Sunteți pe pagina 1din 321

Echipa tiinific : prof. univ. dr. ION NEGRE-DOBRIDOR, conf. univ. dr. CRENGUA OPREA, asist. univ. dr.

SILVIA FT, prof. dr. CRISTINA ELENA ANTON, prof. DIANA BRATOSIN, prof. ECATERINA BONCIU

ABILITARE PE CURRICULUM

-suport de curs-

CUPRINS
1

PARTEA I - DEZVOLTAREA COMPETENELOR CADRELOR DIDACTICE REFERITOARE LA UTILIZAREA I APLICAREA DOCUMENTELOR CURRICULARE NAIONALE 1. Noiuni generale despre teoriile i modelele moderne i postmoderne ale curriculumului
1.1 Introducere n teoriile moderne i postmoderne ale curriculumului i instruirii
1.1.1 Clarificarea conceptului de curriculum 1.1.2 Distincii i accepiuni 1.1.3 Ipostazele curriculumului 1.1.4 Tipuri fundamentale de curricula

1.2 Evoluia curriculumului n Civilizaia Euro-atlantic


1.2.1 Modernitatea pedagogic i curricula explicite 1.2.1.1 Premodernitate, modernitate, postmodernism, after-postmodernism 1.2.1.2 Condiiile apariiei primelor curricula explicite 1.2.1.3 Naterea teoriei tiinifice a curriculumului 1.2. 2 O viziune exhaustiv asupra evoluiei curriculumului modern 1.2.3 Curricula moderne 1.2.3.1 Contribuia decisiv a lui Dewey 1.2.3.2 Teoria lui Bobbitt 1.2.3.3 Modelul lui Bobbitt i Charters 1.2.3.4 Modelul raional al lui Tyler 1.2.3.5 Modelul interacionist al Hildei Taba 1.2.3.6 Modelul naturalist al lui Walker 1.2.3.7 Modelul dinamic al lui McGee 1.2.3.8 Modelul lui Hawes 1.2.3.9 Modele centrate pe competene 1.2.3.10 Curricula moderne la apogeu 1.2.4 Curricula postmoderne
2

1.2. 5 Perspectivele evoluiei curriculumului n after-postmodernism

2. Modele curriculare i instrucionale bazate pe sanciunea negativ i modele bazate pe sanciunea pozitiv 3. Curricula centrate pe obiective i curricula centrate pe competene
3.1 Curricula centrate pe obiective i curricula centrate pe competene 3.2 Recomandrile Parlamentului European privind centrarea curriculumului pe competene-cheie i valori

APLICAII: Noiuni generale despre utilizarea i aplicarea documentelor curriculare naionale


Aplicaia 1. Convertirea competenelor n obiective operaionale (exerciii) Aplicaia 2. Analiza critic a corelaiilor pe vertical i pe orizontal ntr-o arie curricular Aplicaia 3. ARHIPELAGUL ISOLARIAN (joc de competiie pe baz de munc n echip)

PARTEA A II-A - EXIGENE FUNDAMENTALE N CURRICULA MODERNE 1. Fundamentarea teleologic i axiologic a curriculumului modern
1.1 Valori i scopuri perene 1.2 Noi clarificri semantice 1.3 Optimizarea curriculumului mdern 1.4 Aspectele eseniale ale optimizrii curriculare moderne 1.5 Tipuri de demersuri n optimizarea curricular modern

2. Principiile i exigenele modelelor curriculare pentafazice


2.1 Etapele curriculumului pentafazic 2.2 Cercetarea curricular 2.3 Proiectarea curricular 2.4 Testarea curriculumului n proiect 2.5 Validarea curriculumului corectat 2.6 Transpunerea n practic a unui nou curriculum

3. Factorii optimizrii curriculare


3.1 Factorii determinani 3.2 Factorii dominani

4. Orientarea optimizrii curriculare moderne


4.1 Criteriile orientrii curriculare moderne 4.2 O metod raional de orientare a curriculumului modern

5. Alegerea domeniilor de nvare


5.1 Nivelurile alegerilor 5.2 Deciziile i logica nvrii 5.3 Coloana vertebral a curriculumului modern

6. Organizarea curriculumului modern.


6.1. ABC-ul organizrii curriculare moderne 6.2. Structuri tipice de organizare 6.3. Scheme i paradigme de organizare a curriculumului modern 6.4. Optimizarea curriculumului i reforma curricular

7. Produsele curriculare moderne


7.1 Planul de nvmnt 7.2 Programele analitice 7.3 Manualele colare 7.4 Planificrile calendaristice 7.5 Microproiectarea experienelor de nvare APLICAII

PARTEA A III-A - DEZVOLTAREA CAPACITII CADRELOR DIDACTICE CARE PREDAU DISCIPLINE SOCIO-UMANE DE AMELIORARE I OPTIMIZARE A ACTIVITII DE PREDARENVARE-EVALUARE 1. Eficacitatea i ineficacitatea instruirii
1.1 Necesitatea optimizrii instruirii n coala romneasc 1.2 Eficacitatea general a instruirii. mplinirea visului lui Comenius: posibilitatea determinrii reuitei la nvtur a tuturor elevilor. 1.3 Problemele ineficacitii instruirii n condiiile nvmntului bazat pe clase i lecii 1.4 Condiia colii romneti n secolul XXI 1.5 Modelele instrucionale de tip mastery learning. 1.6 Un model romnesc de tip mastery learning.

2. Puncte de sprijin pentru folosirea modelelor mastery learning


2.1 Construirea testelor docimologice pentru diagnoza strii instruirii 2.2 Demersul diagnozei

3. Proiectarea activitilor de tip class-room learning n mastery learning.


3.1 Proiectarea tiinific a experienelor i activitilor de nvare n clas 3.2 Exigene i proceduri cu privire la competene i obiective 3.3 Rolul decisive al operaionalizrii n micro-proiectarea pedagogic 3.4 Construirea standardelor de performan colar 3.5 Elaborarea strategiilor didactice focalizate pe competene i abiliti convertite n obiective operaionale.
3.5.1. Sarcinile de nvare n clas derivate din abiliti i obiective operaionale predefinite.
6

3.5.2. Construirea situaiilor optime pentru class-room learning. Condiiile interne i externe ale nvrii eficiente i eficace.

3.6 Evaluarea continu i periodic a rezultatelor instruirii

4. Metodologia elaborrii scenariilor de implementare n clas a proiectelor pedagogice


4.1 Cum se construiete un scenariu didactic 4.2 Sugestii privind utilizarea eficient a timpului de nvare n clas

5. Utilizarea metodelor interactive i cooperative n modele mastery learning.


5.1 Critical incident 5.2 Case studies, 5.3 Role playing 5.4 Ice-bracking 5.5 Games 5.6 Dramatizri 5.7 Alte metode interactive

APLICAII: Operaii de proiectare i realizare a activitilor de nvare n modelele de determinare a eficacitii generale a instruirii.
Aplicaia 8. Exerciii de utilizare a metodelor interactive: Role playings, case studies i dramatizrile Aplicaia 9. Exercitii de utilizare a metodelor interactive: Ice bracking i Critical Incidents Aplicaia 10. Crearea de jocuri de rol i studii de caz Aplicaia 11. Crearea de materiale pentru alte metode interactive Aplicaia 12. Elaborare de teste docimologice

ANEXE:

INSTRUMENTE

PENTRU

DESIGNUL

CURRICULAR

INSTRUCIONAL MODERN

BIBLIOGRAFIE SELECTIV
A.LUCRRI DE TEORIA CURRICULULULUI
Barrow, R. (1984) Giving Teaching back to Teachers. A critical introduction to curriculum theory, Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books. Blenkin, G. M. et al (1992) Change and the Curriculu,, London: Paul Chapman. Bobbitt, F. (1918) The Curriculum, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Bobbitt, F. (1928) How to Make a Curriculum, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1986) Becoming Critical. Education, knowledge and action research, Lewes: Falmer Press Cornbleth, C. (1990) Curriculum in Context, Basingstoke: Falmer Press. Curzon, L. B. (1985) Teaching in Further Education. An outline of principles and practice 3e, London: Cassell. Dewey, J. (1902) The Child and the Curriculum, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Dewey, J. (1938) Experience and Education, New York: Macmillan. Eisner, E. W. (1985) The Art of Educational Evaluation, Lewes: Falmer Press. Foreman, A. (1990) 'Personality and curriculum' in T. Jeffs. & M. Smith (eds.) (1990) Using Informal Education. An alternative to casework, teaching and control? Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Freire, P. (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Harmondsworth: Penguin. Grundy, S. (1987) Curriculum: product or praxis? Lewes: Falmer Press. Jackson, P. W. (1968) Life in Classrooms, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Jeffs, T. & Smith, M. (eds.) (1990) Using Informal Education. An alternative to casework, teaching and control? Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Jeffs, T. J. and Smith, M. K. (1999) Informal Education. Conversation, democracy and learning, Ticknall: Education Now. Kelly, A. V. (1983; 1999) The Curriculum. Theory and practice 4e, London: Paul Chapman. Stenhouse, L. (1975) An introduction to Curriculum Research and Development, London: Heineman. Newman, E. & G. Ingram (1989) The Youth Work Curriculum, London: Further Education Unit (FEU). Negre-Dobridor, Ion, ( 2008)Teoria general a curriculumului educaional, Polirom, Iai
8

Taba, H. (1962) Curriculum Development: Theory and practice, New York: Harcourt Brace and World. Tyler, R. W. (1949) Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Usher, R. & I. Bryant (1989) Adult Education as Theory, Practice and Research. The captive triangle, London: Routledge.

B.LUCRRI DESPRE MASTERY LEARNING


Block, J. H. (1971). Mastery Learning: Theory and Practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Block, J. H., Efthim, H. E., & Burns, R.B. (1989). Building Effective Mastery Learning Schools. New York: Longman. Bloom, B.S. (1981). All Our Children Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill. Carroll, J. B. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers College Record, 64, 723-733. Carroll, J.B. (1989). The Carroll model: A 25 year retrospective and prospective view. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 26-31. Cox, W.F. & Dunn, T. G. (1979). Mastery learning: A psychological trap? Educational Pyschologist, 14, 24-29. Levine, D. (1985). Improving Student Achievement Through Mastery Learning Programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Negre-Dobridor, I. (2005) Didactica nova sau Arta de a-i nva pe toi ( aproape ) totul, Aramis-Megapress, Bucureti Slavin, R.E. (1987). Mastery learning reconsidered. Review of Educational Research, 57(2), 175-214.

C.LUCRRI DESPRE DESIGNUL INSTRUCIONAL


Briggs, L. J., Gustafson, K. L. & Tellman, M. H., Eds. (1991), Instructional Design: Principles and Applications, Second Edition, Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Dick, W. & Cary, L. (1990), The Systematic Design of Instruction, Third Edition, Harper Collins Edmonds, G. S., Branch, R. C., & Mukherjee, P. (1994), A Conceptual Framework for Comparing Instructional Design Models, Educational Research and Technology, 42(2), pp.
9

55-72. Gagn, R. (1985). The Conditions of Learning and the Theory of Instruction, (4th ed.), New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J. & Wagner, W. W. (1992). Principles of Instructional Design (4th ed.), Holt, Reihhart, and Winston Inc. Keller, J. M., & Suzuki, K. (1988). Use of the ARCS motivation model in courseware design. In D. H. Jonassen (ED.) Instructional designs for microcomputer courseware. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Merrill, M. D. (1983). Component Display Theory. In C. M. Reigeluth (ed), Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current States. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Reigeluth, C. M. and Stein, F. S. (1983). The Elaboration Theory of Instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth (ed), Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current States. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. van Merrinboer, J. J. G. (1997). Training Complex Cognitive Skills: A Four-Component Instructional Design Model for Technical Training. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Educational Technology Publications.

DOCUMENTARE
Nr. 1. World History Curriculum by Daniel J. Elazar Nr. 2. My PedagogicCcreed -by John Dewey Nr. 3. Curriculum change and the postmodern world: is the school curriculum-reform movement an anachronism? by Douane Macdonald Nr. 4. Conference on After Postmodernism University of Chicago [The conference was November 14-16, 1997] Nr. 5. Cele opt competene-cheie pentru nvarea de-a lungul ntregii viei

10

Partea I - DEZVOLTAREA COMPETENELOR CADRELOR DIDACTICE REFERITOARE LA UTILIZAREA I APLICAREA DOCUMENTELOR CURRICULARE NATIONALE

CAPITOLUL 1 NOIUNI GENERALE DESPRE TEORIILE I MODELELE MODERNE I POSTMODERNE ALE CURRICULUMULUI

OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE Studiind informaiile, rezolvnd exerciiile i aplicaiile propuse n acest capitol vei deveni capabil: 1. s stpnii deplin conceptul de curriculum educaional; 2. s distingei cu claritate diferitele accepiuni teoretice i practice ale conceptului de curriculum; 3. s cunoatei evoluia i metamorfozele curriculumului educaional n civilizaia Euro-Atlantic; 4. s distingei caracteristici eseniale ale curriculumului modern, ale curriculumului postmodern i ale perspectivelor de evoluie n afterpostmodernism; 5. s distinge intre modelele curriculare bazate pe sanciunea negativ de modelele curriculare bazate pe sanciunea pozitiv; 6. s distingei ntre curricula centrate pe obiective i curricula centrate pe competene; 7. s interpretai corect Recomandrile Parlamentului curriculumul bazat pe competene-cheie i valori; European privind

8. s convertii tiinific competenele n obiective pedagogice i invers; 9. s analizai critic corelaii orizontale i verticale n diverse modele curriculare; 10. s anticipai consecinele practice ale schimbrilor curriculare n situaii colare reale i simulate.

11

1.1 INTRODUCERE N TEORIILE MODERNE I POSTMODERNE ALE CURRICULUMULUI I INSTRUIRII


1.1.1 Clarificarea conceptului de curriculum 1.1.1.1 Expresia curriculum a ptruns n cultura pedagogic european la jumtatea secolului al XX-lea ca o construcie lingvistic bizar, folosit de psihopedagogii anglo-saxoni pentru a desemna aspecte variate ale conceperii, planificrii, organizrii proceselor de instruire i educare n sistemele/ colile publice sau private. Mult vreme pedagogii europeni n special cei francofoni au evitat-o. La sfritul secolul precedent ns ea s-a impus definitiv fiind utilizat n ntreaga lume cu sensuri multiple i n contexte educaionale variate. n Romnia expresia s-a impus ncepnd anii 1997-1998, odat cu nfinarea de ctre Ministerul Educaiei Naionale a Consiliului Naional pentru Curriculum i cu publicarea lucrrii Curriculum naional. Planul cadru pentru nvmntul preuniversitar ( vol. 1, 1998; vol. 2, 1999 ) . 1.1.1.2 Muli istorici ai domeniului apreciaz c prima folosire a expresiei poate fi identificat n titlul eseului polemic al lui John Dewey The Child and the Curriculum ( 1902)1 Aprecierea este parial eronat. Ideea de curriculum i practica educaional curricular au o sorginte foarte veche, existnd ca atare nc de la organizarea primelor coli de ezoterice din Antichitatea elin2. De exemplu, coala pythagoreic de la Crotona, ntemeiat de Pythagoras din Samos ( 569-475. Hr.) n anul 518 .Hr. se baza pe un curriculum explicit, un imn sacru de ntemeiere i organizare a studiilor intitulat Hieros Logos ( sau Carmen Aureus, Versurile de aur ale lui Pythagoras3. Totui marele pedagog i filosof american John Dewey are meritul de a fi folosit foarte exact sensul conotativ al expresiei curriculum4 Dewey a avut n vedere conotaiile fabuloase care
.

Eseul a fost tradus n romnete de ctre Viorel Nicolescu n 1989 ( E. D.P. ,Bucureti) dar poate fi accesat i pe Internet, n original, ca free book. 2 Vide detalii la ION NEGRE-DOBRIDOR, Teoria general a curriculumului educaional, Polirom, Iai, 2008 3 O'MEARA, DOMINIC J. Pythagoras Revived: Mathematics and Philosophy in Late Antiquity , Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989; RIEDWEG, CHRISTOPH Pythagoras : his life, teaching, and influence ; translated by STEVEN RENDALL in collaboration with CHRISTOPH RIEDWEG and ANDREAS SCHATZMANN, Ithaca : Cornell University Press, (2005); BURKERT, WALTER. Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Harvard University Press, June 1, 1972; GUTHRIE, W. K. A History of Greek Philosophy: Earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans, Cambridge University Press, 1979. Folosit ca atare aceast vocabul latin nu desemneaz nimic semnificativ pentru educaie. Sensul denotativ al substantivului curriculum privete o activitate sportiv-distractiv foarte gustat de plebea roman n perioada Republicii i a Imperiului: ntrecere de cai i care de lupt, alergare circular n
4

12

nu apreau dect n locuiuni precum curriculum solis ( mersul circular infatigabil al soarelui pe bolt de-a lungul zilei, de la rsrit la apus), curriculum lunae ( deplasarea circular a astrului nopii pe bolt ), curriculum vitae ( mersul circular inflexibil i inevitabil al vieii omului de la naterea din humus spre rentoarcerea n glia iniial prin nhumare)5. Sensul conferit de Dewey era aadar acela de predestinarea vieii prin organizarea i desfurarea riguroas a asimilrii culturii; mai pe scurt, alegerea tiinific i organizarea riguroas a studiilor n coal pentru a aeza viaa celui care nva pe o rut sigur, adaptat precis cerinelor i condiiilor mediului socio-profesional n care cel care nva va tri66. n deceniile urmtoare, curriculum s-a transformat din concept metaforic n concept operaional. n plus, fiind folosit n numeroase contexte educaionale, n chip fatal a cumulat o multitudine de sensuri. Adesea, termenul poate desemna realiti educaionale complet diferite dnd natere unor nenelegeri care l-au determinat n anul 2001 pe unul dintre cei mai avizai specialiti ai domeniului, William Pinar,s afirme c actualmente curriculumul a determinat o cacophony of voices.7
Circus Maximus. Conotaiile provin din ideia de circularitate i inflexibilitate a parcursului. 5 Vezi decriptarea semantic i hermeneutica mitologic a lui curriculum vitae precum i legturile ei cu paideia elin la NEGRE-DOBRIDOR., op cit. 6 Iat un exempu sugestiv: On the face of it, the various studies, arithmetic, geography, language, botany, etc., are themselves experiencethey are that of the race. They embody the cumulative outcome of the efforts, the strivings, and the successes of the human race generation after generation. They present this, not as a mere accumulation, not as a miscellaneous heap of separate bits of experience, but in some organized and systematized waythat is, as reflectively formulated. Hence, the facts and truths that enter into the child's present experience, and those contained in the subjectmatter of studies, are the initial and final terms of one reality. To oppose one to the other is to oppose the infancy and maturity of the same growing life; it is to set the moving tendency and the final result of the same process over against each other; it is to hold that the nature and the destiny of the child war with each other. If such be the case, the problem of the relation of the child and the curriculum presents itself in this guise: Of what use, educationally speaking, is it to be able to see the end in the beginning? How does it assist us in dealing with the early stages of growth to be able to anticipate its later phases? The studies, as we have agreed, represent the possibilities of development inherent in the child's immediate crude experience. But, after all, they are not parts of that present and immediate life. Why, then, or how, make account of them? Asking such a question suggests its own answer. To see the outcome is to know in what direction the present experience is moving, provided it move normally and soundly. The far-away point, which is of no significance to us simply as far away, becomes of huge importance the moment we take it as defining a present direction of movement. Taken in this way it is no remote and distant result to be achieved, but a guiding method in dealing with the present. The systematized and defined experience of the adult mind, in other words, is of value to us in interpreting the child's life as it immediately shows itself, and in passing on to guidance or direction. ( The Child and the Curriculum, cap. I ).
7

WILLIAM PINAR, Understanding Curriculum. (With William Reynolds, Patrick Slattery, and Peter Taubman). (1995). ; VEZI reluarea sintagmei n operele mai recente ale marelui cercettor: What Is Curriculum Theory? (2004); Handbook of International Research in Curriculum (Ed.) (2003); Synoptic Text Today and Other Essays: Curriculum Development after the Reconceptualization (2006); Intellectual Advancement through Disciplinarity: Verticality and Horizontality in Curriculum Studies (2007). De asemenea, hermeneutica sintagmei din perspectiv 13

1.1.2 Distincii i accepiuni Multitudinea de sensuri n care este folosit actualmente conceptul de curriculum poate determina o multitudine de confuzii nedorite. De aceea sunt necesare distinciile care urmeaz. CURRICULUM (Lat. Sing.: Curriculum, curriculi ; plural: curricula, -orum = substantiv neutru de declinarea a II-a) comport 2 sensuri: Sensul denotativ= alergare circular, ntrecere n Circus Maximus a carelor de lupt cu 2, 4 sau 6 cai ; este vorba de o activitate sportiv- militar, o ntrecere n circurile marilor urbii romane care nu are nici o legtur cu proiectarea i programarea studiilor. Sensul conotativ= este mult mai complex; apare n locuiuni care subliniaz ideia de derulare infatigabil i circularitate a deplasrilor cosmice i a desfurrii vieii pe drumul dintre via i moarte sub imperativele zeiei Ananke (Fatum la latini ): curriculum solis, curiculum lunae, curriculum vitae .a. n eseul polemic The Child and the curriculum ( 1902 ) John Dewey s-a folosit de sensul conotativ cuprins n sintagma metaforic curriculum vitae; avea n vedere credina strveche a elinilor, etruscilor i latinilor conform creia omul se nate din humus i se rentoarce infatigabil n humus soarta fiindu-i predestinat i condus de Fatum dup voia ei. Ideia de predetestinare divin este modificat de Dewey n ideia de predeterminare a formrii personalitii prin programarea, organizarea i desfurarea riguroas a studiilor. Ulterior, Frank Bobbitt ( 1918 ) a trasformat metafora deweyan n conceptul operaional folosit actualmente pentru a desemna moduri tiinifice de proiectare, planificare, organizare, deffsurare a mersului studiilor n insttituiile colare. CURRICULUM SCRIS (Written curriculum, Overt-curriculum, Formal curriculum) Este curriculumul instituiilor colare; toate documentele oficiale de planificare i programare a studiilor n coli i alte instituii de formare i perfecionare: finalitile , scopurile, obiectivele i misiunea instituiei ( sau sistemului de instituii); planurile i programele de nvmnt; sistemul de intrare( admiterea); sistemul de ieire ( absolvirea); experienele de nvare, durata parcurgerii i ealonarea lor pe semestere, ani i cicluri de studii; sistemul de evaluare iniial, continu, periodic i final; certificarea; resursele umane, materiale i financiare;
romneasc la ION NEGRE-DOBRIDOR, teoria generala curriculumului educaional, Polirom, 2008.

14

normativitatea ( prescripii, interdicii, toate regulile de organizare i bun desfurare a activitii n toate compartimentele) .a. CURRICULUM NONFORMAL (Unwritten curriculum ) Este curriculumul nescris dup care se desfoar educaia n familie i alte instituii ( biserica, muzeele, cinematograful, televiziunea, internetul,etc. ) sau n medii educogene ( strada, cartierul, cutume ale comunitii etc. ); o parte dintre instituiile menionate contribuie, adesea involuntar, la hidden currriculum. CORE CURRICULUM Desemneaz essentialia oricrui curriculum formal, inima cursului, nucleul dur al atomului numit curriculum, disciplinele fundamentale, materiile de baz, coninuturile oligatorii for all din programul colar. HIDDEN CURRICULUM (Curriculum ascuns, voalat). Descoperit de P. Jackson nc din 1972, s-a dovedit a nu fi un fenomen singular, ci o familie numeroas de hidden curricula care scap controlului colar i se realizeaz n paralele cu curriculumul colar. Jackson a struit mai ales asupra a ce nva elevii n coal dar n afara clase i chiar n clas fr ca profesorii s i dea seama: ce nva unii de la alii n pauze; ce nva de la felul n care se mbrac sau se comport profesorii; ce nva de la femeia de serviciu, de la portarul colii i de la buctreasa de la cantin etc. Jackson a insistat asupra faptului c aceste achiziii sunt mai semnificative n pregtirea pentru via i supravieuire dect nsuirea de ex.a algebrei sau celor zece regi ai Romei pre-republicane. n 2005 Leslie Owen Wilson a artat c hidden curriculum este alimentat i de surse ai largi dect mediul colar: elevii nva de la tot ceea ce i nconjoar, chiar i de la natur. Astfel putem identifica mai multe hidden curricula: Null curriculum ( curriculum nul, curriculum nevalabil, curiculum zero )= ceea ce nva elevii de la ceea ce nu se pred n coal pe motivul c nu ar fi util sau c este anacronic. Diversele mode pedagogice de tip progresivist i non-directivist antreneaz designerii i educatorii s pledeze pentru restrngerea i chiar pentru blamarea coninuturilor considerate prea dificile sau prea multe sau depite(la noi este celebr sintagma esenializarea coninuturior). Ia astfel natere n coli un penibil etos anti-cultural, antiaxiologic i apaideusic de care educatorii nu i dau seama. Acest discurs anticultural, dictat de mod, este auzit i nsuit cu plcere de elevi genernd dispreul fa de ceea ce consider c i profesorii dispreuiesc pe motiv c ar fi lipsit de valoare. Elevii sunt astfel supui unui curriculum al ignoranei. Ei ajung s cread c e mai bine s fii ignorant dect avizat sau cunosctor n domenii proclamate ca vetuste n colile moderne ( de ex. muzica clasic,
15

limbile clasice, istoria literaturii etc.). In sistemele de nvmnt clasice, organizate pe clase i lecii monodisciplinare ( cum este i cel romnesc ), fenomenul este mult exacerbat de obiceiul profesorilor care predau o anumit disciplin de a denigra n faa elevilor disciplinele diferite pe care le predau ceilali profesori: elevii care tocmai au ncheiat lecia de matematic o aud n ora urmtoare pe profesoara de literatur c matematica este o disciplin ngrozitoare; apoi, n ora urmtoare profesoara de chimie povestete ct de inutil i stupid este memorarea stihurilor etc. Phantom curriculum (Curriculumul stafie)= Se bazeaz pe fenomenul botezat de sociologi enculturaie. Un fenomen care se produce insidios, care strecoar ca o stafievalori i conduite noi n locul celor tradiionale. Este vorba de asimilarea prioritar a mesajelor transmise prin diverse media de cultura dominant. De obicei aceste mesaje i tinuiesc obiectivele meschine nlocuindu-le cu false obiective nobile i atractive. Elevul este atras i asimilat astfel relativ uor n metacultura dominant. Este vorba de un subtil dresaj care evit cu rafinament contiina i controlul raional al celui care recepioneaz mesajele respective. El abandoneaz propriile valori tradiionale i ader la cle noi care i par superioare. Aa s-a realizat n anii 40 -50 sovietizarea ( mai ales printr-o avala de traduceri de cri sovietice propagandistice, cinematografe i prin radiodifuzoare). Actualmente americanizarea se realizeaz masiv mai ales prin televiziune. Concomitant curriculum ( Curriculum simultan) = Desemneaz celelalte nvri sau leciile de via. Este vorba de achiziii cruciale, cel mai adesea extracolare, care determin decisiv destinul celui care se formeaz. Aceste lecii alctuiesc ceea ce romnii numesc cei apte ani de-acas( considerai ca rezultate ale educaiei n familie ) i coala vieii. ncepnd cu romanul lui Goethe despre formarea lui Wilhelm Meister s-a creat un numr mare de Bildungsromane care descriu cazuri ilustre de producere a curriculumului simultan de-a lungul ntregii viei. Rhetorical curriculum (Curriculumul retoric ) = este produs de aa- ziii formatori de opinie: persoane considerate ca purttoare de autoritate, ndreptite s produc schimbri n societate, n viaa public. Acetia sunt oficiali, politicieni, purttori de cuvnt, personaliti proieminente, jurnaliti celebri etc. Acetia se consider ndreptii s contribuie la un proces de docilizare a celorlali, potopindu-i cu pseudo-sfaturi nelepte menite a contribui la bunul mers al fiecruia i al ntregii comuniti. Televiziunea i celelalte media sunt mijloacele acestei agresiviti care anuleaz singularitatea i posibilitile de alegere liber a valorilor propriei formri. Rezultatul docilizrii retorice o constituie apariia acelui individ-mediu, insul statistic, capul de locuitor, middle-man. coala contribuie i ea la acest proces mai
16

ales prin trunchierea adevrurilor n manuale i n programele colare n numele unor incerte valori morale superioare. Elevii termin gimnaziul cu credina c spaiul i timpul sunt ntocmai cum le-a descris Newton, c tefan cel Mare a fost un sfntneprihnit. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT / IMPROVEMENT/CONSTRUCTION Locuiune care desemneaz ansamblul etapelor/fazelor i operaiilor de construire a unui curriculum nou. Modelul cel mai frecvent utilizat este cel pentafazic: Faza I cuprinde CERCETAREA CURRICULUMULUI anterior (n funciune, Curriculum Research), adic: Diagnoza strii sistemului Prognoza tendinelor de evoluie i optimizare Faza a IIa cuprinde PROIECTAREA NOULUI CURRICULUM ( Curriculum Design ) Faza a III-a cuprinde evaluarea/testarea noului curriculum n dou subetape: Testarea/evaluarea in vitro (publicarea noului curriculum i culegerea de sugestii ameliorative i corective din partea tuturor celor interesai i,sau afectai de inovaiile aduse de noul curriculum); Testarea/evaluarea in vivo(experimentarea noului curriculum pe un eantion reprezentativ ct mai restrns - coli,elevi, educatori etc. -, identificarea disfuncionalitilor i introducerea msurilor corective). Faza a IV-a cuprinde ntreprinderea demersurilor de VALIDARE A NOULUI CURRICULUM de ctre autoritatea cea mai reprezentaiv pentru toi cei afectai sau interesai de inovaiile noului curriculum; Faza a V-a cuprinde demersurile legislative, msurile i aciunile de IMPLEMENTARE A NOULUI CURRICULUM, managementul i evaluarea continu a acurateii transpunerii n practic, eventuale noi corecii menite s sporeasc eficiena schimbrii. OPTIMIZAREA CURRICULUMULUI/CURRICULUM IMPROVEMENT Aceast expresie anglosaxon este echivalent cu cea de curriculum development. Totui traducerea ei n limba romn cu expresiile mbuntirea curriculumului sau ameliorarea curriculumului- ntlnite adesea nu se justific. Principiul suprem al educaiei, principiul optimismului restricioneaz orice aciune sau intervenie educativ care nu este optim ( De la superlativul latin al lui bonus, adic optimus,-a,-um . )Spre deosebire de limba englez, limba romn permite nuanele i sensurile necesare. De la bonus, noi spunem mbuntireiar de la comparativul lui bonus, ( melior,-a,-um ) n limba romn s-a putut construi substantivul ameliorare. In educaie ns nu sunt admisibile dect cele mai bune intervenii posibile omenete, adic optimizrile; n consecin, mbuntirile i chiar
17

ameliorrile trebuie evitate putnd fi erori pedagogice poteniale.) Doar traducerea optimizarea curriculumului . CURRICULUM DESIGN Aceast sintagm desemneaz conceperea/proiectarea a unei organizri educaionale coal, sistem de coli etc. - faz cheie a procesului mai amplu de curriculum development. Este important s nu se uite c proiectarea curiiculumuluinu poate fi realizat izolat i c ea nu epuizeaz dezoltarea, optimizarea, construirea unui curriculum. 1.1.3 Ipostazele curriculumului Stenhouse8 a propus urmtoarea distincie inspirat de casificarea aristotelic a cunotinelor n teoretice, productive i practice: Curriculumul ca programare Curriculumul ca proces Curriculumulul ca produs Curriculumul ca praxis de

Corpus de cunotine Procesul ce urmeaz a transmise,structurate

instructiv- Obiectivele ce trebuie Tehnologia

fi educativ, experienele atinse, competenele, planificare, de nvare pe care le cunotinele pe i organizare, optimizare care i dezvoltare a

n planuri, programe, parcurg elevii de-a valorile manuale etc . dup o lungul pregtirii. anumit nvrii. logic a elevul procesul educativ. 1.1.4 Tipuri fundamentale de curricula

trebuie s le asimileze studiilor. parcurgnd instructiv

Considerate n spaiu i timp, diversitatea de curricula teoretizate i practicate pare scindatn dou mari regimuri: curricula bazate pe sanciunea negativ i curricula bazate pe sanciunea negativ.

STENHOUSE, L. (1975) An introduction to Curriculum Research and Development , London: Heineman; GRUNDY, S. (1987) Curriculum: product or praxis? Lewes: Falmer ; KELLY, A.V. (1983; 1999) The Curriculum. Theory and practice 4e, London: Paul Chapman.
8

18

Criteriul dup care se poate face aceast clasificare este dat de tipul de motivaie a nvrii i a instruirii practicate n derularea efectiv a curriculumului. Eficacitatea i eficiena, creterea performanelor colare sunt urmrite n orice curriculum formal.Cum pot fi ele obinute? nvarea este adevrata cheie succesului n orice organizare educativ i instrucional. Conceperea corect a experienelor de nvare i conducerea lor nemijlocit de ctre educator constituie condiia sine-qua-non a oricrui nvmnt performant. Taxonomia fenomenelor nvrii i deosebirile majore dintre acestea sunt deseori neglijate n practic9. Este necesar ca n toate mprejurrile care privesc educaia s distingem cu claritate2 ntre: nvarea spontan (natural ) - care este un fenomen adaptativ existent la majoritatea speciilor, inclusiv la om ; i nvarea dirijat care are 2 forme: - dresajul sau nvarea mecanic - nvarea contient posibil i existent numai la specia uman. nvarea colar ar trebui s fie, prin definiie, contient. Din pcate, este confundat adesea n practica educaiei cu dresajul i practicat ca atare10 Deosebirea cea mai semnificativ dintre nvarea natural i nvarea dirijat se manifest n condiiile instituionalizrii de tip colar. Dac nvarea natural se manifest ca un comportament continuu menit s contribuie la adaptare, explorare i supravieuire, nvarea colar pierde aceast motivaie tinznd s se desfoare artificial ori de cte ori ea nu este motivat corespunztor. Fenomenul de pierdere a motivaiei naturale pentru nvare prin instituionalizarea i formalizarea nvrii, dei nu este fatal este ntotdeauna ngrijortor. Mai ales c el se amplific de-a lungul colaritii11. Este n acest sens important n practic
Vezi aceste clarificri n numeroasele clasificri ale teoriilor nvrii . Exist o convergen remarcabil n rndul cercettorilor care au aparinut unor curente psihologice foarte diferite de la conexionism i behaviorism i pn la constructivism i fenomenologie. Ptr.conformitate se poate consulta recenta enciclopedie media DAVID C. LEONARD (2002), Learning Theories AZ. Greenwood. Google books .
9

Este suficient s amintim practicile din nvmntul eclesiastic din secolele VXV d. Hr. Din pcate unele dintre acestea au intrat n tradiia nvmntului european i s-au pstrat vreme ndelungat. mprumutate mai ales din nvmntul francez ( vezi Les Petites Ecoles de la Port Royal) i german ( vezi tradiiile herbartiene) ele s-au nstaurat n secolele XIX-XX i n coala romneasc. ( I. Gh. Stanciu, O istorie a pedagogiei pn la 1900; EDP, Bucureti, 1977; de asemenea: RICH, PIERRE (1978): Education and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. 11 Gsim la ROBINSON, K.( Schools Kill Creativity. TED Talks, 2006, Monterrey, CA, USA.) acest informaie revelatoare: Nowadays some kind of education is compulsory to all people in most
10

19

Legea efectului, descoperit i enunat nc de la nceputul secolului al XX-lea de psihologul conexionist Edward L. Thorndike. Pare cert c normativitatea organizrii colare tradiionale determin un grav efect pervers- cel al instalrii la elevii colarizai a unui fenomen invers numit de Thorndike , comportament de respingere a nvrii. 12 Motivaia este fora motrice care ne pune n micare i ne determin s cheltuim energie fizic i psihic pentru a ne atinge scopurile. Instruirea colar este un asemenea scop. Dar suntem obligai s inem seama de cte o observaie maliioas precum cea formulat n urm cu civa ani de Iacov Raffini: Sugarii i copiii mici par s fie propulsai de curiozitate, condui de o nevoie imperioas de a explora, de a interaciona cu mediul. Rareori gseti prini care s se plng c precolarul lor este nemotivat. Din pcate, pe msur ce cresc, pasiunea lor pentru nvare pare s se micoreze. nvarea este asociat de cele mai multe ori cu corvoada, nu cu ncntarea. Un mare numr de studeni mai mult de unul din patru abandoneaz coala nainte de licen. i mai muli sunt prezeni fizic n sala de clas, dar mental sunt abseni i nu reuesc s se implice n experienele de nvare.13 De aceea suntem nevoii s lum n considerare c motivaia nvrii colare este declanat doar ntr-o msur neglijabil de motive intrinseci ( curiozitatea natural, instinctul epistemic, comportamentele de explorare, pasiunea pentru o anume disciplin, plcerea de a

countries. Due to population growth and the proliferation of compulsory education, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far. 12 De fapt, n 1905, E. L Thorndike i susinut legea primar a efectului i prin alte dou legi primare ale nvrii. Iat-le rezumate pe scurt: (1) LAW OF EFFECT - responses to a situation which are followed by a rewarding state of affairs will be strengthened and become habitual responses to that situation, (2) LAW OF READINESS - a series of responses can be chained together to satisfy some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked, and (3) LAW OF EXERCISE connections become strengthened with practice and weakened when practice is discontinued. A corollary of the law of effect was that responses that reduce the likelihood of achieving a rewarding state (i.e., punishments, failures) will decrease in strength ( v. mai ales: THORNDIKE, E. (1913). Educational Psychology: The Psychology of Learning. New York: Teachers College Press. ; THORNDIKE, E. (1932). The Fundamentals of Learning. New York: Teachers College Press.)
Infants and young children appear to be propelled by curiosity, driven by an intense need to explore, interact with, and make sense of their environment. As one author puts it, "Rarely does one hear parents complain that their preschooler is 'unmotivated' " (James Raffini 1993). Unfortunately, as children grow, their passion for learning frequently seems to shrink. Learning often becomes associated with drudgery instead of delight. A large number of students--more than one in four--leave school before graduating. Many more are physically present in the classroom but largely mentally absent; they fail to invest themselves fully in the experience of learning ( n ERIC, Clearinghouse on Educational Management ).
13

20

nva etc. ) i ntr-o msur mult mai mare de motive extrinseci ( diferite recompense, diferite sanciuni i pedepse etc. )14 Literatura psihologic de limba englez nu distinge ntre motivaie - care desemneaz ansamblul natural de motive, interese, dorine, trebuine i motivare - care desemneaz tehnicile tiinifice realizate de cercettori pentru a declana i controla, mai mult sau mai puin arfificial, anumite comportamente, inclusiv comportamentul de nvare atunci cnd motivaia natural lipsete. Cercettorii anglofoni folosesc acelai cuvnt motivation pentru ambele procese. Aceasta reprezint un neajuns pentru practica instruirii i nvrii colare. Foarte muli educatori nu tiu c pot folosi tehnici de motivare atunci cnd elevii nu i dau silina sau cnd elevilor nu le place s nvee. Cei mai muli recurg totui la unele tehnici de motivare care ns fac parte , aproape exclusiv, din arsenalul sanciunii negative: blam, note mici, ameninri etc. Acestea vor fi imperturbabil asociate de elevi cu efectul...legii efectului a lui Thorndike: locul comportamentului natural de nvare va fi luat de comportamentul invers, cel de respingere a nvrii. nvarea colar va deveni o corvoad din ce n ce mai mare i, pn la urm, va fi abandonat15. (Rezult cu claritate c profesorii trebuie foarte bine pregtii pentru a putea folosi tehnici de motivare a nvrii bazate pe sanciuni pozitive. Acest arsenal motivaional, mult mai subtil i mai eficace, s-a mbogit enorm n ultimele cinci decenii. Toate marile curente psihologice au pus la punct teorii i tehnici de motivare remarcabile. Diversele forme de condiionare realizate de cercettorii behavioriti i neobehavioriti, contribuiile gestaltitilor, teoriile i metodele puse la punct de cercettorii grupului Third- Force - in- Psychology, tehnicile active i interactive ale constructivitilor i umanitilor etc. constituie surse de remarcabile de optimizare a comportamentului didactic al profesorilor i, implicit, de cretere a performanelor elevilor 16. Asupra acestor chestiuni vom strui mai cu detaliu n partea a III-a a cursului.) Diminuarea motivaiei intrinseci i naturale a nvrii de-a lungul nvrii nu este o descoperire recent.Educatorii au cunoscut dintotedeauna fenomenul i au ncercat s l
CHUIANG, A., LIAO, W., TAI, W. 2005. An investigation of individual and contextual factors influencing training variables. Social Behavior and Personality, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 159-174. 15 ASTLEITNER, H. 2005. Principles of Effective Instruction - General Standards for Teachers and Instructional Designers. Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 3-8.
14 16

STEERS, R., MOWDAY, R., SHAPIRO, D. 2004. The Future of Work Motivation Theory. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 379387. 21

combat. De asemenea designerii de curricula implicite, tacite sau explicite i tiinifice. Ei au recurs la diverse principii i tehnici de motivare. Curricula bazate pe motivarea prin sanciuni negative blam, pedepse corporale, ameninri, puniii variate abund n istoria civilizaiei Euro-Atlantice. Curricula centrate pe motivarea prin sanciuni pozitive au aprut numai dup progrese importante ale cercetrii psihologice i pedagogice realizate n secolul XX. Aceasta nu nseamn c aceste progrese au determinat extincia curriculumului bazat pe sanciuni negative. Dimpotriv, exist nc asemenea curricula. i, de asemenea, apariia de curricula bazate exclusiv pe sanciuni pozitive au adus numai beneficii nceea ce privete eficiena i calitatea instruirii i educrii elevilor. Dimpotriv, unele curricula centrate exclusiv pe sanciuni pozitive au condus spre practici didactice aberante i la fenomene de libertinaj colar aspecte cu totul nepedagogice.

1.2 EVOLUIA CURRICULUMULUI N CIVILIZAIA EURO-ATLANTIC


Exist larg rspndit impresia c praxis-ul curricular, curriculumul ca proces sau ca Sylabus a aprut abia n secolului al XX-lea, odat cu lucrrile lui John Dewey i Frank Bobbitt. Pentru cel care dorete s capete abilitare curricular este nendoielnic util s verifice dac acest impresie este justificat sau nu. Pentru a-l ajuta s depesc acest nelmurire am ataat acestui manual un documentar recent realizat de un reputat specialist i istoric contemporan. ( A se vedea n Documentarul nr.1 excepionalul studiu al Daniel J. Elazar9 World History of Curriculum. Cursanii interesai de i mai multe detalii pot cosulta lucrarea lui Ion Negre-Dobridor Teoria general a curriculumului educaional aprut la editura Polirom n 2008 ). Aceste studii demonstreaz c au existat curricula implicite i curricula explicite ori de cte ori oamenii s-au educat n instituii mai mult sau mai puin specializate. n cele ce urmeaz vom strui numai asupra acelor curricula explicite i care sunt considerate moderne. Conceptul de modernitate pedagogic este ns adesea utilizat excesiv i produce nenelegeri. Asemenea confuzii pot fi ignorate n alte domenii. Dar n teoria i practica curricular ele pot deveni extrem de periculoase. ntr-un curs de abilitare curricular este absolut necesar elucidarea lor.

1.2.1 Modernitatea pedagogic i curricula explicite

22

1.2.1.1 Premodernitate, modernitate, postmodernitate, after-postmodernism n istoria culturii si civilizaiei europene conceptul de epoc modern acoper perioada scurs din Secolul Luminilor i pn n prezent. Despre perioada modern a curriculumului ns nu putem vorbi dect referindu-ne la secolul al XX-lea. Dar i aceast perioad este marcat de cteva etape succesive: - ETAPA PREMODERN se extinde aproximativ ntre 1902 (anul apariiei lucrrii lui Dewey The Child and the Curriculum) i 1949 (anul apariiei lucrrii lui Ralf Tyler Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction). Este etapa elaborrii primelor curricula coerente, inspirate de managementul taylorist, care asimileaz producia colar cu producia industrial. - ETAPA MODERN PROPRIU-ZIS ncepe cu Raionalul Tyler (1949); continu cu valorificarea acestuia ntr-o teorie general i o tehnologie general a curriculumului de ctre Smith, Stanley i Shores (Fundamentals of Curriculum Devolopment, 1950); i evolueaz cu ingineering-ul curricular realizat prin integrarea taxonomiei de obiective (Bloom), paradigmei mastery-learning (J.B.Carroll) i a ierarhiei tipurilor de nvare (R.M.Gagn) n designul curricular si optimizarea curriculumului din anii 70; intr n declin n anii 80 odat cu declanarea contestaiilor post-moderne. - ETAPA POSTMODERN ncepe n anii 80 cu critica ingineering-ului curricular modern; continu cu propunerile de curricula multidimensionale postmoderne din anii 90 i i diminueaz vehemena la nceputul secolului al XXI-lea. - ETAPA HIPERMODERN (sau SUPRAMODERN, sau ULTRAMODERN), este cea pe care o parcurgem. Expresia pe care o folosim este bizar. Dar nu mai puin bizar este expresia de after-postmodernism la care au recurs unii cercettori anglosaxoni. Esenial este faptul c traversm o etap a concilierii dintre criticismul cultural post-modernist cu rodnice cci ele au dus la realizrile raionaliste ale etapei moderne; consecinele par

redescoperirii virtuilor Paideii i a construirii de curricula integrale. Sunt simptomatice n acest sens doumari schimbri curriculare i educaionale: Goals 2000: Educate America i Key competences for lifelong learning. Prima este deja n spectaculoas derulare n SUA, cea de a doua se afl abia la nceputuri n Europa. Ambele pledeaz la o rentoarcere al idealului educaional nutrit n epoca elenistic : Enkiklyos Paideia i formarea lui Pepaideumenos, omul deplin, omul integral, omul multidimensional din Kosmopolis i Oikumene care n zilele noastre a devenit Global Village.

23

1.2.1.2 Condiiile apariiei primelor curricula explicite n prima jumtate a secolului al XX-lea, spaiul educaional euro-atlantic a fost marcat de pragmatismul american i n special de gndirea economic a lui Frederick Taylor17). Dou cuvinte magice management i efficiency au generat o atmosfer cultural greu respirabil de ctre omul declarat bun de natur de J.J.Rousseau cu dou veacuri mai nainte i admis ca atare de Constituia rii tuturor posibilitilor. Era vorba de o ciudat convertire a paradisului n infern. Edenul negru taylorian se baza pe dou erori logice care nlocuiau aspiraii umane profunde cu eufemisme ngrozitoare. Prima dintre ele fusese zmislit de Stuart Mill. Aceasta asimilase Binele cu Utilitatea. Esena utilitarismului putea fi redus la cteva sofisme care preau a conine adevruri indubitabile (Tot ce este folositor este bun i moral. Banii sunt folositori. Banii constituie bunul suprem; etc.). La fel de indubitabile preau raionamentele pragmatismului teoretizat de William James. Impresia c Adevrul i Experiena sunt interanjabile permitea o mitologie fabuloas a Empiriei care s-a transformat curnd n religie. Este religia care i-a unit pe americani ntr-o ar, ba chiar ntr-o naiune alctuit din ceteni provenii din toate neamurile i rasele pestriei Lumi terestre. Religia pragmatic i-a creat repede Eroi ai Experienei: Self-made-man, The First, The Winner. Este ocant asemnarea acestora cu eroul elin exemplar, vestitul Herakles, cel care izbndea n cele dousprezece munci herculeene. Cea mai important trstur comun este apaideusia, adic incultura. Semidoctismul acestor biruitori americani este notoriu i rspndit n proporie de mas. Cea mai mare parte a populaiei SUA era, n secolul al XXlea, alctuit din middle men, formai n collegies i schools, fr pretenii erudite; astfel nct aceti middle men ocau ntotdeauna absolvenii asprelor i prea livretilor coli europene prin faptul c locuiau n case cu buctrii luxoase - dar fr biblioteci - i i dictau scrisorile pentru c nu tiau s le scrie singuri i totui conducerea tiinific a muncii n instituii productive organizate riguros pe criterii de profit i eficien a transformat acest slbatic purgatoriu ntr-un paradis terestru al prosperitii. La aceast transformare, realmente impresionant, au contribuit, bineneles, i teoreticienii educaiei. tiina conducerii i a aciunii eficiente i-a avut companionul ei pedagogic. nc din 1918, Franklin Bobbitt (1876-1956) a pus bazele unei tiine a educaiei neleas ca tiin a conceperii, organizrii i conducerii colilor i baza acelorai principii tayloriste de eficiena. Lucrarea lui Bobbitt The Curriculum (1918) - considerat de mai toate dicionarele
17

v. cartea fundamental a lui F.TAYLOR The Principles of Scientific Management, New York, Harper, 1911.

