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 7. SITE TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION AND ASSIGNMENT The distribution and

7. SITE TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION AND ASSIGNMENT

The distribution and assignment of traffic generated by the development is necessary so that the impacts of the proposed development on roadway links and intersections within the study area can be analyzed. Trip distribution is the process of establishing where trips destined to the development originated and where trips leaving the development are destined, for each horizon year. Trip assignment is the process of determining the number of proposed development vehicles on each roadway in the study area based on the results of trip generation and trip distribution. This chapter describes methods to be used for the distribution and assignment of traffic generated by the development.

7.1. Trip Distribution

Trip distribution is a function of several factors, including:

Type of the proposed development;

Size of the area of influence of the development, and if applicable, the location of competing developments. This applies in particular to certain land uses, such as retail facilities, health clubs, etc;

Surrounding land uses and population distribution;

Layout and efficiency of the adjacent street system;

Access to the site of the proposed development; and

On-site and nearby off-site parking facilities.

Basic methods for trip distribution include manual and model-based methods. The main advantage of the model approach is that trip distribution (and usually assignment as well) is done in an integrated fashion covering the entire metropolitan area and taking into account the impact of changes in the transportation system on both distribution and assignment.

There are no hard and fast rules for the choice of method to be used for trip distribution. In general it can be said that the method to be used is determined largely by the size of the study area and the size and complexity of the proposed development in relation to the traffic analysis zone structure and the level of computer representation of the road network. For a study area larger than the sector containing the proposed development and adjacent roads, the model-based method for trip distribution (and assignment) is generally preferred. When the proposed development and the study area fall entirely into one zone, or when the model road network representation does not capture many of the roads of interest in the study area, a manual method may be more appropriate. It is sometimes possible to enhance the model road network or traffic analysis zone representation in the vicinity of the development in order to overcome the problems of using the model for small developments or study areas.

The specific method of trip distribution proposed by the Consultant will be reviewed and approved by the Roads Directorate and documented in the Inception Plan. A

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES figure showing the results of the trip distribu tion
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES figure showing the results of the trip distribu tion

figure showing the results of the trip distribution step is to be included in the traffic impact study report.

7.1.1. Manual Methods

For developments with a small study area (a single sector plus adjacent roads, which may consist of one or a few traffic analysis zones), manual trip distribution consists of determining the percentage of development vehicle trips using each internal circulation road that approach or depart from the development. In these cases, percentages of development trips are to be determined for all roads in the study area and for the links entering and exiting the study area. (Such manual approaches to trip distribution often implicitly include the assignment step, since the vehicle trips are directly loaded onto the network).

For developments with a larger study area, the manual method of trip distribution becomes more complex. It becomes necessary to determine the geographic locations of origins for all trips destined to the development site and the geographic locations of destinations for all trips leaving the development site. For these larger developments, the manual distribution may be used with a manual assignment or with an assignment conducted using the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model.

Some important manual methods of trip distribution to be considered for carrying out Traffic Impact Studies in Abu Dhabi are briefly described below. More information on these and other manual methods for performing trip distribution can be found in traffic engineering and transportation textbooks and Traffic Impact Study guidelines

[1,2,3,4,5].

Analogy Method: This method uses trip distribution data from an existing development that is similar to the proposed development. Such data might be in the form of traffic count and turning movement from the similar development. The need to exercise careful judgment in deciding whether and how the results can be adapted for use in estimating trip distribution for the proposed development is obvious. The analogy method is particularly useful when the existing development is near the proposed development, which facilitates the process of “working out” the expected trip distribution for the proposed development (For examples on the procedure, see

[1]).

This method has been found particularly useful for specific land use types. Examples of facilities that can serve as the analogous development for the proposed development for consideration in Abu Dhabi might include:

Fast-food restaurants where a competing establishment is near the site;

Service stations where traffic volumes on the adjacent streets are similar to those forecasted at the site;

Residential developments on the fringe of an urban area;

Occupied residential developments in an area where the proposed development is one of the few vacant parcels remaining in an otherwise developed area; and

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TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES • Occupied office buildings in an office complex being
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES • Occupied office buildings in an office complex being

Occupied office buildings in an office complex being developed in phases.