24

i enciclopediile pedagogice americane ca first book devoted to curriculum science18, propunea totui doar un model pragmatic de abordare a instruirii i nimic mai mult. Despre o tiin a instruirii, n sensul aristotelic al expresiei, nu putea fi vorba. (Aceeai aseriune este, de altfel, valabil i n legtur cu tiina conducerii, care nu poate fi nici ea universal i bazat pe legi similare celor formulate de tiinele naturii). Teoria lui Bobbitt a fost revizuit i completat de nenumrate ori de-a lungul secolului al XX-lea. Ele constituie ceea ce unii istorici ai domeniului au denumit teoriile/modelele tradiionale ale curriculum-ului. Secolul al XXI-lea, pare a fi debutat cu critica radical i cu abandonarea lor aproape fr nici un fel de scrupule. Studiul lor continu ns s fie necesar. Mai ales n rile n care s-au declanat reforme de nvmnt i reforme curriculare. Teoriile i modelele tradiionale ale modernitii n-au disprut, putnd seduce nc uor pe neofiii care s-au antrenat n procese de reform colar fr a le cunoate exhaustiv i suficient de profund nct s le sesizeze racilele. Este motivul esenial pentru care le expunem, sintetic n continuare. naintea prezentrii celor mai tradiionale dintre curricula moderne, explicite i cu ambiii de fundamentare tiinific, este necesar s clarificm cum s-a constituit teoria tiinific a curriculumului. 1.2.1.3 Naterea teoriei tiinifice a curriculumului tiinific Cercettorii britanici ai istoriei curriculumului tind s atribuie acestuia date de natere europene i foarte vechi. Este cazul lui David Hamilton (1989; 1990) . Dup el expresia curriculum a cptat semnificaii educaionale pe la sfritul secolului al XVI-lea i nceputul secolului al XVII-lea19. Cea mai veche utilizare pedagogic a lui curriculum ar fi avut loc n 1582 la Universitatea din Leiden (Olanda); expresia completarea curriculumului studiilor (curriculum of his studies) desemna, se pare, o practic obligatorie20 pentru fiecare student . O alt dat de natere foarte veche a fost consemnat la Universitatea din
Despre influena managementului prin obiective asupra gndirii lui Franklin Bobbitt se gsesc lmuriri nu numai n The Curriculum (New York, Houghton Miffin; exist lmuriri anterioare i ulterioare acestei date. Le citez pe cele mai semnificative: A city school as a community art and musical center (articol in Elementary School Teacher, 12 (3), 119-126 (1911); The Elimination of Waste in Education (articol aprut n 12 februarie 1912 n Elementary School Teacher, 12 (6), 259271); High Scool Costs (articol in School Review nr.23/1915, 23 (8), 505-534); What the School Teach and Might Teach (eseu din 1915, aprut la W.F.Feel Comp, Philadelphia); Curriculum Investigations (University of Chicago Press, 1926).
19 18

D.HAMILTON, Toward a Theory of Schooling, Palmer, London, 1989; i Curriculum History, Deakin University Press, Victoria (Australia), 1990. 20 D.HAMILTON, op.cit., 1989, p.43. 25

Glasgow (Scoia) n 1633. ntr-un raport de activitate din acel an, s-a gsit expresia ntregul curs multianual urmat de fiecare student i nu doar unitatea pedagogic mai restrns (the entire multi-year couRse followed by each student, not any shorter pedagogic unit)21. Dar este vorba de tiina curriculumului? Greu de admis. Istoricii americani ai curriculumului reclam, desigur, o natere american a curriculumului n secolul al XIX-lea. Ei consider c publicarea n 1828 a vestitului Yale Report on the Defense of the Classics22 este momentul n care multimilenara practic a planificrii i a organizrii studiilor se transforma n tiin. Dup cel mai proeminent susintor american al acestei prioriti, D.Sloan (1971), Raportul Yale avea baza tiinific, n sensul ca era vorba de un curriculum fundamentat pe teoria facultilor psihice (nelese ca discipline mintale) ce pot fi formate prin studiul disciplinelor clasice, precum Latina i Elina23. Raportul Yale promova, ntr-adevr, ideea c colile trebuie s adapteze cursurile i metodele de predarenvare la necesitile formrii disciplinei mintale, a gndirii i a celorlalte faculti psihice. Aceast optic pedagogic, care muta accentul de pe materiile de studiu pe capacitile psihice, s-a rspndit rapid n ntreg nvmntul american. A contribuit la aceasta i faptul c o mare personalitate, Charles W.Eliot (1834-1926), preedintele Universitii Harvard a aderat la ideea nvmntului centrat pe faculti psihice.Dup W.F.Pinar i colab. (2001) el a contribuit decisiv la triumful viziunii clasice asupra curriculumului tiinific. 24 ntradevr, ntr-un Raport al Committee of Ten asupra nvmntului secundar din anul 1892, Charles Eliot a avansat o teorie lingvistic a materiilor de nvmnt, ca surse de mobilare (furniture) a minii elevilor, i a identificat principalele categorii de mobilri (sau cunoateri). Pentru nvmntul secundar el recomanda patru categorii/ci de cunoatere pe care le-a botezat astfel: Clasice, tiinifico-Latine, Limbi Moderne i Limba Englez. Eliot punea n centrul ntregului curriculum nvarea limbilor i a limbajelor pe care le considera eseniale pentru formarea mintal. Studiile Clasice includeau trei limbi strine - dintre care una putea fi o limb modern. Studiile tiinifico-Latine includeau dou limbaje strine i o

21 22

ibidem, p.45. Yale Raport: Original papers in relation to a course of liberal education, in American Journal of Science and Art, XV (2), 1828, 297-340. 23 D.SLOAN, Harmony, chaos and consensees: The American college curriculum, in Teachers College Record, 73 (2) /1971, pp.221-251. 24 W.F.PINAR, W.M.REYNOLDS, P.SLATTERY, P.M.TAUBMAN, Understanding Curriculum. An Introduction to the Study of Historical and Contemporary Curriculum Discourse, n Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, (J.L.KINCHELOE and S.R.STEINBERG, eds.) vol.17, Peter Lang, New York, 2001, p.75. 26

alt limb modern. Studiile Moderne includeau alte dou limbi strine moderne. n fine studiile de Englez includeau o limb strin, o limb veche i o limb modern. Acest exces lingvistic nu putea s nu strneasc reacii critice. Cele mai subtile au venit din partea lui William Torrey Harris (1835-1909), comisarul guvernamental pentru educaie al SUA ntre 1889-1906. Dei fusese mult vreme un promotor al teoriei lingvistice a lui Eliot, ncepnd din 1900, Harris i-a schimbat radical ideile. El a propus o nou concepie despre formarea disciplinei mentale plecnd de la principiul c aceasta trebuie s se constituie ca o metod obiectiv i practic de selecie a curriculumului. Astfel a luat natere vestita teorie a celor Cinci Ferestre ale Sufletului (Five-Windows-of-the-Soul).25 Acestea erau, n concepia sa, cele cinci mari diviziuni ale vieii umane (five great divisions of the life of man). Ferestrele sufletului erau:aritmetica, geografia, istoria, gramatica i literatura. Contemporanii au considerat c teoria lui Harris era o rentoarcere conservatorist la Scolastic. Impresia a fost accentuat de recomandrile metodice ale lui Harris care considera c tehnici, precum recitrile i memorrile mecanice, pot deschide i lrgi ferestrele sufletului. Mutnd accentul pe metode i discipline, Harris abandona direcia psihologizant anterioar. Rigorismul i magistrocentrismul scolastic au fost resuscitate. Este situaia pe care o constata Dewey n 1902 n colile secundare din Chicago. Caracterul livresc , a eminamente informativ, izolat de via, a fost accentuat de curentul herbartian, care s-a manifestat puternic n SUA la sfritul secolului al XIX-lea. Lucrrile lui Herbart i Tuiskon Ziller, traduse n englez n aceast perioad, au produs o impresie profund n rndul educatorilor i teoreticienilor americani mai ales din cauza pledoariei herbartiene pentru ordine, disciplin i formalism mathetic. Versiunea Ziller-Rein a herbartianismului a fost aplicat mai nti n colile normale din Illinois, prin imitare direct a practicilor pe care Wilhelm Rein le demonstra la Jena. Nevoia de a forma institutori/nvtori ct mai bine pregtii, resimit n toate statele din SUA, a contribuit decisiv la adaptarea unui model curricular i instrucional care, prin rigoarea formal, prea a avea o ntemeiere tiinific fr cusur. Organizaiile si asociaiile herbartiene s-au rspndit pe tot teritoriul SUA, n numr mare, dominnd gndirea pedagogic i educaia american la sfritul secolului al XIX-lea. n aceast atmosfer pedagogic clasicistformalizant s-a auzit, n 1902, protestul lui John Dewey din The Child and the Curriculum (1902): un pamflet care, practic, a dat natere gndirii curriculare moderne i tiinei curriculumului. Atmosfera pedagogic nu corespundea deloc cu cea economic i politic. Pe
W.HARRIS, Psychological Foundations of Education: An Attempt to Show the Genesis of the Higher Faculties of the Mind, D.Appleton, New York, 1898.
25

27

acestea din urm le-am creionat deja n paragraful anterior. Impulsul polemic al lui Dewey a dat roade n 1918, cnd Bobbitt a publicat primul model curricular, autentic tiinific. l redm, n continuare, sintetic, alturi de alte modele importante ale perioadei antebelice. Sunt modele cu adevrat moderne:orientate spre via, pentru formarea profesional, eficientiste, inspirate de managementul taylorist, considernd coala o fabric de resurse umane, evocnd centrarea studiilor pe learner (dar nu pentru formarea acestuia ca personalitate deplin, ci doar pentru foloasele muncii i pentru supravieuire). Dac admitem s considerm ntregul veac al XX-lea ca adevrat perioad modern a curriculumului tiinific, modelele care urmeaz trebuie considerate doar ca modele ale nceputului tiinific de drum, modele nc pre-moderne, datorit posibilitilor reduse de control al mecanismelor de nvare la om (pentru simplu motiv ca acestea din urm nu au fost identificate exact dect dup cel de-al doilea rzboi mondial). Nu toate modelele care urmeaz au fost elaborate n perioada ante- i interbelic. Cteva au sorginte mult mai recent. Despre acestea s-a crezut c sunt nu numai autentic moderne, ci de-a dreptul infailibile. Este cazul Raionalului Tyler i al modelului interacionist al Hildei Taba. Se va putea ns vedea c toate respir atmosfera pragmaticeficientist a colii americane, de-a lungul ntregului secol XX, care celebreaz obiectivele i rezultatele nvrii dar ignor procesele luntrice ale acesteia i aspiraia paideutic spre desvrire. Omul - rezultatul educaiei - rmne unidimensional: posesor de abiliti i competene, necesare ndeplinirii unor profesii i supravieuirii ca orice animal de povar. 1. 2. 2 O viziune exhaustiv asupra evoluiei curriculumului modern Asupra curriculumului se exzercit influene multiple care i determin structura, funcionalitatea i evoluia. Diferiii cercettori i designeri curriculari au interpretat i folosit contextual aceste influene.Recent, Elizzabeth Wilmes26 a reuit s sintetizeze magistral aceste matamorfoze.

26

Vide: Textul din Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2008, June 15). Informational Society. In Wikipedia: The Free

28

29

Figura nr. 1 :O viziune exhaustiv asupra evoluiei curriculiumului modern (apud Elizzabeth Wilmes). Putem urmri cele mai semnificative evoluii teoretice ale curriculumului analiznd schema de mai sus. Pentru a o nelege mai bine adugm informaiile care urmeaz. 1.2.3 Curricula moderne
30

1.2.3.1Contribuia decisiv alui John Dewey Cel care a declanat aceast extraordinar schimbare de paradigm n secolul al XXlea a fost cel mai mare pedagog al Americi: filosoful, psihologul, esteticianul, politologul, sociologul, eticianul John Dewey ( 1859-1952 ). Dincolo de a fi creat i impus conceptul de curriculum educaional Dewey a adus contribuii decisive i clarificri uimitoare privind rolul copleitor al experienei n formarea indivizilor umani i a educaiei n progresul societii. O rsturnare de perspectiv similar n educaie similar celei realizat n fizic de contemporanul i prietenul su Einstein. Teoria sa progresivist conform creia educaia i coala sunt adevratul motor al progresului social i al civilizaiei omeneti a devenit n timp o mentalitate american care depea radical, fr s l dezmint, pragmatismul tradiional. Aceasta a conferit o nou demnitate colii i profesiei de dascl dar, n acelai timp a atras atenia asupra importanei schimbrilor n educaie i ncurriculum care incumb responsabiliti copleitoare. Toate lucrrile i activitile lui Dewey sunt importante i ntemeietoare. Una dintre ele ns mai rscolitoare dect toate: Crezul meu pedagogic. Este considerat de muli cunosctori ca cea mai mare oper de civilizaie colar dup Institutio oratoria a lui Quintillianus i Didactica Magna a lui Jan Amos Comenius. Am reprodus n Documentarul Nr. 2 fragmente tulburtoare din aceast monumental capodoper. Cursanii care urmeaz un modul de abilitare curricular pot nelege din aceast oper ce teribil responsabilitate incumb orice influen educativ o omului asupra omului i orice schimbare curricular produsprin planificare contient. De fapt, din punct de vedere strict pedagogic este un text sacru. S-ar putea spune c nu are voie nimeni s intre n clasa de elevi, s costruiasc u n plan de nvmnt, s aplice un microproiect pedagogic sau s aplice u n text docimologic dac nu ia nsuit crezul lui Dewey. 1.2.3.2 Teoria lui Bobbitt Franklin Bobbitt a devenit Ph.D LA Clark University n 1909 pe cnd preedinte al acesteia era psihologul G.Stanley Hall cu o tez intitulat simplu Curriculum. Lansa pe pia un cuvnt care fusese folosit mai nainte, metaforic, de ctre John Dewey, dar pe care Bobbitt l-a transformat n concept operaional. Articolul din 1912 Eliminarea risipei din educaie (The Elimination of Waste in Education), publicat n Elementary School Teacher a avut un rsunet neobinuit. Era prepedeutica unei teorii economice a curriculumului care avea drept concept central eficiena. Cartea din 1915
31

What the Schools Teach and Might Teach (Ce predau i ce trebuie s predea colile) lmurea conceptul de eficien pedagogic - pe care el o reducea la ideea, c n coal elevii trebuie pregtii nu pentru coal, ci pentru viaa adult. A mprumutat de la Taylor tehnica managerial botezat de acesta analiza sarcinilor (task analysis) i i-a propus s elimine, cu ajutorul ei, din planificarea colar cea ce el numea nchipuirile vagi (vague guesses) nlocuindu-le cu obiective precise. A procedat pragmatic, aproape cinic, concepnd coala ca o ntreprindere productiv care trebuie s funcioneze rentabil. n 1918, Bobbitt a formulat numai principiile planificrii curriculare fiind inspirat, n mod vdit, de Frederick Taylor.27 n 1920 a publicat lucrarea How to Make a Curriculum prin care arta calea de transpunere n practic a acestor principii. Taylor teoretizase aa-numitul management by objectives. Bobbitt a propus o tehnologie a construirii i organizrii procesului de nvmnt n coala care poate fi considerat un curriculum-by-objectives. El a identificat un numr de 800 de obiective pedagogice i de activiti corelate cu ele. Apoi a propus un demers de planificare i organizare a curriculumului care comporta, succesiv, parcurgerea a ase etape. Demersul sextafazic al lui Bobbitt este urmtorul:

SELECTAREA

Se elimindin lista de 800 obiective pe toate cele care nu sunt practice sau nu pot fi atinse

Designerul fixeaz obiectivele necesare vieii adulte Designerul elimin/evit obiectivele care ar putea afecta viaa comunitii n careva tri elevul ca adult Designerul atrage comunitatea n procesul de stabilire i realizare a obiectivelor Designerul fixeaz definitiv obiectivele for all ( pentru toi) i obiectivele for some ( ptr.fiecare elev sau grup ) Designerul ealoneaz realizarea obiectivelor stabilind planurile i programele parcurgerii experienelor de nvare

ELIMINAREA

IMPLICAREA DIFERENIEREA ETAPIZAREA

Fig. nr.2. Modelul curriculumului centrat pe obiective (Bobbitt, 1920) 1.2.3.3 Modelul curricular al lui Bobbitt i Charters

27

F.BOBBITT, How to Make a Curriculum, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1924 32

Werret W.Charters (1875-1952) a fost cel mai fidel discipol al lui Bobbitt, dei era un teoretician i nu un administrator ca acesta. Studiase cu Dewey la Chicago i articolul su din 1909 Methods of Teaching:Developed from a Functional Standpoint era influenat de ideile marelui progresivist. A considerat ns c progresivismul i eficientismul pot fi conciliate ntrun model de determinare a curriculumului mai riguros dect cel conceput de Bobbitt. Charters a dezvoltat n lucrarea sa Curriculum Construction (1923) un model de analiz a operaiilor numit de el job analysis, pe care a folosit-o pentru a optimiza modelul lui Bobbitt.28 El a criticat teoria lui Bobbitt, considernd c astfel de curriculum nceteaz nvarea dezordonat, pe srite (mental leaps). Charters a propus ca structura curriculumului s fie derivat din obiective specifice i din activiti precise. Modelul su se bazeaz pe o metod original de selectare a obiectivelor pe baza de consens social n cadrul comunitii. Dup Charters, obiectivele trebuie s fie observabile i msurabile pentru a permite evaluarea exact a nivelului ei de realizare. Fr a repudia modelul lui Bobbitt, Charters a propus urmtorul model de abordare a problematicii construirii curriculumului: PRINCIPII DE CONSTRUIRE A STABILIREA UNOR
CURRICULUMULUI REFERITOARE LA: eluri, inte, rezultate vizate obiectivele programului trebuinele individuale experienele de nvare activitile de instruire II. FOLOSIREA OBIECTIVELOR COMPORTAMENTALE (behavioral objectives ) III. DERIVAREA DIN OBIECTIVELOR DIN TREBUINE DE NVARE I VERIFICAREA LOR PRIN EVALUAREA TREBUINELOR ( needs assessment ) IV. CONSTRUIREA PROPRIU-ZIS A CURRICULUMULUI ( neleas ca disciplin i proces n care subiectele de studiu se ntreptrund )

Figura Nr. 3. Modelul de curriculum development Bobbitt&Charters Este important de menionat c noiunea de dezvoltare curricular (Curriculum Development), aa cum a conceput-o Charters, a fost extins de sociologul Charles C.Peters la educaia
28

Desigur cartea lui W.CHARTERS Curriculum Construction (Mac Millan, New York, 1923) reprezint opera care prezint cel mai clar contribuia autorului la modelul Bobbitt & Charters. Dar ideile nnoitoare ale acestuia par anterioare publicrii lucrrii lui Bobbitt The Curriculum (1918). Este revelatoare n acest sens lucrarea lui W.CHARTERS din 1909 Methods of Peaching Devolop from a Functional Standpoint (Row, Peterson & Company, New York). 33

religioas pentru a putea produce cretini eficieni, cu obinuine, idei, credine i atitudini adecvate modului de via al bunului cretin american. Este o ncercare care ne poate da o idee clar despre felul n care funciona gndirea curricular n perioada interbelic. ntr-adevr, n acei ani s-au impus definitiv expresia scientific curriculum-making (elaborarea tiinific a curriculumului) i convingerea c este vorba doar de curriculum as a business plan (curriculumul ca plan de afaceri) .

1.2.3.4 Modelul raional al lui Tyler (1949) De numele lui Ralph Winfred Tyler se leag ceeace criticii curriculumului modern au numit triumful mediocritii (the triumph of the Middle) i cultul omului de mijloc (the Middle Man). Dup cel de-al doilea rzboi mondial, acestea au nlocuit miturile americane antebelice ale lui the Winner i the Best. R. W. Tyler i-a susinut doctoratul la Universitatea din Chicago i a predat la Columbia University i Ohio State University recunoscute n epoc pentru promovarea ideilor puerocentriste i progresiviste. Colaborarea ndelungat cu W.W.Charters la Chicago l-a marcat. Dar, n 1929 l-a ntlnit pe filosoful Boyd Bode la Ohio State cu care s-a mprietenit. Acesta din urm l-a orientat n direcia unei gndiri curriculare mult mai comprehensiv, mai detaat de obsesiile eficientiste ale lui Charters i Bobbitt. Ralph Tyler a fost i studentul lui Bobbitt i, desigur, a fost influenat de modul acestuia de a gndi. Totui, n 1949, n lucrarea sa Basic P rinciples of Curriculum and Instruction
29

, a propus un model tetrafazic de construire a Fiecare etap presupune

curriculum care comport deosebiri semnificative fa de modelul lui Bobbitt. Marsh (1992) a reuit s l sintetizeze grafic precum n figura de mai jos.30 rspunsuri raionale la o succesiune de patru ntrebri raionale:
I. Ce scopuri educaionale sper coala s rspund? OBIECTIVELE

29

Lucrarea lui R.TYLER Basic Princeples of Curriculum and Instruction din 1949 (Chicago, Chicago nvare selecionate pentru a University Press) a fost oarecum anticipat de alt cercetare inspirat de ideile lui Bobbitt: II. ALEGEREA EXPERIENELOR folosi la realizarea acestor Constructing Achievement Tests (Columbus, OH:Ohio State University, 1934). Nuanrile trzii sunt DE NVARE obiective? sugestive despre felul n care a evoluat n a dou jumtate a secolului al XX-lea gndirea curicular american.A se vedea n acest sens:R.TYLER, Educational Improvements Best Served by Curriculum n volumul J.SCHFFARZICH & G.SYKES (eds.) Value Conficts and Curriculum Issues:Lessons from Research and Experience, Berkeley, C.A.McCutchan, 1979). 30 III. Cum pot fi organizate Lucrarea lui C.MARSH, Key Concepts for Understanding Curriculum, (Palmer, London, 1992) este III. ORGANIZAREA una experienelemai nvare i mai clare sinteze realizate n secolul al XX-lea n legtur cu dintre cele de complete frmntrile teoretice privind optimizarea curriculumului n spaiul euroatlantic. NVARE EXPERIENELOR DE pentru instruirea efectiv? 34 III. EVALUAREA

II. Cum pot fi experienele de

IV. Cum eficacitatea

poate

fi

evaluat

experienelor de nvare?

Fig. nr.4Raionalul lui Tyler Tyler a fcut precizri importante n legtur cu cine ntreab i cine trebuie s rspund acestor ntrebri. Prima ntrebare este decisiv i crucial pentru ntreaga problematic teoretic i practic a curriculumului:Ce scopuri educaionale vei ncerca s atingi? Nu este o interogaie la care trebuie s rspund o singur persoan, fie ea i cel mai respectat expert n probleme curriculare. Tyler a struit c toat societatea (studeni, specialiti, beneficiari etc.) trebuie sa fie consultat. Tyler realizeaz foarte exact faptul c un designer curricular i asum sarcina grav de a hotr destinul celor care nva, ntocmai ca mitica Ananke. (Este unul dintre adevrurile fundamentale ale acestui domeniu pedagogic prea adesea rnit de opinii si decizii iresponsabile). Evident, rspunsul la prima ntrebare antreneaz gravitatea rspunsurilor ulterioare. Marsh (1992) sesiza ns faptul c, la urmtoarea ntrebare, Cum pot fi experienele de nvare alese att de bine nct s fie atinse obiectivele stabilite?, Tyler sublinia c nu trebuie s rspund dect persoane cu competen de specialitate i competen pedagogic infailibile. Alegerile eronate submineaz pur i simplu procesul de realizare a obiectivelor i ele sunt deficiena cea mai frecvent a planurilor i programelor de nvmnt. A treia ntrebare reclam designer-ului curricular, de asemenea, competena psihopedagogic remarcabil, dar i ingeniozitate. Articularea pe vertical i pe orizontal a experienelor, atunci cnd ea este perfect, este opera unui geniu erudit. Desigur, astfel de designeri nu pot fi
35

dect rari i, de aceea, este preferat ca la ntrebare s rspund echipe mixte de specialiti i pedagogi. In fine, ultima ntrebare oblig la o nou tiin a evalurii performanelor de nvare - care, de altfel, ncepnd din anii 70 ai secolului trecut, s-a i constituit. Astfel a luat natere aa-zisul raional al lui Tyler. Tyler Rationale prescrie cele patru etape menionate mai sus i postuleaz c ele trebuie parcurse n ordine strict, impus de logica praxeologic a aciunii eficiente. Eficientismul tylerian nu este dictat doar de raiuni economice i modelul nu este simplu business plan, ci construcie tiinifica autentic. Simplitatea i funcionarea facil a lui Tyler Rationale a sedus att teoreticienii ct i practicienii curriculumului care au crezut c s-a ctigat, n acest fel, un instrument infailibil pentru a dezvolta, construi i optimiza, repede i sigur, curricula moderne, eficiente n orice condiii sociale i educaionale. S-a ignorat ns c modelul lui Tyler eluda problemele subiectivitii i ale destinului solitar ale fiecrui learner, ca personalitate n devenire. Influena modelului lui Tyler a atins apogeul n perioadele de reform educaional major. Deceniul 70 din secolul al XX-lea a impus raionalul Tyler, determinnd lumea educaional a spaiului euro-atlantic c a fost gsit deja panaceul rezolvrii tuturor problemelor acestei lumi. La debutul secolului al XXI-lea ns el a fost declarat defunct i nimic nu pare a fi mai eronat n noile reforme educaionale precum cea romneasc-dect a paria pe aceast stafie a eficientismului tylerist (March, 1992).

1.2.3.5 Modelul interacionist al Hildei Taba (1962) De cusururile modelului lui Tyler pare a-si fi dat seama, cea dinti, Hilda Taba. Hilda Taba a fost, iniial, discipol a lui Tyler 31. n 1962 ea a propus un model de construire a curriculum-ului care a introdus o dimensiune nou i esenial n conceperea i realizarea sistemelor i proceselor de formare uman. Modelul lui Tyler este liniar, aproape determinist i, fr ndoial, oarecum rigid i simplist. H.Taba 32 a modificat viziunea miznd pe flexibilitate i pe luarea n calcul a interaciunilor dintre elementele aflate n componena unui
31

Hilda Taba poate fi considerat cea mai proeminent personalitate a teoriei curriculumului din a doua jumtate a secolului al XX-lea. S-a ilustrat mai ales prin implicarea n reformele educaionale derulate n mai multe ri de pe toate continentele. Aceast activitate practic bogat nu a fost nsoit de o oper la fel de bogat. n afara lucrrii din 1962, Curriculum Development:Theory and Practice (Harcount, Brace&World, Inc., New York) nu s-a mai ilustrat dect cu un studiu important: Problem Identification care a aprut n volumul A.FOSHAY & J.HALL (Eds.) Research for Curriculum Improvement (ASCD, Washington, D.C., 1957). Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum development: theory and practice. New York, Harcourt, Brace, and World.
32

36

curriculum. McGee (1997) aprecia c Hilda Taba a reuit schimbarea paradigmei tyleriene adugnd noi pai demersului respectiv i punnd accentul pe diagnosticul trebuinelor de formare considerat ca fundament al ntregii construcii curriculare.16) Brady (1995) aprecia c originalitatea modelului Hildei Taba rezid n faptul c se bazeaz pe o abordare mai rafinat a realitii procesului de formare uman; dou dintre criticile aduse frecvent modelului tylerian centrarea exclusiv pe obiective i ghidarea inflexibil a procesului formativ pe direcia lor au fost n considerare i umanizate. Limitele i metodele acestei umanizri sunt discutabile. Modelul Hildei Taba permite profesorilor s se implice n planificarea curriculumului i n selectarea obiectivelor pe parcursul procesului. Brady (1989, 1995)33 a studiat modul n care utilizeaz educatorii (care desfoar activiti n curricula elaborate pe baza principilor stabilite de Hilda Taba) concepte cheie precum: obiective, coninuturi, metode, evaluare; el a constatat ca peste 86% dintre profesori considerau c un curriculum optim trebuie s coreleze riguros componentele curriculum-ului n succesiunea: coninut obiective metode evaluare; peste 51% dintre profesori considerau infailibil succesiunea: coninut metode obiective evaluare; numai 13% dintre educatori apreciau ca optim succesiunea tylerian: obiective coninuturi metode evaluare.34 Acelai autor a propus o reprezentare grafic a modelului Hildei Taba menit s sugereze interaciunile i flexibilitatea acestuia.

Fig. nr.5. Modelul interacionist al H.Taba

Brady, L. (1995). Curriculum development, 5th edn. Sydney, Prentice-Hall v. mai ales lucrarea lui J.M.BARRY, Rising Tide, Limon and Sehuster New York, 1997, i trimiterile la cercetrile lui BRADY (1995) mai ales la C.McGee, op.cit.
33

34

37

MeGee (1997) a atras atenia, ns ca modelul Hildei Taba este cu adevrat superior prin accepiunea extins conferit conceptului deobiectiv pedagogic. Ea nu l reduce la abiliti sau comportamente precum Tyler, ci desemneaz atitudini, valori, concepte, euristic, cunoatere teoretic . a. Totui modelul rmne eficientist i progresivist. Nu avem de-a face cu un model umanist, aa cum cere gndirea postmodern. Hilda Taba nsi a sesizat problema, dar nu i-a putut gsi o soluie exhaustiv. Dup Hilda Taba, teoreticienii i designerii de curricula au o problema serioas n ceea ce privete gsirea i asumarea unei baze teoretice solide pentru dezvoltarea curriculumului. Ei prefer s rezolve aceast problem ct mai uor recurgnd la fundamentri economicizante eficientiste, pragmatice, sau epistemice. Modelul lui Tyler, de exemplu, pctuiete recurgnd la soluia epistemologic: fundamentarea curriculumului pe gndirea sistematic i logic a aciunii. Dar este suficient aceast opiune? Desigur, nu. Hilda Taba consider c fundamentarea curriculumului trebuie s includ probleme ale societii i culturii, soluii privind procesele nvrii, rezultate ale cercetrilor privind dezvoltarea individual, i caracteristici specifice ale materiilor i coninuturilor studiului. n plus, designul curricular nu poate fi considerat unicircular, cum crede Tyler; ci multicircular, adic alctuit din numeroase interaciuni ntre cele patru componente eseniale ale curriculumului. Aceste idei au conferit superioritate i complexitate modelului propus de Hilda Taba n raport cu modelele clasice i moderne ale curriculumului; s-ar putea spune c este aproape un model postmodern; totui ignornd aventura unic, subiectiv i solitar a fiecrui ins care se formeaz prin educaie l condamn aceleiai unidimensionalizri fatale rezervat de curricula moderne lui middle man. 1.2.3.6 Modelul naturalist al lui Walker Unii cercettori moderni ai curriculumului au ncercat s rezolve problema reformulnd-o i inversnd termenii. Imitnd-o oarecum pe Taba, D.Walker a ncercat s propun un model natural al curriculumului.35
35

Modelul nu arat cum se poate construi un curriculum, ci cum s-a construit un

D.WALKER i-a prezentat pentru prima dat modelul n 1971: A Naturalistic Model for Curriculum Development (studiu publicat in School Review, 80/1971 (1), 51-65). Neclaritile primei versiuni au fost lmurite ulterior prin articole polemice i reluri sistematice. A se vedea mai ales: What Curriculum Research? (n Journal of Curriculum Studies, 5/1973, 58-72); The Curriculum Field in Formation:A Review of the Twenty-six Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (n Curriculum Theory Network, 4/1975, 263-283); Toward Comprehension of Curriculum Realities (n L.SHULMAN, ed., Review of Research in Education, Peacock, Hasca, 1976); Approaches to Curriculum Development (n volumul J.SCHAFFARZICH & G.SYKES, eds., Value Conflicts and Curriculum Issues McCutchan, Bekkeley, 1979); s.a. O limpezire definitiv i 38

curriculum n realitate. Walker fusese observator i evaluator la Kettering Act Project n 1960 i i-a sistematizat concluziile obinute ntr-o viziune proprie. Apoi, vreme de un deceniu (1960 - 1970), i-a testat teoria n diferite proiecte i activiti de reform curricular desfurate n SUA. Walker susine ca o planificare optim a curriculum-ului trebuie s se deruleze n trei etape: platforma, deliberarea i proiectarea. Marsh (1992) le-a expus grafic ca n figura de mai jos i le-a caracterizat sumar.

Fig. nr.6. Modelul naturalist al lui Walker Marsh (1992) sublinia convingerea lui Walker, consolidat prin experiena sa practic, c atunci cnd mai muli specialiti lucreaz n comun pentru a construi un curriculum, ei pleac la drum cu anumite pretenii i idei prestabilite referitoare la sarcinile si problemele eseniale care trebuie rezolvate i despre care cred c trebuie luate n considerare. PLATFORMA demersului curricular const n concepii (credine despre ceea ce exist i ceea ce este posibil), teorii (convingeri despre relaiile care exist ntre diversele entiti) i scopuri (credine i convingeri cu privire la ceea ce este dezirabil). DELIBERAREA pleac de la preferinele imediate i ajunge la dimensionarea soluiilor viabile din ansamblul alternativelor posibile. Este un proces de decizie care fundamenteaz proiectarea. DESIGN-ul presupune a gndi i a structura soluiile stabilite prin consens n faza anterioar ntr-o manier raional care presupune organizarea i evaluarea n timp a activitilor propriu-zise de instruire.
idei care depaesc faza modern a curriculumului i o anuna pe ceapostmodern pot fi gsite n dou lucrri ale lui D.WALKER: Fundamentals of Curriculum (Harecourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1990) i Curriculum and Aims (lucrare realizat mpreun cu J.SOLTIS i publicat n 1986 la Teachers College Press, New York). 39

Observm cu uurin c ne aflm n faa unor generalizri obinute prin experien proprie de Walker. Presupunnd c ele sunt corecte i c Walker nu greete, rmne o problem de principiu: Oare felul n care s-au construit diverse curricula este exact felul n care ele trebuiau construite? Nu cumva natura multor curricula este grav afectat de erori de proiectare i implementare? etc.

1.2.3.7 Modelul dinamic al lui McGee Critic nverunat al teoriilor tradiionale neozeelandezul Clive McGee, a propus n 1997 un model de optimizare a curriculumului pe care l considera modern i, bineneles, infailibil. Dar ideile sale se nscriu n continuitatea aceleiai tradiii moderniste n sensul n care am definit-o anterior36. McGee a realizat un model mai integrat i mai interdependent dect cele descrise mai nainte, punnd cap-la-cap cinci categorii de teorii i tehnici: analiza situaional; teoria tehnologic a obiectivelor; tehnicile de selecie a coninuturilor; teoria experienelor de nvare ; teoria evalurii i aprecierii performanelor de nvare. A rezolvat un fel de teorie general i abstract a construirii curriculumului, cu vdite ambiii de universalitate. Modelul lui McGee este, dup opinia sa, aplicabil la toate nivelurile nvmntului i n orice condiii socio-culturale. El nu este liniar, dar nici ciclic. n expresie diagramatic modelul lui McGee arat astfel:

DECIZII rezultate din ANALIZA SITUAIONAL

DECIZII privind EVALUAREA nvrii i evalurii

DECIZII privind INTENIILE, SCOPURILE, OBIECTIVELE

36

Clive MeGEE este profesor la University of Waikato, Noua Zeelanda. i-a fcut cunoscut modelul DECIZII privind DECIZII privind n 1997 cnd a publicat Teachers and Curriculum Design (Waikato, New Zeeland). S-a antrenat apoi NVAREA reform curricular bazat pe modelul su egida Ministrul Educaiei din Noua CONINUTUL a ntr-un proces de i Zeeland. Rezultatele implementrii noului curriculum au nceput sce urmeaz an volume ACTIVITILE DE ceea fie publicate succesive, intitulate Teachers Experiences in Curriculum Implementation ncepand din anul 2003 INSTRUIRE fi studiat (Research Publication, Univ.of Waikaite, New Zeeland). 40

Fig. nr.7. Modelul dinamic al lui McGee McGee consider c suportul oricrei dezvoltri curriculare trebuie s fie dinamic oricrui proces de schimbare care are loc n contexte complexe (McGee, 1997, p.44)37 McGee rmne totui un reprezentant al curriculumului modern, fr aspiraii multidimensionale, de tip postmodern; dei a fost influenat, n mod vdit de teoreticienii postmoderni ai curriculumului. Ar merita o expunere mai detaliat a modelului curricular propus de el. Cum ns n capitolul urmtor propunem o sintez a conceptelor i ideilor unitare care anim toate curricula moderne renunm la acest excurs particular.

1.2.3.8 Modelul procesual al lui Hawes Modelul curricular al lui Hawes38 este, n chip vdit, inspirat de tehnologia educaional i designul instrucional al lui Robert Mainard Gagne. Ca i acesta, Hawes intenioneaz s fundamenteze ntreaga costrucie curricular pe procesele naturale ale nvrii i dezvoltrii celor care se formeaz n instituia colar. Construcia ncepe cu o minuioas analiz a cercetrilor dedicate dezvoltrii copilului, cu identificrea legilor i legitilor nvrii, cu principiile fundamentale ale modelelor instrucionale i cu diversele teorii epistemologice; continu cu selecia coninuturilor, apoi cu elaborarea situaiilor vrii i ser finalizeaz cu evaluarea: I. PRINCIPIIII. CONINUTURIIII. INSTRUIREIV. EVALUARE

37

McGEE (1997), Este de menionat c McGee i-a perfecionat modelul pe parcurs. Detalii n A Summary of Feedback from First Meeting of the Curiculum Stocktake Reference Group, Ministry of Education, Tahutu-Mataranga, New Zeeland.
38

HAWES, J. (1979). Models and muddles in school-based curriculum development. n The Leader, 41

1.

Figura Nr.9 Modelul procesual al lui Hawes (Brady, 1995, p 84) 1.2.3.9 Modele centrate pe competene 1.2.3.9.1 Exist o mare varietate de curricula centrate pe competene. Aceast varietate este dat de specificul formrii pe care o produc: profesii, specializri, realizri de vocaii. Se poate spune c ele sunt simbolul curricular al formrii n societatea coului de fum. Originile acestor modele pot fi regsite n colile vocaionale i profesionale de la nceputul secolului al XVII-lea cnd, determinate deReforma Protestant, breslele meteugreti i ghildele negustoreti din rile de Jos i din landurile germane au renunat la colile eclesiastice crend coli ale vieii: coli profesionale, coli de arte i meserii, Arbeitenschulen, Berufsschulen .a.

APRECIEREA PERFORMANELOR

DEMONSTRAI I
Performante

E V

ACHIZIII DE SKILS, ABILITI I CUNOTINE

COMPETENE
Invatare integrata

A L U A

DEZVOLTARE N PROCESUL NVRII

SKILS, ABILITI, CUNOTINE


Experiente de invatare

R E

FUNDAMEN -TARE

TRASTURI I CARACTERISTICI 42

Figura Nr. 10 Modelul conceptual al construirii competenelor

(Richard Voorhes, 2001)


n ciuda diversitii, impus de diversitatea profesiilor i job-urilor , curricula centrate pe competene comport o structur relativ monoton precum n figura Nr.10 39. La o privire mai atent se poate observa c aceast monotonie organizatoric i structural provine din arhetipul formrii din urm cu 4-5 veacuri a tbcarilor, curelarilor, fierarilor, potcovarilor, dogarilor, tmplarilor, zidarilor, cismarilor etc.; un arhetip care se aplica nu doar formrii meseriailor ci i formrii artitilor (pictori, sculptori etc.) negustorilor, marinarilor etc. Spre deosebire de colile eclesiastice i monastice din Evul Mediu, eminamente livreti, magistrale i erudite construite pe baza celor septem artes liberales, (grammatica, retorica/oratoria i dialectica/controversia) i trivium quadrivium(aritmetica,

geometria, astronomia i muzica) - colile profesionale i vocaionale protestante din Renatere i Reform erau coli extra muros, complet nelivreti (muli mari meseriai i artiti produse de ele nu tiau s scrie i s citeasc pentru c aceste competene erau inutile n exercitarea exemplar a meseriei ), individualizate i strict practice. Curriculumul includea exclusiv cunotine legate de meserie ( taine ale meseriei) care nu erau predate celui care nva ci trebuiau descoperite i furate de ctre el direct din activiti practice, transformate n deprinderi i abiliti, lefuite apoi vreme ndelungat pn la nivelul miestriei artizanele. 1.2.3.9.2 Elevul se forma pe lng un mare meter sau un maestru artist traversnd mai multe etape: etapa I ucenicia: acumularea de cunotine, formarea unor abiliti elementare; etapa a II-a stadiul de calf: ucenicul devine ajutorul meterului, ndeplinete pri importante ale lucrului bine fcut pentru c deine deja skils-urile fundamentale ale meseriei dar nu este nc suficient de capabil pentru a duce la cap meseria; etapa a III-a stadiul de meter deplin , coincide cu certificarea pe baza unor probe practice finale care verific performanele de care este capabil pe baza unor standarde de performan i de miestrie acceptabil de marele meter i de comunitatea breslei meteugreti;

39

RICHARD A VOORHES, Competency-Based Learning Models: A Necessary Future, n New Directions for Institutional Research no.110/2001, John Wiley &Sons,Inc.

43

etapa a IV-a este aceea a miestriei cre se deruleaz de-alungul ntregii viei prinlefuire continu a abilitilor, priceperilor, deprinderilor i, foarte adesea, prin creativitate i inovaie profesional. n figura Nr. 11 se poate identifica cu uurin aceast schem curricular cu vechime considerabil dei figura de mai jos ilustreaz una dintre cele mai recente i mai cunoscute teorii cu privire la construirea de curricula centrate pe competene40.
OPTIMIZAREA PERFORMANELO R CERTIFICAR EA EVALUARE: - preformane -lacune n skilsuri TRAINING: -design instructional -obiective -nvare

SKILS STANDARDS

Figura Nr. 11. Modelul construirii competenelor (AS&K- Applied Skills and Knowledge, Paul Squires, 1999) 1.2.3.9.3 Este inutil s insistm asupra faptului c exist o vdit similitudine ntre curricula centrate pe competene i curricula centrate pe obiective. Modelele curriculare de acest fel sunt adesea convertibile. Dar nu amestecate, cum s-a ntmplat din pcate n nencetatele reforme curriculare romneti ! 1.2.3.9.4 Este ns extrem de util s nu confundm aceste curricula centrate pe competene cu acele Eight key competences for life long learning recomandate de Parlamentul European n 18 decembrie 2006 rilor din Comunitatea European41. Cele opt competene-cheie nu sunt simple abiliti tehnico-profesiunale, ci mari deschideri spre formarea integral a omului secolelor XXI XXII n Global Village, noul Kosmos Oekoumenic. 1.2.3.10. Curricula moderne la apogeu
40

MODELUL COMPETENELOR

PAUL SQUIRES, Suporting Competency-Based Learning n Applied Skills & Knowledge, 2000

Vide Recommendation 2006/962/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning [Official Journal L 394 of 30.12.2006]
41

44

Cercetrile curriculare i instrucionale moderne au triumfat n perioada postbelic. Se poate considera ca apogeul a fost atins odat cu identificarea mecanismelor de nvare solicitate n instruire de ctre Robert M.Gagn, construirea designului instrucional i a tehnologiei educaionale. Acestea din urm au permis conceperea curriculumului i a instruirii ca engineering de realizare a unor obiective predefinite i clasificate n taxonomii, precum cea a lui Benjamin Bloom. Raionalismul cuprins n acest mod de a gndi i aciona n educaie a prut c atinge cele mai nalte cote de tiinificitate odat cu apariia modelelor mastery learning care promiteau (i dovedeau!) posibilitatea practic de a determina eficacitatea general a instruirii. Se mplinea visul lui Comenius! Se prea c arta de a-i nva pe toi totul nu mai este o himer. Anii 70 au fost anii de glorie nu numai ai ingineriei pedagogice reprezentate de designul curricular modern i de proiectarea pedagogic riguroas. Ci i ai unui mit: mitul eficienei educative i al formrii acelui one-dimensionalman produs de societatea de consum i deconspirat de Herbert Marcuse cu dou decenii mai nainte. Protestele postmoderniste mpotriva unidimensionalizrii omului prin instruire eficient i a abandonrii educaiei morale i estetice au fost orientate direct mpotriva omului unidimensional devenit, ntre timp middle man, cap de locuitor, specialist etc. Pledoaria postmodernist pentru pluridimensionalizarea omului prin educaie a surprins ntradevr gndirea pedagogic modern. Dar nu pentru mult vreme, aa cum vom arta n capitole urmtoare.

1.2.4 Curricula postmoderne Inc din anul 1969, cel mai vizionar dintre pedagogii americani de dup John Dewey, Joseph J. Schwab a profetizat c n curnd va avea loc moartea curriculumului modern. 42 Dei n epoc profeia a prut hazardat i ridicul, ea s-a adeverit peste dou decenii. Spre deosebire de modelele curriculare moderne, care n anii 70-80 ai secolului XX preau a fi atins un anumit grad de convergen teoretic i practic, dezbaterile curriculare postmoderniste s-au dovedit mai degrab o larm contestatar polimorf care nu produs noi modele; mai degrab postmoderniii i-au propus s destrucioneze (Derrida ) modelele moderne i s produc antimodele curriculare.

42

Pentru amnunte vezi ION NEGRE-DOBRIDOR, Teoria general a curriculuui educaional, Polirom, Iai, 2008, cap. 13.7.

45

Principalele acuze aduse de postmoderniti s-au ndreptat tocmai n direcia a ceea ce constutuia mndria curriculumului moden: raionalitatea, eficiena, pragmatismul, orientarea riguroas a demersurilor, managementul precis al proceselor de nvare. n centrul acestor acuze s-a aflat ns o devastatoare i ineludabil incriminare: curricula moderne conduc spre unidimensionalizarea omului i, implicit, determin antiumanism curricular. Expresia one-dimensional man, folosit de filosoful Herbert Marcuse n anii 50 ai secolului XX pentru a critica virulent capitalismul, a fost reanviat n dezbaterea curricular a sfritului de secol. Este greu de contestat faptul c toate modelele moderne de curricula vizeaz adaptarea individului la cerinele societii i nu dezvoltarea lui liber, deplin, multidimensional. Profesionalizarea, specializarea ngust pentru practicarea unei meserii utile pentru societate sunt utile i pentru supravieuirea individului n acea societate. Dar aceast realitate nu mai este autentic pedagogic, ea include tacit i ipocrit i o component cinic. Un singur exemplu este suficient de sugestiv: aproape toate curricula moderne ignor total dimensiunea estetic a formrii personalitii umane i consider educaia moral o chestiune opional. Este aadar firesc ca, din perspectiv filosoficoantropologic, postmodernitii s adreseze ctre designerii i teoreticienii de curricula moderne reprouri precum: - Cine se poate socoti ndreptit s reduc formarea personalitii umane la dimensiunea intelectual i profesional dac individul uman are o singur via dar multiple posibiliti de formare n aceast via?; - Cine i pe ce temei poate decide care obiective i aspiraii ale copilului trebuie promovate i care trebuie neglijate, ignorate, inhibate?; - Nu cumva curriculum engineering ca i social engineering nu sunt dect metode machiavelice de caricaturizare reducionist a enormei i autenticei aspiraii pentru formarea multidimensional prin cultur a fiinei umane, ca entitate bio-ontic unic i irepetabil?; - n ce relaie se afl amatorismul ( amo,-are, -avi, -atum = a iubi, a admira toate domeniile cunoaterii i culturii) i diletantismul ( dileto,-are, -avi, -atum = a se delecta cu tot ceea ce este demn de admirat, de cunoscut, de simit, de preuit ) cu profesionalismul i cu specializarea ngust, specific ereicoului de fum?; nu cumva valorile paideutice s-au inversat catastrofic pentru mplinirea personalitii umane prin cultul denat al profesionalismului, competenei, expertizei etc. i prin repudierea dispreuitoare a tendinei fiinei umane de a admira, a iubi, a se delecta cu toate valorile culturii? Etc. Desigur, postmodernitii au propus i ei modele curriculare dar transpunerea lor n practic s-a dovedit dificil.
46

Le vom meniona sumar dar nu le vom analiza aici din considerente de spaiu. n lucrarea Teoria general a curriculumului educaional am distins zece mari domenii prioritare ale explorrilor curriculare postmoderne: 1. PEDAGOGIA CRITIC interpretri critice social-politice ale organizrii i consecinelor curriculumului modern; 2. PEDAGOGIA MULTICULTURALITII analize, studii, cercetri i modele de organizare a curriculumului n societile multi-etnice; dezbateri privind problemele rasiale din perspectiv curricular; 3. GENDER-PEDAGOGY problematica educativ a heterosexualitii, homosexualitii, feminitii etc. din perspectiva curriculumului formal i a hidden curricula; 4. PEDAGOGIA FENOMENOLOGIC modele de curricula centrate pe contiina de sine, inspirate de fenomenologia husserlian i de hermeneutica fenomenologic a lui martin Heidegger; 5. PEDAGOGIA POSTSTRUCTURALIST analize critice ale structuralismului care anim modelele curriculare moderne, propuneri de curricula destructurate, teorii privind deconstructivismul curricular; 6. PEDAGOGIA AUTOBIOGRAFIC o nou disciplin de cercetare pedagogic - currere ( de la curro, -ere, cucuri, cursum = a strbate rapid, a alerga printre obstacole ) - propus de William Pinar, cel mai proeminent teoretician al curriculumului postmodern: studiul peri-psihanalitic al formrii persoanei de-a lungul vieii (poor curriculum = cursa solitar i umil, plin de obstacole, a vieii individului, relatat de el nsui sau observat de cercettor ); 7. PEDAGOGIA ESTETIC pledoarii pentru formarea integral a personalitii prin asimilarea marilor valori, valorificarea sensibilitii i , n special a sentimentelor i emoiilor estetice,n formarea deplin a personalitii; 8. PEDAGOGIA RELIGIOAS critica dogmatismului religios n formarea moral, pledoarii pentru libertatea de credin, nlocuirea hermeneuticii biblice tradiionale cu hermeneuticile noi ale lui Heidegger, Gadamer, Ricoeur, Habermans, Reynolds .a. ; 9. PEDAGOGIA INSTITUIONAL hiperraionalizarea documentelor i activitilor curriculare, pledoarii, proiecte i cercetri-aciune pentru theory into practice, adic pentru implementarea n practica colar ( rmas n urm fa de nivelul cercetrii tiinifice) a inovaiilor cirriculare; realizarea de
47

curricula hiperraionalizate, digitizate pentru asigurarea nivelului de instruire tiinific; 10. PEDAGOGIA INTERNAIONAL ncercri i propuneri pentru crearea unui global curriculum pentru previzibilul Global Village. Cititorul i poate face ns o impresie mai just asupra ntregului context citind Documentarul Nr. 3 care conine un semnificativ studiu al unuia dintre cei mai proemineni protagoniti ai dezbaterilor curriculare postmoderne. 1.2.5. Perspectivele evoluiei curriculumului n after- postmodernism nc din ultimii ani ai secolului XX, cercettorii s-au ntrebat: ce va fi dup devastatoarea critic a postmodernitilor? Cititorii interesai pot afla rspunsuri la aceast frmntare consultnd dezbaterile conferinei din 14-16 noiembrie 1997 organizat de ctre Universitatea din Chicago, SUA. (vezi Documentarul Nr. 4). Aceast micare cultural care a antrenat toate domeniile culturii de la tiinele exacte i pn la artele plastice nu a ocolit, dup cum s-a vzut nici tiinele i practica educaiei. Totui curricula postmoderne, n ciuda ingeniozitii unora dintre ele, nu s-au impus n practica colar. Dar criticile nu au rmas fr ecou. After-postmodernismul perioada care a urmat i n care ne aflm este, dup opinia noastr una a sintezelor majore. Cel puin dou contribuii curriculare de amploare atest aceast convingere: The eight key competences for lifelong learning, curriculumul european al viitorului i Goals 2000: America Educate Act. Asupra acestor sinteze, mai ales asupra celei dinti, vom strui ce detalii n capitolele urmtoare.

EXERCIII
1. Citii documentarul Nr. 1. Folosind o istorie a romnilor scris de unul dintre marii notri istorici (Iorga, Daicoviciu ) i comparai felul n care a evoluat coala i curriculumul la romni. Identificai similitudini, deosebiri, dicrepane, sincroniciti. 2. Continuai documentarea pe cont propriu i ncercai s scriei apoi un articol/studiu original pe tema Evoluia curriculumului la romni.

48

Capitolul 2. MODELE CURRICULARE I INSTRUCIONALE BAZATE PE SANCIUNEA NEGATIV I PE SANCIUNEA POZITIV

OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE

Studiind acest capitol vei deveni capabili: 1. S deosebii natura diferitelor curricula plecnd de la modul esenial n care este abordeaz problematica nvrii i a motivaiei nvrii pentru producerea performanelor colare i a formrii personalitii elevilor; 2. S decidei care dintre cele dou categorii de curricula ar fi mai adecvat pentru coala romneasc de azi; 3. S distingei ntre nondirectivism i postmodernism n plan teoretic i n demersurile didactice pe care le concepei i le desfurai la catedr;
49

4. S evitai excesele i erorile pe care le implic aa-zisele libertate n educaie i curriculum centrat exclusiv pe learner.

1.SANCIONARE

NEGATIV

SANCIONARE

POZITIV

CURRICULA MODERNE I POSTMODERNE


In paragraful 1.1.4.( Tipuri fundamentale de curricula ) am distins ntre curricula bazate motivare nvrii prin pe sanciuni negative i curricula bazate motivarea nvrii prin pe sanciuni pozitive. n acest scurt capitol detaliem distincia. CARACTERISTICI CURRICULA PE NEGATIVE BAZATE CURRICULA BAZATE PE

SANCIUNI SANCIUNI POZITIVE

EXEMPLE TRADIIONALE

Septem artes liberales Petites ecoles (Port Royal)

Casa Giocosa a lui Rambaldoni Civitas solis a lui Tommaso

iezuite da Feltre

50

colile

eclesiasice

ale Campanella

catolicismului i ortodoxiei EXEMPLE MODERNE colile herbartiene Modelul lui Bobbitt Modelul lui Tyler Education Nouvelle Neorroussseaismul colile active coala din Summerhill a lui A.S. NEILL ( forma extremist ) EXEMPLE POSTMODERNE EXEMPLE N AFTER- Goals America Act 2000:Educate The eight key competencies for lifelog learning (Parlamentul European) IMAGINEA CELUI CARE Homunculus, NVA miniatur Diavol incipient, pctos Vinovat de la natur adult n nger, bun de la natur Natura Inocent, extremist) IMAGINEA CELUI DE Magistru autoritar Ocrotitor, partener, ndrumtor copilului sfnt, pur nseamn (forma cretere, dezvoltare natural Free schools

POSTMODENISM

LA CATEDR CENTRUL GREUTATE CURRICULUMULUI METODE DE PREDARE Magistrale NVARE Livreti Akousmatice Asimetrice METODE DE EDUCAIE Bazate pe sanciuni negative Laisez-faire severe blam pn la violene fizice DISCIPLINA Impus
51

DE Magistrocentism AL

Puerocetrism (uneori exagerat) Curriculum centrat pe learner

Interactive Bazate pe aciune, dialog, problematizare, descoperire etc.

Nondirective

Gam larg de puniii de la Sanciuni pozitive

liber

Sever

adesea libertinaj (n unele free schools)

VALORILE FUNDAMENTALE

Morala cretin Adevrul Binele frumosul

Libertatea Respectul reciproc

TEHNICI DE MOTIVARE Bazate A NVRII variate)

pe

fric

(puniii Bazate pe satisfacie (condiionri, ludism, tehnici gestaltiste, behavioriste, cognitiviste etc. )

STRUCTURI CONINUT

DE Core curriculum centrat pe Core discipline tradiionale

curriculum opional

nsoit i/

de sau

curiculum facultativ

Curriculum trasdisciplinar EFECTE N HIDDEN Elevii resimt repulsie i ur Elevii nu resimt repulsie fa de fa de coal i studii coal ci, cel mult indiferen fa de travaliul studiului CENTRAREA NVRII Elevii nva acas (sau n nvarea se realizeaz n clas internat) singuri; n clas ei sunt verificai ceea ce au nvat i audiaz coninutul leciei noi EVALUAREA Sever Punitiv Sumativ Selectiv 2.NONDIRECTIVISM I POSTMODERNISM N CURRICULA Simpla examinare a datelor de mai sus nu este suficient pentru a nltura una dintre confuziile care s-au manifestat att n teoria ct i n practica educaiei i curriculumului n ultima parte a secolui XX: cea dintre curentul numit generic non-directivism i postmodernism. Deosebirile sunt urmtoarele:
52

CURRICULUM

Continu Stimulativ Numai parial selectiv

CARACTERISTIC NONDIRECTIVISMUL I

POSTMODERNISMUL

PERIOADA MANIFESTARE

DE nceputul secolului XX

Sfritul secoluluixx

REPREZENTANI

JEANROUSSEAU HELLEN KEY LEV TOLSTOI

JACQUES JACQUES DERRIDA JEAN- FRANCOIS LYOTARD JEAN BAUDRILARD HLYNKA I YEAMAN WILLIAM E. DOLL Jr. CLEO CHERRYHOLMES - Pledoarie pentru cultur copilului i a omului pentru

EDUCATION NOUVELLE A.S.NEILL PLEDOARII CREDINE I - Pledoarie pentru natur copilului -Pledoarie nonintervenie n dezvoltarea natural, liber a copilului IDEALUL EDUCAIONAL Formarea sauvage LOCUL FORMRII natural

- ncredere n natura bun a - Reticen fa de natura bun a

omului Formarea personalitii culturale, a

liber similar lui le bon omului multidimensional

Natura, comunitatea pastoral, Biblioteca, insula nelocuit, grdina edenic etc.

coala,

universitatea,

pdurea, comunitatea tiinific,

ILUSTRRI

N Deux ans de vacances de Jules The Lord of the Flies de William Verne Golding

OPERE LITERARE EXPERIENE PRACTICE, APLICAII

-coala de la Iasnaia Poliana a - Vechile coli secundare i superioare lui Lev Tolstoi Summerhill a lui A.S. Neill - Free Schools ale Europei: cole Normale Suprieure Gymnasium germane (cu Realschule i -coala copiilor liberi de la Lycee Louis-le Grand (France )

Free Skool Santa Cruz din Hauptschule)

53

California Francisco School Toronto Free School Prescott Free School Anarchist U in Toronto Etc. CURRICULUM Nestructurat principii stupide: Principiul nelimitate copilului; Principiul stabilirii libere de ctre elev a ceea ce trebuie s nvee, cnd s nvee, cum s nvee. METODE EDUCARE FORMARE a Ferrer's

Sorbona Modern Oxford University Heidelberg Freiburg Firenze Etc.

Curricula structurate sever pe baza considerate dorinelor numeroase core materii curriculum i i

- funcioneaz, de regul 2 tradiiei celor septem artes liberales satisfacerii mbogite prin adugirea pe parcurs a discipline studiate opional sau facultativ.

DE De tip laissez-faire, laissez Metode tradiionale i metode noi I passer interactive, a mass-media utilizarea de mijloace audio-vizuale , folosirea internetului i

RELAIA EDUCATOREDUCAT CONSECINE, REZULTATE. PERFORMANE ALE FORMRII DISCIPLINA

PUEROCENTRISM EXACERBAT

MAGISTROCENTRISM PONDERAT

Anarhiti, dezaxai, hippies, Mari nonconformiti, pucriai etc.

personaliti

culturale,

mari

vagabonzi, savani, mari creatori etc.

-NU EXIST Se manifest

Normal, pstrnd nc vii multe dintre fenomene tradiiile disciplinei iezuite i regulile

grave de anarhism, violen organizrii cenobitice colar


54

Facem observaia c dei confuzia pe care o reclamm s-a manifestat i n alte pri ea se resimte din ce n ce mai dramatic n nvmntul romnesc. EXERCITII i APLICAII 1.Recitii ( dac ai citit deja ), n paralel romanele, Doi ani de vacan i mpratul mutelor. Comparai copiii lui Jules Verne cu copii lui William Golding. Care dintre cei doi autori au intuit mai bine natura copiilor? 2.Comentai la seminar faptul c ntemeietorul nondirectivismului, autorul romanului pedagogic Emile ou lEducation, Jean Jacques Rousseau a avut 5 copii pe care nu i-a educat prefernd s i duc la orfelinat. Judecai dac aceast atitudine de via este conform cu tezele afirmate de autor n Emile. Pentru mai multe detalii biografice referitoare la Rousseau v putei folosi i de romanul lui Lion Feuchtwanger nelepciunea nebunului sau Moartea i transfigurarea lui Jean Jacques Rousseau (Narrenweisheit oder Tod und Verklrung des Jean-Jacques Rousseau ). 3.Rspundei la ntrebarea: exist tendine de reluarea unor teze pedagogice eronate, de tip nondirectivist, n coala romneasc actual?n ce const elei cum ar putea fi combtute? Ar fi util recursul la metode bazate pe sanciuni negative drastice?

55

CAPITOLUL 3. CURRICULA CENTRATE PE OBIECTIVE I CURRICULA CENTRATE PE COMPETENE


OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE Studiind acest capitol cursanii vor deveni capabili: 1. 2. 3.
4.

S distingei ntre curricula centrate pe obiective i curricula centrate pe S identificai convergene procedurale ntre cele dou categorii de S discriminai ntre curricula bazate pe competene vocaionale i cele S gsii convergene i incompatibiliti ntre cele apte arii

competene; curricula; eight key-competences for lifelong learning; curriculare romneti i cele opt competene-cheierecomandate de Parlamentul European.

56

3.1. Curricula centrate pe obiective i curricula centrate pe competene


In coala romneasc au aprut unele nenelegeri gratuite dup anul 2000 cnd Ministeru Educaiei Naionale a decis s modifice curriculumul centrat pe obiective cu un curriculum centrat pe competene. Nu se cunosc raiunile unei asemenea decizii. Dup opinia noastr era o eroare ntruct modelele curriculare bazate pe competene sunt adecvate pentru nvmntul vocaional i profesional dar reducioniste i magis miserum pentru nvmntul public de cultur general. n plus, nu s-a folosit un model curricular centrat pe competene conceput tiinific i probat n practic. S-a recurs la intuiie i improvizaie, ambele extrem de periculoase. Cele apte arii curriculare stabilite de Consiliul Naional pentru Curriculum n anii 2008-2009 au fost pstrate dar n programele analitice ale materiilor de nvmnt expresiile obiectiv, obiectiv general, obiectiv operaional etc.au fost nlocuite cu expresii precum competen general, competen specific, competen concret etc. Curricula centrate pe obiective i curricula centrate pe competene nu sunt ireconciliabile i incompatibile. Acest lucru se datoreaz faptului c modele precum cel al lui Bobbitt sau Hilda Taba sunt, prin chiar filosofia lor, concepute pragmatic, utilitar, behaviorist. Prin urmare ele sunt similare cu acele curricula care profesionalizeaz i produc persoane cu abiliti i skillsuri predefinite. Dac n Romnia s-ar fi folosit un model curricular bazat pe competene conceput tiinific, atunci ar fi fost posibil convertirea corect a modelului iniial ntr-un model centrat pe competene. desigur, stabilirea acestora din urm nu putea fi o operaie ocult de birou secret, ci o problem naional, care trebuia dezbtut i soluionat de toi cei interesai, toi cei pricepui, toi cei afectai de schimbare. Stabilirea competenelor naionale era o

57

chestiunenaional! O problem pe care curricula moderne nu o aveau. Acestea din urm puteau fi centrate pe taxonomii de obiective pedagogice precum cea a lui Benjamin Bloom. Taxonomiile de obiective pedagogice au marele avantaj c descriu complet posibilitile universale de formare uman: sunt instrumente la care designerul curricular poate apela frspaima c va face alegeri greite sau c va lua decizii subiective ! n figurile Nr. 10 i Nr. 11 am ilustrat felul n care se construiesc curricul centrate pe competene. Un curriculum centrat pe obiective pedagogice descrise n taxonomii tiinifice de obiective pedagogice se poate concepe relativ simplu astfel:

CADRUL TEORETIC Finaliti, scopuri, obiective CONINUTU RI DE NVARE

ACTIVITI DE NVARE

EVALUAREA REZULTATELOR

Figura Nr.12. Modelul general de construire a unui curriculum centrat pe obiective Atunci cnd un model centrat pe obiective are ataat o taxonomie de obiective, de exemplu cea a lui Benjamin Bloom, atunci ea benficiaz de un ghid precis i sigur de orientare a tuturor demersurilor curriculare.

58

Figura Nr. 13.Taxonomia lui Benjamin Bloom (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia )

Am descris deja n subcapitolul 1.2.3.9. specificul curriculumului centrat pe competene. Procesul formrii competenelor n curricula vocaionale centrate pe competene profesionale este bine cunoscut. Este aspectul tehnic-pedagogic specific cunoscut nc din Arbeitshule lutheran: un antrenament ( training) etapizat i bine ghidat de asimilare a unui set- de regul precis i restrns - de cunotine practice i de formare a unor abiliti de a ndeplini sarcinile unei anumite profesii cu succes. Aceast formare profesional strict delimitat pentru a ndeplini cerinele job-ului respectiv nu ignora valorile. Breslele de meteugari i ghildele negustoreti care nfiinau i protejau aceste coli profesionale n secolele XVII XIX n landurile germane i n rile de Jos confereau acestor meteuguri o preuire foarte nalt i motivant pentru cei care nvau respectivele meserii pentru c ele le asigurau prestigiu nalt i demnitate remarcabil nluntrul asociaiei profesionale i al comunitii locale. Breasla era un sistem nchis i vocaional-elitist n care se ajungea cu mare greutate i numai pe baza unor

59

... proficient competences.Valorile supreme ale meterului sau negustorului erau miestria profesional, demnitatea, modestia, austeritatea, cinstea i onoarea.43 Procesul de formare a viitorului meter se realiza n trei-patru etape: - etapa de iniiere (stadiul novicelui sau al ucenicului pe lng meterul-maestru): asimilarea cunotinelor de baz necesar meseriei;

faza de formare ( stadiul calfei, al lucrtorului care lucreaz asistat strict de meterul-maestru ): formarea skills-urilor de baz, a abilitilor eseniale, a capacitilor de a realiza desvrit componente /pri ale lucrului bine fcut;

faza de mastery, de meter-propriu-zis care ns lucreaz ntr-o asociaie profesional cu drepturi egale: meter n rnd cu ceilali dar nc nu stpn independent pe meserie

faza de proficiency, de mater-maestru independent: maturitate, miestrie stpnirea deplin a meseriei, capabil de inovaie, artizan capabil s i nvee i pe alii meseria.

Acest model de formare a competenelor profesionale, testat vreme de veacuri, a influenat cu precdere dezvoltarea nvmntul din America de Nord, din rile scandinave i din mai multe ri protestante din Europa Occidental. Aa cum am mai artat, caracteristicile eseniale ale acestui mod de a concepe, organiza i forma copiii i tinerii o constituie caracterul nelivresc al instruirii, formarea prin munc i experien, aplicarea consecvent a principiului learning-by-doing i, desigur, obsesia competenei, a lucrului bine fcut i a evalurii nvrii prin raportare strict la standare de de performan nalte. Se ridic dou probleme:

Este un asemenea model curricular potrivit i n continuitate fireasc cu tradiiile paideutice ale colii romneti? Este un asemenea model adecvat condiiilor societii informatizate?

Dac vom rspunde afirmativ ambelor ntrebri, atunci este necesar s artm care este procedeul tiinific de convertire a competenelor n obiective i invers. FINALIT
I Urmrii cu atenie corespondenele urmtoare: DOMENII DE Poate c exemplul cel mai sugestiv pe care l putem da este acela al prinilor lui Immanuel Kant. CAPACITI DEZVOLTARRE Tatl marelui filosof , Johann Georg Kant (1683 -1746 ) era meter curelar care venise la Konigsberg din Tilsit. Pentru a accede n breasla curelarilor din Konigsberg, Johan Georg a trebuit s se cstoreasc cu Anna Regina, fiica prestigiosului curelar Caspar Reuter i s fac dovada CATEGORII DE remarabilelor sale abilities i skills de meter curelar prin demonstraii publice. Immanuel Kant i-a SKILLS, ABILITI CAPACITI admirat enorm printele i a ncercat s l imite prin conduita auster, cultul lucrului bine fcut i asumarea integral a datoriei. ( vide: MANFRED KUHN (2009), Kant. O biografie, trad., Polirom, Bucureti ) CUNOTINE DE BAZ I OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE APTITUDINI 60
43

COMPETEN E

TAXONOMIA OBIECTIVELOR PEDAGOGICE

CONSTRUIREA COMPETENELOR

Figura Nr 14. Corelaiile corecte pentru convertirea modelelor a. Recomandrile Parlamentului European privind centrarea

curriculumului pe competene-cheie i valori. Dup opinia noastr The eight Key competences for lifelong learning recomandate de Parlamentul European i de Consiliul Europei n 18 decembrie 2006 costituie una dintre cele mai mari sinteze ale after-postmodernismul curricular. ( vezi Documentarul Nr. 5 ). Cele opt competene recomandate pentru nvare de-a lungul ntregii viei sunt ( le redm n exprimarea original pentru a pstra foarte exact conotaiile acestor sintagme prea adsea traduse deformat):

communication in the mother tongue, which is the ability to express and interpret concepts, thoughts, feelings, facts and opinions in both oral and written form (listening, speaking, reading and writing) and to interact linguistically in an appropriate and creative way in a full range of societal and cultural contexts;

communication in foreign languages, which involves, in addition to the main skill dimensions of communication in the mother tongue, mediation and intercultural understanding. The level of proficiency depends on several factors and the capacity for listening, speaking, reading and writing;

mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology. Mathematical competence is the ability to develop and apply mathematical thinking
61

in order to solve a range of problems in everyday situations, with the emphasis being placed on process, activity and knowledge. Basic competences in science and technology refer to the mastery, use and application of knowledge and methodologies that explain the natural world. These involve an understanding of the changes caused by human activity and the responsibility of each individual as a citizen;

digital competence involves the confident and critical use of information society technology (IST) and thus basic skills in information and communication technology (ICT);

learning to learn is related to learning, the ability to pursue and organise one's own learning, either individually or in groups, in accordance with one's own needs, and awareness of methods and opportunities;

social and civic competences. Social competence refers to personal, interpersonal and intercultural competence and all forms of behaviour that equip individuals to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life. It is linked to personal and social well-being. An understanding of codes of conduct and customs in the different environments in which individuals operate is essential. Civic competence, and particularly knowledge of social and political concepts and structures (democracy, justice, equality, citizenship and civil rights), equips individuals to engage in active and democratic participation;

sense of initiative and entrepreneurship is the ability to turn ideas into action. It involves creativity, innovation and risk-taking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives. The individual is aware of the context of his/her work and is able to seize opportunities that arise. It is the foundation for acquiring more specific skills and knowledge needed by those establishing or contributing to social or commercial activity. This should include awareness of ethical values and promote good governance;

cultural awareness and expression, which involves appreciation of the importance of the creative expression of ideas, experiences and emotions in a range of media (music, performing arts, literature and the visual arts).

Dup cum se vede, cele opt competene-cheie nu sunt doar competene n sensul acreditat de practica tradiional i de teoria clasic a curriculumului vocaional. Parlamentul European specific: Key competences for lifelong learning are a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context. They are particularly necessary for personal fulfilment and development, social inclusion, active citizenship and employment.
62

Nenelegerile au aprut ns

repede. n mai multe ri europene s-a considerat c

Recomandrile mping practica educaiei la o dimensiune ngust tehnicist. UNESCO a fost nevoit, foarte recent, s reacioneze cu o exasperare care nu a putut fi nbuit de tonul oficial al comunicatului.44
Se pune totui problema dac model de formare-nvare bazat pe competene vocaionale poate fi aplicat i n cazul construirii unui model bazat pe competenele-cheie recomandate de Parlamentul European. Exist multe similitudini dar i vdite deosebiri.

Similitudinile cele mai pregnante par a fi urmtoarele: instruirea activ nvarea dirijat i proiectat strict limitarea la un set restrns de competene evaluarea prin standarde de performan predefinite focalizarea pe competenele stabilite model instrucional relativ similar

Deosebirile cele mai pregnante par a fi:


INSTRUIRE Curriculum practic Cunotine restrnse strict necesitile profesiei eficient Aplicarea
44

CENTRAT centrat pe

PE INSTRUIRE

BAZAT

PE

COMPETENE VOCAIONALE

COMPETENE-CHEIE civilizaiei euroatlantice la Cunotine vaste, deschideri culturale spre toate domeniile mari ale culturii lingvistice, culturale i informatice

miestrie Curriculum centrat pe marile valori ale

Abiliti tehnice i de aciune practic Abiliti exclusiv a

strategiilor Strategii didactice active i interactive

Recomandarea UNESCO din 14-16 februarie 2011 de la Milano cu prilejul Hight Level Regional Meeting on the Teaching of the Philosophy in Europe and North America care reafirma c education contributes to building the intellectual authonomy of individuals i c refuse to reduce the education process to training for instrumental techniques and competences. 63

didactice bazate pe learning-by-doing Competene practice nvare la locul de munc Valori morale legate de profesie Specializare ngust Formare pentru a face Monodisciplinaritate Instruire disciplinar Abiliti profesionale, cu focalizat competenele profesionale

variate; problem-solving i learning by discovery Competene culturale Class-room learning i blended learning Valori umaniste pentru long -lifeeducation Deschidere spre ntreaga cultur Formare pentru a ti, a face , a fi

pe Multi- i transdisciplinaritate

profesori-specializai Teams teaching respectarea Spirit de iniiativ, imaginaie

strict a standardelor profesionale Hardware skills

tehnologic, abiliti antreprenoriale Software skills i creative thinking

n fine, ar apare i alte dificulti. In ce relaii se afl cele 7 arii curriculare cu cele 8 competene-cheie ? Urmrii cu atenie convergenele i discrepanele din figura Nr. 15

CONTIIN I EXPRIMARE CULTURAL SPIRIT DE INIIATIV I ANTREPRENORIAT ARTE EDUCAIE FIZIC OM I SOCIETATE CONSILIERE I ORIENTARE TEHNOLOGII COMPETENE SOCIALE I CIVICE A NVA S NVEI COMPETEN DIGITAL COMPETENE MATEMATICE, TIINIFICE, TEHNOLOGICE COMUNICARE N LIMBI STRINE COMUNICARE N LIMBA MATERN

MATEMATIC I TIINE LIMB I COMUNICARE

64

li Figura Nr. 15 Ariile curriculare i competenele-cheie Dup cum se poate observa n figura de mai sus exist numeroase convergene dar apar urmtoarele cinci neconcordane majore: includerea educaiei fizice i a sporului n rndul ariilor curriculare; absena din planul cadru a competenei digitale; restrngerea competenei de a nva s nvei la consiliere i orientare colar; absena din rndul ariilor curriculare a spiriului de iniiativ i antreprenoriat; restngerea contientizrii i exprimrii culturale la studiul artelor.

Aceste dezacorduri sunt suficiente pentru a atrage atenia asupra faptului c modelul sugerat de Parlamentul European prin The eight key competences nu poate fi redus la 5, 7, 8 sau zece arii curriculare. Cele 8 competene cheie ncuprind doar cunotine i abiliti de a opera cu ele. Cuprind, n acelai timp, atitudini i valori menite s fundamenteze nc din perioada nvmntului obligatoriu temeiurile pentru life-long-education, dezvoltarea permanent i implinirea personalitii umane. Comparaiile de mai sus sugereaz cel puin un aspect nevralgic al construirii unui curriculum centrat pe competeele-cheie. Presupunnd c realmente un curriculum centrat pe cele opt competene-cheie ar fi proiectat impecabil, implementarea acestuia ar ntmpina unele dificulti: pregirea prealabil a profesorilor pentru lucrul n team-teaching transdisciplinar i pentru practicarea de modele instrucionale de tip mastery learning.

APLICAII Nr. 1

65

Pasul 1. Alegei o lecie oarecare de la disciplina pe care o predai. Consultai programa cu atenie. Transformai competenele prevsute n program n obiective operaionale. Scriei cel puin :

2 obiective de CUNOATERE 2 obiective de COMPREHENSIUNE 2 obiective de APLICAIE 2 obiective de ANALIZ 2 obiective de SINTEZ 2 obiective de EVALUARE

Pasul 2 . Analizai atent cele 2 obiective de APLICARE. Suntei sigur/ c ai enunat corect aceste obiective? Care sunt standardele de performan pe care le vei solicita elevilor? Ce procedur-standard de formulare a obiectivelor ai folosit? Dac niu ai folosit nici una ci v-ai mulumit cu intuiia Dvs. , v rugm s cutai n partea a III-a a acestui curs capitolul dedicat metodologiei de elaborare a standardelor de performan ( procedura lui Gilbert de Landsheere ) Pasul 3. Rescriei toate obiectivele respective folosind strict procedura menionat. Verificai mpreun cu profesorul dac n fiecare obiectiv ai inclus 5 precizri.

Nr. 2
Analizai mpreun cu colegii de la aceeai specialitate n ce mod s-au corelat cunotinele n aria curricular Limb i Comunicare pe vertical i pe orizontal folosind programele analitice i manualele elevilor. Pentru ca analiza s fie ct mai exact folosii o matrice de specificaie de tipul: A. ANUL Analiza pe vertical (la nivelul unui ciclu oarecare): LIMBA ROMN LIMBI MODERNE I CLASICE

66

LIMBA francez LIMBA englez LIMBA 3 L4 L5

II

67

III

IV

Identificai corelaiile corecte i notai-le cu +; notai cu - discrepanele i consemnai-le pe cele mai grave. Dezbatei n ce fel s-ar putea/s-ar fi putut s fie depite.

Nr. 3 ARHIPELAGUL ISOLARIAN


( - joc de competiie pe baz de munc n echip- ) SITUAIA PROBLEMATIC n urm cu dou luni, pe adresa Preediniei,a Parlamentului i a Guvernului Romniei a sosit un mesaj de la o ar ndeprtat din sudul Pacificului, numit Republica Independent Isolaria.

68

Preedintele acesteia, un anume dr. Isolando, cerea sprijin rii noastre pentru a reforma educaia i nvmntul din ara sa. Despre Arhipelagul Isolarian se tiu relativ puine lucruri. Este vorba de cinci insule vulcanice cu subsol foarte bogat n minereuri de uraniu. Pn n urm cu zece ani insulele au fost colonii cu industrie extractiv semnificativ. Una dintre insule cea mai mare s-a revoltat sub conducerea acestui dr. Isolando, supranumit mai apoi Eliberatorul, i i-a ndeprtat pe coloniti din ntregul Arhipelag. Acum ara se afl n proces de reconstrucie i dezvoltare care ns nainteaz cu dificultate. Peisajul muntos este feeric i ar permite un turism eficient dar insulele sunt ocolite de vizitatori pentru c propaganda ex-colonitilor a rspndit zvonul c zona ar fi intens radioactiv i provoac diferite tipuri de cancer. Agricultura nu poate fi practicat dect pe suprafee restrnse, deluroase i puin roditoare. Majoritatea populaiei este srac, semianalfabet, aglomerat n cteva orae-porturi i triete mai mult din pescuit. Numai o minoritate autohton triete din minerit i doar vreo cteva mii de specialiti britanici i australieni lucreaz, cu salarii mari, n cele dou centrale atomo-electrice. Totui ara este potenial foarte bogat datorit zcmintelor uriae nu numai de uraniu ci i de alte minereuri : aur, argint, fier .a. - i, bineneles, a posibilului comer maritim. De altfel, Guvernul Isolarian nu este lipsit de resurse financiare uriae, confiscate de la ex-coloniti i depozitate n bnci europene. De aceea intenioneaz s foloseasc aceste resurse pentru a scoate populaia din srcie i ignoran i a cluzi ara spre prosperitate. Dr.Isolando crede c cea mai bun strategie guvernamental n acest sens este creterea nivelului de educaie i instrucie al ntregii populaii i crearea n Arhipelag a unui corpus authton, masiv, de specialiti de nivel mediu i superior. Isolando a studiat n Romnia medicina i filosofia i crede c ara noastr are un nvmnt deosebit de performant, datorit reformelor succesive reuite la nivelul colii secundare. Este convins c o echip de specialiti romni, directori de licee i coli medii - care au luat parte la aceste reformedispun de exteriena i cunotinele necesare declanrii unor schimbri necesare i n ara sa. Mesajul doctorului Isolando este o solicitare patetic de ajutor, formulat ns foarte precis. Ar dori ca o echip de experi romni, directori de licee / coli de arte i meserii - care s-au ilustrat ca manageri colari exceleni i care dispun i de cunotine tiinifice de management colar s realizeze un proiect-pilot strategic de dezvoltare instituional a unei coli secundare din ara sa (ar prefera un liceu ). Proiectul ar urma apoi s fie evaluat de un grup internaional de experi, validat, generalizat i implementat n ntregul sistem de nvmnt secundar isolarian. Autorii proiectului vor fi rspltii de-a dreptul regete: fiecare membru al echipei de experi romni ar primi 2.000.000 de euro imediat dup depunerea proiectului-pilot i validarea lui de ctre echipa internaional de evaluatori. In cazul n care experii romni ar dori s se implice n continuare, nemijlocit, ca directori ai noilor coli dar implicit i ca monitori i manageri naionali ai schimbrii educaionale isolariene - , n activitile de implementare i i generalizare a inovaiei, ei ar avea de asemenea salarii impresionante 69

i numeroase faciliti. Fiecare ar primi de la Ministerul Educaiei Naionale un salariu lunar de 10.000 de euro, ar fi scutit de orice impozit, ar avea locuin gratuit ntr-o vil de lux - mobilat modern i situat pe malul mrii - , un autoturism cu ofer, o buctreas, o menajer permanent i doi valei vorbitori de limba englez. Personalul casei ar fi, bineneles, gratuit fiind remunerat de stat. Statul isolarian asigur toate aceste faciliti pn la finalizarea procesului de generalizare a optimizrii educaionale care echivaleaz cu constituirea complet a unui sistem de nvmnt preuniversitar performant n Isolaria . Se estimeaz c ntreaga activitate se va extinde pe o perioad de timp de aproximativ 6 ani ( incluznd i timpul pentru adaptri, corecii, reglri, ameliorri i reproiectri care nu pot fi ntreprinse pe parcursul generalizrii ). Dac dup finalizare membrii echipei, individual sau n grup, vor dori s se stabileasc definitiv n Isolaria, Guvernul le va acorda imediat, fiecruia, cetenia de onoare i medalia Honorable Citoayen ceea ce echivaleaz cu o stipendie naional semnificativ acordat lunar i statutul de senator pe via. n urma analizrii acestei interesante solicitri oficialitile romneti au decis s rspund pozitiv i prompt. Ministrul nvmntului a primit sarcina de a seleciona din rndul fotilor sau actualilor directori secundari, implicai n mod necesar n reforma educaional romneasc pe cei mai motivai i mai competeni pentru soluionarea problemelor de reform din Isolaria. Echipa care va pleca n Isolaria trebuie s nu depeasc numrul de patru membri. n acest sens el a organizat un concurs public bazat prezentare de proiecte de design curricular. Regulile jocului
1.

Suntei candidai nscrii, pretendeni ad-hoc sau spectatori critici la desfurarea Fiecare dintre dvs., mpreun cu o echip alctuit din maximum 6 colegi, pe care i

concursului public.
2.

vei alege conform preferinelor i afinitilor, v vei prezenta la concurs cu un proiect conceput astfel nct s corespund exigenelor de mai jos.
3.

V sftuim s alegei colegii pe care i considerai cei mai competeni, s stabilii un

lider al grupului de lucru, un secretar- redactor i 1-3 documentariti. Procedai dup cum considerai de cuvin dar v-am sftui ca, dup documentare, s organizai o edin de brainstorming, s consemnai ideile cele mai ingenioase i mai pertinente i apoi s redactai proiectul n maniera cea mai atractiv i mai impresionant cu putin. Echipele i vor atribui un nume( deviz, porecl etc. ) pentru a putea fi identificate mai uor. Numele va fi comunicat din timp comisiei de examinare.
4.

Comisia de examinare va fi alctuit prin tragere la sori i va avea n componen 5

membri. Acetia vor stabili un preedinte de comisie imediat dup alegere. Preedintele va organiza desfurarea activitii oblignd echipele candidate s i prezinte proiectele ntr-un timp rezonbil de 10-15 minute. Tot el va stabili ordinea prezentrii proiectelor. Toi membrii comisiei pot pune ntrebri concurenilor cu permisiunea preedintelui. Numai presedintele va avea dreptul s suspende prezentarea unui proiect atunci cnd timpul stabilit este depit sau cnd conchide c proiectul przentat este neviabil. 70

5.

Spectatorii pot adresa ntrebri numai n scris dar preedintele are obligaia s le Toate grupurile vor alctui proiecte. Numai 5-10 grupuri vor prezenta proiecte n

citeasc n public dup ce reprezentantul grupuluia ncheiat prezentarea proiectului.


6.

public. Acestea vor fi stabilite prin tragere la sori. Celelalte grupuri vor depune proiectele scrise la secretariatul comisiei de concurs.
7.

Comisia de concurs va delibera n secret timp de 15 minute stabilind/nominaliznd apte s fie trimise n Republica Isolaria. Dar verdictul definitiv l vor da toi

doar 3 echipe

participanii prin vot. Preedintele va face publice numele celor 3 echipe propuse majoritatea simpl a participanilor va stabili ctigtorul Exigenele proiectelor de design curricular pentru liceul isoloarian Piesele cerute sunt: sptmn) Finalitile Coninuturile/ disciplinele/materiile Sistemul de intrare/admiterea Metodologia Sistemul de ieire/absolvirea certificarea Schia unei programe analitice de limba matern sau de limb strin pentru un Planurile de nvmnt pe 4 ani colari ( cu aproximarea numrului de ore pe

an colar ( la alegere) Desfurarea activitii Pentru realizarea scopului propus se vor desfura succesiv urmtoarele 5 activiti distribuite pe 3 zile: ZIUA I 1. 2.

Studiul individual al cazului 15 minute Alegerea comisiei de examinare prin tragere la sori; alegera preedintelui 15 Constituirea grupurilor concurente 20 de minute Organizarea grupurilor concurente (stabilirea liderului, stabilirea i

minute
3. 4.

comunicarea numelui grupului) - 10 minute ZIUA A II-a


5.

Realizarea proiectelor (documentarea, brainstorming, redactarea) 6-7 ore


71

ZIUA A III A
6.

Tragerea la sori a proiectelor care vor fi prezentate n public; depunerea Sustinerea proiectelor selecionate - maximum 2 - 2,30 ore Deliberarea comisiei 10 minute Dezbateri libere n plen i stabilirea ctigtorului - 20-30 minute Comentariile i concluziile profesorului 1 or

proiectelor care nu au fost selectate la secretariatul comisiei - 30 minute


7. 8. 9. 10.

72

PARTEA A II-A EXIGENE FUNDAMENTALE N CURRICULA MODERNE. OPTIMIZAREA MODERN A CURRICULUMULUI: TEORIA I TEHNOLOGIA CAPITOLUL 1. FUNDAMENTAREA TELEOLOGIC I AXIOLOGIC A CURRICULUMULUI MODERN
OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE Studiind acest capitol cursanii vor deveni capabili: 1. S identifice temeiurile majore ale curriculumului modern de natur teleologic i axiologic; 2. S descopere modern; 3. S disting ntre reforma educaional i optimizarea curricular; 4. S aprecieze aspecte eseniale ale optimizrii curriculare moderne; 5. S identifice categoriile i tipurile de demersuri n optimizarea curricular modern. liniile de convergen n modelele de optimizare curricular

73

1.1 Valori i scopuri perene


Nenumratele reforme curriculare care s-au derulat n coala romneasc, cu bune i cu rele, n perioada 1990-2010 au fost animate de raiuni moderne - dei aveau loc n plin atmosfer postmodernist. Anacronism? ntrziere provocat de nepriceperea designerilor i managerilor ? De fapt, nu este de nici un folos s rspundem la aceste ntrebri. n ciuda criticilor virulente adresate de ctre teoreticienii postmoderniti, curriculumul modern a supravieuit i cunoate o resurecie nnoitoare evident. Crui temei datoreaz el aceast consisten? Dup opinia noastr este vorba de nsi aspiraia oamenilor i tendine care s-au manifestat n societilor pentru mplinirea raional a acelor mari

civilizaia euroatlantic la jumtatea celui de-al doilea mileniu cretin, odat cu Renaterea i cu Iluminismul . Curriculumul modern se ntemeiaz pe scopuri i pe valori. Pe acele valori i scopuri care au animat ntreaga perioad modern a istoriei euroatlantice. Adevrul, Raionalitatea, Progresul, Binele, Frumosul, Cunoaterea, tiina, Tehnologia acetia sunt zeii care s-au nscut atunci. S-au adugat pe parcurs: Tolerana, Libertatea, Drepturile Omului45, Democraia. Postmodernitii au declarat defunci aceti zei la sfritul secolului al XX-lea. Dar ei sunt, cum se vede, nc vii i ghideaz toate demersurile i procesele formrii umane prin intermediul educaiei controlate i dirijate contient. Moartea marilor mituri ( sau a Marilor povestiri cum se exprim Jean-Francois Lyotard ) nu a venit; ba nc,

45

Iat u n exemplu sugestiv pentru secolul nou XXI : "In the course of this year, unprecedented efforts must be made to ensure that every person in the world can rely on just laws for his or her protection. In advancing all human rights for all, we will move towards the greatest fulfillment of human potential, a promise which is at the heart of the Universal Declaration." (High Commissioner for Human Rights LOUISE ARBOUR - On 10 December, Human Rights Day, the Secretary-General launched a year-long campaign in which all parts of the United Nations family are taking part in the lead up to the 60th birthday of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) on Human Rights Day 2008.) 74

odat cu informatizarea societii i cu zmislirea Satului Global, miturilor moderne li se ridic noi altare paideutice. Prin urmare, a strui profesionist i responsabil asupra curriculumului modern este nc de mare utilitate pentru coala romneasc. Dar odat cu resurecia au renscut i nenelegerile. 1.2 Noi clarificri semantice Odiseea curriculumului modern, marcat de varietatea teoriilor i doctrinelor, a antrenat ns , aa cum am amintit deja, i grave probleme terminologice. Am ncercat s le clarificm cteva n subcapitolul 1.1. Dar mai sunt nc unele aspecte de clarificat din perspectiv practic. Autorii considerai moderniau adoptat fr nici un fel de reinere, numeroase concepte crora le-au conferit funcii descriptive i prescriptive. Nu de puine ori au recurs n acelai scop, la expresii metaforice, eufemisme, sinonime i paronime derutante. Sensurile denotative ale unor termeni difer de la un autor la altul; sensurile conotative ale acelorai termeni au, aproape ntotdeauna, ncrcturi semantice extrem de subiective. Definiiile operaionale sunt rare i nelesurile exacte ale conceptelor nu pot fi decriptate dect din contexte delimitate. Astfel nct cacophony of voices, care se aude n noile discursuri dedicate curricula moderne, ironizat de W.Pinar i colab. (2001), constituie o nou i serioas problem de comprehensiune a liniilor de convergen pe care fiecare model curricular le urmeaz. Dar i acestea exist. Curricula moderne s-au apropiat semnificativ de o tiin curricular unitar i, n orice caz, au impus o tehnologie coerent de proiectare i transpunere n practic a demersurilor curriculare de baz. Dincolo de babilonia terminologic, se pot depista aceleai obsesii teoretice i practice. Ele rezid din repudierea principalelor metehne ale aa-zisei educaii clasice practicat n colile tradiionale: caracterul livresc, magistrocentrismul, accentul excesiv pus pe instruirea informativ, izolarea colii fat de via i societate, ignorarea individualitii celui care nva, eludarea obiectivelor formative i vocaionale. nceputurile acestei orientri generale a curriculumului modern le-a fcut curentul progresivist; dar aportul curentului eficientist a fost de asemenea masiv. Cele mai multe curricula moderne se prezint ca social engineering, conciliat cu tehnologii de dirijare i control al mecanismelor de nvare ale learners, pentru realizarea de competene i capaciti sau de obiective predefinite. Regsim reunite, n aceast viziune coerent, ideile lui Dewey i Bobbitt, de la nceputul secolului al XX-lea. Desigur, cu o anumit prevalen progresivist,
75

alimentat de repulsia pe care Dewey o exprimase n pamfletul The Child and the Curriculum (1902). Cheia decriptrii multora dintre expresiile denotative pe care discursurile moderniste ale curriculumului se afl n acest scurt eseu al lui Dewey. Dewey constatase - aa cum am artat n capitolul anterior - anacronismul planurilor i programelor din nvmntul secundar american de elitde la sfritul secolului al XX-lea. colile americane aristocratice ale acelor vremuri i desfurau activitatea imitnd colile europene clasice. Or, nvmntul european tradiional se nscuse i se dezvoltase n strns legtur cu sistemul ecleziastic. Primele coli europene din era cretin au fost, cum am artat, coli ecleziastice i mnstireti. Misiunea lor era formarea de slujitori profesioniti ai altarului: coal a convertirii la cretinism i a rspndirii moralei cretine n rndul barbarilor. colile ecleziastice aveau o misiune precis, care a permis stabilirea unui plan de nvmnt riguros i universal (septem artes liberales). colile ecleziastice deveneau coli episcopale atunci cnd biserica de care erau ataate era nlat la rang de episcopie. Din rndul colilor episcopale s-au dezvoltat, n al doilea mileniu cretin, universitile occidentale. nvmntul ecleziastic i teologic era eminamente livresc, informativ i magistrocentric, ntruct se conforma riguros misiunii, finalitilor i obiectivelor educaionale urmrite. J.Dewey a constatat ca colile americane cu pretenii pstrau amprente livreti n planurile i programele de nvmnt datorit acestei tradiii. Coninuturile, preponderent informative, asimilate de absolveni, se dovedeau complet inutile pentru viaa i cariera lor profesional. El a numit generic aceste coninuturi specificate n planurile i programele de nvmnt curriculum. Fr a o declara, avea n minte conotaiile acestei expresii latine i semnificaiile strvechi. S-ar putea spune c planurile erau nelese ca soart implacabil (Ananke) i moire ce pre-destinau i sileau copii spre o via care nu convenea nici propriilor nevoi de

76

dezvoltare i nici solicitrilor modului de via american liber pragmatic i n cultul lui the self-made-man. La J.Dewey curriculum traditional era sinonim cu pat al lui Procust; expresia dezvoltarea curriculumului(Curriculum development), ca i expresia optimizarea curriculumului (Curriculum Improvement), desemnau imperativ necesitatea de a concepe planuri i programe de nvmnt ale cror coninut s permit educaia vocaional: formarea i dezvoltarea celor care nva n conformitate cu aptitudinile individuale, trebuinele proprii de formare i solicitrile socio-profesionale. Expresiile Curriculum Development i Curriculum Improvment s-au impus n cercetarea educaional anglo-saxon n perioada care a urmat. n a doua jumtate a secolului al XX-lea ele au nceput s desemneze o tiin teoretic i practic a educaiei care a asimilat numeroase domenii studiate, tradiional, de pedagogia general i de didactic. Dar optimizarea curricular/teoria curriculumului nu se reduce la aceste asimilri: noutile pe care le aduce prevaleaz asupra tradiiilor pstrate. Pedagogia european, dominat de literatura pedagogic francofon i de cea germanofon, a acceptat cu dificultate aceasta inovaie anglo-saxon, considernd-o, pn n deceniul al VIIlea al secolului trecut, simpl fantezie lingvistic.46 n deceniile urmtoare s-a putut constata c nu este vorba numai de att. Este drept, J.Dewey a fost obligat s apeleze la un cuvnt strvechi i din motive lingvistice. De exemplu nu putea folosi pedagogie ntruct n limba american pedagogy are conotaii poetice, puternic contrastante semantic cu ideile de rigoare i de coeren tiinific, definitorii pentru practica i teoria dezvoltrii curriculare. n literatura pedagogic modern, din acest motiv, pot fi identificate nc dou tendine n definirea i folosirea conceptului de curriculum educaional. a) Ne putem ntlni adesea cu nclinaia unor cercettori moderni de a folosi conceptul de curriculum n sens restrictiv. Astfel, unii autori pre-moderni numesc curriculum coninutul procesului de nvmnt: cunotine prevzute n planurile i programele de nvmnt pe care educatorii sunt obligai s le predea n activitile instructiv educative47 . Uneori nelesul este ultra-restrictiv. Mai ales
46

Nici literatura pedagogic romneasc nu a acceptat cu uurin conceptul. L-a consemnat oficial abia n 1979 i n mod greit! A se vedea, n acest sens, Dicionar de pedagogie, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1979. Dicionarul a fost coordonat de A.MANOLACHE, D.MUSTER, I.NICA I G.VIDEANU. Explicaia termenului de curriculum a fost redactat de ctre V.Nicolescu, care, din perspectiv etimologic, l traduce, forat prin scurt alergare. n anii urmtori traducerea a fost preluat de mai muli autori romni, iar consecinele au fost uor de anticipat. (vezi p.111). 47 I.CERGHIT, L.VLSCEANU, Curs de pedagogie, Universitatea din Bucureti, 1984, cap.8, p.147. Coninutul procesului de nvmnt a fost redactat de E.BLIDEANU, M.C.CLIN I 77

autorii europeni din prima jumtate a secolului trecut neleg prin curriculum, pur i simplu informaii care trebuie memorate de ctre elevi. Alii lrgesc parial definiia: curriculum nseamn informaiile si capacitile intelectuale (priceperi, deprinderi, abiliti cognitive) de a utiliza i/sau valoriza aceste informaii. Astfel de definiii vom gsi la cercettori precum G.Mialaret, E.Planchard, H.Pieron i n mai multe dicionare, manuale i tratate romneti. Folosirea modern a conceptului de curriculum, n sens restrictiv, nu poate fi considerat greit. Ea se impune adesea n contexte delimitate ale discursului pedagogic. De exemplu, aceast utilizare este obligatorie ori de cte ori cercettorul modern explic aspecte concrete ale coninutului procesului instructiv-educativ sau caracteristici ale planurilor i problemelor de nvmnt. b) A doua tendin, dominant n literatura pedagogic modern, este aceea de a conferi conceptului de curriculum o semnificaie extensiv. Autorii subsumeaz termenului toate componentele procesului de nvmnt studiate n mod tradiional de ctre didactic: finalitile i obiectivele procesului de nvmnt, coninuturile nvrii, metodologia de predare-nvare, metodologia de evaluare a performanelor colare, normativitatea pedagogic .a.m.d. Noutatea adus de teoria curriculumului este conferit de exigene privind coerena acestor componente in procesul de inovare-optimizare a planurilor de nvmnt, a programelor analitice, in alctuirea manualelor colare i a celorlalte produse curriculare a determinat noi i, uneori, bizare definiii. In acest sens vor fi prezentate cteva exemple semnificative. Shorter Oxford Dictionary: Curriculum este cursul riguros organizat si condus al studiului in coala, caracterizat prin patru trsturi:

N.OPRESCU. Nota de subsol de la p.147 reproduce informaiile sumare din articolul de la p.111 din Dicionarul de pedagogie (1979). (vezi nota de mai sus) Se adaug doar c n ultimul timp au fost abordate numeroase teme cu dimensiuni i denumiri variate: Curriculum Study, Curriculum Construction, Curriculum Developement etc.. 78

- forma, structura i aranjare a materiilor pe baza de principii i norme pedagogice stricte; - armonia optima a parilor i elementelor care l compun; - uniformitatea procedurilor n organizarea i conducerea activitilor i experienelor de nvare i evaluare; - conformarea strict la reguli i standarde derivate din obiective predefinite i adoptate ca atare de instituia educativ.48 R.L.Neagley si N.D.Evans: Curriculum nseamn toate experienele planificate riguros pentru a fi furnizate in coal copiilor pentru a atinge scopurile nvrii la cele mai nalte standarde de performant permise de posibilitile lor individuale.49 Uneori autorii prefer definiii metaforice extrem de sugestive. Iat dou exemple: H.Spears: Un curriculum este ceva ce trebuie fcut altfel dect ceea ce poate fi vzut n coal (...). Este prefaa unui program perfect care, n chip autentic, nu exist dect n minile i inimile educatorilor.50 G.R.Koopman: Curriculum-ul este un baston cultural.51 Dar orice planificare riguroas pentru desfurarea unui proces instructiv-educativ poate fi numit curriculum? Dispune orice fel de coal de un curriculum? Iat opinia unuia dintre cei mai prestigioi specialiti in acest domeniu: A.I.Oliver52 : Curriculum nseamn: - toate experienele copilului i referinele tiinifice la cnd si cum vor avea loc aceste experiene educaionale; - toate experienele celui care nva ntr-o coal; - toate cursurile pe care o coal le ofer sau le impune; - aranjarea sistematic a unui numr oarecare de cursuri pentru un numr oarecare de scopuri i ateptri ale celui care nva; - cursurile oferite de un educator avizat unuia sau mai multora interesai s ctige o competen profesional oarecare;
48

Shorter Oxford Dictionary, apud L.STENHOUSE, An introduction to Curriculum Research, Heineman, London, 1976, p.1.
49

R.L.NEAGLEY, N.D.EVANS, Handbook for Effective Curriculum Developement, Englewood Cliffs, New York, Prentice Hall, 1967, p.2. 50 H.SPEARS, The Hight School for Today, American Book Company, New York, 1950, p.27. 51 G.R.KOOPMAN, Intervenie la cea de-a 35-a Conventie a Concil for Exceptional Children, apud A.I.OLIVIER, Curriculum Improvement, A guide to Problems, Principles and Procedures, Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, 1965, p.3. 52 A.L.OLIVIER, Curriculum Improvement. A Guide to Problems, Principles and Procedures, Dodd.Mead&Comp., New York, 1965, p.5. 79

- programul unei coli profesionale pentru nsuirea unei meserii; - experienele cuprinse ntr-un training militar sau de pregtire astronautic; - programul unei Business School sau al unei Management School; - experienele de nvare cuprinse in programul terapeutic al unei coli speciale; - acele cursuri alese de ctre un learner care studiaz ntr-o coal comprehensiv. Decalogul curricular al lui Oliver este important nu att pentru completitudinea sa, ci mai ales pentru faptul c sugereaz adevrul c orice form sau tip de educaie se bazeaz pe un anumit curriculum. Dar Oliver are in vedere numai varietatea impresionant de curricula explicite. Exista nsa i curricula implicite (sau tacite), aa cum am artat n capitolele anterioare. Specialitii prefer expresia anglo-saxon hidden curricula (curricula ascunse). Asupra lor s-au aplecat mai ales teoreticienii postmoderni ai curricumulului. Cel care se formeaz de-a lungul vieii spun teoreticienii postmoderni - nu nva numai la coal i numai ce predau profesorii n clas. Se nva n pauzele colare, n familie, pe strad, din experiene accidentale, din eecuri i succese; exist ceea ce noi romnii numim coala celor apte ani de-acas, dar i coala vieii. Toate acestea se bazeaz pe diverse forme de hidden curriculum care acompaniaz curricula explicite - fie benign fie malign. Este o realitate pe care orice educator cu experien o cunoate foarte bine. Interaciunile dintre curriculumul explicit i hidden curriculum constituie una dintre cele mai dramatice i mai puin cercetate probleme ale educaiei romneti actuale. Unii cercettori atrag atenia c, de fapt, achiziiile prin hidden curriculum sunt chiar mai importante pentru via i pentru struggle-for-life dect ceea ce copiii i tinerii nva n clas. A nva s te aperi de primejdii este mai important n via dect a asimila binomul lui Newton sau a recita un poem de Allan Edgar Poe. Dar problema acestor eseniale i nestudiate hidden curricula afecteaz primejdios educaia din toate rile spaiului euroatlantic la nceput de mileniu. Este semnalul de alarm dat n ultimul deceniu al secolului al XX-lea de ctre teoreticienii postmoderni.

1.3. Optimizarea curricular modern: o viziune convergent


Spre deosebire de cele tradiionale i cele postmoderne curricula moderne sunt convergente i permit o abordare unitar. Convergena le este oferit mai ales de raionalismul pragmatic, menit s confere eficien instruirii i educaiei, i care a dominat, de-a dreptul imperial, gndirea pedagogic a secolului al XX-lea. O anumit aspiraie spre scientificitate promovat in pedagogie nc din zorii iluminismului, s-a acutizat n prima

80

jumtate a secolului al XX-lea i a prut c va ctiga primele roade n a doua jumtate a aceluiai veac. Actualmente, odat cu informatizarea societii, mbogit de noi opiuni, a acestor valoroase idei. Progresele spectaculoase ale cercetrilor dedicate de psihologi asupra motivaiei i nvrii au alimentat iluzia ca se poate construii o tiin a instruirii apt sa introduc n practica colar o tehnologie educaional riguroas i eficace. Este un mod de a gndi, n mod vdit scientist i ingineresc, cu aspiraii universaliste. Teoria modern a curriculumului este rezultatul firesc al acestui, mod de a gndi. Virtuile sale teoretice i practice preau, pn n anii 80 ai secolului al XX-lea, incontestabile. Realizrile au culminat cu marile sinteze ale colii lui Robert Gagn, care reuise s identifice cele nou mecanisme de nvare uman i s elaboreze tehnicile de control i dirijare a acestora n direcia unor obiective pedagogice prestabilite. Lua, astfel, natere o inginerie educaional, botezat design instrucional care permitea o education by objectives similar managementului by objectives promovat de Taylor la nceputul secolului al XX-lea. Dirijismul modern promovat de Gagn n designul instrucional i curricular conferea siguran a demersurilor si eficien mare rezultatelor. Dar, aa cum au reclamat postmodernitii, ncepnd din anii 80, conducea i spre uniformitate; adic spre aanumitul one-dimensional man deconspirat de Herbert Marcuse cu trei decenii mai nainte. ns, aa cum am mai spus, n anii 90, n Romnia s-a declanat o reform curricular care a ignorat avertismentele postmoderniste, miznd exclusiv pe virtuile teoriei moderne a curriculumului. De aceea este necesar s expunem aici ct mai clar i mai obiectiv cu putin aceste virtui reale i, n acelai timp, s artm i limitele curriculumului modern. i s adugm, desigur, elementele nnoitoare pe care le aduce curriculumul n aa numitul afterpostmodernism. n ceea ce privete cazul particular al colii romneti, nc mai sunt necesare cteva lmuriri, mai ales practice. n plus, menionm c odat cu declanarea reformei educaionale romneti, n literatura pedagogic i n activitatea academic s-a impus o disciplin educaional nou, denumit cel mai adesea teoria curriculumului. Este o ncercare mai mult sau mai puin reuit a specialitilor notri de a reda n romnete ceea ce n literatura anglosaxon se desemneaz prin expresiile Curriculum Development i Curriculum Improvement. Uneori i n literatura pedagogic anglo-saxon aceste expresii sunt considerate sinonime. Aceasta se datoreaz faptului c ambele sunt componente sine-qua-non ale reformelor educionale. Se impun dou precizri principale:
81

asistm la o resurecie,

a) Orice reform educaional are n centrul su o dezvoltare sau o optimizare a curriculumului.

Dar: b) Reformele educaionale sunt schimbri mai complexe care nu pot fi reduse la optimizri curriculare.

Este deosebit de important faptul ca expresiile desemneaz totui activiti relativ distincte.

Curriculum Development

nseamn dezvoltare a curriculumului. Aceast activitate este necesar atunci cnd se concepe un curriculum absolut nou, cnd se pornete de la zero. De exemplu, atunci cnd se nfiineaz o instituie educaional nou cu o misiune i un profil care nu au mai existat, fiind complet lipsit de tradiii sau de analogii viabile cu alte instituii. S consideram o situaie fantezist oarecare. Dup cte cunoatem, nu exist nc pe Terra un liceu avnd ca profil agricultura marian. nfiinarea unui asemenea exotic liceu marian ar obliga specialitii s conceap un plan de nvmnt absolut nou, programe, manuale i auxiliare cu totul noi. Acestea ar trebui, apoi, experimentate, corectate, validate. Orict de fantezist ar prea exemplul nostru, el sugereaz exact ceea ce s-a ntmplat cnd s-au nfiinat Lykeon-ul antic, Akademia platonic sau prima Arbeitschule german i ceea ce se ntmpl frecvent in zilele noastre cnd sunt nfiinate faculti pentru profesionalizarea n specialiti noi, impuse de explozivul progres tiinific contemporan. n cazul reformei educaionale din Romania nu avem de a face cu o dezvoltare curricular (n ciuda preteniilor unora dintre protagoniti), ci doar cu o serie de componente ale acesteia. b) Curriculum Improvement nseamn optimizare curricular. Substantivul englez improvement este ns neltor. El poate fi tradus i prin mbuntire, ameliorare, sau optimizare: dar dintre cele trei posibiliti de traducere cea mai indicat este cea dinti. Din raiuni pedagogice profunde este

82

necesar s avem in vedere optimizarea curricular i nu doar mbuntirea sau ameliorarea. NE OBLIG LA ACEST LUCRU PRINCIPIUL SUPREM AL PEDAGOGIEI, CARE ESTE, DESIGUR, PRINCIPIUL OPTIMISMULUI. El are n educaie aceeai valoare pe care o are n medicin principiul non-dunrii (Primum non nocere - nainte de orice s nu dunezi. ) Principiul pedagogic al optimismului a fost intuit nc din Antichitate, dar a fost teoretizat ca atare de J.A. Comenius. El oblig pe educator s ntreprind numai cele mai bune influene educative cu putin. Dei formulat pozitiv, principiul este restrictiv. n chip tacit, el interzice nu doar influenele nefaste, ci i influenele bune sau ameliorrile. J.A.Comenius folosea expresiile acestea cu sensul lor latin, n chip riguros i strict. Principiul optimismului nu este o simpl metafor ncurajatoare. Ca urmai ai romanilor e bine s ne reamintim aceste sensuri. Este vorba de o familie de cuvinte derivate de la adverbul/adjectivul bonus (bine, bun). De aici am derivat mbuntire, adic aciunea de a corecta ceva care nu mai merge bine sau nu mai este bun. Gradul comparativ al lui bonus este melior (mai bine, mai bun), de la care am derivat cuvntul , mbuntire, adic aciunea de a face s mearg i mai bine ceea ce mergea deja bine. n fine, gradul superlativ la lui bonus este n latin optimus (cel mai bine, perfect bine, binele suprem etc.), din care am derivat termenul optimizare, adic aciunea de a face lucrul celprincipiulcu putin.al optimismului ne oblig s nu facem Prin urmare, mai bun comenian dect cele mai bune lucruri cu putin i nu doar s crpim (mbuntire) sau doar s sporim (ameliorare) ceea ce era iniial bun; ci s facem pentru coal cel mai bun lucru cu putin ! Or, coala romneasc era, n decembrie 1989, o coal bun. n conformitate cu principiul optimismului, ea nu trebuia mbuntit - pe ici, pe acolo - i nici chiar ameliorat prin asimilarea unor forme fr fond prin mprumuturi grbite. coala romneasc trebuia ntr-adevr optimizat!

Reforma educaional s-ar fi putut desfura sub acest sever imperativ categoric. Inclusiv n ceea ce privete curriculumul. .