Origin and Destination Studies: These might be carried out for large and unusual developments, or for relocation, when the “customer base” frequenting the establishment is expected to largely remain the same. Examples are large employers who relocate and expect both to retain most of their employees, and also expect that the relocation will not affect the residential location of those employees. Another example could be a unique government office, such the passport and immigration office.

Area-of-Influence Method: When acceptable data is not available, the area of influence method may be used. For a proposed development, the area of influence is the area within which most (say 80 percent or more) of the trips to and from the development are expected to start or end. It is determined by what is seen as reasonable travel times, as well as the location of competing facilities if applicable.

The method assumes that these trips start or end at a residence, place of employment, or other measurable land use type. For example, most trips to a shopping center may be assumed to originate at residences. This method then subdivides the area of influence into subareas or zones, estimates the population within each subarea, and computes the percentage of total population in the influence area within each subarea. For each subarea, this percentage figure is then assigned to the available road network. Figure 7-1 demonstrates the approach for the case of a proposed retail development.

44

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Figure 7-1 Example Application of Area-of-Influ ence Method
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES Figure 7-1 Example Application of Area-of-Influ ence Method

Figure 7-1 Example Application of Area-of-Influence Method (Source: V. Stover and F. Koepke, Transportation and Land Development, 2002)

and F. Koepke, Transportation and Land Development , 2002) 7.1.2. Model-Based Methods Model-based trip distribution

7.1.2. Model-Based Methods

Model-based trip distribution can be achieved through direct application of the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model or other model approved by the Roads Directorate. The Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model performs trip distribution using the gravity model. However, trip distribution within the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model occurs prior to application of the mode choice sub-model and application of vehicle occupancy factors. Care is needed to ensure that the results of applying the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model for trip distribution are consistent with the trip generation estimates for the development following the procedures described in Chapter 6 of these guidelines.

45

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 7.2. Trip Assignment Trip assignment determines the total amount
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 7.2. Trip Assignment Trip assignment determines the total amount

7.2. Trip Assignment

Trip assignment determines the total amount of development-generated trips, by direction and turning movement, on each segment of the study area road network. Trip assignment should be made considering logical routings, available roadway capacities, left turns at critical intersections, and projected (and perceived) travel times. When the development site has more than one access driveway, logical routing and possibly multiple paths should be used to obtain realistic driveway volumes. For large developments, the assignments should be carried through the internal roadways.

Trip assignment may be performed manually or by a travel demand model. The arguments for their use are similar to those for trip distribution in the previous section. If a manual approach to trip assignment is used, development trips are to be converted to vehicle trips and added to future year baseline traffic volumes. If the Abu Dhabi Travel Demand Model or other approved model is used, then a development trip table based on the results of development trip generation and distribution is to be added to future year baseline trip table, and the model’s vehicle assignment sub-model is to be applied.

Most model-based assignment methods are based on user equilibrium, that is, attempt to assign traffic to the network in such a manner that the resulting flows result in users traveling on the shortest possible route to their destinations.

When manual methods are used, it is essential that trip reduction items, such as pass- by trips, be properly accounted for when performing the assignment. Pass-by trips can be deducted from the background traffic when assigning development-generated traffic to surrounding roads, since they are not new trips on the road network but are trips made by traffic already on the roadway(s) that enter the site as an intermediate stop on the way from an origin and primary destination trips turning in and out of the site access intersections. This trip generated does not impact nearby intersections, but does impact traffic flow at the site entrance, and hence pass-by trips should not be deducted when evaluating traffic movements to and from the development at access points. All development-generated trips must be counted in evaluating access requirements and needs such as separate turn lanes.

The results of the trip assignment step will be an estimate of total traffic volumes on all roadways in the study area. A figure showing these total volumes is to be included in the traffic impact study report.

7.3. References

1. V. Stover and F. Koepke, Transportation and Land Development, 2002.

2. Florida Department of Transportation, Site Impact Handbook, 1997.

3. Papacostas and Prevedouros, Transportation Engineering and Planning,

1993.