83

1.4 Aspectele eseniale ale optimizrii curriculare moderne


Optimizarea curricular n general, nu numai cea modern, comport dou aspecte inextricabil interdependente: I. Aspectul deontologic. Optimizarea curricular este un demers teoretic i practic care se finalizeaz cu decizii ferme referitore la destinul unor generaii de tineri mai mult sau mai puin numeroase. Deciziile schimbrii curriculare afecteaz cariera, viaa de familie, mplinirea personalitii i fericirea celor care sunt supui experimentelor de nvare precizate prin curriculum. n Romnia, schimbarea curricular produs ntre 1993 si 2007 s-a repercutat asupra ntregii populaii colare preuniversitare. Orice decizie comport dou tipuri de efecte:

efecte scontate, cele dezirabile i prevzute n documentele curriculare implementate,

supuse optimizrii; documentele curriculare realizate de Consiliul Naional pentru Curriculum - Curriculumul naional cuprind finaliti obiective i virtual benigne, nefiind ns clar i cert c au fost corelate riguros tendinele de evoluie social-economic i tehnologic a societii romneti pentru urmtorii 20-30 de ani, ntruct o asemenea prognoz este practic dificil.

efecte nescontate, cele indezirabile i greu previzibile. Documentele curriculare

romneti le-au ignorat. Nu au fost prevzute msuri de prevenire i anulare a efectelor indezirabile. Riscurile exist, dar nu au fost asumate de ctre nici o instituie sau persoan oficial. n situaia n care se va produce o catastrof pedagogic, urmare a uneia sau mai multor decizii greite, nu va rspunde nimeni. n consecin, suntem nevoii s constatam c schimbarea curricular din nvmntul preuniversitar romnesc, dei relativ bine realizat din punct de vedere tehnic, s-a derulat uneori n mod prea puin responsabil. II. Aspectul tehnic. Optimizarea curricular modern comport o tehnologie specific bazat pe principiile abordrii sistemice, exigene praxeologice, reguli de metodologia cercetrii tiinifice i norme de design educaional. Acestea se reunesc n demersuri riguroase, precum cele descrise n paragraful urmtor. Stpnirea (mastery) acestor tehnologii presupune o anumit inginerie socio-uman paideutic pretenioas. Inginerii i tehnicienii dezvoltrii curriculare nu pot fi simpli improvizatori. i totui n Romnia schimbarea curricular a fost fcut de ctre o echip care, pe lng specialiti remarcabili, a cuprins i cteva persoane mai puin pricepute. Deciziile acestora din urm, materializate n prescripii eronate i primejdioase, se gsesc n numr mare n unele documentele curriculare din perioada 19982010, validate de Ministerul Educaiei ori transpuse n programe colare. Educatorii se

84

confrunt deja cu ele, iar elevii sunt nevoii s le suporte efectele inadmisibile. Lucrarea de fa ncearc s-i ajute pe educatori s depeasc unele dintre aceste dificulti practice, de care sunt responsabili, dei nu sunt vinovai.

1.5 Tipuri de demersuri n optimizarea curricular modern


Att dezvoltarea curricular (Curriculum Development) ct i optimizarea curricular (Curriculum Improvement) iau n practic forma unor demersuri managerial-organizatorice de tip fazic care respect strict principiile i normele pragmatice a ceea ce specialitii numesc managementul schimbrii. Spre deosebire de managementul economic, managementul schimbrii educaionale comport un specific determinat de aspectul deontologic i umanitar al acesteia. n practica schimbrilor educaionale s-au utilizat frecvent, n secolul XX, trei tipuri de demersuri. n oricare dintre acestea succesiunea fazelor este obligatorie i se supune strict principiului suprem al optimismului pedagogic.

Demersul trifazic cuprinde, n ordine, proiectarea curricular (Curriculum Design),

experimentarea noului curriculum (Curriculum Testing) i transpunerea n practic a curriculumului corectat dup experimentare (Curriculum Implementation).

Demersul tetrafazic include proiectarea, experimentarea, validarea/oficializarea Demersul pentafazic debuteaz cu cercetarea curricular (Curriculum Reasearch) i

(Curriculum Validation, Curriculum Impproving, Established Curriculum) i implementarea.

continu cu proiectarea noului curriculum (Curriculum Design), experimentarea (Curriculum Testing), validarea (Established Curriculum) i se ncheie cu implementarea (Curriculum Implementation).

85

Capitolul 2. Principiile i exigenele modelelor curriculare pentafazice


OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE Studiind acest capitol vei deveni capabili: 1. S stpnii un demers complex de concepere i optimizare a unui curriculum modern;
2. S realizai diagnoze i prognoze curriculare;

3. S proiectai curricula moderne ; 4. S v nsuii principiile generale de design curricular; 5. S evaluai i s corectai curricula n faz de proiect 6. S stpnii exigene eseniale de implementare a unor curricula noi n practica colar

86

2.1 Etapele curriculumului pentafazic


Dup opinia noast, avnd n vedere situaia specific a colii romneti, demersul pentafazic ar fi fost cel mai potrivit pentru realizarea unei reforme curriculare optime. Cele 5 etape sunt:
Curriculum Research

Curriculum Design Curriculum Testing/Evaluation Curriculum Validation Curriculum Implementation

2.2. Cercetarea curricular


Etapa I. Curriculum research (tradus n romnete prin expresii precum: cercetare curricular, diagnoza curriculumului, analiz de curriculum). Este faza care trebuie s precead, n mod obligatoriu, orice alt activitate atunci cnd se urmresc schimbri educaionale i presupune dou operaii fundamentale: diagnoza i prognoza.
87

Diagnoza strii educaionale a instituiei (instituiilor) care urmeaz a fi supus

optimizrii curriculare poate fi asemnat cu diagnosticul medical. Nici un medic nu ar prescrie remedii unui pacient nainte de a-l fi examinat minuios i de a-i fi indicat cu precizie maladiile. n acest fel el nu va risca s prescrie aspirin dac are n fa un bolnav cu hepatit sau s administreze morfin unui reumatic. Cercetarea diagnostic a strii educaionale nu poate fi nici eludat i nici considerat o activitate livresc, de birou sau de laborator. Ea trebuie s fie, obligatoriu, o investigaie de teren. Investigatorii trebuie s se supun aanumitului principiu al lui Korszybsky, conform cruia trebuie s evite confundarea hrii cu teritoriul. Altfel zis, cercettorul trebuie sa tie c examinnd harta, o simpl imagine convenional, nu poate afla exact cum arat detaliile din teren, care nu sunt reprezentate pe hart. Studiind doar cri, articole etc., investigatorul angajat ntr-o cercetare curricular nu poate afla dificultile concrete pe care le are o coala sau alta, obstacolele cu care se confrunt cei de la catedr pentru a preda o disciplin sau alta, problemele pe care le ntmpin elevii etc. Reducerea cercetrii curriculare la o investigaie documentar-livresc este o dovad de superficialitate care nu rezist exigenelor principiului optimismului (n sensul specificat n paragrafele anterioare).

Prognoza este, de asemenea, obligatorie n cercetarea curricular. Dac

diagnoza conduce la identificarea disfuncionalitilor organismului colar, prognoza indic tendinele de evoluie colar, economic, tiinific i tehnologic la care organismul colar optimizat va trebui s se adapteze. coala este prima instituie care ia contact cu viitorul i acest adevr indubitabil nu poate fi n nici un fel eludat. Rostul cercetrii curriculare este, aadar, triplu: actuale; s identifice tendinele majore de evoluie social-economic i tiinifico-tehnic s armonizeze cele dou categorii de date pe baza principiului mini-max i solicitrile socio-profesionale provocate de acestea; (minimizarea efectelor indezirabile i maximizarea consecinelor benigne). s identifice erorile, disfuncionalitile i dificultile structural-funcionale

2.3. Proiectarea curricular

88

Etapa a II-a. Curriculum design (tradus n romnete, de obicei, prin proiectare curriculara). Este activitatea de concepere a noului curriculum esena optimizrii curriculare - ca activitate teleologic i propedeutic fundamental n educaie. Designerii (sau proiectanii) trebuie s ia in considerare i s foloseasc cu maximum de responsabilitate un set de concepte de referin i un set de principii de proiectare curricular. A. Conceptele de referin n proiectarea curricular modern Conceptele de referin definesc componentele obligatorii ale curriculumului ce urmeaz a fi proiectat. Convergena opiniilor formulate n acest sens de ctre specialiti este uimitoare, putnd fi considerat chiar o umanitate. Este vorba, de fapt, de o tehnologie riguroas, care prevede ca n proiectul curricular s fie specificate urmtoarele elemente: 1) misiunea instituiei educaionale (finalitatea general, idealul educaional urmrit etc.); 2) finalitile pedagogice deprinse din misiunea instituiei i structurate pe niveluri, cicluri si materii de nvmnt; 3) coninutul procesului de nvmnt (ansamblul cunotinelor, capacitilor, deprinderilor, abilitilor etc.), stabilite n planul de nvmnt, conform finalitilor i obiectivelor generale detaliate in programele analitice ale disciplinelor i materiilor de nvmnt i concretizate n manualele colare i proiectele didactico-educative; 4) metodologia procesului de nvmnt (ansamblul strategiilor de predare-nvare-evaluare a coninutului pregtirii, experienele de nvare i situaiile de nvare n care vor fi pui elevii, metodele didactico-educative, mijloacele de nvmnt, materialele i auxiliarele instructiv-educative etc.); 5) evaluarea procesului de nvmnt (ansamblul aciunilor i tehnicilor de msurare i apreciere a rezultatelor i performanelor celor care nva, sistemele de intrare i de ieire sau de admitere i de absolvire, metodologia de reglare i autoreglare a sistemului i procesului de pregtire etc.). Cele cinci componente genereaz un model pentadic de design curricular. Design-ul curricular este un proces controlat care se desfoar circular (ceea ce amintete de enkyklios paideia). Aspectul circular al proiectrii curriculare pentadice poate fi reprezentat grafic ca n figura urmtoare:
Stabilirea misiunii instituiei Evaluarea performanelor 89 Stabilirea metodologiei i a experienelor de nvare Alegerea coninuturilor nvrii Definirea finalitilor i obiectivelor

Fig. nr.16.. Caracterul circular al modelului pentadic de proiectare curricular modern (adaptare dup D.K. Wheeler53 ) Facem precizarea c acest model a fost folosit (mai mult sau mai puin fidel) i de ctre cercettorii care au realizat curriculumul n vigoare pentru nvmntul preuniversitar romnesc. B. Principiile i normele de proiectare curricular modern i n privina acestora exist o convergen remarcabil n lumea teoreticienilor i a specialitilor n proiectarea curricular. Reproducem in acest sens formulrile realizate de personaliti prestigioase ale domeniului pentru a argumenta afirmaia anterioar i pentru folosul educatorilor practicieni din Romnia. ns acetia vor putea observa, cu uurin, c mai multe dintre principiile i normele care urmeaz nu au fost respectate sau chiar au fost nclcate grav n procesul de proiectare a curriculumului preuniversitar romnesc n vigoare. Nu vom comenta aceste erori inadmisibile. La data cnd scriem aceste rnduri atari comentarii sunt inutile. Este de datoria noastr s le indicm. Principiile i normele nclcate de designerii romni sunt nsemnate de noi cu asterixuri, avnd urmtoarea semnificaie: (*) nseamn eludat, (**) nseamn nclcat, (***) nseamn nclcare grav cu consecine periculoase. . Principiile lui R.Wynn si C. de Young54 I. Principiul fundamentrii empirice. Curriculumul trebuie s se bazeze pe cercetarea empiric a strii anterioare i s fie astfel alctuit nct s anuleze toate disfuncionalitile acesteia. (*) (Principiul reclam o cercetare-diagnostic de teren a strii anterioare a educaiei. n Romnia presupusul bolnav, coala, a fost tratat fr ca bolnavului s i se fi indicat maladiile de care suferea.)

53 54

D.K. WHEELER, Curriculum Process, University of London Press, Londra, 1967 R. WYNN, C. de YOUNG, J.L. WYNN, American Education, J.Wiley, New York, 1992

90

II. Principiul orientrii filozofice. Curriculumul trebuie s se bazeze pe o filozofie trainic a educaiei, aflat n consonan cu filosofia omului din societatea democratic modern, i s ignore doctrinele politice pasagere care contest aceast filozofie. (*) (n Romnia, fiecare nou ministru al nvmntului, numit politic, a luat reforma educaional de la capt, n conformitate cu doctrina politic a crui partizan era. Atari noi nceputuri, foarte frecvente, au indus anomie, instabilitate i chiar anarhie n rndul profesorilor i elevilor. Dei curriculumul formal este coerent, el nu poate rezista presiunilor entropice ale diverselor hidden curricula negative care s-au iscat exploziv n coli i despre care se crede c modernizeaz educaia. De fapt, este vorba de o catastrof pedagogic.) III. Principiul individualizrii. Curriculumul trebuie s rspund trebuinelor personale ale celui care nva i s se acomodeze posibilitilor sale de nvare. (*) (n sistemul de nvmnt bazat pe clase i lecii, vechi de peste trei sute de ani, nu poate fi practicat acest principiu modern i, bineneles, Noul Curriculum romnesc l-a eludat.) IV. Principiul realismului. Curriculumul trebuie centrat pe viaa real, cu valorile ei actuale, cu tendinele de dezvoltare ale societii i cu nevoile autentice de formare ale indivizilor acestei societi. (**) (Ca i n cazul principiului anterior i acesta a fost eludat ntruct proiectarea curricular s-a realizat n Romnia fr o prognoz a creterii cunoaterii i a consecinelor acesteia n plan profesional, economic, social etc.) V. Principiul echilibrului. Curriculumul trebuie astfel alctuit nct nici una dintre componente s nu fie neglijat i nici una s nu prevaleze asupra celorlalte (de la resurse materiale i umane care susin curriculumul i pn la filozofia care l orienteaz). (**) (Numeroasele componente materiale i umane sunt att de precare n Noul Curriculum nct el nu poate fi caracterizat dect ca dezechilibrat i, n consecin, disfuncional.) VI. Principiul colaborrii. Curriculumul trebuie sa fie o realizare colectiv la care iau parte toi cei competeni i toi cei interesai (de la specialiti, instituii oficiale i autoriti pn la profesori, elevi i prinii lor). (***) (Noul Curriculum romnesc a fost fabricat n tain de o echip de civa novici, dintre care doar 2-3 aveau o experien pedagogic minimal la catedr.) VII. Principiul evalurii. Evaluarea este elementul esenial al cercetrii, proiectrii, experimentrii, validrii oricrui curriculum i nu este permis implementarea lui dac evaluarea nu a fost riguroas, obiectiv, pozitiv i practicat la momentul oportun. (***) (Acest principiu a fost total ignorat i nimeni nu tie ce valoare au avut noul proiect curricular i ce virtui a dovedit la probarea experimental; nimeni nu a validat tiinific noul curriculum,
91

dar a fost implementat orbete; avem de-a face cu un periculos experiment pe ntreaga populaie colar preuniversitar care se desfoar fr nici un fel de instrumente care s permit controlul i coreciile.) VIII. Principiul asigurrii. Curriculumul trebuie s beneficieze de o susinere adecvat i nu trebuie pus n practic dac vreunul din elementele de susinere este insuficient (resurse financiare, spaii funcionale, laboratoare, manuale, planuri, programe, educatori, manageri competeni etc.).(**) (Toate elementele prezentate n paranteza de mai sus prezint precariti: fie sunt insuficiente, fie au fost realizate cu ntrziere, fie au fost concepute greit. Astfel nct acest principiu a fost nclcat n mod aproape fatal.) IX. Principiul temeiniciei. Curriculumul trebuie proiectat pe termen lung, astfel nct s suscite ameliorri eseniale i structurale ct mai rare i ct mai tardive. (***) (Acest principiu exprim esena logicii schimbrii educaionale - care a lipsit designerilor de curriculum din Romnia.) X. Principiul managementului schimbrii. Implementarea proiectului curricular este o schimbare radical care trebuie condus de manageri competeni. (**) (Din pcate, n Romnia nu exist dect civa specialiti n managementul schimbrii educaionale i ei nu au fost consultai n legtur cu aceast problem ntruct ea n-a fost formulat de nimeni.) . Tezele lui Santini55 - Teza nr.1: Centrare pe cel care nva. Proiectarea curricular trebuie s plece de la obiective pentru a determina coninutul, dar s prevad experiene didactice fixate pe cel care nva. (*) - Teza nr.2: Interdicia simplificrii. Proiectul curricular nu este simplu i nu trebuie conceput ca un proces mecanic sau productiv; are mai multe ci de referin, afecteaz societatea mai profund i este un proiect de dezvoltare uman. (*) - Teza nr.3: Soluie exhaustiv. Proiectarea curricular trebuie s in cont de toate interesele, s respecte toate valorile universal acceptate i s satisfac toate cerinele majore. (*) - Teza nr.4: Transparen total. n procesul proiectrii curriculare transparena trebuie s nu fie limitat de nimic i de nimeni i toate deciziile s fie cunoscute de toi cei interesai. (**) - Teza nr.5: Informare complet. n proiectarea curricular este obligatorie exploatarea tuturor surselor de informare, materiale i/sau umane (**) - Teza nr.6: Competene clare. n proiectarea curricular fiecare membru al echipei trebuie s aib competene precis definite i toi s tie cine are competena de a decide. (*)
55

Apud STENHOUSE, op.cit.

92

- Teza nr.7: Exclusiv schimbri inevitabile. Schimbarea curricular nu este o mod, ci o terapie radical aplicat unui organism educaional afectat; homeostazia educaional este asigurat de stabilitatea structural-funcional a colii; nu aplicai remedii gratuite i declanai numai schimbri adecvate i inevitabile. (*) - Teza nr.8: Parte din ntreg. Proiectarea curriculumului e doar una dintre etapele dezvoltrii lui, neputnd s se substituie acesteia ca ntreg, chiar daca respect integral exigenele unei activiti de cercetare-dezvoltare. (***) - Teza nr.9: Testare exigent. Nici cel mai bine conceput proiect curricular nu poate fi considerat infailibil dac nu a fost testat si experimentat n condiii de maxim exigen tiinific. (***) - Teza nr.10: Fidelitate i operativitate. n proiectarea curricular trebuie tratate toate informaiile, fr vreo prtinire i ct mai repede cu putin. (**) - Teza nr.11: Valorizare anticipat. Proiectarea curricular nu este complet dac obiectivele nu sunt estimate valoric din timp. (*) - Teza nr.12: Justificare deplin. Obiectivele unui proiect curricular sunt acceptabile numai dac i numai dac sunt perfect justificate. (**) - Teza nr.13: Principiul lui Korszybsky. Proiectarea curricular e o activitate de amploare, cu muli ageni, probat pe teren si nu o ntreprindere de birou sau laborator. (***) - Teza nr.14: Colaborarea complet. n proiectarea curricular colaborarea educatorcercettor-decideni este obligatorie, trebuind s fie deschis, lipsit de prejudeci i permanent. (*) - Teza nr.15: Planificare integral. Proiectarea curricular nu poate fi fragmentar; este obligatorie planificarea integral, pn la cele mai elementare detalii previzibile. (***)

2.4. Testarea curriculumului n proiect


Etapa a III-a. Evaluarea/testarea proiectului curricular. Trebuie realizat n cel puin dou modaliti: Evaluarea in vitro care se realizeaz prin analize critice obinute de ctre designeri din ct mai multe surse. Publicarea proiectului i supunerea sa dezbaterii publice sunt obligatorii. De asemenea, trebuie organizate consftuiri i dezbateri cu toate categoriile de interesai i beneficiari: specialiti, manageri, prini, elevi/studeni etc.;
93

Evaluarea in vivo care se poate realiza experimental: designerii se vor transforma n cercettori i mpreun cu profesorii i specialitii pot parcurge etapele unei investigaii empirice, stabilind: un eantion reprezentativ de coli/elevi/profesori; introducerea experimental a noului curriculum pe o perioad rezonabil de timp; culegerea i prelucrarea rezultatelor; identificarea aspectelor nevralgice; corectarea erorilor de proiectare i optimizarea continu a curricumului aflat n experiment.

2.5. Validarea curriculumului corectat


Etapa a IV-a. Validarea curriculumului. Noul curriculum trebuie validat de ctre o autoritate acreditat oficial. Validarea atrage ntreaga responsabilitate asupra celui care valideaz. Noul curriculum american - Goals 2000 a fost validat de ctre Congresul American dup ndelungi consultri la nivelul populaiei din toate statele federale. Observm n treact c nici unul dintre noile curricula romneti nu a fost validat corespunztor; un nou curriculum ar trebui validat de ctre Ministerul Educaiei, dar cu autorizarea special, n acest sens, a Parlamentului Romniei. n trecut, Ministerul Educaiei a fcut ns acest lucru foarte repede ignornd Parlamentul i eludnd etapa a III-a a demersului de optimizare curricular. Aceast eroare nu ar mai trebuii repetat.

2.6. Transpunerea n practic a unui nou curriculum


Etapa a V-a. Implementarea curriculumului. Aceasta este o activitate dificil care trebuie realizat de specialiti n managementul schimbrii, sprijinii oficial de factori decideni. Din pcate, n Romnia s-au ignorat dificultile procesului de transpunere n practic a noului curriculum educaional. Implementarea s-a realizat din birou, prin ordine i decizii ministeriale. Efectele negative, previzibile, nu au ntrziat s apar. Astfel nct putem conchide, cu regret, c n ciuda inteniei de a se realiza un curriculum educaional preuniversitar modern, n Romnia nu s-a alctuit dect o structur relativ diform i, pe alocuri, aproape o caricatur pedagogic, incoerent, disfuncional i cu consecine previzibil maligne. De aceea, pentru a-i ajuta pe primii afectai de aceast grav eroare pedagogic i managerial educatorii - adugm cteva elemente semnificative i utile de teoria modern a curriculumului.
94

APLICAII
Aplicaia 4. Diagnoza curricular a unei coli Realizai o diagnoz a colii n care predai Dvs. Studiai ultimii 10 ani Cercetai documentele colare Intervievai colegii Consemnai relatri ale fotilor directori Asistai la leciile ctorva profesori cu mare vechime n coal Stabilii: Atmosfera/ climatul n coal; metamorfoze i schimbri n timp Ce progrese/regrese au avut loc n ce mod a evoluat calitatea general a colii Progresele/ regresele elevilor
Cauze ale progreselor/regreselor elevilor

Competena profesorilor

De specialitate Pedagogic Moral Competena directorilor i a celorlali membri ai conducerii

Ce

ar

trebui

schimbat/mbuntit/optimizat

coal?

Consemnai aceste date i supunei-le unei dezbateri la un seminar.

CAPITOLUL 3. FACTORII OPTIMIZRII CURRICULARE MODERNE

OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE Studiind acest capitol cursanii vor deveni capabili: 1. S identifice factorii determinani i factorii dominani care oblig la optimizarea periodic structurile colare; 2. S evalueze corect avantajele i riscurile schimbrilor curriculare
95

3.1. Factorii determinani


Cnd devine necesar schimbarea (optimizarea, dezvoltarea) curricular? Ce factori, fenomene sau situaii o determin? n mod evident i firesc, curriculumul trebuie modificat datorit unor determinri obiective i nu n virtutea unor opiuni subiective sau decizii arbitrare. Identificarea lor trebuie fcut prin analiz-diagnostic i cercetare curricular. A. I. Oliver (1965) considera c, teoretic, optimizarea curricular trebuie s fie o activitate permanent, consecvent cu progresul cunoaterii i cu evoluia societii. n practic ns, permanentizarea schimbrii nu este recomandabil; ca instituie organizat birocratic,
96

coala are nevoie de stabilitate pentru a funciona optim i manifest, natural, rezisten la schimbare. Schimbarea curricular trebuie s intervin ct mai rar cu putin i numai dac este impus de factori obiectivi. Evitarea schimbrii nu este posibil cnd intervin acetia. Ea poate fi doar parial amnat printr-o proiectare curricular ct mai judicioas. Mai devreme sau mai trziu vor aprea simptomele nvechirii. Autorul citat mai sus credea c rostul esenial al cercetrii curriculare (curriculum research) este tocmai acela de a realiza recunoaterea simptomelor sclerozei. Factorii care determin schimbarea pot fi, principial, descoperii n cteva arii simptomatice, care sunt urmtoarele: trebuinele celui care nva, structurile colare, creterea cunoaterii, comunitatea local, progresul societii. TREBUINELE CELUI CARE NVA STRUCTURILE COLARE CRETEREA CUNOATERII

3.1.1. Trebuinele celui care nva mbtrnirea sau mbolnvirea curriculumului este anunat de elevi/studeni prin urmtoarele fenomene: Abandonul colar. Insuccesele absolvenilor a. Abandonul colar. Cnd crete numrul elevilor care abandoneaz coala pe care au frecventat-o pn la o anumit dat este raional s presupunem c aceasta urmrete finaliti care nu mai corespund ateptrilor elevilor dect parial. Dar nu numai finalitile nemulumitoare pot genera abandonul, ci i: - prestigiul social sczut al diplomei oferite absolvenilor; - preferarea de ctre elevi a altor activiti (distracie, munc etc.) n locul celei de nvare i pregtire colar; - insuficiena pregtirii oferite de coal pentru continuarea studiului pe trepte superioare sau pentru practicarea unei profesii convenabile .a. b. Insuccesele absolvenilor.
97

Atunci cnd din ce n ce mai muli absolveni nu reuesc s continue studiile la un nivel superior sau n profesiile pentru care au fost formai este raional s presupunem c aceasta se datoreaz unor precariti ale curriculum-ului parcurs de ei. c. Disciplina. Comportamentul elevilor este produsul mediului n care se formeaz. Curriculumul, cu programul de studii, exigenele specifice etc., este o parte important a acestui mediu formativ. Disciplina elevilor, dei recunoscut de oricine ca important, nu face parte din acest curriculum dect ca o anex nesemnificativ. Indisciplina, cnd nu este singular i accidental, ci fenomen, este cu certitudine semnul unei precariti curriculare. d. Evaluarea standardizat. n colile din S.U.A. sunt utilizate excesiv testele standardizate. Dar normele naionale nu coincid cu normele locale.12) Apoi, profesorii sunt mai degrab tentai sa-i determine pe elevi s realizeze scoruri acceptabile la teste dect s-i formeze n chip real. n fine, testele msoar mai degrab conformismul dect creativitatea. Aceast practic s-a extins i n nvmntul european. A.I.Oliver (1965) vedea n aceasta un simptom generalizat al unui anumit cancer curricular al educaiei din deceniile 6-7, care solicita o terapie urgent i radical. Din pcate, defazat, n anii '90, aceast maladie pedagogic a fost rspndit i n coala romneasc.

3.1.2. Structurile colare Structurile colare, referitoare la mentalitatea profesoral, echipamente, faciliti, profesionalism sau administraie, pot fi depite de nevoile reale ale educaiei.13) Randamentul profesorilor Evaluarea colilor Participarea profesional. a. Randamentul profesorilor. Eficiena staff-ului o condiioneaz pe cea a curriculumului. Cea mai important parte a echipei, profesorii, sunt cheia reuitei. Randamentul lor nu este asigurat doar de formarea iniial. n numai civa ani de carier aceasta va deveni insuficient, fiind necesar o completare continu. Dac procesul formrii continue a educatorilor nu este asigurat, curriculumul este periclitat. n fapt, formarea educatorilor trebuie s existe, ca un capitol aparte, n orice dezvoltare/optimizare curricular.

98

b. Evaluarea colilor. Valoarea instituiilor colare este variabil. Dar nu exista nici criterii naionale sau internaionale pentru o evaluare unitar. n aceste condiii, colile nsele nu se pot evalua i nu tiu ce valoare au. Cercettorii americani consider c aceast stare de fapt este valabil numai pentru S.U.A., dar n realitate este vorba de o situaie rspndit n toat lumea. Este, probabil, maladia cea mai serioas a educaiei contemporane, reclamnd nu numai dezvoltri curriculare locale, ci i o nou viziune asupra ntregii educaii a omului n mileniul urmtor. c. Participarea profesional. Descentralizarea activitii profesionale n educaie comport mari neajunsuri. Educaia preuniversitar american, de exemplu, le resimte acut. Profesorii i limiteaz eforturile de ameliorare la nivelul colii sau comunitii lor. Participarea lor la activiti tiinifice organizate la nivel de stat sau la nivel federal este sporadic. Cnd se organizeaz conferine federale pe tema curriculumului naional, profesorii prezint rapoarte tehnice cu o viziune foarte ngust. Cercettorii cred c singurul leac eficient mpotriva acestei pulverizri l constituie ceea ce n unele ri europene se numete centralism pedagogic (care, cum se tie, nu exclude descentralizarea administrativ a nvmntului ntr-un stat), menit a conferi inte mai sigure pentru dezvoltarea unor curricula educaionale naionale. Proiectul America 2000, iniiat de George Bush senior, aprobat de Congresul S.U.A., va nltura acest neajuns secular al educaiei americane. Centralismul federal vizeaz exclusiv obiective pedagogice majore descentralizarea financiar fiind pstrat. Este soluia unei probleme pe care Romnia nu o avea dar i-a creat-o, n mod inutil, de curnd. d. Echipamentele i facilitile. Insuficiena acestora pericliteaz ntotdeauna realizarea obiectivelor i chiar i cel mai bun curriculum poate fi astfel pus ntr-o lumin nefavorabil. De regul, este vorba de implementri de proiecte curriculare fr asigurarea prudent a acestor suporturi didactice importante. Manualele sau aparatura din laboratorul de chimie se pot nvechi. Cldirile se pot degrada. Aceste componente curriculare sunt adesea subestimate de teoreticieni i neglijate de administratori. Ele reclam nu doar revizuiri ale ntregului curriculum, ci i tratament specific, de regul de ordin financiar. Similar se pot face estimri referitoare la amplasamente. O coal din mediul rural nu beneficiaz de facilitile unei coli urbane, care are n apropiere biblioteci, muzee sau institute de cercetare pentru a-i desfura unele activiti prescrise n curriculum. Prin urmare, curriculumul celor dinti trebuie revizuit i conceput astfel nct, prin alternative, s poat realiza aceleai finaliti i obiective.
99

3.2. Factorii dominani

CRETEREA CUNOATERII COMUNITATEA LOCAL PROGRESUL SOCIETII

3.2.1. Creterea cunoaterii Explozia tiinific din ultima jumtate de veac este primul factor care a determinat ample reforme colare i optimizri curriculare n majoritatea rilor lumii. Dar explozia continu i expansiunea cunoaterii i amplific ritmul. Presiunile acestora se exercit cu precdere asupra coninutului nvmntului, oblignd la modificri radicale ale planurilor de nvmnt i programelor colare. Ele se extind i asupra competenei de specialitate a profesorilor. Aceasta scade rapid, din cauza mbogirii cunoaterii, la majoritatea disciplinelor de nvmnt. In ultimele trei-patru decenii cei mai ameninai cu perimarea diplomelor de specialitate au fost profesorii de fizic, informatic, biologie i tiine socioumane. n S.U.A., aceast situaie a determinat nfiinarea unor instituii speciale pentru rezolvarea problemelor curriculare specifice: B.S.C.S. (Biological Science Curriculum Study), C.A.S.E. (Council for the Advancement of Secondarz Education), C.B.A. (Chemical Bond Approch Project), P.S.S.C. (Physical Science Study Committee), S.M.S.G. (School Mathematics Study Group) .a. Auberz Haan (1961) a propus chiar un set de programe de cercetare i dezvoltare curricular pentru nvmntul elementar, intitulat generic Frontiere n construirea curriculumului (Frontiers in Curriculum Making), care a propus modele de selecie i concentrare a coninuturilor n trei domenii: tiine i matematic; studii sociale i limbajul artelor; educaie artistic, muzical, psihic i sanitar. Departamente de curriculum development exist, ncepnd din anii '50, n aproape toate universitile americane i europene. Crearea Consiliului Naional pentru Curriculum n Romnia este, cu certitudine, cea mai folositoare inovaie pedagogic romneasc a ultimilor ani. Pcat c noua instituie nu a fost populat cu marile personaliti tiinifice, culturale, pedagogice etc. i c au fost preferai novici i diletani prea puin contieni de responsabilitatea asumat.

3.2.2. Comunitatea local


100

Nu numai n statele cu nvmnt descentralizat, ci n orice situaie, comunitile joac rolul unor adevrate coli de mentalitate. colile propriu-zise trebuie s-i adapteze ntr-o msur important curriculumul la presiunile ethosului comunitar, cu valorile sale specifice, de ordin material i cultural. Aceste presiuni pot fi ns pretenii de ridicare a standardelor sau, dimpotriv, exigene conservatoare.14) Ambele determin relaii ntre coal i comunitate susceptibile s antreneze modificri, pozitive sau negative, ale curriculumului.

3.2.3. Progresul societii Aproape orice progres socio-economic genereaz factori determinani pentru schimbarea i dezvoltarea curriculumului educaional.15) Este un adevr cert pentru ntreaga istorie modern. n ultimele decenii pare a se fi produs ns o mutaie n acest domeniu. Majoritatea statelor lumii au contientizat c educaia i coala ndeplinesc nu numai o funcie de reproducere social, ci i una de nnoire social i progres economic. Curriculumul trebuie, n aceste condiii, nu doar s asigure asimilarea culturii existente, ci mai ales s permit mbogirea culturii. Curriculumul culturii constituite devine doar mijloc, punct de sprijin pentru curriculumul culturii care se va constitui - adevratul scop al dezvoltrii curriculare pe termen mediu i lung.

Capitolul MODERN

4.

ORIENTAREA

OPTIMIZRII

CURRICULUMULUI

OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE Studiind acest capitol cursanii vor deveni capabili:

101

1. 2. 3.

S identifice criteriile relevante pentru orientarea optimizrilor S cunoasc metode i experine tiinifice de orientare a curriculumului; S evalueze importana factorilor de influenare a orientrii

curriculare;

curriculumului.

Toate societile i educ membrii. n ce direcie i cu ce scopuri o fac? Societile nchise, de tip totalitar, prestabilesc inte ale educaiei, ignornd nevoile personale ale indivizilor. Societile deschise, de tip liberal, tind s acorde valoare numai acestora din urm i s ignore eventuale inte supraindividuale. Este dificil de decis ntre cele dou alternative. Designerii de curriculum sunt pui mereu n situaia de a reflecta asupra raportului dintre individ i societate. Curriculumul centrat exclusiv pe valori i trebuine individuale risc s produc cu precdere personaliti excepionale, revoluionari i inadaptabili. Curriculumul centrat exclusiv pe valorile tradiionale ale societii risc s produc mai ales
102

personaliti oneste, dar mediocre i conformiti incapabili s promoveze valori noi pentru progresul societii. Indubitabil, aceste dou extreme nu pot fi evitate dect printr-un just echilibru axiologic la nivelul orientrii curriculumului. Numeroi autori moderni consider c acest lucru nu se poate realiza dect pe baza unei modaliti ct mai ample i mai profunde asupra tuturor categoriilor de criterii care pot orienta curriculumul i fundamentarea, pe aceast baza, a unei metode raionale de analiz i soluionare a sofisticatelor probleme de orientare curricular. Aceast opiune modernist a fost contestat, ncepnd din anii '90, de ctre pedagogia postmodern. Acuza principal este aceea c orientarea modern a curriculumului este unidimensional; dimpotriv, curricula postmoderne ar trebui s fie orientate pluridimensional. Lui one-domensional-man (Marcuse) i este opus multi-dimensional-man (Derrida). Amnm deocamdat aceast problem (v. cap.13 14). Struim doar asupra orientrii moderne.

4.1. Criteriile orientrii curriculumului modern


Nu exist nc un consens n rndul specialitilor n curriculum educaional modern cu privire la natura i ierarhia criteriilor care trebuie s stea la baza opiunilor axiologice necesare ghidrii lui. Unii autori consider prioritare criteriile filosofice, alii pe cele politice, alii pe cele social-economice, alii pe cele psihologice, alii pe cele culturale. Fiecare dintre aceste criterii implic avantaje i dezavantaje.17) A. Criteriile filosofice Interogaia cea mai frecvent a celor care consider criteriile filosofice ca prioritare pentru determinarea i orientarea curriculumului modern este: Ce filosofie a educaiei trebuie aleas pentru a fundamenta curriculumul?. Aceast ntrebare general se subdivide ns n altele, ntruct orice filosofie a educaiei este derivat dintr-o filosofie a omului i dintr-o filosofie a societii.18) Filosofiile omului (diversele umanisme - de la cel greco-latin i pn la cel renascentist i de la cretinism pn la iluminism) nu au fost ntotdeauna n concordana cu societile n care s-au dezvoltat. Umanismul existenialist al secolului al XXlea, de exemplu, s-a dezvoltat n societatea capitalist occidental, profund marcat de liberalism i individualism. Aa-zisul umanism socialist derivat din marxismul secolului al XIX-lea a fost propagat n societatea totalitar comunist edificat pe lupta de clas .a.m.d. Or, o filosofie a educaiei descrie tocmai modul n care pot fi armonizate valorile omului
103

(nelese ca trebuine de formare i mplinire a individului) cu solicitrile i valorile unei societi viitoare dezirabile ntr-un model socio-uman care poate fi acceptat i adoptat ca ideal educaional. Incertitudinile n acest domeniu sunt, aadar, multiple. Se poate admite ns c, n preajma i pentru nceputul mileniului al III-lea, cel puin n ceea ce privete civilizaia european, exist i cristalizri conceptuale filosofice care pot servi drept temeiuri pentru opiuni filosofico-educaionale juste. Avem n vedere drepturile omului, ca valori umane unanim acceptate, i valorile societii democratice. Ele pot fi armonizate ntr-o filosofie educaional apt s contureze un model socio-uman i un ideal educaional pe care generaiile de astzi s le mbrieze pe scar larg. (Este tocmai ceea ce promite sinteza supramodern, n curs de realizare, dintre pedagogia modern i pedagogia postmodern.) B. Criteriile politice Unii teoreticieni sunt tentai s adopte anumite doctrine politice ca baz a orientrii curriculumului, uitnd consecinele nefaste pe care experiene de acest fel le-au avut. Este cunoscut ndeobte curriculumul colii romneti din anii 1948-1990, orientat n direcia formrii omului nou de ctre doctrina comunist. Tentativa de a concepe un curriculum liberal, un curriculum cretin-democrat sau un curriculum social-democrat pot avea aceleai consecine. Tentaia cea mai mare o reprezint mai ales ultima variant. Perspectiva societii deschise, descris de K.R.Popper, ideologul oficial (dup abandonarea lui Marx) al social-democrailor europeni, a determinat i proiecte de reform a nvmntului romnesc. Proiectul de coal deschis pentru formarea personalitii deschise, propus de S.Cristea (1994, 1996) aparine acestei tendine, chiar dac autorul i-a luat numeroase precauii, menite a evita politizarea curriculumului. Tot astfel, unele msuri i decizii de reform a nvmntului ntreprinse de Ministerul Educaiei, consiliat de Institutul de tiine ale Educaiei, n anii 1993-1998, cel puin n ceea ce privete proiectele de reform curricular, sunt de inspiraie liberal, dar fr un temei filosofic consistent i precauiile la care spiritul experimental i pozitiv oblig. C. Criteriile social-economice Inseria social-economic i profesional nu poate fi neglijat de nici un curriculum educaional oferit celor care continu pregtirea post-obligatorie (elementar). Criteriile social-economice se subordoneaz ns celor filosofice. Curriculumul vocaional nu poate face abstracie de orientarea filosofic a educaiei i de idealul educaional vizat la nivel macrostructural de ntreaga societate. Aceast subordonare de principii nu trebuie neleas
104

ns restrictiv. Valorile social-economice pot influena radical opiunile filosofice. Cu o astfel de situaie se confrunt, aproape iminent, societatea contemporan. Progresele tehnologice tind s modifice radical lumea profesiilor sociale, ceea ce va afecta nsi esena muncii, a relaiilor sociale i chiar condiia uman. Presiunea cea mai accentuat o exercit, n acest sens, tehnologiile informatice. Informatizarea accentuat a societii este vizibil i previziunile privind eliberarea omului de muncile de rutin (care vor fi preluate de diverse ustensile informatice, de la computere pn la roboi) nu sunt hazardate. Epoca industrial apune i umanitatea ptrunde rapid n era informatic. Societatea informatizat va abandona probabil cea mai mare parte a profesiilor rutiniere. Orice curriculum vocaional orientat n aceast direcie se va dovedi, foarte probabil, anacronic. Singura activitate uman neautomatizat va rmne cea de creaie (n primul rnd tiinific i tehnic). Societatea viitorului va fi, probabil, una esenialmente creativ. Prin urmare, cel puin curriculumul instituiilor de nvmnt post-obligatorii va trebui orientat spre formarea capacitilor creative. Aadar, criteriile social-economice exercit deja presiuni pentru proiectarea curriculumului necesar colii creative, orientat spre formarea personalitii creative. O atare presiune face ns necesar o filosofie a educaiei creative, pe care ns puini specialiti ai curriculumului s-au strduit s o contureze. Abia gndirea postmodern i sinteza supramodern tind s-i orienteze opiunile pentru conceperea de curricula creative necesare societii informatizate a satului global. D. Criteriile psihologice Dincolo de formele de organizare i de metodele folosite, educaia se consum la nivelul unei singure entiti biologico-psihologice: individul uman dotat cu contiin de sine i cu potenial de mplinire a unicitii sale prin asimilarea culturii. Singularitatea ontologic a fiecrui membru al speciei umane exclude uniformizarea printr-o educaie de tip procustian. Alturi de valorile universale acceptate pentru orientarea general a curriculumului, trebuie aezate trebuinele individuale de formare ale fiecruia dintre cei crora li se ofer acel curriculum. Curriculumul trebuie s balanseze just ntre valorile socio-umane i trebuinele proprii de formare ale individului, nu numai din considerente tehnice. De fapt, cea mai important dintre valorile care trebuie s l ghideze este nsi viaa, n nelesul de existen individual nerepetabil care prin singularitatea resimit subiectiv ca bunul cel mai de pre este, obiectiv, o realitate sacr. Orice educaie, forat dincolo de trebuinele de formare individual i de valori generale acceptate de individ, devine (decade n) dresaj sau fanatizare. Filosofia educaiei creative ar putea evita aceast extrem. Creaia este, cu siguran, cea mai
105

demn dintre activitile omeneti, poate chiar singura cu adevrat demn de om. Doar un curriculum creativ ar putea satisface preteniile i necesitile formrii lui multi-dimensionalman. Educaia pentru creativitate este exact opusul fanatizrii i uniformitii. Dar i aceast filozofie generoas i are precaritile sale. Cele mai importante sunt de ordin tehnic: 1. nu cunoatem suficient mecanismele psihice ale creativitii i este dificil s fie organizate influene educative pentru dezvoltarea lor;
2. pentru ca educatorii s poat realiza educaie creativ ar trebui s fie ei nii

persoane nalt creative, ceea ce, bineneles, nu poate pretinde un numr prea mare de educatori;
3. formarea formatorilor ca educatori creativi presupune ca formatorii de formatori

s fie personaliti nalt creative .a.m.d.; ne aflm n faa unei probleme de regresio ad infinitum care, dup cum se tie, nu poate fi soluionat dect prin falsa soluie a suspendrii radicale, ceea ce echivaleaz cu abandonarea problemei. Or, n planul aciunii practice, atare soluii sunt lipsite de sens; 4. nu este pe deplin elucidat dac toate personalitile sunt potenial creative i, prin urmare, ar putea fi educate pentru a-i dezvolta capaciti de acest tip. Constatrile de pn acum sugereaz mai degrab faptul c coala creativ nu va putea fi niciodat o coal de mas sau obligatorie, ci doar una de elit, ceea ce nu poate fi, nici pe departe, mulumitor pentru perspectivele educaiei n secolul XXI. E. Criteriile culturale Totui pedagogia modern nu a putut redescoperi elin, prefernd ingineering-ul riguros i spoliat de valori umaniste majore. Un curriculum este ntotdeauna un proiect paideutic. Formarea omului prin cultur continu s rmn dominanta educaiei contemporane i, probabil, va rmne astfel i n viitor. Dar nu exist o cultur care s poat orienta univoc curriculumul. Explozia tiinific a nlturat idealul educaional al Renaterii, erudiia. n epoca actual se poate vorbi doar de culturi ntre care s-a strecurat cel puin o prpastie. Prpastia cultural (C.P.Snow) dintre disciplinele umaniste i tiinele naturii s-a adncit continuu n ultimul secol, afectnd curriculumul educaional nc de la nivelul nvmntului secundar. Alte caracteristici i zonri culturale se constituie i ele n obstacole curriculare: cultur tradiional versus cultur modern, cultur oriental versus cultur occidental, cultur european versus culturi ale Extremului Orient, cultur naional versus cultur universal etc.

106

Mass-media a contribuit n ultima jumtate de veac la transformarea umanitii ntr-un sat planetar, ceea ce va conduce, cu siguran, la intensificarea intercunoaterii culturale. Dar perspectiva contopirii tuturor culturilor ntr-o singur mare cultur nu este previzibil n viitorul apropiat. Prin urmare, dei clamat puternic de postmodernism, idealul paideutic al vechilor greci nu poate fi renviat att de curnd nct s poat a orienta curriculumul educaional contemporan dect n sensul, mai restrns, al mpliniri umane prin cultur (care nu se confund cu idealurile enciclopedismului i erudiiei). Dar nimeni nu poate contesta ct de necesar ar fi omului contemporan o orientare pansophic a curriculumului, cum visase cndva Comenius.

4.2 O metod raional de orientare a curriculumului modern


Nu se va putea realiza probabil prea curnd un consens universal cu privire la criteriile cele mai adecvate pentru orientarea dezvoltrii curriculumului educaional i a spera c vor apare curricula pansophice n deceniile urmtoare este cu totul nerealist. n ciuda acestei dificulti majore unii cercettori moderni s-au strduit s descrie metode rezonabile. Cea mai cunoscut ncercare a fost realizat n 1967, ce ctre D.K.Wheeler. Demersul relativ riguros propus de acesta s-a constituit n mprejurri speciale. D.K.Wheeler cunoscuse ndeaproape, n anii '50, activitatea desfurat de Hilda Taba, n calitate de consultant n probleme de curriculum, pentru reforma educaional n San Francisco. Principiile acestei activiti au fost expuse ntro manier sistematic n lucrarea Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice (1962). n aceeai perioad, Wheeler a devenit profesor de Dezvoltarea Curriculumului n cadrul A.S.C.A.P.E.D. din Beirut. A.S.C.A.P.E.D. (Regional Centre for Advanced Training of Superior Educational Personel in the Arab States Centrul Regional pentru Pregtirea Personalului Educaional Superior din Statele Arabe) avea, ntre altele, i sarcini de reform educaional. Diversitatea cultural, barierele lingvistice i mentalitile variate din rile arabe se constituiau ns n obstacole dificile pentru abordarea raional a msurilor de reforme. D.K.Wheeler a crezut c le poate depi aplicnd, n manier personal, principiile formulate de Hilda Taba. Dup acest autor - modern i, deci, raionalist obstacolele nu sunt determinate de opiuni filosofico-politice i de optici definitiv ireconciliabile, ci rezid mai degrab din confuzii semantice i din lipsa unor definiii operaionale ale conceptelor folosite n analiza problemelor de orientare axiologic a curriculum-ului educaional. n consecin, D.K.Wheeler a propus depirea situaiei printr-un demers raional. Acesta presupune, nainte

107

de orice, identificarea conceptelor i a ideilor fundamentale implicate n orientarea curricular i apoi clarificarea lor prin definiii operaionale i standarde terminologice. ntr-o asemenea situaie se afl, de exemplu, conceptele referitoare la finalitile educaiei. D.K.Wheeler arat c expresii precum educaia pentru o via mai bun sau educaia pentru dezvoltarea plenar a personalitii sunt diferit nelese de diversele comuniti culturale sau popoare. Prin urmare, propune nlocuirea lor prin concepte precum scop educativ, rezultat educativ sau obiectiv pedagogic, care sunt susceptibile de definiii operaionale ce permit consensul naional. Chiar i dihotomii clasice pot fi depite n acest mod. D.K.Wheeler insist asupra polarizrii semantice referitoare la rostul (sensul) educaiei. El distinge n literatura pedagogic ase categorii de opiuni (accente): a. educaia trebuie s contribuie la autorealizare; b. educaia trebuie s asigure transmiterea motenirii culturale n mod integral; c. educaia trebuie s transmit o parte a motenirii culturale, adic doar cunoaterea organizat i capacitile de a o utiliza; d. educaia trebuie s serveasc cerinele societii; e. educaia trebuie s serveasc trebuinelor individuale; f. educaia trebuie s serveasc reconstrucia societii. Dac acest pachet mixt de opiuni este, n sine, puternic polarizat i nu permite orientarea unicriterial a dezvoltrii curriculumului, el trebuie luat ca atare. Este o realitate obiectiv. Nu este nici obligatorie i nici necesar analiza electiv n interiorul ei. Singura modalitate raional de a o aborda const n a postula c un curriculum trebuie s dezvolte fiecare dintre elementele care o compun, considerndu-le pe toate sarcini ale educaiei. Nici una dintre aceste sarcini nu poate fi neglijat n nivelul de orientare a unui curriculum educaional. Desigur, anumite curricula particulare pot acorda prioritate uneia sau alteia dintre prile acestui mixtum compositum valoric, dar atare prioritate nu poate fi absolut ntruct ar presupune ignorarea sau subestimarea altor funcii ale educaiei. Pe baza acestui raionament, D.K.Wheeler a propus demersul descris n alt subcapitol. Este evident ns c teoria nu este infailibil. I se poate reproa, pur i simplu, c, neputnd soluiona problematica dificil a orientrii radicale spre o valoare educaional sau alta, propune declararea problemei ca fals i ignorarea ei. Aceasta nu este o soluie real, desigur. Se poate considera ns c, la nivelul unei teorii generale a curriculumului, este singura posibil. n practica dezvoltrii curriculumului pot fi, bineneles, operate opiuni axiologice numeroase. n realitate, nu ne aflm in faa unei probleme obiective soluionabil prin demersuri strict raionale, cum crede D.K.Wheeler. Factorii subiectivi care intervin n configurarea problemei oblig la decriptri de sensuri i interpretri, ceea ce reclam o

108

abordare hermeneutic i nu doar simple metode obiective. Problematica orientrii curriculumului este, probabil, dovada cea mai concludent c tiinele educaiei in mai ales de Geisteswissenschaften (tiinele spiritului) i mai puin de Naturwissenschaften (tiinele naturii). Este concluzia corect la care a ajuns gndirea pedagogic postmodern i pe care pedagogia modern a ignorat-o, n ciuda evidenelor. A. Participaii Optimizarea unui curriculum educaional sau construirea unui curriculum nou nu pot fi considerate activiti private sau ezoterice; dimpotriv, ele sunt ntotdeauna publice i trebuie desfurate n condiii de transparen maxim. Mai mult, ntruct schimbrile curriculare afecteaz categorii populaionale diverse, care necesit implicarea lor n procesul dezvoltrii curriculare. n legtur cu acest aspect, opiniile specialitilor sunt convergente. A. I. Olivier opineaz c dezvoltarea curricular modern nu poate fi considerat valid dect dac este rezultatul unei abordri colective.56 Abordarea cooperativ este impus de orice filosofie democratic a educaiei, dar i de necesitile de comunicare eficient ntre agenii direci i diversele categorii de beneficiari ai schimbrii. Studiind situaia specific a educaiei americane, cercettorul consider obligatorie participarea la procesul dezvoltrii particulare a cel puin urmtoarelor grupuri: a) administraia colar, n frunte cu managerul i consiliul de administraie; b) colectivul profesoral, n ntregimea sa; c) studenii/elevii, cel puin prin reprezentani desemnai; d) restul personalului colar; e) juriti; f) grupurile sociale reprezentative (comitetul de prini, organizaii ale elevilor/studenilor, asociaii ale femeilor, asociaii profesionale); g) experi in curriculum; h) managerii si administratorii de la nivelul statului i de la nivel federal. n figura care urmeaz este reprezentat modul n care aceste resurse umane pot fi organizate pentru dezvoltarea1unor curriculare moderne, eficiente.6Schema reproduce modul n1 care s-a K Z 2 3 4 5 7 1 1 lucrat pentru conceperea curriculumului in colile publice din Sunnyside, ora din statul Washington (S.U.A.).
ntruniri lunare Cte un membru ales la fiecare nivel ierarhic al comitetului; ntruniri lunare Reprezentani ai comunitii i ai administraiei alei din Ascociaia pentru Educaie din Sunnysade, Washington

Comitetul de coordonare

Documente legislative ptr. idei i iniiative


56

Op. cit.

C. A.

Domenii de preocupare( subiecte, 109 materiietc.)ale comitetului; ntruniri i dezbateri de optimizare curricular odat la 4 ani

S. S. P.

Fig. Nr.17. Modul de organizare modern a resurselor umane pentru soluionarea problemelor de dezvoltare curricular n colile publice ale unei comuniti Scopul programului: depistarea trebuinelor copiilor din Sunnyside i formularea problemelor principale. Schema ilustreaz modul n care pot fi organizate resursele umane pentru dezvoltarea curriculumului ntr-o comunitate care i gestioneaz autonom problematica nvmntului public (e o situaie rspndit n S.U.A.). Acest mod de organizare ca atare nu este operaional n rile cu nvmnt centralizat (este, deocamdat i cazul Romniei), dar principiile rmn valabile:
1. Principiul abordrii colective (participarea tuturor celor interesai sau afectai de

schimbarea curricular este liber i necesar);


2. Principiul deplinei transparene (schimbarea n ntregime i a fiecreia dintre

componentele sale trebuie sa fie adusa permanent la cunotina opiniei publice i supusa dezbaterii ei n fiecare faz);
3. Principiul limitrii autoritii (autoritile ce conduc i decid n legtur cu schimbarea

curricular sunt experii i administratorii; dar autoritatea lor nu poate depi limite de acceptabilitate expuse public de beneficiarii schimbrii; proiectele curriculare respinse de majoritatea beneficiarilor trebuie fie corectate, fie abandonate i n nici un caz impuse forat ). B. Factorii de influen Ce factori determin coninutul unui program colar i ce factori influeneaz deciziile privind proiectarea, adoptarea sau schimbarea lui? Diagrama din figura nr.12.3. exprim modelul modern de structurare a acestor factori. a) FACTORII LEGISLATIVI acioneaz n Romnia la nivelul naional pentru ntregul sistem de nvmnt (de exemplu, legea nvmntului). Pe aceast baz Ministerul
110

Educaiei a impus chiar un curriculum naional construit mai ales pe criterii teoretice i prin imitarea nvmntului din unele ri ale Comunitii Europene, fr a-l supune dezbaterii publice i fr a-l experimenta. Totui autoritatea administraiei a fost supus criticii publice prin intermediul mass-media, iar profesorii au reacionat critic la adresa autoritii experilor n revistele de specialitate (precum Tribuna nvmntului)
Factori legislativi i normativi

Factori extracolari

CURRICULUM COLAR

Factori pedagogici interni

Factori cvasilegali

Fig. nr.18. Factori care determin curriculumul colar modern Autonomia nu este recunoscut n Romnia dect nvmntului superior, care are libertatea de a-i elabora curriculumul la nivelul fiecrei faculti. De curnd, sub imboldul Proiectului Bologna, nvmntul superior romnesc, renunnd parial la autonomia garantat prin constituie, a traversat o reform curricular semicentralizat de obiectivul unic al integrrii n Europa. (Este greu ns de apreciat c ar fi vorba de o unificatio pansophic!) La nivel judeean i local, n nvmntul preuniversitar public nu sunt permise iniiative de schimbare curricular dect n ceea ce privete disciplinele opionale. b) FACTORII CVASI-LEGALI care influeneaz curriculumul sunt sistemele de acreditare a diplomelor de absolvire i sistemele de admitere (n nvmntul secundar i superior, ca niveluri neobligatorii ale sistemului de nvmnt). Diploma de bacalaureat este acreditat printr-un curriculum stabilit la nivel naional; admiterea n licee i faculti, n schimb, se realizeaz n baza unui curriculum stabilit cvasi-autonom; admiterea n nvmntul superior privat se desfoar, de regul, pe baza unui curriculum sumar i complet autonom, existnd chiar tendina eliminrii sale totale. c) FACTORII EXTRACOLARI care influeneaz curriculum sunt foarte diferii:

111

) sntatea mintal influeneaz mai ales curriculumul nvmntului superior pentru handicapai; ) structura social - nu a influenat niciodat curriculumul n Romnia, dar n alte ri pot fi identificate semnificative deosebiri determinate de clase; colile pentru sraci mai exist nc, avnd un curriculum diferit de colile normale, cu un curriculum diferit de cel al colilor pentru negri, dar rasismul i diferenele colare de clas, blamate vreme de un secol i jumtate, dei i-au diminuat influena direct, mai continu s exercite o influen mijlocit n nvmntul privat. Taxele percepute de institutele educative private constituie un instrument prin care nvmntul de clas este meninut i, o dat cu el, curriculumul difereniat; ) schimbrile populaionale influeneaz direct sau indirect curriculumul, mai ales n rile cu nvmnt descentralizat. Creterea numeric a unei comuniti sau descreterea ei, mobilitatea populaional pot influena coninutul pregtirii, sistemul de intrare sau sistemul de ieire practicat n colile comunitii respective. n Romnia atare tendin se nregistreaz mai ales n mediul rural; noul curriculum educaional naional impus de Ministerul Educaiei n 1998 va ncuraja aceste tendine, probabil n primul rnd cu privire la parcurgerea disciplinelor opionale de ctre elevii din mediul rural; ) schimbrile economice - influeneaz puternic curriculum colar la orice nivel al nvmntului i n orice tip de nvmnt, cele mai semnificative efecte resimindu-se n nvmntul superior i n nvmntul vocaional; ) schimbrile n viaa de familie familia este, de fapt, o agenie educativ creia i revin responsabiliti pedagogice eseniale: asigurarea standardelor de via ale copilului, crearea climatului necesar bunei formri, fundamentarea educaiei morale i civice, educaia sexual, orientarea profesional .a. Urbanizarea i industrializarea au modificat rapid viaa de familie n secolul XX, iar aceste modificri vor continua i n secolul al XXI-lea, probabil i mai alert. n rile occidentale se vorbete de noul stil de via familial, radical diferit de vechiul stil, specific secolului trecut i pn n preajma celui de-al doilea rzboi mondial. Un aspect ngrijortor al noului stil pare a fi tendina familiei de a abandona o parte din responsabilitile sale educative i de a le transfera colii. n aceste condiii, curriculumul obinuit trebuie s se modifice semnificativ, cel puin n ceea ce privete nvmntul primar i secundar. n Romnia este posibil ca aceast tendin s se manifeste o dat cu schimbul de generaii, n primele decenii ale secolului XXI; ) impactul valoric asupra curriculum-ului este o realitate pedagogic milenar, aa cum am artat deja. Metamorfozele axiologice care au nsoit marile mutaii social-istorice au antrenat
112

ntotdeauna schimbri profunde, adesea totale, ale curriculumului educaional. Societatea contemporan pare a se afla n vltoarea unei transformri de amploarea celei mai profunde din cte a traversat vreodat i, indubitabil, curriculumul educaional este supus deja presiunilor i va resimi din plin ocul acesteia nc din viitorul foarte apropiat; ) grupurile special interesate pot influena prin intervenii mai mult sau mai puin judicioase curriculumul educaional. A.I.Olivier a prezentat o lista surprinztoare de asemenea grupuri care au determinat modificri dintre cele mai neateptate n nvmntul secundar american57 : GRUPUL
1. Bell Telephone Company 2. Societatea anti-vivisecie 3. Esso 4. Consiliul Naional al Cretinilor i Evreilor 5. Asociaia Automobilitilor Americani 6. Westinghouse 7. Legiunea American 8. Metropolitan Life Insurance 9. Institute of Life Insurance 10. American Cancer Society

ARIA DE INTERES
1. Rolul muncii n societate 2. Interzicerea experimentelor pe animale 3. Cltoriile, turismul (folosind mijloace cu gazolin) 4. Eliminarea prejudecilor rasiale i religioase 5. Educaia oferilor i conductorilor auto 6. Dezvoltarea talentelor tiinifice 7. Protejarea democraiei 8. Sntatea 9. Economia sntii 10. Efectele fumatului

Autorul menionat a artat c aceste grupuri au influenat semnificativ curriculum-ul nvmntului profesional-vocaional american fie n chip direct, fie nfiinnd agenii pedagogice speciale. n acest fel, de exemplu, N. M. L. (National Municipal League) i C.A.S.E. (Council for Advanced of Education) au nceput s produc programe i materiale pentru nvarea n coal a unor probleme de educaie civic i conducerea local; apoi, prin puterea lobby-ului, au reuit s determine apariia unei legislaii n acest sens la nivelul mai multor state. Este vorba despre un proces specific rilor democratice: grupurile pot determina orientri ale curriculumului educaional n direcii ce le intereseaz, profitnd de mecanismele democratice ale societii; ) crizele sociale, economice i politice antreneaz ntotdeauna i schimbri curriculare; de regul, aceste crize antreneaz i coala, care nu li se poate sustrage, fiind adesea incriminat i considerat responsabil de apariia crizelor pe alt plan dect cel propriu-zis educaional: n S.U.A., conflictele din cel de-al doilea rzboi mondial, cel din Koreea i Vietnam au provocat
57

Olivier, op.cit.

113

reacii publice mpotriva colii (secundare i superioare), care a fost considerat responsabil de pregtirea inadecvat a tineretului american pentru atare confruntri; avansul tehnologic provocat de rui prin lansarea Sputnik-ului n Cosmos a determinat Congresul american s adopte n 1958 Legea educaiei pentru aprarea naional, care viza identificarea i ncurajarea subiecilor supradotai; n Romnia, n 1990, ca urmare a profesionalizrii excesive a nvmntului liceal sub regimul comunist, au fost eliminate numeroase discipline vocaionale (s-a ajuns i la excese neraionale, ca n cazul reducerii numrului de ore de chimie pe motiv c aceast disciplin reprezint profesia unui membru a cuplului dictatorial!); ) noile tehnologii influeneaz permanent curriculumul n nvmntul contemporan: asistm la ptrunderea n curriculum , la toate nivelurile nvmntului i n majoritatea instituiilor de formare vocaional, a informaticii i computerului, impuse de previzibila informatizare a societii pe care, firete, curriculumul, n special cel vocaional, o anticip.

Capitolul 5. ALEGEREA DOMENIILOR DE NVARE N CURRICULUMUL MODERN

OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE
114

Studiind acest capitol cursanii vor deveni capabili: 1. 2. S disting logica pedagogic a nvrii de logica tiinific a domeniilorni materiilor de studiu; S aprecieze importana construirii documentelor formale prin echipe mixte de specialiti i psihopedagogi,

5.1. Nivelurile alegerilor


O dat luat decizia de a optimiza sau dezvolta curriculumul educaional i precizate scopurile acestui nou curriculum, devine posibil selectarea cmpurilor de nvare (a ariilor de experien sau a ariilor de coninut) pentru realizarea acestor scopuri. Cmpurile de nvare sau ariile de experien nu sunt simple liste de discipline de nvmnt sau
115

inventare de coninuturi (cum se crede uneori). Dup A. I. Olivier (1965), este vorba de o activitate care se deruleaz la cel puin dou niveluri.
Nivelul I MACROSELECIA CURRICULUMUL CA NTREG

Nivelul II MICROSELECIA

PACHETE DE CONINUTURI

Figura Nr. 19 Alegerea domeniilor i pachetelor de coninuturi A. PRIMUL NIVEL presupune stabilirea curriculumului ca ntreg i a ariilor majore n care acesta opereaz. Designer-ul modern rspunde unor ntrebri de tipul: n ce domeniu va fi format educatul?, n ce profesie sau activitate va fi el competent?. Rspunsul la asemenea ntrebri presupune, aadar, delimitarea de ansamblu a curriculumului. B. La cel de-al DOILEA NIVEL se precizeaz subdomeniile curriculare(discipline sau domenii interdisciplinare, modele, pachete de coninuturi etc.). Designerul rspunde unor ntrebri de tipul: Ce teoreme geometrice trebuie nvate?, Ce capitole din chimie trebuie parcurse pentru a ctiga componena x?, Ce elemente transdisciplinare bio-fizice sunt utile pentru formarea capacitii y? .a.m.d. Prin urmare, la acest nivel se stabilesc componentele planului de nvmnt (care apare ca un proiect de experiene de nvare prin intermediul unor arii de coninut). La ambele niveluri sunt necesare decizii; designerul trebuie sa aleag ntre variante i alternative multiple. Ce criterii trebuie s aib n vedere pentru a efectua ct mai bine aceste alegeri? Indubitabil, opiunile nu pot fi doar personale, dei un anumit grad de subiectivitate se manifest ntotdeauna, orientnd preferinele sale. Se poate considera c ele opereaz mai ales n ceea ce privete aprecierea importanei valorii i importanei anumitor arii de coninut sau subdomenii curriculare pentru realizarea scopurilor propuse. Cnd designer-ul este expert ntr-un domeniu, se manifest aa numitul narcisism de specialitate, care conduce la supraevaluarea domeniului n care este expert i subevaluarea altor domenii. Cnd matematicienii sunt implicai n proiectarea curriculumului formrii profesorului de matematic, supraapreciaz rolul unor capitole din matematic pe care profesorii nu le vor preda niciodat n gimnaziu sau liceu i vor subaprecia din psihologia nvrii sau tehnici pedagogice active. Pentru depirea unor asemenea tendine subiective, teoreticienii
116

curriculumului recomand ca alegerea cmpurilor de nvare s fie ntotdeauna opera unor echipe de experi, din care s nu lipseasc niciodat psihopedagogii, care s desfoare activiti de tip T-Group (Training-Group) si W-Group (Working-Group) sau chiar Brainstorming.

5.2. Deciziile i logica nvrii


Deciziile trebuie oricum luate n grup i innd ntotdeauna seama de interesele celor care vor fi formai i de scopurile respectivului curriculum. n unele universiti americane, precum Colorado, s-a folosit aa numita Jury Technique, calchiat dup cunoscuta practic judiciar american. Juratul este o persoan care s-a dovedit expert cunoscut n domeniul de activitate vizat de curriculum, aleas de cercettorul-proiectant. Juraii sunt consultani individuali pe parcursul alegerii cmpurilor de nvare i colectivi dup ce inventarierea acestora a fost finalizat. Alegerea coninuturilor de nvare nu epuizeaz problematica elaborrii cmpurilor de experien sau a experienelor de nvare. Este necesar pedagogizarea coninuturilor, care presupune cel puin urmtoarele activiti:

rearanjarea coninuturilor n ordinea logic a nvrii (sau n conformitate cu logica pedagogic); elaborarea suporturilor standardizate etc.); nvrii (manuale, cursuri

organizarea practic a condiiilor de nvare (echiparea Teoreticienii curriculumului modern insist asupra importani tuturor acestor componente, dar atrgnd atenia asupra faptului c educaia nu poate fi restrns la componenta teoretic, livresc. A. I. Olivier (1965) d n acest sens un exemplu simplu de condiii care trebuie avute n vedere pentru formarea unei competene precum aceea de cetean: a fi cetean competent nseamn, ntre altele, a fi un bun vorbitor n public; aceasta presupune ca programul colar s includ activiti de vorbire in public; prin urmare curriculumul trebuie s asigure existena unui public n faa cruia s poat fi organizate exerciii de speaking; acest public poate fi colar, alctuit din elevi sau ali membri ai personalului colar, dar poate fi vorba i de un public real, extracolar. Doar aa se va putea realiza competena vizat.

117

Esenialul const n a nelege c un cmp de nvare sau o experien de nvare nu se reduce la o list de coninuturi teoretice pe care elevul trebuie s le memoreze exclusiv pentru a le reproduce cu prilejul unor examene i a le abandona apoi. Experiena de nvare desemneaz o nvare activ i util pentru viaa celui care se formeaz. Caracterul practic al acestei viziuni despre curriculumul educaional este evident. El difereniaz, prin tradiie, nvmntul european, care mai pstreaz amprenta scolasticii i magistrocentrismului, de cel american, influenat de pragmatism, eficientism i progresivism.

5.3. Coloana vertebral a curriculumului modern


Exist ns o coloana vertebral a oricrui curriculum? Majoritatea teoreticienilor moderni consider c da. (Dar nu i cei postmoderniti.) ntr-adevr, cel puin n ceea ce privete curricula moderne din spaiul euroatlantic, pot fi identificate cel puin trei categorii de elemente care populeaz cmpurile formrii umane:

elemente culturale achiziionate de contemporaneitate i de tendina evolutiv elemente care pot fi considerate valori universale i eterne ale umanitii elemente de continuitate cultural, impuse de tradiie

VIITOR

TREC UT

Figura nr. 20. Coloana vertebral a curriculumului modern Se poate vorbi, aadar, de construcii curriculare bazate pe vectori: un vector este orientat spre trecut i spre tradiii, iar un altul, dimpotriv, este orientat spre progres i spre viitorul societii i cunoaterii, echilibrul dintre ele fiind asigurat de un set de valori aparinnd tezaurului cultural universal al umanitii. O atare structur de rezisten regsibil n orice construcie curricular modern, reproduce nsi devenirea paideutic a Europei. Pn n secolele al XVI-lea i al XVII-lea a existat doar vectorul paideutic orientat spre pstrarea valorilor tradiiei. Educaia greco-latin nu avea valoare mai mare dect Tradiia, iar
118

Cretinismul a reluat aceasta obsesie pedagogic, modificndu-i numai coninutul intrinsec. O dat cu Renaterea, dar mai ales cu Reforma protestant i cu Iluminismul, s-a instituit o nou tem educativ: progresul i construirea viitorului prin victorie i efort uman contient. Valorile Progresului nu au eliminat ns valorile Tradiiei. Educaia european a procedat mai degrab invers, acordnd prioritate valorilor Progresului. Pe de alt parte, aceste valori sunt ele nsele marcate de evoluiile cunoaterii. Ceea ce am numit valorile Tradiiei includ mai ales achiziiile umanismului greco-latin i cuceririle morale ale cretinismului; dimpotriv, valorile Progresului s-au construit mai ales din achiziii ale cunoaterii tiinifice i din aplicaii tehnologice ale acestora. Pn la jumtatea secolului al XX-lea, marile universiti europene, nfiinate ns de la nceputul mileniului al II-lea cretin, prin dezvoltri ale unor coli episcopale, se difereniau, prin curricula puternic umaniste, de universitile americane, aprute abia n sec. al XIX-lea, prin dezvoltri ale unor coli tehnice i practice cu curricula preponderent realist-practice. Desigur, distinciile de mai sus nu sunt absolute, dar pot sugera sursele unor diferene de viziune asupra construirii curriculumului i a alegerii cmpurilor de formare n spaiul paideutic euro-atlantic. C nici una dintre aceste orientri nu a neglijat total valorile celeilalte i c distincia s-a estompat aproape complet n ultima jumtate de veac este un lucru cert. O dovedete felul n care unii teoreticieni americani trateaz de mai mult vreme problematica elaborrii curriculumului. Cu un anumit umor, A.I.Olivier (1965) asemna construirea curriculumului cu fotbalul american: T-formation (team-formation) ar avea patru elemente de baz (T-uri): Tradiia, Textele, Tendinele si Traiectele24); adic valorile propriu-zise ale tradiiei umaniste, textele (scrierile) care le conin (expuse, desigur, n manuale), valorile progresului tinifico-tehnic i organizarea drumurilor de parcurs (traiectele) de ctre cei care se formeaz.

CAPITOLUL 6. ORGANIZAREA CURRICULUMULUI MODERN

OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE
119

Studiind acest capitol cursanii vor deveni capabili: 1. 2. 3. s stpneasc ABC-ul organizrii curriculare moderne; s aprecieze structuri tipice de organizare a curriculumului modern; s evalueze din perspectiv practic scheme i paradigme de organizare

curricular modern

Curriculumul fie el tradiional, modern sau postmodern - trebuie considerat un organism viu, a doua natur a celui care se formeaz. De aceea o problem major a dezvoltrii curriculumului o constituie nsi organizarea experienelor de nvare i a coninuturilor pregtirii n programe educaionale. Pot fi aranjate la ntmplare? Evident, nu. Dar atunci care sunt exigenele tiinifice i regulile unei bune organizri curriculare?
120

6.1. ABC-ul organizrii curriculare moderne


Literatura psihopedagogic anglo-saxon a impus n ultimii ani aceast formul abreviat pentru a denumi generic cele trei norme fundamentale de organizare curricular: articularea, balansarea i continuitatea.25) Articularea (denumit uneori, mai precis, articularea orizontal, iar alteori, mai vag corelare) se refer la relaiile concurente dintre elementele a cel puin dou discipline (materii, experiene de nvare, cmpuri de nvare etc.) n cadrul ansamblului curricular. Pentru a explica acest principiu, se recurge, de obicei, la o analogie anatomofiziologic. Legturile care exist ntre humerus, radius i ulna sunt astfel articulate, nct s asigure funcionarea optim a ntregului bra. n structura unui curriculum diversele componente joac rolul unor astfel de membre ca braul; un bun curriculum dispune de astfel de articulaii orizontale care fac ca organismul n ansamblu, ntregul curriculum, s dispun de homeostazie pedagogic, funcionnd echilibrat. Cea mai important i mai dificil problem pe care o ridic articularea orizontal a curriculumului este aceea de a gsi articulaiile interdisciplinare. n nvmntul clasic, monodisciplinar, aceasta problem este neglijat. Fiecare profesor pred o disciplin izolat aproape complet de celelalte, iar elevul este pus zilnic n situaia de a participa la cinci-ase spectacole de cte o or fiecare, complet diferite unul de cellalt, fr nici o legtur ntre ele. La 800 ncepe spectacolul de limba i literatura romn, ce se ncheie brusc la 850; la 900 ncepe un cu totul alt spectacol, desfurat ntr-o limb complet diferit de precedenta, matematic, care se ncheie, tot brusc, la 950; la 1000 ncepe un nou i bizar spectacol, cel de istorie medieval, care se ncheie la 1050 .a.m.d. Braele nu aparin unui organism, ci acioneaz izolat i haotic ntr-o direcie fr sens. Articularea orizontal a curriculumului ar trebui s evite aceast monstruozitate pedagogic specific nvmntului tradiional. Ea nu poate fi realizat dect printr-o bun proiectare a finalitilor si obiectivelor curriculumului i prin aranjarea experienelor de nvare strict din perspectiva lor. Dar organizarea curriculumului este optim numai dac graniele dintre discipline i materii sunt depite prin corelaii inter i transdisciplinare, ceea ce nu se poate realiza dect prin lucrul n echip al designerilor curriculari i apoi n practica instruirii, prin activiti similare de tip team-teatching.

121

Continuitatea sau articularea vertical se refer la oferte de curriculum celui care nva de a nainta de la un nivel la altul al pregtirii. Aceasta presupune ca sistemul educaional s fi fost proiectat n termeni pedagogici de creterea gradat a competenelor i capacitilor elevilor. Rupturile ntre cicluri i niveluri ale pregtirii trebuie evitate. Respectarea particularitilor de vrst trebuie fcut cu maximum de strictee. Curriculumul trebuie s dea, de asemenea, posibiliti de respectarea a particularitilor individuale i al ritmului propriu de nvare al fiecrui elev. Asemenea condiii par a oferi sistemele educaionale de tip comprehensiv. n nvmntul bazat pe clase i lecii, cum este i cel romnesc, articularea vertical comport, dimpotriv mari neajunsuri. Aici trecerile de la un ciclu la altul de nvmnt sunt, de regul, brutale i se soldeaz cu pierderi colare masive; n clase se practic, de regul, nvmntul frontal, ce nu permite diferenierea i individualizarea instruirii. Se ncalc, n acest fel, nsui principiul continuitii, norm pedagogic fundamental. Dar aceast nclcare, reproat adesea profesorilor, este impus n practic printr-o grav eroare de proiectare curricular, specific sistemelor educaionale cu sorginte scolastic lancasterian sau chiar herbartian. Balansarea sau echilibrul curricular se refer la modul n care trebuie distribuite diferitele categorii de valori antagonice n ansamblul curriculumului. Teoreticienii apeleaz la analogia simbolului clasic al Justiiei pentru a sugera mai clar sensul acestui concept: vestita zei legat la ochi (oarb) care ine n mn un cntar. ntr-adevr, un curriculum echilibrat presupune o just distribuire de valori astfel nct nici una dintre ele s devin supraponderal n raport cu celelalte. Dar exist o balan curricular absolut, valabil pentru oricare elev? Curriculumul alctuit din cele apte arte liberale ale colilor ecleziastice medievale admitea (i chiar fora spre) o astfel de uniformizare. Pedagogia postmodern nu mai admite dect existena unei balane proprii, specific fiecrui individ care se formeaz. Balana curricular proprie s-ar putea defini teoretic; acest echilibru este atins atunci cnd cel care nva i dezvolt un nivel optim de competen n fiecare dintre ariile care alctuiesc curriculumul propriu. Numai ntr-un nvmnt complet individualizat este posibil atingerea unui asemenea echilibru. n nvmntul colectiv ns, echilibrul curricular perfect este, probabil, imposibil de determinat datorit diferenelor interindividuale dintre participanii la activitatea de formare. Dincolo ns de aceste probleme teoretice ale echilibrului curricular exist i cteva dileme practice. n general, nu se poate decide dac n formarea uman e mai avantajoas educaia general sau mai benefic cea specializat. S-a ncercat o depire a acestei dileme n deceniul al VII-lea. G.Stoddard, de la Universitatea din New York, a conceput aa-numitul Plan de
122

Progres Dual (Dual Progress Plan) pentru nvmntul primar. O serie de cursuri au fost definite ca imperative culturale: tiine, matematici, arte, comer i muzic. Imperativele culturale trebuie parcurse de toi elevii n acelai timp; opiunile culturale puteau fi parcurse n ritm propriu. Modelul lui Stoddard depete limitele modernismului fiind unul dintre primele curricula moderne. Rezultatele raportate au fost pozitive, dar sistemul lui G.Stoddard nu s-a rspndit, ca atare, foarte mult. Dificultile de organizare a curriculumului nu nseamn ns ABC-ul acestei activiti eseniale pentru o nnoire educaional profund pot fi eludate. Schema alturat sugereaz c articularea pe vertical, articularea pe orizontal i echilibrarea sunt singurele modaliti prin care se pot armoniza elementele curriculare ntr-un tot paideutic coerent.
A r t i c u l a r e a

VIAA VIITOARE

v e r t i c a l

C o n t i n u i t a t e

Educaie postuniversitar Educaie universitar Educaie secundar VIAA CURENT coala elementar A COMUNITI I Educaia n familie

Articulare orizontal

Fig. nr.21. Organismul curricular cu articulaiile sale

6.2. Structuri tipice de organizare a curriculumului modern

123

innd cont de continuitate, articulare i echilibrare, cte organizri curriculare pot fi realizate? Teoretic, se poate realiza un numr infinit de organizri curriculare. n practic, sau structurat ns doar dou categorii de curricula cu semnificaia paradigmatic: A. Curricula extreme: a) curriculum centrat pe disciplin (materie); b) curriculum centrat pe student (elev) ; B. Curricula intermediare: a) curriculum corelat; b) curriculum fuzionat; c) curriculum-miez (nucleul). Paradigmele curriculare extreme reproduc antagonismul educaional multisecular dintre magistro-centrism i puero-centrism. Curricula centrate pe materie (disciplin) au la origine programul educaional al colilor ecleziastice medievale, alctuit din septem artes liberales (trivium i quadrivium); ele acord importan maxim disciplinelor de nvmnt (artes) i ignor aproape complet pe cel care se educ. Dimpotriv, curricula centrate pe cel care nva, subordoneaz total materiile intereselor i trebuinelor de formare ale elevului. Ele i au originea n pedagogia rousseauist i n ideile colii Active, cel mai vechi curriculum centrat pe elev fiind, probabil, planul de nvmnt bazat pe centre de interes, propus n anii 30 de O.Decroly. Paradigmele curriculare intermediare sunt, n esen, forme de depire a exclusivismului pedagogic al paradigmelor extreme. Schema de mai jos sugereaz exact felul n care paradigmele intermediare se poziioneaz fa de extreme.

Curricula centrate pe discipline

Curricula corelate

Core curricula

Curricula fuzionate

Curricula centrate pe cel care nva

Fig. nr.22. Tendine de structurare ale curricula Curriculumul corelat (Correlated Curriculum), mai aproape de centrarea materie, este totui superior acestora, fie prin desfiinarea granielor dintre discipline n vederea aplicrii unora la studiul celorlalte, fie prin gruparea lor n anii de formare:
124

a) Corelarea materiilor/disciplinelor a fost inspirat mai ales de ndelungata aplicare a logicii i matematicii n studiul tiinelor naturii. Universitatea din Pennsylvania de exemplu, a proiectat un curriculum de studiu al matematicii direct prin aplicaii teoretice i practice ale acesteia. Materiile sunt de tipul: posibile aplicaii ale matematicii la geografie, posibile aplicaii ale matematicii n tiine sociale, posibile aplicaii ale matematicii n studiul limbii engleze etc. b) Corelarea prin profesori const n gruparea profesorilor astfel nct una dintre discipline s poat deveni domeniu de aplicaie al celeilalte. De exemplu, la Tul County (California) mai multe coli au programe corelate. O corelaie tipic o asigur profesorul de spaniol i cel de biologie. Profesorii predau aproape n acelai timp, cu ajutorul unor filme de biologie expuse n limba spaniol. Dup vizionarea filmelor, cei doi profesori l comenteaz n limba spaniol (limb strina pentru elevi). Curriculumul fuzionat (Fused Curriculum) este denumit i integrat; n literatura psihopedagogic i chiar n limbajul administrativ, ori de cte ori se folosete expresia broad fields (cmpuri largi, domenii principale) trimiterea este la curricula fuzionate. Curriculumul fuzionat are la baz ideea c exist discipline de baz care rezult din fuzionarea elementelor altor discipline. De exemplu, biologia este rezultatul fuzionrii cunotinelor i principiilor de botanic, zoologie, anatomie, bacteriologie etc.; matematica rezult din punerea laolalt a unor elemente de aritmetic, algebr, geometrie, trigonometrie. Curriculumul fuzionat este alctuit astfel domenii principale n care se studiaz doar principii de baz i capitole fundamentale. Fuzionarea este dus mai departe. Cursuri precum Istoria civilizaiei nu seamn cu clasica niruire de evenimente. Este vorba de o sintez conceput a rebours, din perspectiva epocii contemporane asupra devenirii umanitii. Uneori cursurile au caracter exploratoriu. Un curs explorator presupune o complex activitate de cercetare pe care studentul o realizeaz individual i relativ independent. La Sarah Lawrence College cursul de psihologie presupune studiul unor lucrri, realizarea unor observaii de teren, ba chiar i lectura unor reviste i romane pe care studentul le identific relativ independent (este consiliat de ctre profesor ori de cte ori simte nevoia). Tendina de a sintetiza i de a generaliza este major, dar nu este singura. Adesea se ajunge la unificare multi i transdisciplinar. Cursul Progresul Democraiei este multidisciplinar, iar Creterea independenei popoarelor este transdisciplinar. Acest tip de fuziune permite ns i profesionalizarea, i specializarea. Cursul de Asigurare social i sntate presupune studiul unor complexe probleme socio-economice, anatomo-fiziologice, medicale i de

125

filosofie umanist. Cursul Cum nfrunt omul adversitatea? presupune o investigaie pretenioas n problematica religiilor, psihologiei, istoriei, literaturii. Curriculum n miez (Core Curriculum). Conceptul core curriculum este folosit n literatura psihopedagogic n mai multe sensuri. n orice curriculum exista un miez sau nucleu. De exemplu, n curricula centrate pe discipline acesta este, tradiional, alctuit din limba matern, matematic, fizic, chimie i chiar discipline socio-umane. Exista un core al curriculumului primar i un core al curriculumului secundar, care difer n funcie de paradigma curricular. n atare poziii, core curriculum-ul constituie un curriculum de baz sau central. Exist ns un al doilea sens al cuvntului core, care sugereaz apropierea de paradigma centrrii pe cel care nva: coreeste ceea ce trebuie s posede toi cei care se educ (n Romnia, aceasta ar include ceea ce frecvent numim cultur general i, chiar mai expresiv, cei apte ani de acas). Fr a-l putea circumscrie prea riguros, Olivier (1965) a apreciat c miezul (nucleul) curricular poate fi caracterizat prin apte caracteristici

Core este pentru toi. El este aspectul general al educaiei: a ti s asculi, a ti s te pori cu semenii, a avea o profesie i un statut social; Core este centrat pe probleme, pe cele comune ale celor care nva; Core este un proces. Un proces important. Procesul pregtirii pentru via ntr-o societate democratic. Experienele pe care copilul i tnrul trebuie s se realizeze direct, s le ncerce pe pielea proprie pentru a putea tri ntr-o societate democratic; Core este dezvoltare cooperativ. La achiziionarea educaiei de baza particip toi: familia, cetenii, experii, profesorii, locul de munc, toat societatea; Scopurile care privesc ntreaga cretere. Prin care crete individul sub toate aspectele de la cele fizice pn la cele morale;

Curriculum ascuns (Hidden Curriculum) este din ce n ce mai invocat n literatura psihopedagogic a ultimelor decenii. (Postmodernitii, n orice caz, au fcut mare zarv n legtur cu el) Termenul desemneaz valorile asimilate subliminal de ctre tineri prin influene socio-educative de tip informal sau non-formal. Curriculumul ascuns nu este specificat n planurile de nvmnt sau programele colare. Psihopedagogii anglo-saxoni descoper abia acum c familia, strada, comunitatea desfoar o educaie tenace, prin care
126

sunt transmise reguli, ritualuri, cutume si obiceiuri specifice cu efecte ce pot fi mai semnificative dect cele oferite de coal sau alte instituii educative oficiale. Cu toate acestea, curriculumul ascuns este de mult vreme cunoscut prin observaii de bun sim. La romni se vorbete de cei apte ani de acas i pentru a desemna fundamentele acestui curriculum; apoi, prin expresia coala vieii, folosit ca atare de mult vreme i de ctre alte neamuri, desemneaz, n general, valorile specifice pentru supravieuire i convieuire pe care trebuie s le asimileze membrii anumitor comuniti. Exist o uria literatur dedicat acestei problematici. Ea este reprezentat de aa-numitele romane ale formrii (Bildungsroman). Cei mai reprezentativi autori de astfel de opere in S.U.A. sunt W.Faulkner i E.Hemingway. La noi pot fi considerate romane ale formrii unele capodopere ale lui M.Sadoveanu (de exemplu, Neamul oimretilor sau Fraii Jderi), C.Petrescu (Ultima noapte de dragoste, ntia noapte de rzboi) sau G.Clinescu (Cartea nunii). Capodopera romneasc absolut este ns Amintiri din copilrie. Maestrul universal al pedagogiei formrii este probabil Goethe (cu romanele al cror erou este Wilhelm Meister).

6.3. Scheme i paradigme de fundamentare a optimizrii curriculare moderne


Pentru pedagogia modern sistemul educaional i oricare dintre structurile care l compun constituie subsisteme ale macrosistemului social. Ele funcioneaz ca organizaii formale n interiorul societii, contribuind la autoreglarea acesteia. Prin urmare, sistemul educaional slujete, total sau parial, valorile societii respective. Curriculumul, ca proces, produs i demers, satisface prin componentele sale aceste exigene structural-funcionale. ns cum pot fi dezvoltate curricula ct mai satisfctoare? Curriculumul Academiei lui Platon era derivat de marele filozof al antichitii din viziunea sa social-politic i paideutic. Curriculumul colilor ecleziastice medievale era impus arbitrar de necesitile formrii preoilor i monahilor. Cele apte arte liberale nu erau nsuite datorit valorii intrinseci a acestor discipline, ci pentru a sluji misiunii de educaie religioas a credincioilor de ctre preoi. De exemplu, matematica i astronomia erau incluse n curriculumul colii ecleziastice

127

sau episcopale pentru a-l ajuta pe preot s calculeze exact calendarul, pentru a determina corect srbtorile i zilele de post cretine. Teoreticienii moderni ai curriculumului modern propun modele i scheme care pot fi circumscrise, mult mai larg, ideii de formare a omului pentru propria mplinire n societatea n care triete. Cteva astfel de proceduri de fundamentare sunt ilustrative pentru aspiraia lor spre rigoare i completitudine n teoria curriculumului modern.

6.3.1 Curriculum centrat pe sarcini de dezvoltare (Developmental Tasks) Am prezentat n capitolul I numeroase modele curriculare moderne. Dei destul de convergente, ele prezint numeroasesheme de organizare a cunoaterii i nvrii. Prezentm cteva dintre ele. Cercettorii precum C.Tyron, J.W.Lilienthal (1950) i R.J.Havighurst (1953) au construit o paradigm pentru dezvoltarea curricular pe baza conceptului de sarcini de dezvoltare58. Conceptul definete indivizii umani ca variabile de rspuns att la nevoi proprii, ct i la cerine sociale. n acest fel este depit dihotomia clasic ntre poziia individo-centrist i poziia socio-centrist din teoria curricular modern. Dup aceti autori se pot determina zece categorii de sarcini de dezvoltare. Autorii au n vedere ntregul proces de cretere-maturizare-formare a copilului prin educaie. Sarcinile acestui ansamblu constau n: 1. a realiza un model adecvat de dependen-independen fa de ceilali; 2. a dobndi un model adecvat de primire-oferire a afectivitii; 3. a se adapta la schimbrile grupului social; 4. a accepta i a se adapta la schimbrile propriului corp; 5. a-i stpni schimbrile corporale nvnd noi modele de micare; 6. a nva rolul bio-psiho-social al sexului; 7. a nva sa neleag i s controleze lumea fizic nconjurtoare; 8. a dezvolta un sistem adecvat de simboluri i de abiliti conceptuale;
9. a dezvolta o contiin, o moralitate, o scar de valori i un sistem etic pentru ghidarea

comportamentului;
58

Lucrrile fundamentale asupra acestei tehnologii sunt citate de J.K.WHEELER (op.cit., nota nr.17): C.TYRON, J.W.LILIENTHAL, Developemental tasks: the Concept ant its Importance n Fostering Mental Health in our Schools, Association for Supervision as Curriculum Developement, Washington D.C., National Education Association, 1950; R.HAVINGHURST, Human Developement and Education, New York: Longmans, Green & Co, 1953. 128

10. a se raporta n mod propriu la Lume (Cosmos). Fiecare dintre aceste sarcini de dezvoltare se poate transcrie ca finalitate a educaiei; pe baza lor vor putea fi concepute experienele de nvare, vor fi alese coninuturile nvrii i modalitile de a realiza i de a evalua performanele nvrii. Asamblarea lor n planuri de nvmnt i programe colare va finaliza, dup autorii citai, curriculumul unei educaii adecvate att pentru nevoile individului, ct i pentru cerinele societii.

6.3.2 Curriculum centrat pe taxonomia obiectivelor pedagogice Taxonomiile de obiective pedagogice sunt considerate de ctre muli teoreticieni ai curriculumului i n primul rnd de ctre cei moderniti - drept cele mai sigure puncte de sprijin pentru proiectarea i dezvoltarea unor planuri educaionale riguroase i adecvate pentru satisfacerea nevoilor de formare individual i pentru a rspunde cerinelor societii. Taxonomiile lui B.S.Bloom, D.R.Krathwohl i A.J.Harrow au fost utilizate n special n S.U.A., pentru proiectarea curricular la nivelul nvmntului secundar i n nvmntul vocaional. n anii 60, taxonomia lui B.S.Bloom a fost folosit pentru proiectarea curriculumului formrii militarilor n mai multe ri NATO. n deceniul urmtor ns, aceasta a fost abandonat n favoarea inventarului de demersuri intelectuale transdisciplinare propus de L.dHainaut (asupra cruia vom reveni n acest capitol). Trebuie s facem nsa precizarea c pedagogia prin obiective i dezvoltarea curricular prin taxonomii preconstruite de obiective n literatura psihopedagogic s-au manifestat i numeroase critici. Acestora li se opune aa-zisa pedagogie by men (prin oameni). Criticilor aduse de reprezentanii pedagogiei prin oameni le-a rspuns J.W.Popham (1968). ntruct aceast problem este abordat, n pedagogia modern, ca problematic distinct a designului instrucional, a proiectrii pedagogice, nu o aprofundm aici. 6.3.3 Curriculum centrat pe zetetic J.T.Tykociner (1964) a introdus n teoria curriculumului o tehnic denumit astfel. n limba greac (zetesis) nseamn cerere sau nevoie59. Zetetica, n accepiunea printelui ei, trebuie s studieze originile multiple ale cunoaterii sistematice n coresponden cu procesele mentale implicate n cercetrile respective i interrelaiile dintre diferitele cmpuri ale cunoaterii n coresponden cu condiiile sociale care au facilitat respectivele progrese n
J.T.TYKOCINER, Zetetics and Areas of Knowlwdge, ch.IV, n S.ELAN (ed.), Education and Structure of Knowledge, Chicago, Rand McNally & Co., 1964, citat de D.K.WHEELER, op.cit. Etimologia inovaiilor terminologice introduse de J.T.TYKOCINER a fost decretat de autorul acestui capitol.
59

129

cunoatere. Obiectivul esenial al zeteticii l constituie ordonarea acestor recomandri ale cunoaterii. Rezultatul l va constitui o clasificare a ariilor i domeniilor cunoaterii care respect relaiile dintre acestea. Aceast clasificare poate deveni apoi baza de ordonare a oricrui curriculum educaional care abordeaz studentul din perspectiva totalitii culturii omeneti. Clasificarea zetetic cuprinde, dup J.T.Tykociner, cinci zone ale cunoaterii care acoper 12 arii de cunotine: na I cuprinde dou arii: 1. Artele; 2. Simbolistica informaiilor. Cele dou arii comunic prin dezvoltarea unor sisteme de reprezentare simbolic. Artele presupun activiti creative, iar simbolistica informaiei presupune sistemele simbolisticii formale, incluznd lingvistica, matematica si teoria informaiei. Tot aici pot fi incluse critica de art i filologia, care servesc ca discipline de legtur. Zona a II-a cuprinde patru arii: 3. Hylenergetica; 4. tiinele biologice; 5. tiinele psihologice; 6. tiinele sociale. Hylenergetica (de la hyl - materie i energheia - energie n lb. greac) acoper studiile dedicate materiei i energiei: fizica, chimia, astronomia, geologia i mineralogia. n rndul tiinelor biologice sunt incluse: botanica, zoologia, morfologia, citologia, genetica i fiziologia, reunificare ns pe principiul evoluiei vieii. n rndul tiinelor sociale sunt incluse: sociologia, ecologia i demografia. Ariile zonei a doua sunt conectate prin urmtoarele discipline de legtur: biofizica, biochimia, fiziologia i psihologia social. Zona a doua este dependent de zona a III-a prin intermediul antropologiei. Zona a III-a cuprinde alte patru arii: 7. Exelimologia; 8. Pronoetica; 9. Cibernetica social; 10. tiinele diseminrii. Exelimologia (de la , exlixis evoluie, devenire n lb. greac) acoper studiile dedicate trecutului i devenirii: cosmologia, tiina evoluiei i istoria. Pronoetica acoper studiile despre viitor i progres: agricultura, medicina, tehnologia (ingineria) i disciplinele utilitare. Cibernetica social acoper studiul sistemelor de meninere i cooperare prin tiinele reglementoare: jurisprudena, tiinele politice, economia i managementul.

130

tiinele

diseminrii

sunt

considerate:

tiinele

educaiei,

psihologia

educaiei,

biblioteconomia i jurnalistica. Zona a IV-a cuprinde tiinele zetetice: disciplinele care studiaz modul de cretere a cunoaterii: metodologia cercetrii, epistemologia etc. Zona a V-a cuprinde tiinele integrative: cele care integreaz informaiile n sisteme explicative generale, precum ideologiile i teologiile. Zetetica pare totui o prelungire tardiv i artificial a ideilor esenialiste i perenialiste din pedagogia american a nceputului de secol care, dup cum se tie, nu i-au gsit o aplicare semnificativ n practica dezvoltrii curriculare. 6.3.4 Curriculum holist R.Titone a ncercat n anul 1974 s construiasc un model holodinamic al nvrii formative prin integrarea psihologiei genetice a lui J.Piaget i a teoriei ierarhice a tipurilor de nvare descris de R.M.Gagn60. Era vorba totui numai de o ipotez. Exegeii au apreciat ns c modul holodinamic ar putea constitui i un model de dezvoltare curricular. Conform ipotezelor lui R.Titone, nvarea uman se desfoar triplanic: tactic, strategic i egodinamic. -nvarea tactic este exterioar i extrinsec; rezultatele ei iau forma unor comportamente periferice observabile prin care elevul devine capabil de anumite performane. -nvarea strategic este interioar i atinge planul superior al proceselor cognitive. -nvarea egodinamic este intim i profund, antrennd toate capacitile i procesele psihice umane, de la cele intelectuale i pn la cele afective sau axiologice.Modelul holodinamic sugereaz posibilitatea organizrii curriculumului astfel nct de-a lungul

Studiul de baz dedicat de Renzo Titone modelului holodinamic este Il modello olodimico come ipotesi integrata del lappredimento educativo, n volumul Modelli psihopedagogici del lappredimento, Armando, Roma, 1974, pp.115-140. Textul a fost tradus n romnete de M.DIACONU i E.NOVEANU i inclus n volumul Probleme de tehnologie didactic, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1977, pp.196-209.
60

131

procesului de formare nvarea elevului s nainteze dinspre periferia comportamentelor spre centrul tririlor intime i profunde ale eu-lui. R.Titone a sugerat c se pot constitui diverse modele psihomathetice (sau didactice); ele, de altfel, exist, dar numai unele sunt ndreptite s fie puse n practic, i anume acelea care se instituie ntr-un continuum formativ aflat n prelungirea continuum-ului biologic i a continuum-ului psihogenetic. Unii exegei, moderniti i postmoderniti, au admis c, ntr-adevr, un bun curriculum educaional nu este altceva dect o continuare a programului genetic dup care se produce dezvoltarea fizico-psihic a oamenilor. Este o viziune realmente ndrznea, cu perspective fabuloase pentru viitoarele curricula supermoderne. 6.3.5 Curriculum bazat pe demersuri transdisciplinare Acest model a fost propus de ctre L.dHainaut (1980). Este o creaie special pentru dezvoltarea unui curriculum pretenios: cel al formrii ofierilor superiori comandani de interarmate n cadrul NATO61. El a fost aplicat cu rezultate excepionale de autorul acestui capitol n reforma curricular a nvmntului militar din Romnia (este baza teoretic curriculumului Academiei Trupelor de Uscat din Sibiu)62. Tipologia demersurilor transdisciplinare descris de DHainaut are avantajul de a fi depit deficiena esenial a taxonomiilor de obiective pedagogice de tip Bloom-Krathwohl-Harrow: separarea arbitrar a domeniilor formrii umane (cognitiv, afectiv i psihomotor). DHainaut a reuit integrarea acestora printr-un principiu extrem de simplu. Integrarea cognitiv propus de L.dHainaut a putut fi expus ntr-un mod extrem de sugestiv. Sensul oricrei formri sau pregtiri este fundamentat cognitiv i structurat triadic.

A TI

pentru
61

L.DHAINAUT, Des fins aux objectifs de leducation, Nathan, Paris, Bruxelles, 1980; de asemenea, Programe de nvmnt pentru educaia permanent (trad.), Editura Didactic i A TI A FACE A FI Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1981. 62 Informaie transmis de ctre prof. dr. GEORGE VIDEANU n anul 1996, cu ocazia ntlnirii avute cu comandanii armelor din cadrul Statului Major al Trupelor de Uscat aflai la cursul de perfecionare la Academia de nalte Studii Militare. Profesorul VIDEANU a fost colaborator apropiat al lui DHAINAUT n cadrul UNESCO i a avut bunvoina de a compune cu detalii aceast informaie ntr-o discuie personal cu autorul acestui capitol, care a cerut permisiune de a o face public. 132

Fig.nr.23. Integrarea lui D'Hainaut Investigarea global (integral) a posibilitilor de formare uman l-a condus pe L.dHainaut la identificarea a 20 de demersuri (sau competene) transdisciplinare. Aadar, A TI pentru:
1. exploatare a informaiilor (a dobndi i a trata informaii); 2. relaionare cu mediul (a gsi relaii n mediul nconjurtor); 3. comunicare eficient (a recepiona i a emite mesaje n mod clar); 4. utilizare a limbajelor i a codurilor (a traduce); 5. adaptare (a se adapta); 6. utilizare a modelelor (a folosi modele); 7. rezolvare a problemelor (a gsi soluii la probleme); 8. creativitate (a inventa, a imagina, a crea); 9. evaluare (a judeca, a evalua); 10. gndire selectiv (a alege); 11. gndire abstract (a abstrage); 12. gndire explicativ (a explica deductiv i analogic); 13. demonstrare (a demonstra); 14. previziune (a deduce i a prevedea); 15. nvare eficient (a nlocui ignorana prin cunoatere); 16. aciune eficient (a aciona raional); 17. decizie (a decide); 18. competen proiectiv (a concepe planuri de aciune i strategii); 19. conducere a schimbrii (a transforma); 20. organizare tiinific (a organiza).

Un tabel cu dubl intrare care conine pe o coloan cele 20 de demersuri, iar pe cealalt rolurile sau sarcinile pentru care cel care nva va trebui pregtit, va permite identificarea cu uurin a celor dou componente fundamentale ale unui curriculum educaional: obiectivele pedagogice i coninuturile pregtirii. Cele din urm nu vor aprea dect rareori sub forma unor discipline tradiionale, ci a unor module transdisciplinare. Dar acest neajuns pare a fi mai degrab un aspect pozitiv secundar care permite depirea automat a neajunsurilor reale existente n nvmntul bazat pe structuri monodisciplinare.
133

6.3.6 Curriculum centrat pe competene i capaciti Am abordat deja problemele practice ale curricula centrate pe competene vocaionale. A existat ns i ncercarea de a transpune principii similare la nvmntul de cultur general. Acest curriculum are la baz teoria instrucional bazat pe competene elaborat de K.P.Torshen (The Relation of Classroom Evaluation to Students Self Concepts and Mental Health, University of Chicago, 1969). Conceptul central al modulului competena este definit de Torshen ca summa de capaciti (care, la rndul lor, sunt alctuite din mai multe abiliti). Programul de instruire al lui Torshen este un demers alctuit din cinci pai: I. Definirea obiectivelor (obiectivele sunt interpretate ca indicatori de competen i identificate cu capacitile i abilitile (skills); II. Evaluarea iniial (pentru stabilirea nivelului de competen); III. Instruirea efectiv; IV. Evaluarea diagnostic (sinonim cu evaluarea formativ sau evaluarea de progres); V. Prescripiile (menite s adapteze tratamentul pedagogic la situaiile educaionale ntlnite prin repetiii, ajustri i mbogiri ale coninuturilor nvrii). Sedui de acest model (i n special de fascinaia pe care o produce expresia competen) designerii Noului Curriculum romnesc au crezut c l pot amesteca cu modelul curricular bazat pe taxonomia lui Bloom pentru a obine o sintez superioar. Acest amestec s-a dovedit ns malign. A rezultat un mixtum compositum haotic de obiective, competene, capaciti, performane, obiective de referin, obiective terminale, competene de baz etc. nestructurat ierarhic , fr raporturi precise i interrelaii clare ntre aceste componente instrucionale. n practic, expresiile au devenit , din operaionale, formale i educatorii percep noul limbaj pedagogic ca o vorbrie goal i stupid care nu clarific ci sufoc demersurile instruirii eficiente.

6.4 Optimizarea curriculumului i reforma curricular


Sunt oare sinonime expresiile optimizarea/dezvoltarea curriculumului i reforma curricular? Unii cercettori, inclusiv din Romnia, sunt tentai s rspund afirmativ la aceast ntrebare. ndeamn la aceasta i faptul c n literatura psihopedagogic anglo-saxon expresia curriculum developement este folosit i n sensul mai larg de reform curricular. Mai minuioi ns, unii autori disting cu ndreptire ntre aspectul tehnic al

134

reformei curriculare i ansamblul metodologic al acesteia, care nu se reduce doar la simpla inginerie a producerii unui nou curriculum. Aspectul tehnic al reformei curriculare este constituit de problematica descris n paginile dedicate proiectrii curriculare i optimizrii curriculare. Este, ntr-adevr, componenta-cheie a reformei curriculare. Dar aceasta din urm ns, nu poate fi restrns la aspectul tehnic, din cel puin dou motive: a) reforma curricular este, aproape ntotdeauna, ea nsi, doar o component a unui ansamblu mai larg, reforma educaional, i deci se supune regulilor metodologice ale acesteia; b) componenta esenial a reformei educaionale este de ordin managerial i organizatoric i o subordoneaz pe cea tehnic, chiar dac se bazeaz pe ea. Literatura psihopedagogic anglo-saxon folosete, n acest sens, expresii precum conducerea schimbrii educaionale (Educational Change Management) sau conducerea schimbrii curriculare (Curriculum Change Management). Nu are rost s analizm dac aceste expresii pot fi echivalate cu aceea de dezvoltare curricular sau optimizare curricular, cum se ntmpl adesea. Mai important este s evitm erorile care pot aprea n practic din cauza acestor confuzii sau echivalri forate de ordin terminologic. Aceste erori pot deveni foarte grave n practica organizrii i conducerii reformelor educaionale, care includ i reforme curriculare. Cea mai primejdioas dintre ele este aceea de a reduce reforma curricular la dimensiunea tehnic i, n special, la designul curricular, urmat, imediat, de aplicarea proiectelor curriculare. Sunt eludate etape eseniale i obligatorii ale dezvoltrii curriculare, n sensul larg de reform curricular, precum: analiza-diagnostic, experimentarea curriculumului n proiect, evaluarea, experimentarea, corectarea, validarea, implementarea, recorectarea etc. Am specificat anterior c, n sens larg, optimizarea curricular modern indic un demers amplu i riguros, care poate fi modelat trifazic (proiectare-experimentare-validare), tetrafazic (proiectare-experimentare-corectare-validare) sau chiar pentafazic (proiectare-experimentareoptimizare-reexperimentare-validare). Teoreticienii acestor modele de reform curricular modern insist asupra obligativitii unor etape iniiale, de parcurs i finale, precum: a) obligativitatea analizei-diagnostic printr-o cercetare curricular naintea proiectrii unui nou curriculum; b) obligativitatea evalurii continue, n toate fazele demersului de optimizare curricular: evaluarea curriculumului n proiect;

135

evaluarea curriculumului n experiment; evaluarea curriculumului corectat; evaluarea curricumulului reexperimentat; evaluarea curriculumului n vederea validrii; evaluarea curriculumului aplicat etc.

c) obligativitatea testrii i/sau experimentrii proiectului curricular naintea aplicrii (implementrii) sale n practic sau a generalizrii; d) obligativitatea corectrii curriculumului naintea validrii i chiar i dup aplicarea acestuia. Aceste obligaii sunt derivate din principiile de deontologie pedagogic n general i de deontologie a cercetrii i inovrii educaionale n special. Nu analizm aici aceste principii. Cele pe care le-am menionat n paragraful 12.4.2. se subordoneaz acestor norme pedagogice majore. Precizm doar c eludarea obligaiilor care decurg din ele pentru conducerea i organizarea reformelor curriculare comport riscuri extrem de periculoase (n special eludarea obligaiilor de a experimenta tiinific i de a evalua obiectiv proiectele curriculare). Nu se pune doar problema ca proiectele curriculare s fie respinse n practica colar i ca reforma curricular s eueze. Exist i riscul aplicrii forate i autoritare a unor proiecte curriculare ce conin erori; or, prin aplicare, acestea vor produce malformri educative ireparabile unor populaii colare inocente i care, n funcie de situaie, pot avea dimensiuni mari. Din nefericire, rezistena la schimbare, tipic organizaiilor riguroase i birocratice, cum sunt cele colare, poate fi confundat n practic, destul de uor, cu respingerea proiectelor curriculare noi care conin erori. Este necesar s precizm c responsabilitatea conducerii reformelor curriculare este egal cu aceea a schimbrii socio-educaionale. Un nou curriculum este un proiect de viitor, att pentru comunitate, ct i pentru fiecare dintre membrii si. El nu poate fi impus dect cu maximum de grij acordat fiecrei consecine care poate fi dedus sau prevzut raional.