4. Wisconsin

Department

Guidelines, 2002.

of

Transportation,

46

Traffic

Impact

Analysis

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 5. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Access and
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 5. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Access and

5. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Access and Impact Studies for Site Development, 1990.

47

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 8. ANALYSIS TRANSPORTATION IMPACTS OF DEVELOPMENT-RELATED Trips
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES 8. ANALYSIS TRANSPORTATION IMPACTS OF DEVELOPMENT-RELATED Trips

8.

ANALYSIS

TRANSPORTATION IMPACTS

OF

DEVELOPMENT-RELATED

Trips generated by a proposed development, including vehicle and public transport trips, will typically add traffic to the existing transportation system surrounding the development. To the extent that new development generates new transportation impacts, it is reasonable to require sponsors of new development to contribute to the mitigation of the impacts.

This chapter establishes procedures for quantifying development impacts on the surrounding roadway and public transport systems. It is not always the case that these impacts need to be mitigated. This chapter therefore also defines thresholds for determining when these impacts are serious enough to warrant development of mitigation measures.

8.1.

Quantifying

Development-Related

Transportation

Impacts

Additional vehicle traffic generated by the proposed development will cause impacts to the roadway system, some of which may require mitigation. Similarly, development-generated demand for public transport services may impact the existing public transport system, and may require higher frequencies or new routes.

8.1.1. Traffic Impacts

The analysis of traffic impacts begins with a comparison of total traffic volumes and levels of service for a future with-development scenario (including all background growth plus the proposed development) to future baseline (including all background growth but without the proposed development) conditions on all intersections and links within the study area. Procedures for estimating future traffic volumes and levels of service have been provided in Chapters 4-7 of these guidelines.

Intersections to be analyzed may include access drives. For example, a large mixed retail/commercial building may come with a large underground parking garage whose peak-hour operation must be analyzed to ensure adequate performance and avoid operational problems such as the backing up of vehicles accessing the garage onto the adjacent roadway.

Quantification of development-related traffic impacts is achieved by carrying out the necessary analysis to complete the table shown in Table 8-1. For all relevant intersections and links in the study area, delay, V/C, speed, and levels of service are to be computed in a manner consistent with the methodologies and procedures described in Chapter 3 of these guidelines. Assumptions about lane geometry, signal phasing and timing, pedestrian volumes, percentage of trucks, and other characteristics of the facilities and the traffic using them should be the same in the future baseline and future with-development scenarios unless the proposed development description specifically changes the number of lanes or makes other changes to the features or utilization of a facility.

48

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES

TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES In the two columns in Table 8-1 labeled “Development-Related
TRAFFIC IMPACT STUDY AND PARKING REQUIREMENT GUIDELINES In the two columns in Table 8-1 labeled “Development-Related

In the two columns in Table 8-1 labeled “Development-Related Traffic Impact” the proposed development’s traffic impacts are quantified, and it is determined whether these impacts are significant. The change in delay and/or V/C is determined by subtracting the future baseline value from future with-development value. Whether the impact is considered significant is indicated in the last column. Thresholds for determining if an impact is significant are provided in Section 8.2 of this chapter.

Table 8-1 Quantification of Development Related Traffic Impacts in Study Area

   

FUTURE

FUTURE

(Year)

 

LOCATION

EXISTING

(Year)

CONDITIONS

(Year)

BASELINE

CONDITIONS

WITH-

DEVELOPMENT

CONDITIONS

DEVELOPMENT-

RELATED TRAFFIC

IMPACT

Signalized

Intersections

             

Change

 

Delay

LOS

Delay

LOS

Delay

LOS

in

Delay

Significant?

Intersection #1

                 

Intersection #2

                 

                 

Intersection #n

                 

Unsignalized

Intersections

             

Change

 

Delay

LOS

Delay

LOS

Delay

LOS

in

Delay

Significant?

Intersection #1

                 

Intersection #2

                 

                 

Intersection #m

                 
               

Change

 

Roundabouts

Delay

LOS

Delay

LOS

Delay

LOS

in

Significant?

Delay

Roundabout #1