136

CAPITOLUL 7. PRODUSELE CURRICULARE MODERNE


OBIECTIVE OPERAIONALE Studiind acest capitol cursanii vor deveni capabili: 1. 2. s stpneasc exigenele fundamentale de construcie a celor mai importante documente curriculare; s evalueze critic modul n care aceste exigene au fost respectate n unele documente oficiale precum planul de nvmnt actual, programele analitice pe carele folosesc la clas, unele dintre manualele elevilor.

137

Numim produse curriculare toate documentele normative ce rezult n urma demersurilor de optimizare curricular: planul de nvmnt, programele analitice, manualele colare, planificrile calendaristice, proiectele pedagogice .a. Uneori toate produsele curriculare sunt numite curriculum formal. Avem de-a face cu trei categorii de obiectivri ale demersurilor curriculare:
1. obiectivri primare: planul de nvmnt i programele analitice; 2. obiectivri secundare: manualele (pentru elevi) i metodicile (manualele profesorilor); 3. obiectivri teriare: programe (orare) colare, planificri calendaristice ale materiei

(trimestriale sau semestriale), proiecte pedagogice. Normele cuprinse n aceste documente au caracter oficial i obligatoriu (planul de nvmnt i programele analitice); altele au caracter oficial, dar nu i obligatoriu (manuale colare); altele au numai caracter de sugestie i ndrumare (metodicile disciplinelor, planificrile calendaristice, proiectele pedagogice).

7.1. Planul de nvmnt


Planul de nvmnt poate fi considerat cel mai important produs al demersului de optimizare modern a curriculumului. Odat experimentat, evaluat, corectat i validat, planul de nvmnt devine un document oficial normativ i obligatoriu, i instrumentul fundamental de conducere i de desfurare a procesului de nvmnt; planul reprezint, de fapt, elementul crucial al ntregului demers de dezvoltare curricular. Proiectarea planului este sarcina designerilor specializai. Dar nu i validarea planului de nvmnt. n nvmntul romnesc aceasta revine Ministerului Educaiei Naionale. Excepie face nvmntul
138

superior, care beneficiaz de autonomie universitar statuat prin Constituie i Legea nvmntului. Aceast stare de fapt este valabil numai teoretic i pentru nvmntul privat. Planul de nvmnt stabilete: 1. finalitile i obiectivele generale ale pregtirii; 2. competenele finale i standardele pregtirii; 3. structura coninuturilor pregtirii, grupate modular, sub form de discipline, inter sau transdisciplinar etc.; 4. ealonarea n timp a pregtirii, cu precizarea:

succesiunii experienelor de nvare (parcurgerii disciplinelor etc.); numrului sptmnal i anual de ore afectate fiecrui obiect (disciplin, experien de nvare etc.); limitelor minime i maxime ale pregtirii (numrul de ani de studiu, posibilitile de accelerare a studiului etc.); structurii anilor colari, cu precizarea succesiunii intervalelor de timp afectate studiilor, vacanelor, examenelor;

5. sistemul de acces i sistemul de finalizare pregtirii; 6. modalitile de evaluare a competenelor i standardelor pregtirii pe parcurs i finale. Problematica elaborrii planurilor de nvmnt se confund aproape integral cu aceea a organizrii curriculare. Planul de nvmnt modern trebuie s reflecte integral principiile curriculumului educaional, exigenele de proiectare curricular i, bineneles, exigenele de reform curricular. De obicei n structura unui plan de nvmnt se regsesc:
1. un core curriculum, socotit obligatoriu i alctuit din discipline precum limba matern,

matematica, fizica, tiinele socio-umane;


2. un curriculum secundar, alctuit din discipline opionale (apropiate de fused

curriculum) i discipline facultative (curriculum centrat pe cel care nva). ntotdeauna planul de nvmnt, dei formal, oficial, este influenat, prin intermediul etosului pedagogic al educatorilor i al culturii comunitii, i de un hidden curriculum, care se insinueaz pe porile colii fr a fi sesizat, dar ptrunde implacabil n fiecare clas de elevi. A existat, pn n anii '90 ai secolului XX, o anumit tendin mondial referitoare alctuirea planurilor nvmntului obligatoriu care consta ntr-o deplasare de la curricula centrate pe discipline la curricula fuzionate care nu renunau ns la un core curriculum, alctuit din discipline de baz (sau fundamentale). Actualmente aceast tendin este

139

estompat de strduinele postmodernitilor de a nlocui modelul curriculumului unidimensional cu curricula centrate pe multi-dimensional man.

7.2. Programa colar


Programa colar este al doilea document ca importan oficial i practic dup planul de nvmnt pentru organizarea i desfurarea procesului instructiv-educativ modern. Programa colar, numit adesea analitic, detaliaz elementele obligatorii de parcurs la o anumit disciplin (modul etc.), devenind ghidul fundamental al activitii cursului didactic. Programele analitice, ca rezultat al proiectrii curriculare moderne, transcriu n termenii logicii pedagogice a nvrii logica tiinific a domeniului studiat. Construcia programei colare trebuie s aib la baz modelul pedagogic al disciplinei, din care pot fi derivate i trebuie nscrise ca atare n program cel puin urmtoarele elemente: 1. obiectivele generale ale domeniului, descrise n termeni de competene i capaciti finale; 2. standardele de performan prin care pot fi atestate (evaluate) competenele i capacitile finale; 3. obiectivele specifice ale capitolelor (unitilor de nvare) i modalitile de testare a acestora; 4. unitile de coninut, descrise n succesiunea n care trebuie parcurse, nsoite, eventual, de 5. sugestii privind organizarea experienelor de nvare pentru atingerea obiectivelor fiecrei uniti sau secvene. Iat un model posibil de organizare a exigenelor ntr-o program analitic: MODELUL PEDAGOGIC AL DISCIPLINEI/MATERIEI DE STUDIU OBIECTIVELE 1. generale ale GENERALE ALE COMPETENE FINALE 1. capacitile i 2. nvrii Competenele, sfritul clasei a I CAPACITI

NVRII DISCIPLINEI 2. Obiectivele

disciplinei n clasa

performanele care trebuie atinse la

140

Obiective terminale, competene specifice abiliti eseniale uniti coninut Obiectivul 1. pe de

Unitile e i ( nr de ore )

de Experiene nvare obligatorii/ fundamentale

de Standarde performan sugestii evalurile sumative

de i ptr.

coninut/capitole/modul

Nr. Unitatea I/capitolul I ( 3 ore )

Experiena

de Standarde performan

de

nvare Nr. 1.

/itemi ptr. testul sumativ pentru capitolul I. Sugestii pentru EVALURILE SUMATIVE FINALE Sugestii metodice pentru MICRO-PROIECTAREA EXPERIENELOR / ACTIVITILOR FUNDAMENTALE DE NVARE Dac planul de nvmnt este un macroproiect al ntregului proces de nvmnt, programa este un macroproiect pedagogic al disciplinei (domeniului); de regul este structurat pe ani de studiu. Ea precizeaz limitele de timp n care trebuie parcurs materia prevzut. Uneori este nsoit de sugestii sumare privind proiectarea, desfurarea i evaluarea unor experiene de nvare (lecii, explicaii etc.).

7.3. Manualul colar


Manualul colar este cel mai important instrument de lucru pentru elevi. El urmeaz ndeaproape programa analitic, detaliind n limbaj adecvat tot ceea ce este necesar pentru ca elevii s poat atinge obiectivele pedagogice stabilite prin programa colar n condiiile definite prin principii pedagogice generale i specifice. Elaborarea unui manual este o oper de ingeniozitate pedagogic i talent artistic ce nu poate fi realizat de oricine din urmtoarele motive:

manualul este o carte a elevului (nu a profesorului), deci trebuie scris astfel nct s fie neleas perfect de ctre acesta; dar a traduce n limba elevilor limba savanilor nu este chiar la ndemna oricui, nici mcar a savanilor; manualul trebuie astfel elaborat nct s poat fi folosit ca instrument de autodidaxie, fiind exclusiv o carte pentru studiul independent; la limit, 141 manualul trebuie s poate fi folosit de elev pentru a-l nlocui, parial sau total, n procesul propriei formri;

Prin urmare, pe parcursul redactrii, autorul trebuie s se transpun n situaia elevului care nc nu tie ceea ce autorul trebuie s tie foarte bine; dar atari capaciti sinestezice nu au putut dovedi dect mari prozatori care s-au distins prin evocarea psihologiei infantile i colreti precum C.Dickens sau I.Creang. Manualul este ns i o carte riguroas din punct de vedere pedagogic. Trebuie s cuprind, n mod obligatoriu, la fiecare tem pe care o detaliaz: obiectivele pedagogice urmrite, enunate pe nelesul elevului; sarcini de lucru (de nvare) conexe obiectivelor; informaii pentru realizarea sarcinilor de nvare ct mai clare i sugestive (nsoite de ilustraii, scheme etc.); sarcini de lucru suplimentare pentru aprofundarea studiului; surse suplimentare pentru completarea cunotinelor (audio, video etc.); exerciii de autoevaluare, auto-teste etc. IN ANEX: Standardele de performant cerute la ncheierea semestrelor si a anului de studiu.

7.4. Metodicile/Didacticile de specialitate


Abia metodicile sunt manuale ale profesorilor, de fapt sunt didactici de specialitate pe care profesorii s se poat sprijini n activitatea la clas. Ele trebuie s conin, n mod obligatoriu: modelul pedagogic al disciplinei; tabloul complet al finalitilor i obiectivelor disciplinei; standardele de performan pe ani de studiu, semestre, capitole (uniti de coninut, module etc.); proiecte pedagogice model pentru toate activitile didactice eseniale; baterii de teste docimologice (predictive, formative i sumative); consideraii teoretico-pedagogice privind specificul disciplinei (domeniului); recomandri bibliografice pentru aprofundarea pedagogic i de specialitate a domeniului.

7.5. Planificrile calendaristice


evaluarea corect a activitilor didactice; Acestea sunt pre-proiecte de transpunere semestrial/trimestrial a programelor, alctuite de date calendaristice precise i de susinere a fiecrei activiti; educatori pe baza metodicii dede coninut i i a principiilor didactice. O bun planificare obiectivele fiecrei uniti specialitate activiti didactice; forma de desfurare a fiecrei activiti i mijloacele de organizare a experienelor de semestrial/trimestrial conine: nvare; instrumentele de evaluare a fiecrei activiti didactice (teste docimologice, probe de cunotine etc.); modalitile de stimulare a studiului independent al elevilor; perioadele, formele, metodele i instrumentele de organizare a activitilor de mbogire pentru elevii capabili de performane superioare (consultaii); 142 perioadele, formele, metodele i instrumentele de organizare a activitilor de retrapare a elevilor cu ritm lent de nvare (meditaii); programul propriu al profesorului de autoperfecionare pedagogic i de specialitate.

7.6. Micro-proiectul pedagogic ca produs curricular modern


Proiectarea pedagogic este, mpreun cu activitatea n clas cu elevii, cea mai important obligaie a profesorului. Importana ei covritoare e unanim recunoscut. Prin microproiectarea fiecrei activiti sunt anticipate raional experienele optime de nvare pe care le vor avea elevii n clas. De la obiectivele pe termen lung se trece la obiective imediate, operaionale.Proiectul pedagogic al leciei sau sistemului de lecii este instrumentul prin care educatorul nsui se inserteaz riguros n procesul amplu de optimizare i implementare curricular. El este un produs curricular modern realizat de educatorul nsui care ader la misiunea, planul de nvmnt care se desfoar pe baza acestora. DESIGNUL CURRICULAR le cuprinde pe toate. Sub aspect procesual, se poate spune c ele reprezint dou componente funcionale care se intercondiioneaz strict: -Documentele curriculare oficiale (plan, program, metodici, manuale) planific i programeaz activitile instructiv-calificative; -Proiectele pedagogice (microproiectele), realizate de ctre educator, transpun efectiv n practica colar documentele curriculare oficiale. Trecerea de la oficial la oficial-obligatoriu spre practic-procesual se realizeaz prin celelalte dou documente curriculare. -Programa analitic a disciplinei orienteaz direct proiectele profesorale:
1. proiectul pe termen mediu: planificare calendaristic semestrial i anual; 2. proiectul pe termen scurt realizat pentru 1-2 lecii.

-Manualul colar realizeaz aceleai funcii la nivelul elevului. n acest fel se realizeaz nu numai condiiile dirijrii i controlului riguros al instruirii moderne; ci i posibilitile pe care curricula moderne le au de a face acel one-dimensionalman, care poate fi descris n termeni de competene, capaciti, abiliti i performane msurabile i testabile.

143

Despre microproiectarea pedagogic a leciilor i a experienelor de nvare aducem detalii n partea a III-a APLICAII i EXERCIII Aplicaia 4. Realizai diagnoza colii n care predai evalund: Planul de nvmnt Programa unei discipline pe cre o predai

PARTEA A III-A DEZVOLTAREA CAPACITII CADRELOR DIDACTICE DIN ARIA CURRICULARA LIMBA SI COMUNICARE DE AMELIORARE I OPTIMIZARE A ACTIVITII DE PREDARENVARE-EVALUARE
CAPITOLUL I. EFICACITATEA I INEFICACITATEA INSTRUIRII
OBIECTIVE OPERATIONALE Studiind acest capitol cursanii vor deveni capabili: 1.
2.

S neleag neceitatea optimizrii nstruirii n coala romneasc; S aprecieze posibilitatea determinrii eficacitii generale a instruirii; S stpneasc elementele eseniale ale unui model mastery learning

3.

adaptat condiiilor nvmntului romnesc

144

1.1 Necesitatea optimizrii instruirii n coala romneasc.


In partea a II-a a acestui curs am struit asupra OPTIMIZRII CURRICULUMULUI

MODERN. Aceast schimbare antreneaz firesc modificri, profunde i adecvate, care privesc activitatea didactic efectiv. n cele ce urmeaz expunem motivaia care oblig la OPTIMIZAREA INSTRUIRII n coala romneasc de ieri, de astzi i de mine pornind de la constatri de teren, adic desprinse din realiti colare mai vechi sau mai noi n contextul necesitii de optimizare curricular. Vom continua apoi cu descrierea unui model de optimizare a instruirii pe care l-am conceput i experimentat de-a lungul mai multor ani n condiii social-politice dificile, nedemocratice i de optuzitate fa de inovaia pedagogic. Astzi condiiile nedemocratice au disprut dar optuzitatea antipedagogic a supravieuit n forme noi, veleitare. Iat de ce suntem nevoii s revenim cu detalii i cu exigene adecvate crerii unui sistem educaional romnesc performant, apt s determine EFICACITATEA GENERAL A INSTRUIRII. (E.G.I. ) Prin E.G.I nelegem depirea de ctre toi elevii care particip la instruire a nivelului minimal acceptabil de performana colar proporional cu posibilitile proprii, performanele minimal acceptabile vizate de programele colare, n minimum de timp, cu minimum de efort i maximum posibil de satisfacie al nvrii.

1.2 Eficacitatea general a instruirii.


Performanele elevilor care au beneficiat de o instruire eficient se nscriu pe o curb n form de J n sensul c se violenteaz legea hazardului considerat ca o imagine grafic a distribuiei normale ale unei anumite caracteristici ntr-o populaie neomogen.

145

Curba distribuiei normale (Gauss) a caracteristicilor somatice (nlime, greutate, pilozitate etc.) n populaii umane neselecionate ilustreaz o legititate satistic inflexibil: n jurul unei medii se distribuie simetric valori ale caracteristicii studiate:

Figura Nr. 24. Curba distribuiei normale a lui Gauss1 cu media 0 i =1 Dac vom msura nlimea unei populaii de 100 sau 1000 de brbai alei aleatoriu vom gsi monoton urmtoarele procente: - 2% brbai foarte scunzi - 13% brbai scunzi - 70% brbai cu nlime medie - 13% brbai nali - 2% brbai foarte nali Prin tradiie, educatorii fac clasificri similare n legtur cu elevii; ei sunt oricnd dispui s susin c n clasele lor exist: -aprox. 10-15% elevi slabi i foarte slabi -aprox. 60-70% elevi mediocri - aprox. 10-15% elevi buni i foarte buni. S-a glumit mult pe seama acestor msurtori bazate pe intuiie i impresie. Aceast ochiometrie nu are fundamente clare. Se refer oare profesorii la caractericticile psihice ale elevilor?; au ei n vedere caliti care sunt prescrise n genomul speciei Homo Sapiens, ca i caracteristicile somatice?; se refer la inteligen cu credina c ea este nemodificabil ca i nlimea sau nmrul firelor de pr? Etc.
146

In realitate, profesorii se refer la performanele colare ale elevilor - care depind de multe variabile i nu numai de presupuse prescripii genetice ale proceselor i capacitilor psihice mplicate n nvarea colar. Acestea din urm sunt maleabile, se transform n psihogenez i sunt sensibile la influenele educative. Totul este ca aceste influene educative s fie bine organizate, proiectate i dirijate n direcia obiectivelor pedagogice stabilite. Inteligena, memoria sau gndirea i, de fapt, toate procesele psihice, pentru c toate sunt implicate n activitatea de nvare - nu urmeaz un program genetic inflexibil de-a lungul vieii unui individ precum nlimea sau lungimea antebraelor. Ele se manifest i diferit, de la un elev sau altul, n procesul nvrii, afectnd diferit ritmul/viteza instruirii. Apar elevi cu ritmuri de instruire diferite: elevi cu ritm lent de nvare, elevi cu ritm mediu de nvare, elevi cu ritm rapid de nvare. Ei nu pot fi calificai ca proti, mediocri i detepi. Nimic tiinific nu susine atari calificative. Dimpotriv, cercetrile psihologice au dovedit cu claritate c

TOI ELEVII SUNT API S NVEE I S ATING CEL PUIN STANDARDE DE PERFORMAN COLAR ACCEPTABILE pentru c TOI COPIII CARE S-AU NSCUT NORMAL DISPUN DE UN APARAT MATHETIC UNIVERSAL ALCTUIT DE NOU MECANISME DE NVARE CARE ACOPER TOAT GAMA POSIBIL DE OBIECTIVE PEDAGOGICE

Este posibil aadar determinarea eficacitii generale a instruirii. Este marea descoperire a anul 1633 pedagogiei moderne. Vestitele modele instrucionale mastery learning au dovedit c este posibil mplinirea visului lui Comenius- exprimat de acesta n n subtitlul celebrei sale Didactica Magna sau Arta de a-i nva pe toi totul . Aceasta nseamn a violenta curba n form de clopot a lui Gauss i a o transforma ntr-o curb n form de J. Adic a determina reuita la nvtur a tuturor elevilor.
147

Imaginea de mai jos este una mirific: ea ilustreaz posibilitatea de a realiza visul lui Comenius.

ELE VI

elevi buni i f. buni

(%)

9 10 COLARE ( note, medii colare, calificative )

6 7 8 PERFORMANE

Figura nr. 25. Curba n J: determinarea reuitei la nvtur a tuturor elevilor Pn la jumtatea secolului trecut visul lui Comenius a fost considerat o himer utopic. De ce oare visul lui Comenius nu a putut fi realizat vreme de aproape patru veacuri? Motivul este urmtorul: n acest rstimp nu erau cunoscute modalitile prin care se produce nvarea uman. Ele au fost puse n evidennumai n secolul XX i numai ncepnd cu anii 780 ai acestui secol au putut fi controlate i dirijate tiinific. Recitii ultima caset. Ea menioneaz un aparat mathetic uman alctuit din nou mecanisme de nvare. Dirijarea tiinific a acestora este misterul fundamental al eficacitii extraordinare a modelelor instrucionale de tip mastery learning.

1.3 Problemele ineficacitii instruirii n condiiile nvmntului organizat pe clase i lecii


Prin I.I (ineficacitatea instruirii) nelegem nerealizarea performanelor minimal acceptabile de ctre unii dintre membrii unei populaii colare.
148

Instruirea ineficace determin numai reuita unei pri (mai mari sau mai mici) a populaiei colare neomogene (cum este clasa de elevi) i se desfoar n condiii de disconfort psihic, cu mare risip de efort i de timp. De regul, performanele elevilor obinute pe baza instruirii ineficace, se distribuie simetric pe celebra curb n form de clopot a lui Gauss (vezi capitolul V).

Elevi (%)

elevi slabi i f.slabi

Performane colare ( note de la 1 la 10 )

Figura nr. 26. Curba n form de i: ineficacitatea instruirii Cum se produce acest fenomen? 1.3.1 O realitate dureroas: rmnerea n urm la nvtur S privim lucrurile n manier comenian, respectnd strict principiul optimismului, aa cum l-am decriptat n partea I a acestei cri. Didactica magna nu a fost elaborat n vremuri paradisiace i nici Didactica Nova63 nu beneficiaz de realiti edenice. Dar absena Raiului nu nseamn instalarea necondiionat i fatal a iadului Pedagogic.

63

Vezi lucrarea lui ION NEGRE-DOBRIDOR, Didactica Nova sau Arta de a-i nva pe toi (aproape ) totul, Editura Aramis Megapress, Bucureti, 2005.

149

Aspectele pozitive indiscutabile ale colii romneti nu sunt i poate nici nu pot s fie singurele care caracterizeaz coala. Nemplinirile fac i ele parte din dialectica dezvoltrii colii, a perfecionrii ei sub raportul finalitilor, structurilor organizatorice i funcionale. A evita criza i a contribui la progresul i reforma colii romneti, presupune a depista factorii perturbatori ai procesului instructiv-educativ prin diagnostic realist i analiz lucid i a cuta soluii raionale problemelor care apar, acordndu-le prioritate n raport cu ceea ce constituie eventualele realizri mulumitoare. Cea mai pregnant realitate negativ a colii de mas, n condiiile n care structurile organizatorice nu le-au fost adecvate schimbri de metodologie didactic potrivite, o constituie fenomenul rmnerii n urm la nvtur interpretat variat sau ignorat complet, de ctre cei care ar trebui s-l previn, ca un subiect asupra cruia s-ar fi decretat o misterioas interdicie a abordrii raionale (dei, desigur, o asemenea interdicie nu exist). Fenomenul comport cel puin dou aspecte deopotriv de alarmante: geneza precoce i rapid i profunzimea (sau amplitudinea) evolund din ce n ce mai periculos de-a lungul colaritii. a) Geneza. Rmnerea n urm la nvtur ncepe, de regul, s i profileze chipul nefast la sfritul clasei a II-a din ciclul primar cnd, un numr variabil de elevi nu mai reuesc s ating performanele colare minimal-acceptabile n raport cu programele colare. Un studiu efectuat de noi n perioada 1984-1986 n mai multe uniti de nvmnt din capital a evideniat c procentul elevilor, pe care nvtorii ncep s-i considere n clasa a II-a, slabi la limba romn i matematic, se ridic n mod obinuit pn la 10 %; n clasa a IV-a procentul elevilor considerai slabi sau foarte slabi la aceleai discipline e cuprins ntre 10 % - 15%, iar procentul celor mediocri ntre 50% - 60%; ceea ce atest c n clasa a IV-a se profileaz deja curba n form de clopot a performanelor colare imagine sugestiv a ceea ce am definit drept I.I.. Exist un contrast evident ntre dimensiunile acestui fenomen n ciclul primar i potenialul de nvare al ntregii populaii colare care asigur posibilitatea realizrii obiectivelor eseniale ale instruirii n clasa I. Mai ocant apare acest fenomen apare cu totul nefiresc dac l raportm la unele investigaii psihogenetice desfurate pe populaii de precolari. Studiind capacitatea preoperatorie a copiilor de 5-6 ani, P.Popescu-Neveanu (1956-1977) i Fischbein (1963) au evideniat c precolarii romni parvin la conservarea cantitii i a numrului mai devreme cu 3-6 luni dect copii elveieni (Piaget, Inhelder s. a.) i nord americani, (Bruner, Goodnow s.a.).

150

Mai mult, Popescu-Neveanu i Vornicescu (1969) au evideniat posibilitatea anticiprii operaionale organiznd experiene constructive pe populaii precolare din grdiniele romneti ceea ce echivaleaz cu evidenierea posibilitii de a accelera psihogeneza intelectual n condiii experimentale analoge celor utilizate n investigaiile Centrului de Studii Cognitive de la Harvard (Inhelder, Sinclair, Bovet, 1975, Bruner, 1965). Am descris sintetic aceste cercetri n cap.III din partea I i cititorul nencreztor le poate revedea. O dat cu trecerea n clasa a V-a, n special profesorii de limba i literatura romn i cei de matematic raporteaz dublarea sau chiar triplarea procentului de elevi cu rmneri n urm la nvtur: 20-30%. De-a lungul gimnaziului fenomenul mediocritii i submediocritii crete evident; n clasa a VIII-a exist, de regul, 40-50% elevi cu rezultate slabe sau mediocre la nvtur. Odat cu admiterea n liceu, elevii cu rezultate bune i foarte bune sunt asimilai, n principal, n licee cu profil matematic-fizic, filologie-istorie, chimie, pedagogic, sanitar, s. a. n liceele industriale, care n anii 80 cuprindeau 90% din populaia colar, erau asimilai, n mod obinuit elevi cu rmneri n urm la nvtur mai mult sau mai puin grave. Aceiai elevi se regsesc astzi n licee teoretice care acoper aproximativ 80% din populaia de adolesceni. n clasele a IX-a ale liceelor industriale cu profil mecanic sau construcii, de exemplu 70-80% din elevi prezentau lacune mari n pregtire la principalele discipline de nvmnt, chiar i la cele tehnologice i la practica productiv. Eliminarea parial sau integral a acestora nu a eliminat i fenomenul n discuie. Fenomenul are aproximativ aceleai dimensiuni i zace ascuns de note fr acoperire i de examene lipsite de exigen. Ecranarea lui continu n nvmntul superior particular care ofer cu nemiluita diplome de licen unor cohorte imense de semidoci i incompeteni. b) Profunzimea. De-a lungul colaritii, fenomenul rmnerii la nvtur cunoate nu numai o cretere cantitativ, ci i una pe care o putem considera de ordin calitativ: elevii rmai n urm la nvtur nc din clasele a IV-a rmn din ce n ce mai mult n urm; altfel spus, ei cumuleaz din ce n ce mai multe i mai profunde lacune instrucionale care se repercuteaz negativ, n primul rnd, asupra capacitii lor de a nelege noile cunotine predate la o disciplin sau alta. Dat fiind coninutul specific al principalelor discipline de nvmnt n clasele V-VIII, se poate considera c acest aspect al rmnerii n urm la nvtur se accentueaz cu precdere n aceast perioad de instruire, fcnd aproape imposibil recuperarea n clasele urmtoare.

151

1.3.2 Interpretri diverse ale fenomenului Cadrele didactice dau interpretri diverse fenomenului negativ descris anterior, funcii de opinii i criterii mai mult sau mai puin subiective. Dou dintre ele deopotriv de eronate i duntoare, sunt vechi i foarte rspndite. A treia este recent i cutremurtoare. a) Interpretarea fatalist. Muli profesori care predau n special n liceu, nregistrnd incapacitatea unor elevi de a nelege ceea ce li se pred, sunt tentai s cread n aceasta un fenomen firesc cu cauze genetice sau psihogenetice i nu acel produs artificial de deficiene ale sistemului i procesului de nvmnt. Tendina ca un numr de elevi din liceele industriale au inaptitudini native pentru nvtur i c, deci situaia nu este imparabil e, din pcate, larg mprtit. b) Interpretarea de tip lanul slbiciunilor. Exist obiceiul ciudat i ndeobte cunoscut, c profesorii de liceu, s arunce vina existenei unui numr mare de elevi rmai n urm la nvtur n seama cadrelor didactice din gimnaziu; la rndul lor, acestea pun fenomenul n seama nvtorilor care, la rndul lor, acuza educatoarele i lipsa de preocupare a familiei. Evidenierea acestui lan al slbiciunilor se bazeaz pe o interpretare ce ia natere n condiiile unor repetate ignoratio elenchi: cauzele profunde sunt eludate, fiecare educator se ferete s recunoasc aportul propriu la apariia i ntreinerea unui fenomen pedagogic pe care nimeni nu-l agreeaz. c) Interpretarea cinic. Interpretrile de mai sus au existat nc din perioada interbelic. Interpretarea cinic este o inovaie post-decembrist. Ea a fost determinat de naterea i proliferarea exploziv a universitilor particulare. Aproape toate sunt afaceri oneroase. Ele aspir ntreaga presiune a bacalaureailor, care nu i merit diploma, asupra nvmntului superior. Universitarii de la particulare nu asigur (i dac ar dori nu ar putea) o instruire de calitate a pseudo-studenilor. (Excepiile nu infirm, ci confirm regula). De fapt, aceti profesori nu sunt interesai de calitatea instruirii, ci de bani. Mai toi universitarii competeni de la universiti particulare pe care i cunosc vorbesc cu dispre despre protii i tmpiii care se cred studeni numai pentru c pltesc taxe grase i pretind dasclilor lor indulgen total la examene. Interpretul cinic exclam: Doamne, ce bine c sunt atia proti! Este exclamaia lui Cephalos, metecul din Pireu, care se mbogise n secolul IV .Hr. vnznd msline stricate fraierilor din Corint. 1.3.3 Atitudini diverse fa de fenomen Un studiu fie i sumar al etosului pedagogic, aa cum se exprim el n practic sau n literatura pedagogic, evideniaz c att cadrele didactice ct i specialitii manifest cel
152

puin trei atitudini diferite fa de rmnerea n urm la nvtur a unui numr din ce n ce mai mare de elevi de-a lungul colaritii. a) Atitudinea de indiferen. Cei care o adopt i o justific, mai ales prin argumente specifice interpretrii fataliste a fenomenului la care se adaug altele, de ordin istoric, de tipul dintotdeauna a fost aa n coal, nu-i nici un motiv de panic. Prizonierii acestei atitudini i motiveaz, astfel, pasivitatea notorie sau, dimpotriv, maniera didactic magistrocentrist cu contiina mpcat, nutrit de convingerea c nu e nimic de fcut pentru ce nu se poate i nici nu trebuie fcut altceva dect ceea ce s-a fcut i pn acum. Din pcate numrul celor care adopt aceast atitudine este, dup toate aparenele, copleitor. b) Atitudinea academic despre care am mai discutat, apare i aici. Cei care o adopt de regul specialiti (e drept, puini) n problematica educaiei cu formaie pedagogic tradiional sunt de acord c trebuie fcut ceva; dar, postulnd c problema este complex , se nveruneaz mpotriva celor care propun abordarea ei frontal acuzndu-i de naivitate i de simplificare nepermis a lucrurilor. Prin urmare, se propun ci ocolite i metode sofisticate prin care se ncearc mpcarea dialectic n interminabile studii adresate practicienilor care, de regul, nu neleg dect parial i deci nu pot adopta ceea ce li se propune. Merit nc puin atenie postulatul complexitii problemei asupra cruia am mai struit. Acesta pare deosebit de ndrgit de cei care adopt atitudinea n discuie. Faptul c orice problem pedagogic este complex nu ajut ns cu nimic pe practician, nu-l scutete de sarcina de a le rezolva pe fiecare. Cum l ajut specialistul, teoreticianul? Simplul sfat de a trata lucrurile cu bgare de seam este bineneles ridicol. Sarcina specialistului nu este aceea de a se lsa hipnotizat de constatarea complexitii; cea mai elementar obligaie a omului de tiina este aceea de a privi lucrurile cu luciditate, adoptnd o atitudine ct mai hotrt activ. Dac problema este complex atunci trebuie procedat la interpretare realist i la analiz, adic la desprirea n pri componente i la studiul raional al acestora Ceea ce nu nseamn a simplifica dect temporar lucrurile pentru a vedea ce se afl n interiorul complexitii, a decripta sensurile ascuns, a previziona consecinele pe termen mediu i lung i a scpa astfel de hipnoza pe care ea o genereaz. Cci, numai astfel va fi posibil formularea (n locul sfaturilor prea generale) a ctorva norme i reguli practice pe care cel aflat la catedr sa le poat aplica eficace, cu folos real. c) Atitudinea activ

153

Aa cum am artat, unii specialiti e drept, foarte puini s-au erijat n magicieni care pot rezolva peste noapte problema n discuie. S-a vorbit cu mult entuziasm, mai ales despre faptul c aplicarea i modelului nsuirii depline produs de John B. Carroll sau a tehnicilor active de nvare n clas ar scuti educatorii de toate necazurile. Ba, ori de cte ori experimentele au evideniat rezultate ncurajatoare, entuziasmul fa de noile modele a crescut. Presa pedagogic a publicat seriale i dezbateri pe marginea acestor probleme ceea ce a fost de natur s strneasc reacii critice din partea celor care au mbriat atitudinea academic. Ideea nvrii n clas a fost acuzat chiar c ar conduce spre analfabetizarea copiilor. (Mrturisim c raionamentul n virtutea cruia s-a ajuns la o asemenea concluzie ne scap. Singura justificare o poate constitui dorina de a organiza meditaii la domiciliu cu elevii slabi, ca surse de venituri suplimentare pentru unele cadre didactice). Pentru toat lumea este evident c n condiiile obinuite ale nvmntului, numai unii reuesc s parcurg n ritmul impus, sarcinile colare. Aceast eviden ilustreaz fr putin de tgad faptul c ntre elevii oricrei clase exist diferene care transform pe fiecare intr-o individualitate. Este foarte uor s presupunem c diferenele individuale de potenial de nvare constituie cauza ultim a faptului c unii elevi reuesc s pstreze ritmul instruirii n timp ce alii nu reuesc. Dar este corect s gndim astfel? Acest mod de a raiona, destul de rspndit n rndul practicienilor (i nu numai al lor), este de natur s transfere discuia n alt domeniu, aproape pe nesimite. Anumite exigene hermeneutice se impun aici imperativ pentru a evita deplasrile de sens. ntr-adevr, problema cauzelor rmnerii n urm la nvtur ncepe s apar ca o problem a cauzelor diferenelor interindividuale. n acest fel se isc un cmp vast de preocupri psihologice referitoare la studiul inteligenei i a altor capaciti psihice implicate n procesul nvrii. Ceea ce, bineneles, nu constituie un ru n sine cu condiia ca problema s fie bine pus i s fie pstrat cadrul abordrii. Adic n termeni pedagogici n sensul de a nu pierde din vedere ca studiul diferenelor interindividuale intereseaz teoria i practica instruirii nu n sine i pentru sine ci pentru a elucida n acest fel, diferita categorii de diferene interindividuale ce se vor rsfrnge asupra planului concret al aciunii instructiv educative. Or, aceasta este cu totul altceva dect a aprofunda cu dorina, probabil himeric, de a epuiza chestiunea propriu-zis a diferenelor interindividuale; aceasta rmne o problem care poate interesa profund psihologia, n special psihologia difereniala; cercetrile n acest domeniu vor fi oricnd de folos pedagogului, cu condiia ca el s le considere puncte de plecare si nu puncte de sosire altfel spus, aa cum sugera Carroll (1963), s se ia in
154

considerare efectul diferenelor interindividuale pentru procesul complet al instruirii cu scopul de a stabili modaliti de tratare diferenial depind, astfel, sugestia de fatalitate natural pe care orice caracteristic individual o induce. Absena hermeneuticii realiste poate fi fatal. Astfel, exist riscul de a considera diferenele individuale drept un ru n sine i a deplnge ,precum educatorul de coal veche, faptul c nu se selecioneaz pentru nvtur, doar acei copii care au aptitudini deosebite pentru aceast activitate. Educatorul format pentru nvmntul selectiv elitist, putea visa altdat , numai clase omogene cu elevi dotai . La limit, clasa ideal pentru el era una n care diferenele interindividuale lipseau n conformitate cu o imagine pre-construit a elevului ideal caracterizat printr-o nalt aptitudine nativ pentru instruire. Clasa ideal este o absurditate n sine, opus uneia dintre trataturile fundamentale ale speciei Homo: infinita variabilitate intraspecific. Tratamentul pedagogic difereniat al elevilor supradotai este o necesitate; dar clasa ideala este o himer. A visa, explicit sau tacit, la clase de elevi identici sau fr mari diferene interindividuale este tot att de absurd ca i a dori s produci asemenea clase pe calea interveniilor educative omogenizatoare. Asupra acestui aspect ns vom reveni ulterior. Reinem, deocamdat, faptul c n legtura cu cauzele diferenelor interindividuale, substituia implicnd o deplasare de sens care, bineneles nu poate folosi eficient soluionri adevratei probleme. a) Se invoc, de exemplu, nu de puine ori cauze genetice ale rmnerii n urm la nvtur. Potenialul de nvare a unei mari pri de populaii colare ar fi att de sczut nct el nu ar permite reuita n raport cu sarcinile de instruire impuse prin programele colare. Problema nu trebuie pus astfel. Investigaiile genetice evideniaz c dincolo de limita anormalitii (impus de oligofrenie), posibilitile de nvare pe care le are orice fiin uman sunt uriae, chiar dac rmn diferite de la un individ la altul. Cel mai puin dotat copil normal dispune, dup numeroase estimri, de posibiliti de nvare practic inepuizabile. Chestiunea se reduce la a ti cum poate fi folosit eficient o parte a acestora i nu a deplnge srcia lor. b) Alte ori se au n vedere cauze sociale. Mediul familial, cel stradal (mediul colar chiar) sunt invocate adesea de ctre unii educatori pentru a explica insuccesul colar al multor elevi. n cea mai mare parte a situaiilor aceste explicaii sunt corecte. Se poate aciona eficient asupra acestei categorii de cauze? n nvmnt practica colaborrii colii cu familia are oarecare tradiie. Se dovedete ns ea eficace n toate cazurile? n ultim instan aceast practic se reduce la obligaia ca educatorii (nvtori, profesori, dirigini, etc.) s menin
155

legtura cu prinii i s-i atrag n procesul optimizrii comportamentului n nvare. Oricte succese s-ar nregistra pe aceast cale n practic ea nu poate fi suficient de eficace ct vreme fenomenul rmnerii n urm la nvtur are dimensiunile uriae precizate n subcapitolul precedent. Aceast aciune mijlocit, nu poate fi comparat cu efectul pe care l-ar avea aciunile nemijlocite ale educatorului asupra comportamentului de nvare al elevului n planul concret al instruirii, n procesul de dirijare a nvrii la coal , n clas. c) Mai puin se invoc de ctre practicieni cauzele pedagogice ale rmnerii n urm la nvtur, fie pentru c nu sunt contientizate, fie pentru c este preferat trecerea lor sub tcere din motive subiective. Aceasta nu implic dificulti obiective chiar dac unii educatori reclam nc, i cu ndreptire, suprancrcarea i deficiene ale structurrii programelor i planurilor de nvmnt sau disfuncii organizatorice ale sistemului educaional ntruct acestea ar trebui s se afle ntr-un proces de optimizare continu. Totui, aciunea asupra cauzelor pedagogice ale rmnerii n urm la nvtur presupune depirea unui numr important de dificulti subiective care necesit o discuie separat. 1.3.4 De la sanciunea negativ la sanciunea pozitiv Determinarea eficacitii generale a instruirii (E.G.I.), cel puin n condiiile nvmntului obligatoriu, implic depirea prealabil a cel puin cteva nelegeri greite care marcheaz etosul pedagogic actual i cteva modificri ale unor practici didactice lipsite de eficacitate. a) Necesitatea eliberrii de concepia conform creia instruirea eficace este rezultatul exclusiv al sanciunii negative. Nostalgia fa de unele realizri ale colii romneti tradiionale n ceea ce privete, mai ales, calitatea pregtirii elevilor are la baz o nelegere greit privind posibilitatea determinrii E.G.I.-ului. Mai mult sau mai puin explicit, foarte muli educatori nutresc convingerea c aceasta nu poate fi dect rezultatul instruirii sancionate negativ. Sistemul de sanciuni negative ale colii tradiionale, inspirat n bun msur de pedagogia herbartian, era, ntr-adevr, remarcabil. De la severele examene de selecie i de la coerciia aspr obinut prin sistemul de notare i pn la unele practici educative bazate pe violena pedagogic (mustrarea, blamul, btaia chiar etc.) educatorului i se punea la dispoziie un evantai larg de posibiliti de a-i etala autoritatea, conferind procesului de nvmnt un puternic caracter magistrocentrist; aceleai mijloace rezervau elevului posibilitatea unei imagini clare, terifiante adesea, cu privire la consecinele negative ale eecului la nvtur. Astfel nct, dei negativ i extrinsec, motivaia nvrii
156

n coala tradiional atingea, de regul cote foarte nalte la ntreaga populaie colar, omogenizat relativ prin numeroase examene prealabile n scopul selecionrii valorilor. Din perspectiva educatorului-magistru acest climat pedagogic era, nendoielnic un adevrat rai pedagogic. Este ns suficient s consultm literatura care descrie aceeai realitate din perspectiva celor aflai n bnci. Chiar cnd relatrile provin de la nvcei de elit, ele conin suficiente note de repro pentru a contura imaginea unui adevrat infern pedagogic. Intr-adevr sanciunea negativ poate genera o eficacitate remarcabil a instruirii; n chip firesc ns aceasta nu poate fi dect de scurt durat ntruct, fiind asociat cu insatisfacii puternice, antreneaz mecanismele afective de eliminare, studiate de ctre psihanaliz. Cu alte cuvinte, produs n condiii de disconfort psihic, nvarea se transform, dintr-un comportament firesc, natural, ntr-unul resimit pe plan subiectiv ca anormal, i generator continuu de insatisfacii. n fond, avem de a face, n ntreaga nvare sancionat negativ cu o nclcare violent a uneia dintre legile fundamentale ale nvrii eficiente. Avem n vedere legea efectului (E.L. Thorndike,1901,1902) care, dup cum se tie, stabilete c numai un comportament de nvare care se ncheie cu o stare de satisfacie tinde s se repete, c dac nvarea este urmat de o stare de insatisfacie tinde s nu se mai repete iar dac starea de insatisfacie persist, n locul comportamentului de nvare se instituie o conduit opus, de respingere a nvrii;

Legea efectului, evideniat experimental de Thorndike (i confirmat ulterior de ctre ali


cercettori) pe organisme infraumane (cobai, pisici, cini etc.), i pstreaz ntreaga valabilitate n legtur cu nvarea uman din moment ce, dup cum am vzut, i-au resimit adevrul dureros Iorga, Blaga sau Bacovia (i, bineneles, nu numai ei). n condiiile nvmntului modern n care principiul democratizrii colii izbndete asupra celui elitist, incompatibil cu societatea democratic i n fond anacronic prin lipsa lui de umanism imperiul sanciunii negative se sfarm. Dasclul rmas prizonier al unei mentaliti pedagogice depite descoper, stupefiat, c vechile sale arme ameninarea cu pedeapsa, cu notele mici etc.- s-au tocit: elevii nu mai vor s nvee de fric. Bineneles, este reclamat lipsa de contiinciozitate sau incapacitatea acestora. Dar, despre lipsa de contiinciozitate este vorba? Nu cumva dasclul de coal veche, ncercnd s procedeze n noua coal fr s-i modifice substanial modul de a vedea lucrurile i instrumentele se pomenete dezarmat?

157

Puterea cu care alt dat producea, automat, nvarea i-a fost luat, ntruct marea parte a populaiei colare contientizeaz, nc din clasele a IV-a sau a V-a realitatea principiului democratizrii; desigur, este vorba de o nelegere la mintea copilului, care crede c nvtorul sau profesorul sunt obligai s treac toi elevii clasei. Ceea ce n fond este adevrat dar sensul promovabilitii autentice nu este ntotdeauna ptruns cu claritate de ctre elevi. Este suficient o singur experien de promovabilitate gratuit ntr-o clas oarecare pentru ca frica de corigen sau frica de repetenie s dispar definitiv la muli elevi din acea clas. Evident, nu exist alternativ: promovarea elevilor trebuie s fie exclusiv una determinat de realizarea sarcinilor instruirii cel puin la nivelul unor standarde de performan acceptabile. n condiiile colii n care toi trebuie ajutai s reueasc, promovarea nu poate fi obinut dect utiliznd specific dorina elevilor de a nva care trebuie meninut, sporit acolo unde exist i recrearea acolo unde, din motive diverse, nu mai exist. Persevernd ns n a utiliza instrumentele specifice sanciunii negative, dasclul care nu concepe s-i schimbe mentalitile i metodele, nu mai nregistreaz dect cellalt efect legic al sanciunii negative, comportamentul de respingere a nvrii care se instaleaz, mai devreme sau mai trziu, la un numr din ce n ce mai mare de elevi. Aceast consecin este una dintre cele mai regretabile din cte poate genera cramponarea de scheme pedagogice depite: risipirea unei gigantice resurse dorina elevilor de a nva. Dar instruirea suficient nu se produce numai pe calea sanciunii negative. Dimpotriv, este posibil chiar determinarea E.G.I., dar pe alt cale. Avem n vedere fora sanciunii pozitive recompensarea, succesul, reuita care motiveaz intrinsec nvarea. Din pcate, pentru foarte muli practicieni, ideea instruirii bazat pe satisfacia nvrii, este fie utopic, fie impracticabil. Este dovada cea mai dureroas a incompetenei pedagogice creia I-au czut victime absolvenii nvmntului superior n perioada n care regimurile comuniste au obligat pedagogia s se transforme n simpl unealt ideologic. Malformarea pedagogiei i-a atras un dispre enorm, cvasirspndit att n nvmntul superior, ct i n nvmntul preuniversitar. (A se revedea cap.II din partea I referitor la statutul epistemologic al acestei discipline multimilenare). b) Necesitatea de a trece la o instruire bazat pe motivaie INTRINSEC I SATISFACIA nvrii. Se discut adesea despre libertatea educatorului de a-i alege concepia pedagogic i metodele didactice. Este pe buzele aa-ziilor mentori i a pseudo-pedagogilor care citesc tratatele de pedagogie fugitiv, crezndu-le romane. Superficialitatea este mai agresiv dect
158

ignorana i risc s transforme n mod trectoare cteva achiziii pedagogice eseniale. Metodele noi sunt destul de vechi i nu pot fi folosite la ntmplare. Discuia ni se pare steril: educatorul este obligat s adopte concepia pedagogic i metodele care se adecveaz cel mai bine cu finalitile sistemului de nvmnt n care i desfoar activitatea; altfel nu slujete acest sistem, contribuind la disfuncionalitatea lui. Ori de cte ori nu pot soluiona ei nii aceast modificare ampl, practicienii solicit clarificri din partea teoriei. Ba, mai mult, chiar n cazurile izolate cnd soluiile sunt gsite pe cont propriu de ctre un educator sau altul, acetia resimt nevoia de a fi confirmai de ctre specialitii problemelor educaionale. Or, aceste din urm aspecte sunt de natur s evidenieze responsabilitatea aparte a cercettorilor i a specialitilor din domeniul psihopedagogiei. Ea oblig, nainte de orice, la convergen n abordarea problemelor acute ale practicii, la ndrumri unitare i mai ales, sigure. Sigurana nu poate fi obinut, bineneles, dect pe calea probrii n practic, fie ea i n condiii experimentale.

1.4 Condiia colii romneti n secolul XXI.


ncap aici, puncte de vedere opuse i dezbateri nesfrite? Bineneles, cu condiia s abordeze probleme reale i exclusiv din perspectiva optimizrii practicii instruirii. n aceast privin exist numeroase probleme de rezolvat; ignorarea sau subestimarea lor poate antrena multiple i grave consecine negative. - Mai nti se cuvine evideniat c n afara unor sfaturi generale care ndeamn la duioie i dragoste fa de copii, construciile pedagogice de tip tradiional (cele mai cunoscute de ctre educatori) nu ofer nimic riguros pentru a se putea trece la o practic didactic bazat pe sanciunea pozitiv a nvrii. Nu punem problema c la aceste ndemnuri frumoase nimeni nu poate fi obligat s adere. Dar chiar n condiiile n care ele ar fi nsuite de ctre educator transpunerea n practic rmne o chestiune de intuiie personal, fr rigori circumscrise tiinific. Orice educator autentic are nevoie i se bazeaz pe metode verificate dar i pe capaciti hermeneutice proprii. - n al doilea rnd se cuvine luat n seam fenomenul straniu de modificare a opticii pedagogice n procesul formrii unui educator. Ct vreme el este nc elev sau student i resimte efectele neplcute ale unui proces instructiv educativ care promoveaz, n continuare, sanciunea negativ, viitorul educator este gata s adere la inovaii pedagogice de natur s modifice radical aceast practic; odat devenit educator, schimbnd locul din banc
159

cu cel de la catedr, optica sa se modific pe nesimite. Imaginea profesorului ru amendat altdat, ajunge repede s fie personificat de fostul nemulumit. De fapt, profesorul ru provine dintr-un elev care se considera pe el nsui bun dar pe care profesorul ru l credea elev ru. Adepii poteniali ai unei pedagogii a sanciunii pozitive, sfresc de regul, prin a adopta manierele specifice pedagogiei sanciunii negative. Acest fenomen, credem, ar trebui studiat cu atenie pentru ca metamorfoza ca atare s capete semnificaii benigne. - n al treilea rnd se ridic problem modificrii de optic pedagogic n cazul educatorilor care au o carier didactic mai mult sau mai puin ndelungat, practicat chiar cu succes, n regimul specific instruirii care i trage foloasele de la fora sanciunii negative. Nu trebuie pierdut din vedere c aceti educatori accept cu greu sau, pur i simplu, nu accept judecata conform creia au fost altdat buni, acum ns nu care li sa va prea o enormitate. Pentru acest tip de educator pare mai mult plauzibil o explicaie de genul elevii de altdat erau buni, elevii de acum nu mai sunt buni. Ne aflm de fapt n prezena unei probleme extrem de delicate. Afirmaii precum: Profesorul bun accept uor inovaia pedagogic sau cine a predat odat bine, va nva i acum uor s predea bine sunt ncurajatoare dar deseori infirmate de practic. n realitate, n rndul acestei categorii de educatori pot fi distini cei cu sensibilitatea cea mai sczut fa de inovaia optimizatoare. Explicaia pare simpl. S nu uitm c regimul impus de sanciunea negativ implic asimetria relaiei educator-educat. Educatorul are dreptate elevul niciodat. Experiena mai ndelungat sau anumite trsturi de caracter pot conferi educatorului triri specifice comportamentului autoritar: narcisism, imagine de sine supraevaluat, tendine paronoide chiar. Educatorul autoritar renun greu la autoritatea sa n favoarea unor relaii democratice cu educatul, mai ales cnd ea ine locul competenei pedagogice nsi. De aceea, procesul schimbrii de mentalitate trebuie presupus ca o transformare complicat, care implic modificri profunde ale personalitii educatorului n ansamblul ei. S-a vorbit, n acest sens, de necesitatea educrii educatorilor ceea ce, desigur, nseamn mult mai mult dect perfecionarea cunotinelor de specialitate sau mbogirea celor pedagogice. Dar asemenea aspecte se ridic i n legtur cu reprezentrile i concepiile educative ale cadrelor de conducere din nvmnt. Bineneles, ele nu comport semnificaiile negative de mai sus: necesiti obiective care nu pot fi eludate fac ca n rndul cadrelor de conducere s
160

fie numeroi indivizi din domenii diferite care recepteaz problematica psihopedagogic a nvmntului n continuarea unei structuri mentale preconstituite. La Ministrul nvmntului se perind de vreo cinci decenii numai minitri nepedagogi; chimiti, ingineri, literai, matematicieni, fizicieni etc. Ei i confund competena de specialitate nalt cu competena pedagogic precar i provoac adevrate dezastre. Cci, cadrele de conducere sunt, bineneles, oameni i nu putem considera c rspunderea conducerii antreneaz mai acut, mai limpede pe fondul competenei, previzionarea consecinelor, ceea ce este de natur s favorizeze nelegerea lucid a necesitii de ameliorare a mentalitii pedagogice n consens cu realitile specificului procesului de nvmnt n coala democratic. Studiul problematicii teoretice i practice al optimizrilor pedagogice, ca i rspunderea ca atare a ntregii perfecionrii, de acest fel, implic ns, dac nu o nou specializare, cel puin o ptrundere n intimitatea a ceea ce se consider a fi prin definiie de mare complexitate fenomenele educaionale imposibil de suplinit prin abordri globale sau metode administrative. Cum ar fi posibil ns o modificare mai rapid a modului de a gndi i de a aciona pedagogic, n consens cu regimul sanciunii pozitive, n rndul celor nemijlocit implicai n procesul formrii noilor generaii: cadrele didactice? Aceast problem ni se pare un punct nodal al ntregii discuii. Desigur, nu se pot produce modificri de etos pedagogic pe cale administrativ sau juridic. Aceasta este, n ntregime, alctuit din convingeri, atitudini, judeci, triri, sentimente. Prin urmare, este, nainte de orice o problem de contiin pedagogic, de contiin profesional. Dar aceasta este, la rndul ei, dependent de organizri mai ample ale structurii i suprastructurii, de bani, de ideologie, de via i condiia social a educatorului. Ne putem ntreba dac fcnd mai limpezi consecinele negative ale fenomenului rmnerii n urm la nvtur, ale ineficacitii instruirii, nu putem determina modificri substaniale n modul de a privi lucrurile al multor educatori. Merit mcar s ncercm S lum, bunoar, n considerare consecinele social-economice i politice ale fenomenului. Este limpede c, astzi, n societatea democratic aflat ntr-un proces sinuos de trecere la economia de tip concurenial, toi cei aflai n bncile colii trebuie s reueasc, trebuie s fie ct mai bine pregtii. Constituie o eviden simpl faptul c toi cei aflai astzi n bncile colii sunt, de fapt, adulii anului 2030 -2040. ntreg procesul reconstruciei democratice se produce n rezonan cu revoluia tiinificotehnic. Aceasta marcheaz din ce n ce mai profund condiia uman nsi. De numai civa
161

ani Romnia a ncheiat, tranziia la societatea democratic i s-a integrat n Comunitatea European. Intrat n Marele Club, societatea romneasc nu se poate nfia la ntruniri cu haine jerpelite; trebuie s mbrace frac paideutic nou i s foloseasc tacmuri noetice de aur. Este foarte probabil ca revoluia tiinifico-tehnic pe temeiul creia se va structura n continuare societatea democratic, s fie o prelungire superioar mult mai accentuat a remarcabilelor realizri actuale din domeniul informaticii i roboticii. Nu puini viitorologi anticip c societatea viitorului va fi una aproape complet informatizat. Or, caracteristica esenial a acesteia va fi posibilitatea de a-l elibera complet pe om de activitile automate: acestea vor putea fi preluate, integral, de microprocesoare i roboi. Se vorbete deja de industria informatizat, agricultura informatizat, biroul informatizat, ba chiar i de buctria informatizat. Lumea se transform vertiginos ntr-un sat global. Pn la sfritul secolului al XXI-lea dac nu se va autodistruge umanitatea se va unifica economic, social, politic i, poate, i religios - susin numeroi viitorologi. Unificarea tiinific s-a realizat deja. Unificarea economic s-a realizat chiar mai demult. Rmn nc neunificate eresurile religioase i vor rmne mult vreme neunificate tradiiie etnice i diversitatea cultural. Dar acestea din urm constituie un tezaur axiologic inextricabil care trebuie pstrat cu sfinenie i multiplicat sans rivages.O parte a viului pansofic comenian s-a ncheiat ns. Eliberat de activitile de rutin omul societii informatizate se va putea dedica (va fi chiar obligat!) singurei activiti demne de el: cea de creaie imposibil de automatizat. Este, aadar, foarte probabil ca muncitorul anului 2020 s lucreze exclusiv la frontierele cunoaterii: s fie cercettor tiinific, inventator, descoperitor. Dar prima condiie pentru a putea desfura o activitate att de pretenioas este un nivel de pregtire ct mai ridicat. Progresul societii n continuare va fi aadar condiionat n calitatea pregtirii materiei cenuii n ntreaga societate, fiecrui membru al societii solicitndu-i-se munc intelectual. Inadaptaii societii informatizate vor fi, aadar, n exclusivitate, nepregtiii Se pune problema urmtoare: se poate mpca n vreun fel contiina profesional a vreunui educator de astzi cu perspectiva ca un numr mare de elevi s ajung nepregtii ntr-o asemenea minunat dar pretenioas societate?; n fine, ntruct societatea democratic va avea nevoie de toi membrii si pentru a progresa, se ridic problema responsabilitii morale i sociale a educatorului de astzi fa de viitorul insului i al societii din care el nsui face parte

162

Dar problema comport i alte aspecte. Nici contiina pedagogic propriu-zis nu poate fi scutit de previzibile regrete dac nu se modific. Adevrul conform cruia toi pot s nvee este supus nc, n felurite moduri, ndoielilor. Este elementar ns c orice adevr sfrete prin a se impune. Nu toi sunt convini de el astzi, iar muli, mai ales dintre cei care nu se afl n contact direct cu coala i problemele ei, nu-l cunosc. Interesul populaiei de orice categorie social fa de educaie este ns ntotdeauna foarte mare. Mai devreme sau mai trziu toate adevrurile pedagogice sfresc prin a deveni, din oculte publice. Nu este greu de prevzut c aseriunea, astzi nc socotit ndrznea, conform creia toi pot s nvee, va deveni, ntr-un viitor apropiat, folclor, fluturnd pe buzele tuturor. Practicarea instruirii sancionate negativ, genernd comportamente de respingere a nvrii, este de natur s creeze multor elevi iluzii de tipul: nu-mi place s nv pentru c nu pot s nv. n locul acestor convingeri eronate poate apare ncrederea n sine pe temeiul unei triri de tipul: mi place s nv, pentru c reuesc ntotdeauna. Or, aceast din urm trire este tocmai adevrul care s-ar putea s fluture, cndva, pe buzele tuturor. Este suficient s ne imaginm situaia unui dascl care astzi, ca prizonier al instruirii bazate pe sanciunea negativ, induce multora dintre elevi convingerea c sunt incapabili s nvee: ar suporta oare ntlnirea, peste ani, cu un fost astfel de elev care i-ar adresa aproximativ urmtorul repro tii domnule profesor, am aflat c i eu a fi putut s nv carte, dar dumneavoastr n-ai tiut cum sau n-ai vrut s aflai cum s m nvai. Fa de duioasele ntlniri ale dasclilor cu fotii lor elevi buni, o asemenea scen comport, desigur suficient dramatism pentru a evita s ne-o nchipuim repede de prea multe ori. Fa de aceste aspecte am desfurat n perioada 1983-987 activiti diverse de cutare; soluiile i convingerile formulate n acest rstimp constituie, n exclusivitate rezultatul atitudinii cu care am pornit la drum: aceea de a aborda problema pornind de la realiti (adic de a aborda probleme reale i nu altceva) i de a nu confrunta orice demers cu realitatea; efortul de sistematizare a intervenit ulterior i s-a finalizat cu ceea ce s-ar putea considera model instrucional bazat pe dirijarea nemijlocit a mecanismelor de nvare i pe sanciunea pozitiv a acestora cu ajutorul cruia se poate determina eficacitatea general a instruirii (E.G.I.) n coala romneasc. Msura utilitii i valorii sale, va putea fi apreciat n parte consultnd datele redate n continuare privind genul, alctuirea i rezultatele probrii practice; n chip indubitabil ns i

163

va da seama de virtuile i lipsurile sale numai cel ce va ncerca s l verifice el nsui n practic ceea ce i va da, desigur, dreptul i posibilitatea s-l judece n cunotin de cauz.

1.5 Modelele de tip mastery learning


n deceniul al 6-lea al secolului trecut s-a produs o revoluie pedagogic de mari proporii. Un autor obscur, John B. Carroll a iniiat n 1963 o schimbare fundamental n gndirea pedagogic cu privire la natura instruirii: paradigma mastery learning 64. Esena ei am prezentat-o deja n subcapitolele anterioare. Argumentele lui Carroll au prut, la apariie sfidtor de simple i de limpezi pentru practica instruirii. Mastery learning sugereaz c accentul care trebuie pus de instruire ar trebui s fie timpul necesar pentruca diferii elevi s nvee acelai material. Modelul a fost perfecionat, nuanat i experimentat n anii urmtori de numeroi cercettori65. A fost o construcie pedagogic fabuloas care se nscuse, poate, prea devreme. Era mai degrab o necesitate a vremurilor de azi dect a anilor 70-80 ai veacului precedent. Despre ce este vorba? S exemplificm. S presupunem o clas I oarecare. Standardele de performan care trebuie atinse ar trebui s fie: -scris corect; -citit fluent; -socotit corect. S presupunem povestea a 3 elevi testai la sfritul clasei I; se constat c:

IONEL - tie s scrie corect, s citeasc fluent i s socoteasc corect; Decizia: Ionel va fi promovat n clasa a II-a. Timp de nvare consumat: 1 an GIGEL - tie s scrie corect, s citeasc fluent dar nu tie s socoteasc; Decizia: Gigel va fi lsat repetent; dup un an el va vea exact performanele lui

CARROLL, J. B. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers College Record, 64, 723-733 BLOCK, J. H. (1971). Mastery Learning: Theory and Practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; BLOCK, J. H., EFTHIM, H. E., & BURNS, R.B. (1989). Building Effective Mastery Learning Schools. New York: Longman; COX, W.F. & DUNN, T. G. (1979). Mastery learning: A psychological trap? Educational Pyschologist, 14, 24-29; LEVINE, R.E. (1987). Mastery learning reconsidered. Review of Educational Research, 57(2), 175-214; ANDERSON, J. R. (2000). Learning and memory: An integrated approach (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; GUSKY, T. R., & GATES, S. (1986). Synthesis of research on the effects of mastery learning in elementary and secondary classrooms. Educational Leadership, 43, 73-80; CLARK, R.C., NGUYEN, F., AND SWELLER, J. (2006). Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load. San Francisco: Pfeiffer; HOKANSON, B., & MILLER, C. (2009). Role-based design: A contemporary framework for innovation and creativity in instructional design. Educational Technology, 49(2), 2128; etc.
64 65

164

Ionel: tie s scrie corect, s citeasc fluent i s socoteasc corect. Va fi promovat n clasa a II-a. Timp de nvare consumat : 2 ani

VASILIC - tie s scrie dar nu tie s citeasc fluent i nu tie s socoteasc corect. Decizia: Vasilic este lsat repetent. La sfritul urmtorului an de studii, Vasilic tie s scrie corect, s citeasc fluent dar nu tie s socoteasc. Decizie: Vasilic este din nou lsat repetent. Dup un nou an de studii, Vasilic tie s scrie corect, s citeasc fluent i s socoteasc corect, adic ndeplinete performana integral i este promovat n consumat : 3 ani. clasa a II-a. Timp de nvare

S rspundem exact la cteva ntrebri. Care este scopul instruirii? Evident acela de a atinge performanele predefinite la standardele corespunztoare. ndeplinesc toi nendoielnic, da. Prin ce se deosebesc IONEl, GIGEL i VASILIC? Prin faptul c ei consum mai mult timp pentru nvare. Ce nseamn a consuma mai mult sau mai puin timp pentru nvare? nseamn oare, aa cum se crede tradiional, c : IONEL este detept/inteligent? GIGEL este mediocru? VASILIC est prost? cei trei copii aceste performane i standarde? n chip

n nici un caz! Aceste calificative pseudo-psihologice nu au nici un fel de susinere tiinific din moment ce TOI CEI TREI COPPII AU REUIT S REALIZEZE PERFORMANELE LA STANDARDELE DEFINITE. Atunci ce nseamn totui a consuma mai mult sau mai puin timp pentru nvare? nseamn, simplu c cei trei copii au RITMURI DIFERITE DE NVARE DAR TOI SUNT API S REUEASC Acest mod de a raiona pedagogic contrasteaz cu modelul instrucional clasic bazat pe teoriile psihologice ale inteligenei , n care tuturor elevilor le sunt date aceeai cantitate de timp i aceleai modaliti de predare-nvare. Modelele mastery learning pun accent pe diferenierea i individualizarea instruirii. ntradevr, Carroll (1989)66 a dovedit c c aptitudinea de a nva este, n primul rnd, o msur
CARROLL, J.B. (1989). The Carroll model: A 25 year retrospective and prospective view. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 26-31
66

165

a timpului necesar pentru a nva. De aceea orice model mastery learning recomand i reglementeaz tratamentul pedagogic difereniat. Ideea de mastery learning reclam ns o schimbare radical n mentalitatea i responsabilitatea pedagogic a profesorilor:
VINA PENTRU EECUL UNUI ELEV ESTE PUS N SEAMA CELUI CARE INSTRUIETE I NU POATE FI EXPLICAT PRIN INCAPACITATEA DE A NVA A CELUI CARE NVA.

ntr-un mediu mastery learning, provocarea devine oferirea de timp suficient i angajarea strategii de instruire, astfel nct toi elevii pot atinge acelai nivel de nvare (Levine, 198567; Bloom, 198168). Elementele cheie n mastery learning sunt:

(1) OBIECTIVE CLARE: specificarea clar a ceea ce urmeaz s fie nvat i modul n care va fi evaluat nvarea; 2) DIFERENIEREA I INDIVIDUALIZAREA INSTRUIRII: permisiunea acordat elevilor de a nva n ritmul lor propriu; (3) EVALUARE FORMATIV: evaluare continu a progreselor elevilor i furnizarea de feedback adecvate sau de programe de remediere; (4) EVALUARE SUMATIV. testarea criteriat/standardizat a performanelor periodice i finale.

Modelele mastery learning au fost aplicate pe scar larg n coli i n programe de formare; cercetrile aplicate arat c modelele mastery learning pot optimiza spectaculos eficiena instruirii (de exemplu, Block, Efthim & Burns, 198969; Slavin, 198770). Pe de alt parte, exist unele puncte slabe teoretice i practice, inclusiv cele datorate faptului c oamenii difer prin capacitatea i tendina de a atinge niveluri diferite de realizare ( Cox &

LEVINE, D. (1985). Improving Student Achievement Through Mastery Learning Programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 68 BLOOM, B.S. (1981). All Our Children Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill. 69 BLOCK, J. H., EFTHIM, H. E., & BURNS, R.B. (1989). Building Effective Mastery Learning Schools. New York: Longman 70 SLAVIN, R.E. (1987). Mastery learning reconsidered. Review of Educational Research, 57(2), 175-214
67

166

Dunn, 197971). n plus, programele de mastery learning au tendina de a solicita cantitati considerabile de timp i de efort pe care cei mai muli profesori nu sunt pregtii i dispui s le cheltuiasc. Modele mastery learning au asimilat numeroase rezultate ale cercetrii pedagogice moderne i postmoderne devenind din ce n ce mai sofisticate, mai eficiente, mai temeinice: marea paradigm a ctigat n profunzime paideutic i, dincolo de rezultatele uimitoare obinute prin experimentele i aplicaiile deceniilor trecute, va fi, foarte probabil, cea mai rodnic dintre construciile pracice ale educaiei intelectuale din secoluul XXI. Avantajul cel mai postmodernist al paradigmei este acela c permite crearea unei multitudini de variante i modele ce pot fi aplicate eficient ntr-o mare varietate de contexte socio-culturale i educaionale. O asemenea variant s-a ncercat i n Romnia.

1.6.Un model romnesc de tip mastery learning


1.6.1.Geneza Modelul instrucional descris n cele ce urmeaz este rezultatul unor decantri succesive care au presupus att examenul atent al unor fenomene pedagogice studiate nemijlocit ct i acela al cutrilor ilustrate n literatura pedagogic: a) Discrepana evident existent ntre nivelul cercetrii psihopedagogice i dificultile i problemele practicii ne-au ndemnat s traducem o parte din inovaiile i achiziiile pedagogiei moderne pe nelesul tinerilor educatori ntr-un serial publicat n colaborare cu Ioan Jinga n Revista de pedagogie (1-6/1982); intenia noastr a fost aceea de a strni interesul educatorilor practicieni pentru noutile pedagogice descrise n substaniale lucrri de specialitate care, din pricina limbajului prea specializat rmn fr rezonana cuvenit. Efortul nu a fost lipsit de urmri: numeroase cadre didactice au nceput s se intereseze de problematica proiectrii pedagogice iar termeni, altdat inacceptabili - precum obiectiv operaional, evaluare formativ etc. - au devenit comuni. Respectiva traducere coninea n mare i sugestii de adaptare a elementelor de tehnologia educaiei, ceea ce antrena ideea posibilitii de a propune un model instrucional original. Ceea ce a fost de natur s dea natere unei efervescene creatoare, benefic prin ea nsi, dar care i-a avut, oarecum firesc, i consecinele sale negative, mai ales prin apariia unor
COX, W.F. & DUNN, T. G. (1979). Mastery learning: A psychological trap? Educational Pyschologist, 14, 24-29
71

167

confuzii cu privire la proiectarea pedagogic propriu-zis, i ndeosebi n legtur cu mutarea accentului preocuprilor de pe problemele reale ale procesului instructiv pe unele dificulti formale (cum se elaboreaz practic un proiect pedagogic; ce denumire folosim: proiect didactic, proiect de tehnologie didactic sau proiect de activitate didactic?, cu ce se ncepe construirea proiectului pedagogic: cu obiectivele sau cu coninutul etc.) b) In acest rstimp, am avut posibilitatea de a cunoate i de a studia mai bine fenomenul rmnerii n urm la nvtur, prin investigaia menionat n capitolele anterioare, realiznd cu deplin claritate necesitatea i urgena a ceea ce consideram prima prioritate a colii obligatorii: determinarea E.G.I. Investigaiile desfurate n perioada 1983-1987 au fost de natur s evidenieze cu precizie mecanismul pedagogic al producerii rmnerii n urm la nvtur. Am putut concluziona n baza a numeroase date c, n ciuda numeroaselor pretenii teoretice, n coal se practic cu precdere un model instrucional deficitar, centrat pe nvarea individual acas, adic acelai care se practica n coala selectivist-elitist n urm cu o jumtate de secol. Majoritatea covritoare a leciilor la majoritatea disciplinelor comporta structura ablon: verificarea leciei precedente (20-30 min.) + predarea leciei noi (20-30 min.). Finalurile leciilor de verificare-predare sunt ntotdeauna semnificative: nvtorul sau profesorul formuleaz tema pentru acas i exigena referitoare la calitile studiului individual, la pregtirea leciei urmtoare. Prin urmare, n principiu, la coal elevii nu nva dect sporadic: ei ascult sau sunt ascultai; de asemenea profesorul sau nvtorul nu dirijeaz nvarea: el vorbete sau ascult, transmite sau verific achiziia unor informaii. Prin urmare, cu excepia nvtorilor de la clasele I i a II-a, cadrele didactice renun practic s-i exercite funcia propriu-zis pedagogic - aceea de a dirija mecanismele de nvare implicate n procesul instruirii n direcia obiectivelor acesteia - restrngndu-se la rolul de transmitere i verificare a achiziiei informaiilor. Prin urmare, nvarea se desfoar, de regul, acas, fie spontan, fie sub controlul, adesea neavizat, al prinilor. Acest fapt este atestat de exemple tipice ocante: cum am artat deja, muli nvtori explic rmnerea n urm la nvtur a elevilor prin lipsa de preocupare a prinilor; muli profesori explic acelai fenomen invocnd faptul c respectivii elevi nu tiu s nvee. Un numr mare de educatori par s ignore absurditatea implicat de solicitarea excesiv ca elevul s studieze acas. Elevii din clasele III-IV trebuie s adauge celor 4 ore de la coal alte 3-4
168

ore de studiu individual pentru a pregti leciile zilei urmtoare; cei din gimnaziu adaug celor 5-6 ore zilnice de coal alte 5-6 ore de studiu individual; cei din liceu sunt solicitai s adauge celor 6-7 ore zilnice de coal alte 6-7 ore; rezult c modelul instrucional respectiv solicit zilnic eforturi de 7-8 ore (pentru elevii din clasele I-IV), 10-12 ore (pentru elevii din clasele V-VIII) i 12-14 ore (pentru elevii din clasele IX-XII). Cele mai elementare date pe care le avem cu privire la capacitile medii de rezisten la efort intelectual evideniaz c aceste cerine sunt nefireti, fiind de nerespectat de majoritatea covritoare a elevilor, i implicnd riscul surmenajului sau chiar al dereglrilor psihice. Dar o coal care mbolnvete nu este o coal bun, cel puin din punct de vedere pedagogic. Pentru a se adapta la acest regim, elevii recurg la practici n general aspru criticate n coal, dar care rmn singurele modaliti realiste de pstrare a sntii mintale: nvarea superficial i nvarea discontinu acas, sustragerea de la unele activiti extracolare si chiar de la cele colare .a. A pune aceste conduite n seama lipsei de contiinciozitate a elevului ine de mentalitatea pedagogic dereist. Realitatea trebuie vzut aa cum este: elevul care absenteaz de la coal nemotivat are uneori - cel puin pentru unii elevi - dou motive foarte serioase s o fac: teama fa de un eventual eec la momentul verificrii cunotinelor i tendina, uneori acut, de a evita activitatea care, n general, induce disconfort psihic. Sunt i cazuri cnd elevii lipsesc de la coal i nu se pregtesc acas din cu totul alte motive. (Exist, bineneles, i elevul chiulangiu- pe care ns nu l considerm ca reprezentnd un fenomen de mas i nu l lum n discuie aici). nvarea discontinu acas se instituie n conformitate cu legea economiei de efort i cu legea efectului: elevul vrea s evite fie oboseala, fie insatisfaciile generate de nereuita nelegerii materiei studiate independent - adic fr sprijin pedagogic avizat. Bineneles, chiar dac sunt fireti sub raport fiziopsihologic, absenteismul i discontinuitatea nvrii acas nu trebuie considerate tot astfel i sub raport pedagogic. Amndou se repercuteaz grav asupra calitii pregtirii, fiecare genernd lacune instrucionale care se rsfrng n esen asupra capacitii de nelegere a materiei. Or, acestea din urma condiioneaz viteza asimilrii i deci ritmul instruirii. Cu ct numrul de lacune nregistrat de un elev la o anumit disciplin va fi mai mare, cu att se va diminua capacitatea lui de nelegere a ceea ce i se va preda ulterior i va scdea viteza de asimilare. Dar elevii vor fi silii s acumuleze lacune instrucionale ori de cte ori nivelul solicitrilor va depi capacitatea proprie de rezisten la efort.

169

c) Descoperirea acestor fenomene este, bineneles, la ndemna oricui. Surprinztor este ns modul nerealist n care sunt interpretate de ctre numeroi educatori care pun rul pedagogic n seama unui ru natural existent n firea, adic n genofondul copiilor care absenteaz de la coal nemotivat i nva acas pe srite. Despre calitatea acestei interpretri, cu doua secole n urma, a scris ceea ce trebuie J.J. Rousseau, aa nct discuia n contradictoriu este inutil. Pentru oricine abordeaz n mod lucid aceste realiti pedagogice neconvenabile, este de natura evidenei c fiecare dintre ele sunt consecine produse artificial de un model instrucional care i-a pierdut eficacitatea i nu au cauze naturale, misterioase, care ar afecta n chip special conduita noilor generaii fcndu-le inapte de o atitudine pozitiv fa de coal i nvtur. Bineneles, problema pe care ne-am pus-o a fost aceea de a vedea n ce fel pot fi ndeprtate aceste cauze artificiale. Rezultatul a fost modelul instrucional ce va fi descris n continuare. Desigur, nu este vorba de o construcie absolut original (de altfel nu originalitatea cu orice pre a fost inta cutrilor noastre). Modelul propus reprezint o ncercare de a valorifica sistematic inovaii, realizri i descoperiri noi ale cercetrii psihopedagogice. Se nelege c am considerat posibil promovarea noului numai innd seama de cel puin dou aspecte: a) condiiile specifice (finaliti, cadru organizatoric, resurse etc.) ale sistemului romnesc de nvmnt2 i b) necesitatea de a nu propune inovaiile respective dect armonizate ntr-o concepie coerent de gndire i aciune pedagogic apt s elimine confuziile, dezordinea.

Primului aspect i-am acordat importan n msura n care exist obligaia de a nu acorda valabilitatea universal achiziiilor pedagogice fr a le verifica n legtur cu fiecare dintre condiiile n care urmeaz a fi aplicate.

Experimentele ntreprinse de unii autori cu ajutorul unora dintre deja amintitele modele mastery learning, precum modelul nsuirii depline ( V. Bunescu, 1976-1986) evideniaz c nu pot fi transpuse tale-quale n coala romneasc orice inovaii pedagogice. Aceleai investigaii au condus spre profilarea unei concluzii limpezi: sunt necesare fie adaptri ale inovaiilor pedagogice la sistemul romnesc de nvmnt, fie dimpotriv, adaptri ale sistemului la modelele pedagogice probate. Cum a doua posibilitate ine de analiza i decizia organelor superioare, adaptarea noului model pedagogic la condiiile existente, rmne singura posibilitate. Dar asemenea adaptri sunt adesea echivalente cu construcii ample, cu optimizri pedagogice profunde. Or, acestea abund n elaborarea modelului nostru, ceea ce poate strni, la prima vedere, nedumeriri. De exemplu, ne propunem s utilizm o procedur de operaionalizare a
170

obiectivelor bunoar cea sugerat de Gilbert Landsheere. Dar nu oricum, ci n maniera care permite manevrarea ei ct mai eficace n practic. n vederea acestui deziderat i vom ignora pe cei care citesc dogmatic crile de pedagogie, pot identifica i considera ameliorrile noastre neconforme cu modelul. Fa de aceste atitudini trebuie s manifestm, desigur, indiferen. Ce este de fcut dac procedeul tiinific ameliorat d rezultate mai bune dect dac, ar fi folosit nealterat? Nu este nimic ru. Dimpotriv, e foarte bine!

Celui de-al doilea aspect i-am acordat maximum de importana: numai armonizate ntr-un model coerent de gndire i aciune pedagogic, inovaiile pedagogice i pot dovedi eficacitatea prin determinarea unui substanial spor de calitate i eficien al instuirii; altfel, exist pericolul pulverizrii acestora ntr-o varietate necontrolabil de inovaii i ameliorri, care asemenea vnturilor scpate din sacul lui Eol, pot agita marea la nesfrit ndeprtnd corabia lui Ulise de int, n loc s o apropie.

Am apelat n primul rnd la instrumentele utilizate n genere pentru a realiza asemenea armonizri n special de ctre creatorii de teorii ale instruirii; la abordarea praxiologic n al doilea rnd. Dar n legtur cu acestea dm detalii n capitolul urmtor. Modelul propus nu valorific ns numai rezultate ale cercetrii psihopedagogice, ci i numeroase achiziii ale practicii pedagogice specifice colii romneti. Tradiiile nvmntului romnesc nu pot fi subapreciate nici pe departe n mod global i nici considerate, n totalitate, ca lipsite de viabilitate. Dimpotriv, au putut fi identificate numeroase intuiii, egalnd sau chiar depind sub raportul utilitii practice cercetri de specialitate; lsndu-le n afara modelului propus, presupunea o intenie exclusivist modernist creia nu-i acordm nici o valoare n sine.

171

d) Odat obinut prima formul a modelului, ea a fost supus probei practice. Am avut posibilitatea ca, pe parcursul anilor colari 1984-1985, 1985-1986 si 1986-1987, s verificm viabilitatea modelului instrucional: - n propria activitate didactic, desfurat ca profesori de pedagogie la Liceul Pedagogic i Universitatea din Bucureti; - n practica pedagogic a elevilor i studenilor i a claselor a XI-a si a XII-a (dou clase) la acelai liceu; - n activitatea experimental desfurat n mai multe coli din Capital i din Sectorul Agricol Ilfov. Scopul cutrilor a fost optimizarea continu a modelului n cel puin dou direcii:

creterea gradului de accesibilitate prin gsirea a ct mai multe elemente care s permit acomodarea educatorilor la model i folosirea lui ct mai eficient; eliminarea elementelor care puteau antrena disfuncionalitai, imprecizie, erori n realizarea rezultatelor scontate.

e) n anul colar 1986-1987 modelul a fost testat ntr-un experiment amplu72. 1.6.2. Structura i funcionalitatea 1.6.2.1.Componentele eseniale ale modelului.

INSTRUIREA

DIAGNOSTI CUL STRII

PROGRAME DE RATRAPARE

EVALUARE

EVALUARI EVALURI FORMATIV SUMATIV 72 Experimentul a fost iniiat de ctre Inspectoratul colar al Municipiului Bucureti, profitnd de E E NVARE INSTRUIRII sarcina trasat de ctre secretarul general P.C.R., Nicolae Ceauescu, cu prilejul deschiderii CONTINU PERIODIC respectivului an de nvmnt, educatorilor din Capital, de a-i intensifica eforturile n vederea DIRIJAT E determinrii unui salt calitativ revoluionar n procesul de pregtire, teoretic i practic a E tinerelor generaii. Astfel prezentat, propunerea N experimental a fost aprobat de ctre comitetul bucuretean al Partidului Comunist i a putut fi pus n practic. Aa se proceda atunci pentru a putea CLAS realiza cercetri ntr-un domeniu pe care cuplul conductor nu numai c l detesta, darNVARE (de l considera INDIVUDUAL Mai ce oare?) primejdios. Compromis? Credem c a fost vorba, dimpotriv, de cu totul altceva. ACAS degrab o pcleal benign pentru coala romneasc. Sunt mndru de aceast ncercare tiinific nscut din disperare i ntreprins cu PROGRAME spaim i speran.DE Modelul nostru modernist? Ceva ce poate fi extrem de folositor astzi; i chiar mine MBOGIRE 172

Figura Nr. 27 Structura simpl a unui model mastery learning romnesc Structura i funcionalitatea modelului propus sunt asigurate (conform schemei de ai sus pagina urmtoare) de 3 categorii fundamentale de activitii:

1. diagnosticul instruirii - pentru stabilirea strii iniiale a instruirii; 2. instruirea difereniat - pentru dirijarea riguroas a nvrii n direcia obiectivelor
instrucionale;

3. evaluarea rezultatelor - pentru controlul continuu al procesului prin prisma rezultatelor


pariale sau finale. Oricare ar fi modalitatea practic de transpunere a modelului, nainte de orice, aceste trei activiti trebuie s se regseasc transpuse n planificarea (trimestrial/semestrial sau chiar anual) a activitii cadrului didactic. Transpunerea corect n practic nu poate fi fcut oricum. Cadrul didactic trebuie s apeleze la mai multe categorii de tehnici i instrumente pentru a putea proceda tiinific (vezi Baghetele magice din Anexe). A. Diagnosticul instruirii l oblig pe educator s deprind tehnica elaborrii, aplicrii i prelucrrii rezultatelor testelor iniiale sau predictive. B. Instruirea difereniat l oblig s studieze i s aplice numeroase instrumente intrate n ansamblul a ceea ce s-a numit tehnologia instruirii, n special pentru a proiecta instruirea i a dirija nemijlocit mecanismele de nvare.

173

C. Evaluarea riguroas, bazat pe ct posibil pe msurare, oblig la nsuirea tehnicilor de evaluare formativ continu i evaluare sumativ periodic (construirea, aplicarea i valorificarea testelor respective). O schema detaliat este relevant i credem c va sugera c procesul presupune o succesiune riguroas de activiti. 1.6.2.2. Structura detaliat a modelului i sursele de inspiraie

174

175

Figura Nr.28 Modelul detaliat ( Negre-Dobridor, 1987, 1995, 2005 ) Simpla examinare a Fig nr.28 este suficient pentru a sugera c, dincolo de elementele care l compun, modelul presupune o concepie specific despre instruire care admite c, utiliznd o anumit tehnologie de proiectare i realizare a instruirii n condiiile unui diagnostic riguros al strii iniiale a acesteia, este posibil acoperirea lacunelor grave prin programe speciale de

176

recuperare la care s participe toi elevii cu rmneri importante n urma la nvtur i tratarea difereniat prin dirijarea nemijlocit a nvrii cunotinelor eseniale n clas. Modelul mprumut, aa cum am mai spus, numeroase sugestii i elemente pecare nelegem s le precizam: a) nsi ideea posibilitii de a controla i dirija mecanismele de nvare prin contact nemijlocit ne-a fost sugerat de cteva teorii ale instruirii. Am avut n vedere n acest sens opinii dezvoltate de ctre N.L. Gage (196373), Sherman74 (1974 ), Keller75 ( 1983 ) B.S. Masia (1967), E.E. Haddan (197076) care n fond, au valorificat superior concepte propuse de ctre B.F. Skinner77 (1954), Ausubel78 (1978 ), Gagn79 (1966, 1965, 1968, 1985, 1987, 1996 ); .a. b) Este uor de observat maniera specific abordrii sistemice (L. VON Bertalanfy80) de armonizare a elementelor luate n considerare, att de rodnic i pentru alte ncercri de acelai fel: Popper 81(1973), G. de Landsheere82 (1970), UNESCO (1968, 1970, 1980), Keller i Sherman83 (1964), Block 84(1970), Bloom85 (1968, 1971), Thorshen (1971), Bonboir86 (1970
N.L. GAGE, Parafigms for Research on Teaching, n Handbook of Research on Teaching, N.L. GAGE (Ed.). Chicago, Rand Mc Nally&Co., 1963
73 74

SHERMAN, J. G. (ed. ) Personalized System of Instruction, Menlo Park, California, 1974

75

KELLER, J. M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructionaldesign theories and models: An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. E. E. HADDAN, Evolving Instruction, Mac Millan, New York, 1970 B.F. Skinner, The Technology of Teaching, 1968. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts Library of Congress 78 AUSUBEL, D. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York: Grune & Stratton; AUSUBEL, D., NOVAK, J., & HANESIAN, H. (1978). Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View (2nd Ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston 79 ROBERT M. GAGNE, (1966). The conditions of learning (1st ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston; GAGN, R. M. (1968). Learning Hierarchies. Educational Psychologist. American Psychological Association. ; GAGN, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning and Theory of Instruction (4th ed). New York: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston. ; GAGN, R. M. (1987). Instructional Technology Foundations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. ; GAGN, R. M. (1996). Learning processes and instruction. Training Research Journal. 1(1),p17-28. ; GAGN, R. M. with KAREN MEDSKER. (1996). The conditions of learning: Training Applications. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
76 77

LUDWIG VON BERTALANFFY, Kritische Theorie der Formbildung, Borntraeger. In English: Modern Theories of Development: An Introduction to Theoretical Biology, Oxford University Press, New York: Harper, 1933. 81 K.R. POPPER, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1934 (as Logik der Forschung, English translation 1959). 82 VIVIANE DE LANDSHEERE, GILBERT DE LANDSHEERE, Definirea obiectivelor educaiei ( trad. rom. ) , EDP, 1979 83 F.S. KELLER, J.G. SHERMAN (eds.) The Keller Plan Handbook, Menlo Park, Benjamin, 1974 84 BLOCK, J. (1971). Mastery learning: Theory and practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston
80

177

), Clark, Guskey & Benninga87 (1983 ), Cardarelli (1973), C.V. Shard (1973), Hawkins (1973), C. Brzea (1979, 1982), Kulik 88(1990). Mai puin evident este orientarea praxiologic (T. Kotarbinski) i mprumuturile din management (Taylor, Mayo etc.) care au generat i alte ncercri (R. F. Mager, 1962; ghidurile de tehnologia educaiei ale Universitii Harvard .a.) de a constitui o tehnologie a instruirii n conformitate cu ideea ca procesul instruirii poate fi abordat n termeni specifici teoriei aciunii eficiente i condus raional prin prisma unor obiective (rezultate scontate ) prestabilite (management by objectives). Aceasta nu nseamn c modelul a fost conceput inginerete i c ignor latura uman i dimensiunea creativ a instruirii. Dimpotriv. Dincolo de structura tehnic menit a evita prin rigoare improvizaiile arbitrare i hazardul n procesul instructiv-educativ modelul nostru se bazeaz pe o concepie umanist i hermenist despre educaie i formarea uman, consecvent cu ideile dezvoltate n partea I a acestei lucrri. Ambiia noastr a fost aceea de a armoniza ntr-un tot unitar pedagogia prin obiective cu aa-numitul management by men pentru a evita tehnicizarea excesiv a instruirii. Educatorului i se cere s fie, n acelai timp, RAIONAL i CREATIV. c) Dup cum este lesne de observat, modelul propus se nscrie n limitele exigenelor generale ale strategiilor mastery learning (J.B. Carroll, 1963; Carroll i Bloom, 1968; Bloom, 1976; Block, 1971; Bloom si Anderson, 1971; Torshen89, 1977; Keller i Sherman, 1974, 1976; Bonboir, 1970; De Ketele i Paquay, 1974; Levine90, 1985; Mevarech91, 1985; Okey92, 1977; Wentling93, 1977; s.a); mai precis modelul mprumut structura general a nvrii depline: diagnostic + instruire + evaluare - precum i ideea programelor compensatorii de remediere i
B. S. BLOOM Bloom, B. (1968). Learning for mastery. Evaluation Comment,1(2), 1-5; BLOOM, B. (1971). Mastery learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. 86 BONBOIR, A. La pdagogie corrective, Paris, PUF, 1970 87 CLARK, C., GUSKEY, T., & BENNINGA, J. (1983). The effectiveness of mastery learning strategies in undergraduate education courses. Journal of Educational Research, 76(4), 210-214.
85

KULIK, C., KULIK, J., & BANGERT-DROWNS, R. (1990). Effectiveness of mastery learning programs: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 60(2), 265-306. 89 TORSHEN, K. P., The Mastery Approach to Competency-Based Education, New York, Academic Press, 1977. 90 LEVINE, D. (1985). Improving student achievement through mastery learning programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 91 MEVARECH, Z. (1985). The effects of cooperative mastery learning strategies on mathematics achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 78(3), 372-377 92 OKEY, J. (1977). Consequences of training teachers to use a mastery learning strategy. Journal of Teacher Education, 28(5), 57-62 93 WENTLING, T. (1973). Mastery versus nonmastery instruction with varying test item feedback treatments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(1), 50-58
88

178

de mbogire, aa cum apar acestea n majoritatea modelelor amintite (Brzea, 1982); n mod special s-a acordat importan ideii de ritm propriu de nvare (Carroll i Block, 1968) i ideii de tratament corectiv (Bonboir, 1970); s-a mprumutat tehnica diferenierii instruirii prin grupuri omogene, proprie modelului elaborat de ctre Block i Anderson (1975), tehnica evalurii iniiale i a evalurii-diagnostic specifice instruirii bazate pe competene (Torshen, 1977). d) Modelul poate fi considerat util pentru a promova o pedagogie prin obiective (Brzea, 1982) - cu toate consecinele care rezult dintr-o astfel de abordare. ntre acestea, n primul rnd se impune necesitatea de a face apel la ceea ce s-a numit tehnologia educaiei- creia ncercm sa i dm (n consens cu R.M. Gagn i I.J. Briggs 94, 1972) o accepiune mai ampl. Fornd analogia putem spune c T.E. implica dou categorii de activiti: - mai nti, activitile de concepere tiinific a instruirii sau de proiectare a acesteia (software); - n al doilea rnd, activitile instrumentale de realizare practic a instruirii cu ajutorul mijloacelor pedagogice (hardware); La fel de sugestiv este analogia cu relaiile dintre arhitect i constructor ntr-un proces de aedificare. Educatorul trebuie ns s joace ambele roluri n edificiul paideutic. e) Conceperea sau proiectarea tiintific a instririi (software) este, n fond, o activitate de pregtire riguroas a activitii didactice astfel nct s devin posibil dirijarea sigur a mecanismelor de nvare i controlul progreselor n instruire la fiecare elev n parte. Pentru a desfura o asemenea activitate n modul cel mai adecvat cu putin sunt necesare instrumente ct mai eficace pentru planificarea i proiectarea instruirii prin prisma unor obiective pedagogice ct mai riguros delimitate. n vederea planificrii materiei am apelat la sugestiile lui G. de Landsheere (1979) privind derivarea, specificarea i definirea obiectivelor pedagogice. n vederea proiectrii propriu-zise a activitilor didactice am rmas consecveni modelului propus n etape anterioare (Jinga i Negre, 1982, 1983). Am convenit ns ca n practicarea modelului propus s utilizam taxonomia Bloom-Krathwohl-Harrow95, procedura de

R.M. GAGN I I.J. BRIGGS, Principii de design al instruirii (trad. rom. ), EDP, 1977 Vide opera integral i reinterpretarea ei: B.S. BLOOM: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals; pp. 201207;B. S. Bloom (Ed.) Susan Fauer Company, Inc. 1956; Krathwohl, D. R., Anderson, L. W. (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives;
94 95

179

operaionalizare sugerat prin prisma distinciilor lui Scriven96 (1965) i Bloom (1978) crora ns le-am adus amendamente. Am propus o serie de procedee pe elaborare mai riguroas a ceea ce am numit strategii didactice focalizate asupra obiectivelor introducnd obligativitatea formulrii sarcinilor cu int pe obiective operaionale i a situaiilor optime de nvare. Asupra ameliorrilor i procedeelor noi propuse struim cu detalii n subcapitolul urmtor. f) n ceea ce privete realizarea efectiv a instruirii, am acordat atenie necesitii motivrii nvrii n clas sau la programe compensatorii prin luarea n considerare a aa-numitelor evenimente instrucionale deduse de ctre R.M. Gagn (1965, 1979) din investigaii privind succesiunea temporal a evenimentelor motivaionale care se produc pe parcursul realizrii unor sarcini de lucru (Ausubel i Robinson, 1980) crora le-am adus, dup cum se va vedea, substaniale amendamente. g) Fa de modalitatea grafic a realizrii planificrii i proiectelor pedagogice am convenit asupra unor formule simple, convergente cu sugestii oferite de ctre L. Vlsceanu (1985) i pe care le-a promovat mpreun cu ali autori (Constana Brboi i I. Negre, 1983) n realizarea unor instrumente deja utilizate n coal.

96

SCRIVEN, M. (1967). The methodology of evaluation. In R. W. TYLER, R. M. GAGNE, AND M. SCRIVEN (Eds.), Perspectives in Curriculum Evaluation (pp. 39-83). Chicago: Rand McNally. Vezi noua viziune asupra evalurii n SCRIVEN, MICHAEL (1999). The nature of evaluation. Part I: relation to psychology. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(11). 180

Capitolul 2. PUNCTE DE SPRIJIN IN VEDEREA FOLOSIRII MODELELOR MASTERY LEARNING OBIECTIVE OPERATIONALE
Studiind acest capitol cursanii vor deveni capabili: 1. 2. s realizeze teste docimologice pentru diagnoza strii instruirii ; s organizeze tiinific programe de ratrapare i programe de mbogire

a cunotinelor i competenelor

181

In vederea nelegerii ct mai exacte a modelelor mastery learning i a folosirii corecte a modelului descris mai sus, redm cateva aspecte de detaliu care solicit o atentie speciala in legatura cu fiecare componenta a sa.

2.1 Construirea testelor pentru diagnoza strii instruirii


Diagnosticul instruirii trebuie practicat la nceputul fiecrui nou ciclu de instruire, precum i ori de cte ori profesorul (invtorul) preia un nou colectiv de elevi, cu ajutorul unor teste docimologice cu funcie predictiv. Costruirea acestora urmeaz o schem simpl:
Materia ciclului de instruire parcurs pn la data testrii O-1 O-2 . O-n I-1 I-2 . I-n

Pasul I

Pasul II (Obiectivele terminale)

Pasul III ( itemii testului )

Figura Nr 29 Construirea testelor iniiale/predictive Scopul evaluarii-diagnostic este acela de a identifica lacunele intervenite n pregtirea fiecrui elev in ciclul de instruire anterior parcurs. Elaborarea testelor predictive implic definirea retroactiv a obiectivelor pedagogice terminale ale ciclului/ anului colar precedent (capitol, grup de lecii, materia unui trimestru), n vederea regsirii capacitilor eseniale pe care toi elevii ar fi trebuit sa le posede cel puin pn la nivelul performanei colare minimal acceptabile. Operaia necesit o regndire a materiei specificat n programa colar prin prisma unei taxonomii de obiective pedagogice (n experimentele noastre am convenit s fie utilizat exclusiv taxonomia Bloom-Krathwohl-Harrow). Pe baza inventarului de obiective construit retroactiv se pot elabora teste predictive alctuite din itemi care verific nivelul de
182

realizare al principalelor obiective. Orice obiectiv nerealizat cel puin la un nivel acceptabil de performan colar marcheaz o lacun instrucional care se va rsfrnge negativ asupra capacitii de nelegere a materiei n continuare i deci oblig la organizarea unui proces de instruire recuperatorie.

2.2 Demersul diagnozei


Urmrii n figura de mai jos paii care trebuie ndeplinii n procesul de diagnoz a strii instrucionale a clasei de elevi.
Construirea testului (obiective+itemi ) I1 O1 I2 Aplicar O2 ea I3 testului O3 . diagno . In stic On Progra m de ratrapa re Valorificare Identif. a Elevilor cu rezultatelor lacune Identif. testului Elevilor cu aptitudini

Ciclul de instruir e anterio r parcurs

Classro om learning

Program de mbogir e

Figura Nr. 30. Diagnoza strii instrucionale a clasei Aceasta este deci modalitatea esenial de stabilire a coninutului i a participanilor la programele recuperatorii. n mod analog, depirea substaniala a nivelului standard de performan va face posibil organizarea programelor de mbogire. Coninutul acestora va putea fi ns optimizat i n funcie de rezultatele evalurilor formative i sumative practicate n procesul propriu-zis de nvmnt desfurat cu ntreaga clas de elevi. Procesul de formulare a itemilor pentru materia ciclului de instruire anterior trebuie realizat pe baza unei taxonomii de obiective pedagogice prin consultarea atent a programelor n vigoare, urmat de discuii n cadrul catedrelor sau al comisiilor metodice pentru a alctui o baza unitar pentru elaborarea testelor predictive (sau de evaluare iniial). Aplicarea testelor, astfel construite, va conduce spre identificarea felului n care cei care nva se vor nscrie (pentru colective care depesc o suta de elevi) pe o curb n form de
183

clopot cu tendin de deplasare spre stnga sau dreapta (spre i sau spre J) - n funcie de specificul i calitatea pregtirii n fiecare colectiv de elevi. Cnd testele se aplic la nivelul clasei (ele se pot aplica i la nivelul unui an de studiu), ne putem rezuma la nregistrarea rezultatelor n tabele de frecven, consemnnd separate greelile tipice. Esenial este ns c n acest fel se realizeaz un diagnostic pedagogic al instruirii, care difer fundamental de diagnosticul psihologic al crui scop este de a determina potenialul intelectual al elevilor; diagnosticul pedagogic face abstracie de acest aspect, lund n calcul numai felul n care diveri factori (genetici, psihogenetici, sociali etc.) se exprim n planul instruirii, determinnd la un moment dat o anumita imagine instrucional a colectivitii colare, imagine ce urmeaz a fi corectat prin tratament pedagogic ulterior. Aadar, postulnd c instruirea desfurat tiinific poate optimiza starea instruirii, aa cum poate fi aceasta identificat la un moment oarecare al procesului de nvmnt, modelul nostru opune o viziune pedagogica optimist scepticismului specific unor interpretri psihologizante ale problematicii nvrii. Se nelege c programele compensatorii se pot desfura n locul aa numitelor meditaii i consultaii, dar cu respectarea riguroas a diferenierii implicate de natura diferit a obiectivelor i sarcinilor didactice. Programele de recuperare vor avea drept finalitate esenial anularea lacunelor instrucionale aprute n instruire; participanii la recuperare vor fi, aadar, din ce n ce mai puini de-a lungul programului recuperator; dimpotriv, programul de mbogire va tinde s-i mreasc numrul de participani de-a lungul tratamentului optimizator. Esenial este ca fiecare program s se desfoare pe baza unor proiecte bine gndite, cu obiective clare, ordonate ascendant i pe baz de strategii didactice adaptate paticularitilor individuale ale participanilor.

EXERCIII
1. Elaborai 2 teste docimologice de tip sumativ pentru 2 din clasele la care predai lund n considerare ntreaga materie parcursde elevi. Ce ar trebui s tie i s fac elevii n mod esenial pentru a continua instruirea?. Cnd vei avea posibilitatea aplicai-le. Consemnai i valorificai rezultatele.
184

2. Construii/simulai un program de ratrapare pentru una din clasele la care predai.

CAPITOLUL 3. PROIECTAREA ACTIVITILOR DE TIP CLASSROOM LEARNING N MODELE MASTERY LEARNING


OBIECTIVE OPERATIONALE Studiind acest capitol cursanii vor deveni capabili:

1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

S proiecteze experiene i activiti de tip mastery learning; S operaionalizeze obiective i competene pedagogice; S construiasc standarde de performan; S eleboreze strategii didactice focalizate pe obiective operaionale i S construiasc teste docimologice formative i sumative

abiliti specifice;

185

Prin instruire nelegem dirijarea nemijlocit a mecanismelor de nvare n clas, suplimentat prin programe speciale de recuperare sau mbogire a cunotinelor i prin studiu individual acas, la nternat sau semiinternat. Este vorba de un management by men al clasei de elevi bazat pe raionalitate tiinific i pe hermeneutica experienelor de nvare colar. ntruct elementele referitoare la programele compensatorii i la studiul individual sunt mai uor de intuit, nepresupunnd elemente originale fa de practicile existente, struim, n special, asupra modalitilor de proiectare i realizare a instruirii eficiente prin dirijarea nemijlocit a mecanismelor de nvare n clas. Cum aceast problem implic ns discuii mai ample, le cuprindem n subcapitole speciale.

3.1. Proiectarea tiinific a experienelor i activitilor de nvare n clas


Am artat n partea a II-a a acestui curs ( capitolul VII, subcapitolul 7.6. ) c microproiectarea experienalor i activitilor de nvare este o prelungire teleologic fireasc, care ine de nsi logica intern a abordrii curriculare. n cele ce urmeaz detaliem exigenele acestui proces care constituie conditio-sine-quq-non a eficacitii i eficienei instruirii moderne. 3.1.1.Ce nelegem prin micro-proiectarea instruirii? Recitii subcapitolele 7.1., 7.2., 7. , 7.4. i, mai ales 7.5. din capitolul VII al prii a II-a! Vei constata c, odat planificat materia pe capitole i uniti instrucionale, n vederea parcurgerii integrale a programelor colare i a unor evaluri periodice sumative i finale, devine posibil micro-proiectarea activitilor didactice (de preferin lecii unice sau grupe de 2-3 lecii). Pornind de la ideile avansate de ctre Gagn i Briggs (1977), am convenit c a proiecta instruirea n vederea nvrii eficiente n clas presupune parcurgerea anumitor etape de gndire n urmtoarea ordine:

186

a) Mai nti, educatorul care proiecteaz o activitate didactica ar trebui s defineasc ntr-o form operaional obiectivele pedagogice sau, dac este cazul, a competenelor specifice adic rezultatele ateptate ale activitilor pe care trebuie s le desfoare (sau ale experienelor de nvare la care este supus elevul). b) n al doilea rnd, educatorul proiectant ar trebui s stabileasc resursele necesare i s identifice restriciile ce se impun realizrii obiectivelor. Resursele nvrii se refer la coninutul tiinific al nvrii i la capacitile de nvare disponibile n clas. Restriciile se refera la condiii i obstacole externe nvrii propriu-zise ce nu pot fi depite prin nici un fel de adjuvante de ordin pedagogic. De regul, restriciile principale sunt legate de timpul disponibil (n mod obinuit de timpul limitat) pentru nvare i de spaiul n care nvarea se desfoar (amenajarea clasei, materiale didactice etc.). c) n al treilea rnd, educatorul care proiecteaz activitatea didactic trebuie s elaboreze strategii didactice pentru fiecare obiectiv operaional stabilit. d) n fine, n al patrulea rnd, procesul de proiectare poate fi considerat ncheiat dac se construiete un test de evaluare formativ sau sumativ - a obiectivelor activitii didactice. e) Unii autori, precum Katims i Smith (1977) au pledat pentru construirea unui fel de anex a proiectului pedagogic n care educatorul descrie un model de implementare complet i corect n practic a respectivului proiect (scenariul didactic). 3.1.2. Modelul general de micro-proiectare pedagogic Modelul general de concepere (software) sau de proiectare a fiecrei activiti didactice presupune cel puin operaiile redate n prezentarea care urmeaz: Ce voi face? Deriv i definete obiective operaionale din obiective mai generale sau competene prevzute n programa analitic! Cu ce voi face? Asigur i estimeaz resursele necesare (coninuturile eseniale, ritmurile de nvare) i resursa /restricia timp disponibil ! Cum voi face? Elaboreaz strategii didactice focalizate pe fiecare obiectiv n parte: sarcini de nvare cu int pe fiecare obiectiv n parte i condiii optime de nvare ! Cum voi verifica dac ceea ce am fcut este exact ceea ce trebuia? Elaboreaz un test docimologic formativ sau sumativ pentru a controla rezultatele/performanele i progresul nvrii !

187

Figura Nr. 31. Modelul general de concepere/proiectare a activitilor didactice Mai precis, n concepia noastr proiectarea instruirii implic descrierea unui drum de la obiective la rezultate, esenial fiind posibilitatea de a le compara permanent, retroactiv, prin procese de evaluare. Iat dou scheme sugestive:

Figura Nr. 32. Esena microproiectrii pedagogie a experienelor de nvare

O1 O2 O3

Co2 Co2 Co3

I(o1) So1 So2 So3 I(o2) I (o3)

On

Con

I(on) Son

Figura Nr.33. Schema general a oricrui proiect didactic bine gndit Aadar, structura unui proiect pedagogic va apare, schematic, ca n fig.33, unde: O - obiectiv operaional; CO - coninut esenial pentru realizarea obiectivului operaional; SO - strategie (sarcin de lucru dat elevului, derivat din obiectiv i situaia de nvare adecvat astfel nct elevul s poat rezolva sarcina conexa n minimum de timp, cu minimum de efort i maximum de satisfacie a nvrii). I(O) - itemul testului de evaluare.

188

3.1.3 Un demers pragmatic Se poate recurge la urmtoarea sistematizare pragmatic a etapelor i operaiilor de realizare a unui micro-proiect pedagogic:

CEVOI FACE ?

nainte de a face orice alceva precizai n mod clar OBIECTIVELE OPERRAIONALE derivndu-le corect din competene speecifice sau obiective generale !

CU CE VOI FACE ?

Analizai atent RESURSELE EDUCAIONALE de care dispunei pentru a realiza obiectivele !

CUM VOI FACE ?

Elaborai STRATEGII EDUCAIONALE focalizate pe obiectivele operaionale !

CUM VOI TI DAC S-A REALIZAT CE TREBUIA?

Stabilii un SISTEM DE EVALUARE a performanelor i a progreselor celor care nva !

Figura 3 4. Etapele proiectrii pedagogice Fiecare dintre aceste etape va putea fi operaionalizat sub forma unor demersuri de tipul step-by-step n felul urmtor:

189

I. PRECIZAREA OBIECTIVELOR

1.1.

Identificai

program

obiectivul

terminal sau competena specific! 1.2. Stabilii ce va ti sau va ti s fac elevul la sfritul activitii folosind o taxonomie de obiective! 1.3. Precizai standardele de performan acceptabile pe care trebuie s le ndeplineasc elevii folosind procedura de operaionalizare! 1.4. Estimai dac obiectivele stabilite sunt realizabile n timpul disponibil ! 1.1. Abandonai obiectivele

neeseniale dac timpul de care 1.2.dispunei nu v permite realizarea Stabilii standarde de performan minimal acceptabil pentru fiecare obiectiv operaional
I I

ANALIZA RESURSELOR

reinut ! 2.1.Stabilii cninuturile fiecare obiectiv n parte ! 2.2.Difereniai instruirea

eseniale

pentru

constituind

microgrupuri conform ritmurile de nvare


III

ELABORAREA STRATEGIEI

ale elevilor din clas la care vei preda! 3.1.Enunai sarcini de nvare cu int pe fiecare obiectiv i difereniai instruirea solicitnd progresiv standarde de performan peste nivelul minimal acceptabil 3.2.Elaborai situaii optime de nvare asigurnd condiiile interne i condiiile externe ale nvriic sunt respectate legea 3.3. Asigurai-v ! efectului, legea econome de timp, legea economiei de efort i c exist suficient motivaie pentru realizarea fiecrei sarcini de nvare ! 4.1.Elaborai un test docimologic construind cel puin cte un item pentru fiecare obiectiv urmrit !

IIII

EVALUAREA

190

Figura Nr.35. Operaiile proiectrii pedagogice a oricrei activiti didactice sau experiene de nvare n clas

3.1.4 Raiunile demersului de proiectare i matricea de specificaie 3.1.4.1 Raiunile acestei sistematizri sunt urmatoarele:

necesitatea de a adapta exigenele generale ale tehnologiei educaiei la specificul colii noastre, al procesului de nvmnt bazat pe clase i lecii; necesitatea de a gsi o convergen ntre spiritul pragmatic al tehnologiei educaionale i modul specific romnesc de abordare a problematicii formrii tinerelor generaii. n legtur cu aceast chestiune se poate invoca existena unei apropieri ntre praxiologie i ceea ce s-ar putea numi spiritul practic al bunului gospodar romn. Se poate sugera, aadar, cadrului didactic s adopte priceperea practic a acestuia, n principal nelepciunea de a ntemeia activitile didactice pe proiecte gndite n termeni concrei. Nu gsim nici o fisur grav ntr-o asemenea apropiere care ar putea considera c aceasta constituie o cale lesnicioas cea de a armoniza tradiii viabile ale colii romneti cu rezultate recente ale cercetrii tiinifice n modele de aciune practic eficient.

3.1.4.2 Eficiena practic se obine n acelai mod pe toate meridianele. Nu avem de-a face cu o americanizare a colii romneti care i-ar sfida tradiiile. Este vorba doar de o eficientizare a instruirii, n limitele bunului sim dar cu instrumente tiinifice i temeiuri raionale. Dincolo de acestea i se solicit educatorului capaciti hermeneutice i creative ct mai nalte. Modelul nu inhib creativitatea pedagogic autentic ci o canalizeaz pe ci drepte care ocolesc, cu obstinaie, hazardul, haosul i improvizaiile. Nu resimt frustrarea de creativitate pedagogic dect acei educatori lipsii total de har pedagogic i de creativitate educativ veritabil. 3.1.4.3 Prin urmare, proiectele pedagogice vor fi matrici de specificaie care pot fi realizate ca n schema de mai jos: Obiective operaionale Coninut esenial Capaciti de nvare
191

Strategii didactice (sarcini i situaii de

Itemii testului de evaluare

disponibile La sfritul CO1-definiia G1 -

nvare) 7 n

(grupa SO1 - Subliniai n I(O1) cu textul de mai jos: predicate predicate G3 - toate predicatele existente Sit. tip de nvare: de i ludic mai G1 - cel puin 7 puin predicate jos:

activitii, toi predicatului; elevii vor fi ntrebrile capabili; O1identifice predicatele ntr-un dat, subliniindu-le cu o linie; obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac vor fi subliniate 7 din cele 12 predicate i nu va fi subliniat vreun cuvnt care nu este predicat. O2 s.. - CO2.. text s care rspunde.

copiilor la ritm lent) L.I. C.G. M.A. . . .

Identificai cel

G2 cel puin 10 textul de mai

G2 - (elevi cu rezolvare ritm mediu de probleme nvare) descoperire; G3 - (elevi cu motivaie nvare) cine gsete

ritm rapid de (concurs ntre grupe: multe etc.)

SO2..

I(O2)

Figura Nr. 36. Matrice de specificaie pentru conceperea grafic a micro-proiectelor pedagogice

3.2 Exigene i proceduri cu privire la competene i obiective


n continuare, facem precizri n legtura cu fiecare dintre elementele care compun un proiect pedagogic astfel elaborat. 3.2.1 Cum se definesc obiectivele pedagogice

192

3.2.1.1 Cteva probleme generale privind obiectivele educaiei Majoritatea cercettorilor apreciaz realizarea primelor taxonomii (clasificri riguros tiinifice) de obiective pedagogice drept nceputul unei revoluii coperniciene n pedagogie. ntr-adevr, se poate considera c nsui procesului educativ nu se poate asocia cu atributul educativ dect atunci cnd se desfoar n direcia unor scopuri clare. Din acest punct de vedere putem fi de acord cu aprecierea lui Gilbert de Lansheere dup care pn la apariia taxonomiei lui Benjamin Bloom, ntreaga istorie a educaiei nu putea fi considerat dect o preistorie a educaiei. Indiscutabil, orice schimbare de comportament determinat n absena contientizrii acestei schimbri de ctre cel care o suporta nu este o schimbare educativ, ci simplu dresaj. Aprecierea lui de Landsheere nu este valabil dac avem n vedere Paideia elin, Imitatio Christi cretin sau pansophia comenian. Dar instruirea nvceilor n colile mnstireti sau eclesiastice (precum vestitele petites coles iezuite) era simplu dresaj: un proces orb de dogmatizare forat a unor homuncului considerai simpli animaculi bipezi, fr contiin. Aadar, orict ar prea de grav prin consecinele pe care le incumb, urmtoarea afirmaie este n ntregime adevrat. Un proces este educativ dac i numai dac educaii sunt contieni de scopurile (rezultatele) acestui proces. Aceste consideraii pot aprea la prima vedere banale. n realitate, practica nvmntului constituie nc, ntr-o msur destul de nsemnat, un spectacol pedagogic dezolant: cei mai muli educatori nu cunosc obiectivele pedagogice ale activitilor pe care le desfoar i, evident, nu le pot face cunoscute nici celor care nva. n aceste condiii, progresul pedagogic este, cum s-a spus, hazardat i orb. Aadar, a defini obiectivele fiecrei activiti didactice constituie mai mult dect o obligaie profesional pentru educator; obligaia are pur i simplu un coninut umanitar. Educatorul trebuie s fie dirijor i nu dresor! n acelai timp, elevii au nevoie sa cunoasc scopurile fiecrei sarcini pe care educatorii le-o solicit din motive psihologice ce comport totodat i consideraii de ordin moral. n principiu, chestiunea se reduce la o norm de deontologie pedagogic pe care am putea-o formula cu urmtoarea expresie: nimeni nu are voie s cear celui care nva s rezolve o sarcin de nvare dac nu cunoate el nsui obiectivele pe care rezolvarea respectivei sarcini le-ar realiza i dac nu a fcut cunoscute elevilor acele obiective. Informarea elevilor asupra obiectivelor determin la cei mai muli i o participare motivat la activitatea de nvare. 3.2.1.2 Ierarhia obiectivelor i ierarhia competenelor

193

Obiective sau competene ? Iat o problem inutil care a dat natere la dispute n coala romneasc i nc d destul btaie de cap. Nu este uor s definim obiectivele pedagogice nici cnd este vorba de un sistem de lecii, nici cnd este vorba de o simpl lecie. Cu att mai mult, definirea obiectivelor unei discipline sau chiar a unui ciclu de nvmnt. Din pcate, nici Noul Curriculum Naional din 1998-1999 nu a rezolvat corespunztor problema. Noile programe din 2006 conin confuzii multiple care i nucesc pe educatori. Expresia competen a fascinat o serie de manageri educaionali care au luat decizii pripite i nefundamentate pe documentare pedagogic i curriculara solide. S-au amestecat, iraional i incompetent, modele vocaionale bazate pe competene profesionale, modelul instruirii bazate pe competene al lui Thorshen, cu modelul pedagogiei prin obiective(Bloom) i chiar cu modelul demersurilor transdisciplinare (DHainaut). A rezultat un mixtum compozitum haotic care, n loc s orienteze, dimpotriv, dezorinteaz. Desigur, aceast problema ne apare n toat complexitatea dar i simplitatea ei dac prin obiectiv pedagogic vom nelege un rezultat al instruirii exprimat n termeni de comportament sau capaciti de nvare ale elevului. Altfel, chestiunea este uor soluionabil. 3.2.1.3 Convertirea competenelor n obiective i a obiectivelor n competene Competena a nu se confunda cu metafora competen-cheie folosit de Parlamentul European este o summa articulat de capaciti de face un anumit lucru n mod miestrit; la rndul lor capacitaile sunt compositio elementorum, adic articulri de abiliti, skills-uri, abiliti, priceperi i cunotine strict specializate pentru realizarea unui job, a unei profesii utile, a unei profesii artistice etc. Prin urmare competenele, i mai ales componentele lor capacitile i abilitile, pot fi convertite cu uurin n obiective operaionale i invers. nsi operaionalizare obiectivelor pedagogice implic o atare raiune. Este suficient s enunm corect un obiectiv pedagogic folosid o procedur standard precum cea propus de Gilbert de Landsheere pentru a ne da seama de acest lucru. Iat un exemplu oarecare. La sritul activitii didactice toi elevii vor deveni capabili s aplice regula de trei simpl rezolvnd probleme dintr-o fi dat; obiectivul va fi considerat atins cnd: a) vor fi rezolvate cel puin 5 dintre cele 10 probleme date; b) nu vor exista nici un fel de greeli de aplicare a regulii de 3 s;

194

c) sunt permise maximum 3 greeli de calcul


Expresia subliniat mai sus indic precis la capacitatea de a ndeplini ceva. Este limpede c obiectivele i competenele reclam acelai unic registru paideutic i c pretinsele incompatibiliti dintre ele sunt doar impresii ale unor persoane care nu au o cultur psihopedagogic prea solid. Cum se tie, este uor s definim obiective pedagogice n termeni de comportament al educatorului, ntruct prin aceasta se stabileau conduite controlate direct de ctre educatorul nsui. ntrebat cu cinci minute nainte de a intra la lecie ce obiective pedagogice urmrete, un educator poate da rspunsuri de felul: vreau s stimulez creativitatea; vreau s predau tema X; vreau s dezvolt spiritul critic etc. Dar aceste obiective exprim comportamente ale educatorului. Or, o tehnologie riguroas, solicit definirea obiectivelor pedagogice n termeni de comportament al elevului, ceea ce este mai ntotdeauna dificil. Dar msura acestei dificulti este direct proporional cu complexitatea proceselor educative; cci, dup cte cunoatem, indiferent ct de multe procese i fenomene complexe s-au identificat n Univers, niciunul dintre acestea nu depete n complexitate procesul formrii umane. Educaia este, probabil, cel mai complex fenomen din Univers. A considera drept exagerat aceast afirmaie nseamn, pur i simplu, a ignora natura uman. Faptul ca atare poate rmne fr implicaii atunci cnd abordm speculativ chestiunea. ns educaia este i un proces eminamente practic. Dup cum se tie, ntr-un sistem de nvmnt organizat, obiectivele pedagogice sunt structurate dup cel puin trei niveluri de complexitate, n felul urmtor: Putem conveni s definim aceste categorii de obiective n felul urmtor:

FINALITI GENERALE

OBIECTIVE CU GENERALITATE MEDIE OBIECTIVE 195 OPERATIONALE

Figura Nr. 37 Ierarhia obiectivelor pedagogice

Treapta I: Obiectivele generale sunt elurile, finalitile care urmeaz a fi


realizate de ctre toi educatorii care acioneaz n cadrul sistemului ntr-un timp ndelungat. Ele pot fi definite i sub form de competene care caracterizeaz profilul unui produs educativ: expert, inginer, medic adic absolvent al unei instituii educative cu misiune clar definit i asumat. Aceste obiective sunt evident irealizabile ntr-o singur activitate didactic; ndeplinirea lor apare ca o rezultant a realizrii tuturor obiectivelor pariale i specifice, aflate pe niveluri ierarhice inferioare.

Treapta a II-a: Obiectivele de generalitate medie (specifice unor forme, niveluri,


structuri, discipline de nvmnt) sunt incluse ntr-un sistem educaional mai vast. i acestea pot fi definite sub form de competene n sensul menionat mai sus. Competenele pot fi detaliate n capaciti, abiliti etc. care, la rndul lor, pot fi convertite n obiective de generalitate medie. Nici aceste obiective nu sunt operaionale, n sensul de a nu putea fi ndeplinite de ctre un singur profesor ntr-o lecie sau ntr-o secven de instruire; totui, ele sunt oarecum semioperaionale, ntruct realizarea lor apare ca o rezultant a aciunii directe a tuturor educatorilor care acioneaz n subsistemul educaional dat; totodat, aceste obiective ghideaz ntregul proces educativ desfurat n acest subsistem; deci dau fiecrui profesor n parte direcia de mers, l orienteaz ntr-o perspectiv mai apropiat. Detaliate la niveluri ale materiei precum capitolele sau unitile instrucionale, ele capt calitatea de a putea face posibile msurri sumative ale cunotinelor i capacitilor de a utiliza aceste cunotine.

Treapta a III-a: Obiectivele operaionale pot fi considerate inte concrete,


apropiate, ale fiecrei activiti didactice (lecii, activiti practice etc.). Numai acestea sunt practic realizabile de ctre educatori ntr-o singura activitate
196

didactic sau ntr-o singur secven de activitate didactic. De exemplu, obiectivul operaional al unei activiti didactice desfurate la lecia ecuaia de gradul I cu o necunoscut ar putea fi: La sfritul leciei, fiecare elev va fi capabil s rezolve orice ecuaie algebric liniar cu o necunoscut, aflnd necunoscuta fr ajutorul referinelor, al tabelelor sau dispozitivelor de calcul. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins cnd fiecare elev va rezolva corect cel puin primele trei exerciii din fia de lucru dat. O ierarhie structural similar se regsete n orice curriculum centrat pe competene.

COMPETEN E MAJORE

COMPETENE SPECIFICE

CAPACITI Cunotine de baz, skills, abiliti, priceperi simple

Figura Nr. 39 Ierarhia abilitilor, capacitilor i competenelor

3.3 Rolul decisiv al operaionalizrii n microproiectarea pedagogic


S reinem un lucru considerat fundamental n pedagogia modern: Operaionalizarea absolut necesar att n proiectarea unor activiti centrate pe competene ct i n proiectarea unor activiti centrate pe obiective comportamentale. n absena ei nu mai este posibil stabilirea corect de standarde de 3.3.1. Cum ajugem la obiectivele operaionale?

197

Obiectivele operaionale sunt crmizile din care sunt alctuite obiectivele cu generalitate medie i trebuie definite prin derivare din acestea. n esen, ele indic o capacitate mintal care face posibil o performan de nvare. Prin urmare, pot fi definite i prin convertirea capacitilor (nelese ca elemente componente ale unor competene n sensul modelului Thorshen i ale altor modele vocaionale bazate pe competene) n skills-uri, abiliti, priceperi etc. de a realiza anumite performane de nvare. n principiu, educatorii trebuie s realizeze n lecie numai obiective operaionale. Cum se ajunge la obiectivele operaionale? Gilbert de Landsheere (1979) sugereaz trei faze ale procesului prin care se poate ajunge de la cele mai nalte finaliti ale unui sistem de nvmnt la obiectivele concrete (operaionale) ale activitii didactice. - n faza I se construiete inventarul celor mai generale obiective pe baza analizei funciei speciale a nvmntului i a interogrii societii asupra nevoilor sale de educaie; - n faza a II-a se stabilesc obiectivele cu nivel de abstracie intermediar pe baza explicitrii finalitilor generale n termenii de comportamente, afective i psihomotorii; aceasta nseamn a elabora taxonomii de obiective specifice respectivului sistem de nvmnt; - n faza a III-a se inventariaz obiectivele specifice sau terminale pe baza diferenierii obiectivelor cu nivel de abstracie intermediar n funcie de nivelurile i tipurile de nvmnt. n Faza I acestor trei demersuri este posibil stabilirea obiectivelor concrete, specifice urma Ideal educaional,
Profil de formare, materiilor de nvmnt; abia din acestea educatorii vor putea apoi s derive cu ajutorul Modele socioInventarul celor mai procedurilor de operaionalizare obiective concrete, msurabile pentru leciile sau sistemele de umane dezirabile generale obiective lecii pe care le desfoar cu elevii. Pornind de aici se pot realiza adaptri mai sugestive.

Faza a II-a Inventarul i diferenierea obiectivelor la un nivel de abstracie intermediar.


Competene de baz ale unor profiluri de formare; domenii i capaciti taxonomice

Faza a III-a: Inventarul i diferenierea obiectivelor specifice.

Competene specifice, Cunotine, Capaciti i 198 Obiective operaionale

Figura Nr. 40. Derivarea obiectivelor i capacitilor din obiective generale i competene 3.3.2 Instrumentele operaionalizrii Odat orientai corect n ceea ce privete problematica obiectivelor pedagogice, educatorii pot defini ntr-o form operaional, relativ uor, obiectivele activitilor didactice pe care le desfoar, dac vor folosi cel puin trei instrumente tiinifice:

taxonomie de obiective preconstruite;


o procedur standard de operaionalizare i

inventarul verbelor care definesc comportamente observabile i msurabile


pentru fiecare clas de comportament din taxonomia adoptat. Am convenit c trei asemenea instrumente, apreciate de mai muli cercettori romni drept cele mai potrivite pentru condiiile colii noastre (E.P. Noveanu, 1983; I. Cerghit, 1983; Jinga i Negre, 1983; I.T. Radu, 1984; M. Ionescu, 1982), ar putea fi adoptate unitar n modelul pe care l-am propus. Taxonomia de obiective n 1951 Bloom a indicat ase clase de comportament pentru domeniul cognitiv: I. achiziia de informaii sau cunoaterea; II. comprehensiunea sau nelegerea informaiilor; III. aplicarea sau capacitatea de a transpune n practic; IV. analiza sau capacitatea de a identifica pri componente cu principii de organizare; V. sinteza sau capacitatea de a produce noul; VI. evaluarea sau capacitatea de a judeca critic.
199

n 1970 David Krathwohl a reuit s descrie taxonomia obiectivelor din domeniul afectiv; el a identificat cinci clase de comportament: I. receptarea; II. rspunsul; III. valorizarea; IV. conceptualizarea; V. interiorizarea. n 1972 Harrow a reuit s descrie taxonomia obiectivelor din domeniul psihomotor. El a identificat ase clase de comportament: I. micri reflexe; II. micri fundamentale; III. capaciti perceptibile; IV. capaciti fizice; V. abiliti motrice; VI. micri expresive. Construcia lui Bloom, Krathwohl i Harrow, cum se tie, constituie un tot unitar. Singurul inconvenient mai serios al taxonomiei pare a fi cel sesizat de ctre DHainaut: separarea oarecum arbitrar a celor trei domenii de dezvoltare a personalitii. Totui, acest inconvenient nu pare de nedepit. Pe de o parte este clar c n procesul de nvmnt domeniul cognitiv prezint un interes prioritar putndu-se adesea face abstracie de celelalte dou. Totui, pentru situaiile n care domeniul cognitiv i afectiv nu pot fi separate, Franz E. Williams (1973) a propus o tehnic de integrare de mare utilitate pe care am adaptat-o n modelul nostru . EVALUARE REACIE COMPLEX AUTOMATISM REACIE DIRIJAT DISPOZIIE PERCEPERE SINTEZ ANALIZ APLICARE COMPREHENSIUNE CUNOATERE Figura. Nr.41. Integrarea obiectivelor dup Williams (1973) CARACTERIZARE ORGANIZARE VALORIZARE REACIE

200

Desigur, taxonomia va servi oricnd cadrului didactic pentru ai dentifica precis categorii mari de obiective pe care trebuie s le urmeze n orice activitate didactic, fiind indispensabil orientrii in perspectiv imediat a procesului instructiv-educativ. Totui, este evident c ea este suficient pentru a putea defini, ntr-o form operaional, obiectivele fiecrei activiti didactice. 3.3.3 Procedurile standard de operaionalizare a obiectivelor pedagogice n acest sens, am considerat c educatorii trebuie s apeleze obligatoriu la o procedur standard de operaionalizare a obiectivelor. Este ndeobte cunoscut c un obiectiv operaional trebuie s exprime riguros rezultatul ateptat al instruirii, astfel nct posibilitatea de a stabili n finalul activitii dac acest rezultat a fost sau nu obinut s fie n afara oricrui echivoc. n acest sens, dup cum se tie, s-au propus proceduri standard de exprimare care traduc exigene de logic praxiologic. Prima procedur de acest fel a fost creat de ctre Robert Mager n 1962. Ulterior au fost propuse i altele. Procedura cu cele mai mari avantaje practice ni se pare cea a lui Gilbert de Landsheere (1972). Dup Gilbert de Landsheere, un obiectiv pedagogic este operaional numai dac definiia sa conine cinci precizri:

SUBIECTUL care va produce un anumit comportament; comportamenul observabil ce se va obine sau care este ateptat (CAPACITATEA DE NVARE); PERFORMANA DE NVARE care se obine cu ajutorul comportamentului ateptat; SITUAIA DE NVARE sau condiiile (interne i externe) de nvare n care se va produce comportamentul; STANDARDUL PERFORMANEI ACCEPTABILE; nivelul performanei standard (sau criteriile/descriptorii de reuit Astfel formulat, obiectivul operaional apare ca o expresie ce definete precis o schimbare concret ce se va produce la elev n urma nvrii n clas. De exemplu: La sfritul activitii, toi elevii vor fi capabili (subiectul) s scrie (comportamentul) grupul de litere ghe (performan) dac li se va dicta o lectur ce conine cuvinte cu i fr grupul ghe fr nici un sprijin din partea nvtorului (condiiile de producere a
201

comportamentului). Obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac toate cuvintele care conin grupul ghe vor fi scrise corect de fiecare elev (criteriul de reuit sau standardul de performan acceptabil) Avantajul major al procedurii propuse de ctre Landsheere este acela de a obliga educatorul s precizeze chiar i demersul didactic in baza cruia se va produce schimbarea comportamental dorit; aceasta nseamn c exerciiul mai ndelungat de operaionalizare a obiectivelor va genera capacitatea de a vedea ntreaga activitate didactic prin prisma unor rezultate msurabile, ceea ce, bineneles, l va scuti pe posesor de exerciiul greoi al realizrii proiectelor pedagogice n scris. ntruct am adus unele amendamente procedurii lui Landsheere facem precizri n legtur cu cteva dintre elementele sale. Specificarea I: Subiectul Subiectul procesului de nvmnt este ntotdeauna elevul, nu educatorul, de aceea obiectivele pedagogice trebuie exprimate n termeni de comportament al elevului i nu al educatorului. Totodat, aceast precizare atrage atenia asupra necesitii ca obiectivul s fie atins de ctre toi elevii pentru a determina eficacitatea general a instruirii. n acest sens, majoritatea specialitilor tehnologiei educaiei consider c definiia unui obiectiv operaional trebuie s nceap obligatoriu cu urmtoarea expresie: la sfritul activitii didactice toi elevii vor fi capabili (All children must be able to sau Every child must be able to). Se nelege c n cazul n care n clas exist unul, doi copii cu handicap intelectual de natur genetic stabilit prin diagnostic medical, educatorul va ncepe definirea obiectivului cu expresia: La sfritul activitii 97-95% dintre elevi vor fi capabili . Sub 95% ns se consider c ncepe ineficacitatea instruirii. Specificarea a II-a: Comportamentul ateptat Cerina expres a oricrui obiectiv bine operaionalizat este aceea de a conine obligatoriu un verb de aciune care s defineasc un comportament observabil. Dac un comportament este observabil, atunci el va putea fi o condiie suficient pentru a putea evalua precis, fr nici un echivoc, rezultatul instruirii. Altfel spus, un obiectiv bine operaionalizat se va referi la un comportament despre care se va putea decide: s-a produs sau nu s-a produs. Nu este uor de gsit verbul care s exprime exact comportamentul ateptat. n vederea facilitrii operaionalizrii obiectivelor pedagogice Metffessel, Michael i Kirshner (1969) au alctuit liste complete cu verbele de aciune necesare operaionalizrii obiectivelor din taxonomia lui Bloom pentru domeniile cognitiv i afectiv.

202

ntruct pentru modelul nostru am adoptat taxonomia Bloom, Krathwohl, harrow am folosit bineneles i inventarele de verbe de aciune propuse de Metffessel, Michael i Kirshner (1969).

3.4 Construirea standardelor de performan


Specificarea a III-a i a V-a: Performana i nivelul acceptabil al performanei standard Exigenele a III-a i a V-a dintr-un obiectiv operaionalizat cu formula optimizat a lui Landsheere au, de asemenea, importan capital. Performana nu este altceva dect rezultatul nvrii/produsul care se poate obine pe baza comportamentului ateptat. Este, aadar, un anumit coninut memorat, neles, aplicat, analizat, sintetizat sau evaluat. Se pune problema cantitii de produs educaional pe care dorim s-l obinem. Prin performan trebuie aadar s nelegem manevrarea mintal a unui coninut oarecare cu ajutorul unei capaciti de operare. Prin urmare, comportament/capacitate + coninut = performana de nvare. Cu aceleai capaciti (sau comportamente, n exprimare behaviorist) putem produce un numr infinit de performane de nvare. Discuia privind prioritatea obiectivelor sau prioritatea coninuturilor ntr-un proiect pedagogic, este, dup cum se vede, fr obiect i provine dintr-o nelegere greit a conceptelor de obiectiv, performan i capacitate (sau comportament). Nu este posibil producerea unor performane de nvare dac nu exist coninuturi asupra crora capacitile mintale s se exercite operatoriu. Dar acestea din urm constituie datul esenial, i nu coninuturile. Faptul c n programele actuale de nvmnt se prevd uneori numai coninuturile i nu i capacitile de a opera cu ele nu este dect o suficien de curriculum care trebuie suplinit prin eforturile educatorilor i nu trebuie considerat, n abstract, ca o realitate tabu care condiioneaz definitoriu eforturile noastre. E limpede c programele trebuie reproiectate, pe baza modelelor pedagogice ale disciplinelor. Trebuie neles cu claritate c n nvmntul formativ (i chiar n orice nvmnt) mintea celui care nva constituie i inta i resursa i motivul instruiri. Problema pe care o avem de rezolvat este cum putem transforma un potenial de operare cu informaii n capaciti de operare i nu de a-i bga n cap elevului toate informaiile. Oare informaiile nc nedescoperite dovedesc inexistena unor capaciti de a opera cu ele? Pe vremea lui Aristotel nc nu exista genetica sau informatica. Oare Stagiritul, adus n zilele noastre, n-ar fi dispus de potenialul mintal pentru a le asimila i chiar dezvolta? n realitate, fiinele umane dispun de un genofond rmas nemodificat de aproape o sut de mii de ani care
203

diriguiete i posibilitile sale de dezvoltare intelectual i afectiv; acesta este datul esenial i de la el trebuie pornit. Este puin? Greu de afirmat aa ceva din moment ce, cu aceleai capaciti putem produce un numr nelimitat de performane de nvare. Cu comprehensiunea, de exemplu, orice elev poate nelege orice coninut indiferent de disciplin; i tot astfel se pune problema i n legtur cu analiza, sinteza sau evaluarea. Problema adevrat este: pn la ce nivel trebuie rafinat (sau aprofundat) performana unui elev oarecare pentru a o putea considera acceptabil? Este o ntrebare destul de dificil n condiiile unui sistem de nvmnt n care programele colare nu definesc riguros, chiar dup onorabila reform curricular, nivelul acceptabil al performanelor dorite. n aceast situaie educatorul va fi obligat s stabileasc nivelul performanelor standard pe baza unei analize anterioare a obiectivului terminal specificat, din care face parte un anumit obiectiv operaional urmrit. Stabilirea nivelului performanei standard este o problem de mare responsabilitate pedagogic. Tocmai de aceea sunt necesare, de urgen, modele pedagogice ale disciplinelor alctuite de specialiti. Principial, putem vorbi de trei categorii de standarde de performan: - performan standard minimal acceptabil; - performan standard maximal; - performan standard optimal. Dup unii cercettori, performanele standard minimale constituie cheia de bolt a ntregii problematici a determinrii eficacitii generale a instruirii (Brzea, 1982). Dup prerea noastr este vorba chiar de o piatr unghiular . ntr-adevr, se pune problema de a decide ct de puin se poate admite c poate nva un elev fr ca progresul su instrucional ulterior s nu fie n nici un fel afectat. Este oare uor de rezolvat o asemenea problem de ctre fiecare cadru didactic? Dup prerea noastr, nu! Trebuie s intervin specialitii! Au fcut-o sporadic i fr rigoare n Noul Curriculum din 1998-1999. Erau necesare manuale cu standarde de performan pentru toate ciclurile, ariile curriculare i materii de nvmnt. Nu s-au brealizat. coala- cu elevii i cu educatorii ei cu tot a naintat fr inte clare, fr criterii precise pentru evaluarea progreselor. Sunt necesare actualmente nu doar eforturi noi pentru ameliorarea a ceea ce s-a realizat ci studii riguroase desfurate sub exigenele principiului optimismului. Noile Curricula romneti cele din 1998 i din 2006 au adus doar mbuntiri (bonus) ale programelor tradiionale; este necesar nu doar o ameliorare (melior) a noilor programe ci, pur i simplu, o OPTIMIZARE CURRICULAR.
204

Desigur, discutm aceast problem dintr-o perspectiv mai general. n ceea ce privete nvarea scris-cititului, de exemplu, n clasa I, sarcinile de a defini nivelul performanei minimal acceptabile sunt vdit uoare. Este oarecum uor de decis, fie i numai n baza unei anumite experiene, ce nseamn c un copil tie s scrie i s citeasc n mod acceptabil i plecnd de la acest deziderat terminal s putem stabili riguros performanele minimal acceptabile n legtur cu fiecare obiectiv operaional propus. Este, fr ndoial, un avantaj pe care nu-l putem avea la toate disciplinele de nvmnt. Performana minimal standard trebuie s convenim acest lucru - este nivelul la care ne vom raporta pentru a judeca reuita tuturor elevilor. Nendoielnic, este i democratic i profund pedagogic s judecm eficacitatea general a instruirii n raport cu criterii de reuit minimal acceptabil - chiar dac ne-ar interesa reuita optimal a tuturor i nu ar deranja pe nimeni dac toi ar reui la nivelul performanei maximale. (Folosim aici expresia, inteligibil romnete, criterii de reuit i nu barbarismul anglo-saxon descriptori de performan folosit de unii; l evitm pentru motivul simplu c neologismul este caraghios i desemneaz acelai lucru.) Atta doar, c eficacitatea general optimal si eficacitatea general maximal sunt utopii pe care nu ni le putem propune din raiuni psihologice i pedagogice suficient demonstrate. Desigur, n procesul instructiv-educativ nu vom pierde din vedere posibilitile de nvare mai mari ale unor copii. Proiectarea instruirii nu oblig la plafonarea tuturor elevilor din clas la nivelul performanei minimale. Dimpotriv, oblig la diferenierea instruirii n raport cu nivelul performanei ateptate. Atta doar, c nici unui elev nu i se poate cere mai puin dect minimum acceptabil i nici unui elev cu ritm de nvare lent sau foarte lent nu i se poate cere mai mult dect acest minimum. Reuita tuturor trebuie judecat n raport cu acest minimum acceptabil i cu capacitatea de nvare a fiecruia. Performana standard minimal va permite evaluarea tuturor elevilor n raport cu aceleai criterii de reuit. Marele ei avantaj rezid n posibilitatea pe care o are educatorul de a depi neajunsurile evalurii normative. Aceasta din urm l determin s raporteze reuitele unor elevi la reuitele sau nereuitele altor elevi. Lipsit de criterii unitare obiectivitatea evalurii va fi astfel pulverizat ntr-o subiectivitate care face adesea actul aprecierii cu totul netiinific, inacceptabil. Criterierea pe care o permite stabilirea clar a nivelului performanei standard acceptabile constituie unul dintre punctele de reper n nelegerea modului de abordare a problematicii instruirii la orice disciplin i nivel de nvmnt.
205

Inventarele de verbe ce definesc comportamente observabile Am subliniat deja mai sus, necesitatea de a exclude din formularea obiectivelor operaionale, pentru a defini comportamentele ateptate, expresii verbale ce definesc comportamente ascunse, invizibile, luntrice - care sunt nemsurabile. Asemenea expresii ce trebuie evitate sunt verbe de genul: a simi, a resimi, a iubi etc. Aceste comportamente nu pot fi observate direct i deci nu pot fi testate. De asemenea, nici expresiile verbale care trimit la comportamente generale nu trebuie folosite n formularea obiectivelor. De exemplu: a ti, a cunoate, a nelege etc. sunt prea generale, n sensul c fiecare dintre ele exprim de fapt o multitudine de comportamente observabile i deci, nu pot fi msurate n ntregime. Metfessel, Michael i Kirshner (1969) au construit inventarul complet al verbelor ce trebuie folosite pentru a defini obiective din domeniile cognitiv i afectiv pe care l-am adoptat pentru modelul nostru i pe care nu-l mai reproducem ntruct este larg cunoscut i utilizat (vezi Anexele).

3.4 Cum se selecteaz tiinific coninutul instruirii


n concepia noastr, elevul trebuie s asimileze n clas, sub controlul avizat al educatorului, coninutul esenial al materiei de studiu. Apare, ntr-adevr, evident c nu se poate nva totul n clas i, de asemenea, c nu toi pot nva totul. Din pcate, visul lui Comenius nu este realizabil n ntregime! n aceste condiii alegerea coninuturilor eseniale pentru instruirea dirijat tiinific apare ca o chestiune fundamental a proiectrii pedagogice. Coninutul procesului instructiv-educativ trebuie considerat drept resurs esenial a nvrii. Pentru practic se ridic chestiunea sensibil a selectrii corecte a coninutului strict necesar realizrii fiecrui obiectiv operaional urmrit. Acest lucru nu este uor, mai ales n condiiile n care educatorul trebuie s realizeze programele de nvmnt constituite fr un apel, avizat i competent, la ceea ce specialitii numesc teoria curriculumului. Nu se pot ignora progrese remarcabile ale Noului Curriculim. Dar numeroase programe noi sunt mai ncrcate i mai confuze dect cele vechi. Din pcate, aceste probleme nu i-au gsit nc o rezolvare definitiv i infailibil nici pe plan internaional. Unii specialiti ai tehnologiei educaiei recomand utilizarea n selectarea coninuturilor adecvate a unor tehnici de analiz tiinific a disciplinelor de nvmnt. Astfel de tehnic este aa numita analiz n arbore propus de Le Xuan (1965). Ali specialiti recomand utilizarea aa numitului sistem mathetic propus de ctre Gilbert
206

(1962). Ca i analiza n arbore, aceasta implic dificulti practice pe care educatorul nu le poate depi fr o enorm risip de timp i de efort i fr riscul erorilor (vezi anexele la aceast carte). Cum se poate totui selecta relativ corect coninutul esenial necesar nvrii n aceste condiii? nc din 1965 Robert Gagn a propus o cale simpl: o dat inventariate obiectivele, educatorul va face lista de idei i informaii referitoare la fiecare obiectiv stabilit; apoi va proceda la o operaie de eliminare, de simplificare a listei de idei renunnd la orice element al acesteia care nu ar afecta realizarea obiectivelor dac n-ar fi nvate de ctre elevi. Cu alte cuvinte, Gagn a propus un procedeu simplu de determinare a esenialului nvrii care, dup opinia noastr, poate fi utilizat convenabil n modelul propus de noi; n sfrit, o cale la fel de simpl o reprezint i utilizarea inventarelor de complemente directe realizate de ctre Metffessell i colab. (1969) care ntregesc listele de verbe ce indic, definesc comportamente observabile (a se vedea Anexele). ntr-adevr, n formularea unui obiectiv operaional verbul (comportamentul) este urmat, gramatical vorbind, de un complement direct (performana); or aceasta din urm sugereaz, de regul, tocmai coninutul esenial necesar realizrii obiectivului. Aadar, utiliznd cu grij i ingeniozitate instrumentele de definire operaional a obiectivelor pedagogice ale activitii, n ateptarea modelelor pedagogice i a noilor programe de nvmnt fundamentate pe acestea, cel care proiecteaz activitatea va realiza nc de la acest nivel i o selecie relativ convenabil a coninuturilor adecvate.

3.5 Elaborarea strategiilor didactice focalizate pe competene i abiliti convertite n obiective operaionale.
3.5.1 Sarcinile i situaiile de nvare Aa cum am sugerat deja, nc din faza de proiectare a instruirii, strategiile didactice de realizare a obiectivelor operaionale trebuie astfel concepute nct s permit nvarea coninuturilor eseniale n clas. n literatura psihopedagogic s-a proliferat o varietate remarcabil de accepiuni ale termenului de strategie didactic. n modelul pe care l-am testat n coli bucuretene am convenit asupra urmtorului neles: strategia didactic este cuplul dintre sarcina de nvare dat elevilor spre a realiza prin aciune obiectivul operaional urmrit i situaia de nvare n care elevul trebuie pus spre a putea rezolva respectiva sarcin cu economie de timp i de efort i cu ctig n planul satisfaciei nvrii.
207

Este uor de ntrevzut c printr-o asemenea accepiune ne-am strduit s conferim aplicabilitate ctorva importante legiti i condiii de eficien ale nvrii dovedite experimental sau atestate de practic: principiul nvrii prin aciune (learning by doing) formulat de John Dewey; legea efectului (E.I. Thorndike); principiul optimumului motivaional (D. Berlyne); legea economiei de efort i de timp (E. Claparede .a.) etc. Cteva precizri n plus sunt absolut necesare pentru nelegerea exact a felului n care trebuie s se desfoare n clas o activitate bazat pe sarcini i situaii de nvare derivate din obiective operaionale.

SARCINA DE NVARE este un enun, de regul, construit n exclusivitate prin prisma obiectivului operaional urmrit (capacitatea sau abilitatea operaionalizat): elevul este solicitat s ndeplineasc exact aciunea precizat n obiectiv/abilitate/competena specific; altfel spus, natura sarcinii de nvare trebuie s fie identic ntotdeauna cu natura obiectivului urmrit ambele fiind predeterminate de verbul de aciune care definete capacitatea mintal (comportamentul) care trebuie produs prin nvare; tuturor elevilor trebuie s li se solicite, n acelai timp, s rezolve aceeai sarcin de lucru, dar la niveluri de performan diferite, n funcie de potenialul de nvare diferit al elevilor.

Sarcinile de nvare vor fi aadar unice sub raportul naturii lor, dar difereniate sub raportul nivelului performanei scontate. De exemplu: activitii didactice toi
elevii vor fi capabili s aplice regula de 3 simpl rezolvnd probleme dintr-o fi dat pe baza unui exemplu explicat de profesor; obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac: a) vor fi rezolvate 3 din cele 10 probleme date; b) sunt permise numei 2 greeli de calcul; c) nu este pemis nici o eroare de aplicare a regulii.

On-La sfritul

Son Aplicai regula de 3 simpl


i rezolvai: G1- cel puin 3 dintre problemele date G2 cel puin 5 dintre problemele date G3 cel puin 7 dintre problemele date

Figura Nr. 42. Formularea sarcinilor de nvare cu int pe obiectivul urmrit i difereniate sub raportul standardelor de performan
208

n exemplu: On = un obiectiv operaional oarecare; SOn= sarcina de lucru derivat din On G1 = grupul elevilor cu ritm lent de nvare determinat de un numr prea mare de lacune intervenite n instruirea anterioar la gramatic i/sau de aptitudini mai reduse pentru nsuirea gramaticii; G2 i G3 = grupuri de ritmuri de instruire medii sau rapide. se observ c primului grup i se solicit atingerea obiectivului la nivelul minimal acceptabil de performan colar stabilit n enunul obiectivelor; limitarea performanelor se face ntotdeauna n jos, niciodat n sus n sensul c prin expresia cel puin fiecare elev este solicitat s depeasc ntotdeauna nelimitat un prag performanial impus de programa colar i de posibilitile individuale de progres. Evident, diferenierea grupurilor de lucru n clas se bazeaz fie pe rezultatele testului predictiv, fie pe rezultatele ultimului test de progres administrat clasei; grupurile sunt mobile, n sensul c n situaia n care un anumit elev dovedete un ritm mai rapid sau mai lent de nvare dect cel preconizat, profesorul are posibilitatea s-i modifice ad-hoc nivelul performanial cerut.

SITUAIA DE NVARE poate fi definit n termenii condiiilor de eficien; practic, orice nvare este condiionat pe plan intern i pe plan extern. Condiiile interne (mecanisme/tipuri de nvare, motive, interese, aptitudini pentru obiectul de studiu, orice capacitate psihic) constituie, fr ndoial, categoria fundamental de condiii care asigur eficiena nvrii; este limpede c asupra lor nu se poate aciona EXIGENE EXTERNE: -Alegerea nemijlocit, direct, ci numai prin intermediul condiiilor externe (combinaii de metode, metodelor i mijloacelor materiale, adecvate mijloace, procedee etc. de nvmnt, condiii de spaiu, aptitudini i
- Motivaia i motivarea

conduite ale educatorului etc.). Problemele practice care se ridic sunt de tipul interogaiilor urmtoare: Ce condiii externe trebuie asigurate pentru a declana

-Prevenirea efectului de mecanismele Combinarea push down de nvare potrivite pentru a realiza sarcina dat?; Ce combinaii condiiilor metodico-didactice trebuie elaborate pentru ca elevul s rezolveinternede lucru dat sarcina i SITUAIA externe pentru n minimum de timp, cu minimum de efort i cu maximum de satisfacie a a OPTIM DE realizarea eficient nvrii? sarcinii conexe de .a. NVARE nvare EXIGENE INTERNE: -Legea economiei de efort -Legea economiei de timp -Legea efectului -Adecvarea ierarhiei lui Gagne

209

Figura Nr. 43. Construirea situaiilor optime de nvare

3.5.2 Armonizarea mecanismelor nvrii cu taxonomia obiectivelor pedagogice n cadrul condiiilor interne ale nvrii eficiente am acordat o importan prioritar problemei adecvrii corecte a mecanismului (tipului) de nvare solicitat de natura
EVALUAREA LEARNING BY practice tabloul de obiectivului urmrit. Or, n acest sens, se poate utiliza cu mari foloase DISCOVERY

coresponden construit de ctre De Landsheere, la sugestia lui M.D.Merrill (1979) pentru a pune n acord taxonomia lui Benjamin Bloom cu ierarhia tipurilor (mecanismelor) de nvare SINTEZA
PRINCIPLES AND RULES propus de ctre Gagn pe care o reproduce ntr-o form sumar: LEARNING ANALIZA PROBLEM SOLVING

TAXONOMIA LUI BLOOM

IERARHIA LUI GAGN


CONCEPT LEARNING

APLICAREA

MULTIPLE DISCRIMINATIONS

COMPREHENSIUNEA ACHIZIIA DE INFORMAII DOMENIUL COGNITIV 210

VERBAL ASSOCIATION

MOTOR CHAINING S-R LEARNING

DOMENIUL PSIHOMOTOR

SIGNAL LEARNING

Figura Nr.44. Armonizarea taxonomiei de obiective (Bloom) cu ierarhia tipurilor de nvare (Gagn) Avnd n vedere importana pe care o acordm acestor probleme, struim cu cteva precizri sumare privind fiecare tip de nvare. Tipul I: - nvarea de semnale. Elevul nva s dea un rspuns general, difuz, la un semnal extern. Este vorba de fenomenul nvrii i formrii reflexelor condiionate, studiate de Pavlov (1927). Tipul II: - nvarea stimul rspuns. Elevul poate fi nvat s dea un rspuns precis la un stimul discriminat. Acest fenomen a fost studiat, ntre alii, de Thorndike (1890) i Skinner (1938). Tipul III: - nlnuirea motorie. Elevul poate fi nvat un lan de dou sau mai multe legturi stimul rspuns. Fenomenul a fost studiat experimental, ntre alii, de Skinner (1938) i Gilbert (1962). Tipurile I, II i III sunt implicate n realizarea obiectivelor psihomotorii dar i n sarcini precum nsuirea scris cititului, desenului etc. Tipul IV: - Asociaia verbal. Elevul poate fi nvat s realizeze lanuri verbale. Fenomenul a fost studiat n legtur cu memorarea definiiilor, regulilor etc. Asociaia verbal pare a nu fi cu mult mai complex dect nlnuirea motorie. Unele psri stncua, papagalul etc. pot imita vorbirea uman. Din pcate, i n nvarea colar, putem ntlni adesea nvatul papagalicesc, pe dinafar.

211

Tipul V: - nvarea prin discriminare. Elevul poate fi nvat s dea rspunsuri de identificare la mai muli stimuli care prezint i similitudini. De asemenea, la clase sau grupuri de stimuli care comport cel puin o caracteristic perceptiv diferit. Fenomenul a fost studiat de Postman (1969). nvarea deosebirilor de orice fel se realizeaz pe baza sa, pregtind generalizarea, abstractizarea i formarea de noiuni. Tipul VI: - nvarea conceptelor. Elevul poate fi nvat s dea un rspuns comun la o clas de stimuli ce difer ntre ei, dar au cel puin o trstur comun. Este nvarea care duce la dobndirea capacitii de clasificare, raionalizare, conceptualizare. Fenomenul a fost studiat experimental de Kendler (1964). nvarea conceptelor poate fi fcut i prin memorarea definiiilor (cu mai puin succes i fr a avea certitudinea conceptualizrii raionale). nvarea asemnrilor , abstragerea notelor comune i deci formarea noiunii se realizeaz prin acest mecanism. Tipul VII: - nvarea regulilor/principiilor. Elevul poate fi nvat s realizeze lanuri logice de concepte. Fenomenul a fost evideniat de Gagn (1965). Definiiile, principiile, judecile etc. au la baz funcionarea acestui mecanism de nvare. Tipul VIII: - Rezolvarea problemelor. Elevul poate fi nvat s utilizeze reguli nsuite anterior pentru a putea descoperi concepte sau reguli noi. Orice coninut logic din orice disciplin solicit utilizarea acestui mecanism de nvare. n 1964, Gagn i Briggs au admis nc un tip de nvare: Tipul IX: - nvarea prin descoperire/creativ. Elevul poate fi nvat s utilizeze strategii euristice pentru a ajunge la adevruri noi. Studiile cele mai complexe asupra nvrii prin descoperire au fost iniiate de J.S. Bruner (1969). Obiectivele de sintez solicit, obligatoriu, acest mecanism de nvare. 3.5.3 Prevenirea efectului de push down Ierarhia tipurilor (sau mecanismelor) de nvare nu este o simpl niruire de teorii ale nvrii; este un adevrat aparat mathetic care permite speciei noastre s supravieuiasc, s tezaurizeze valori, s creeze cultura i civilizaia uman. Este adevratul dar divin, explicaia nverosimilei supravieuiri a lui Homo Sapiens, o specie prea puin dotat biologic pentru a lua parte la struggle-for-life darwinian i de a evita ororile Glaciaiunii Wrm ! Este suficient s sciei ntre fiecare dintre cele nou tipuri de nvare expresia cere ca premise/condiii pentru a nelege acest mirific aparat luntric de care dispun toi copiii i adulii umani care s-au nscut normal.

212

Totui, acest dar mirific nu este infailibil. Nu este voraba numai de faptul c elevii nu l cunosc i nu l folosesc eficient n practica instruirii colare. Ierarhia lui Gagn exprim o lege a firii noastre. Din pcate ea este o lege subordonat altor legi psiho-fiziologice mai tari. Este cer c legea economiei de efort i de timp prevaleaz asupra ierahiei lui Gagn. Este ndeobte cunoscut c pe msur ce urcm treptele ierarhiei lui Gagn cresc satisfaciile legate de succesul (obinerea performanelor) nvrii: este, aadar, esenial ca n practic educatorul s se strduiasc s declaneze mecanisme de nvare aflate ct mai sus posibil pe aceast ierarhie i s evite aa-numitul efect de mpingere n jos (push down) a comportamentului de nvare pe care elevul, n mod spontan, l manifest, n virtutea legii economiei de efort. Dac , de exemplu elevului i se voe cere sarcini de problemsolving sau de learning-by-discovery el va avea tendina de a mpinge n jos comportamentul de nvare perfernd s nvee pe dinafar soluiile ( verbal association) sau chiar s copieze orbete soluiile pe care le gsete n culegerea de probleme ( chaining motor) Iat cum se produce acest neplcut dar foarte frecvent fenomen.

Satisfacie maxim

Learning by discovery Problem solving Rule learning Concept learning

Push down

discriminations

Verbal assoc. Chaining Insatisfacie S-R learning Signal learning

Figura Nr. 45. Efectul de push-down

213

Ori de cte ori nu este practic posibil acest lucru, educatorul trebuie s adauge noi resurse interne actului de nvare n special din sfera motivaiei pentru a asigura respectarea legii efectului: nvarea trebuie s se desfoare n condiii de confort psihic, s se ncheie cu succes, ntruct numai astfel elevul va tinde s repete comportamentul de nvare. Dar toate acestea reclam ingeniozitate n combinarea metodelor, mijloacelor i materialelor didactice, i deseori confecionarea altora noi fiind posibil, din acest punct de vedere, o varietate de strategii de realizare a aceluiai obiectiv.

3.6. Evaluarea continu i evaluarea periodic a rezultatelor instruirii


Teoria modern a evalurii, spre deosebire de decimologia tradiional, presupune dou tipuri de evaluare: - continu i periodic care practicate n sistemul proiectrii activitilor pedagogice pot contribui, n mod substanial, la eficacitatea general a acestora.

Evaluarea continu sau formativ presupune msurarea rezultatelor fiecrei activiti proiectate tiinific prin prisma obiectivelor ei operaionale. Aceasta presupune elaborarea unor teste de control al nivelului de realizare a obiectivelor de ctre fiecare elev n parte. Itemii unui test formativ sunt, de regul, tot sarcini de nvare care verific dac toi elevii au atins nivelul performanelor minimal acceptabile.

Singura deosebire dintre un item formativ i o sarcin de nvare propriu-zis const n faptul c itemul trebuie rezolvat de ctre elevi fr nici un ajutor din partea educatorului sau a colegilor. Altfel spus, un test formativ va pune fiecare elev n situaia de a dovedii c poate s rezolve, nc odat, singur, sarcini minimal acceptabile. Aceasta nu nseamn altceva dect faptul c el trebuie s arate c a devenit posesorul capacitilor (comportamentelor) urmrite prin obiective i c poate realiza cu ajutorul lor performane minimal acceptabile.

Evaluarea periodic este cumulativ sau sumativ. Ea intervine fie la ncheierea unor capitole sau uniti instrucionale definite, fie n finalul unor perioade de pregtire. Testele de evaluare sumativ urmresc a verifica nivelul de realizare al unor obiective terminale (i nu al unor obiective operaionale). Uneori, acestea din urm sunt numite n Noul Curriculum obiective de referin sau capaciti. Aspectele lingvistice pot fi ignorate ori de cte ori nu este necesar convertirea acestor expresii n obiective terminale sau competene specifice.Evalurile sumative nu msoar doar nivelul performanei minimale, ci nivelul optimal al acesteia.
214

Rezult c, prin evalurile formative se urmrete reuita continu a tuturor elevilor la un nivel minimal acceptabil, ceea ce presupune c evaluarea formativ este nivelatoare. n schimb, evaluarea sumativ, urmrind reintegrarea informaiilor i capacitilor la un nivel optimal, este difereniatoare. Principial, rezultatele la un test formativ care ncheie o activitate didactic eficient vor ntruni punctaje maxime pentru toi elevii, ntruct toi sunt raportai la criteriul performanei minimal acceptabile. Aceste punctaje pot fi comod traduse n note colare: dac activitatea didactic a fost eficient i a asigurat reuita tuturor, atunci fiecare elev va ntruni un punctaj echivalent cu nota 10, iar media ntregii clase va tinde, de asemenea, spre 10. (Desigur, dac vom defini performana minimal standard n raport cu alt not colar 7 sau 5 rezultatele testelor formative vor tinde spre aceasta). Din raiuni motivaionale uor de neles este preferabil, dup opinia noastr, s se stabileasc coduri de transformare a punctajelor n note colare ct mai mari. n principiu, rezultatele testelor formative furnizeaz informaii att elevului, ct i educatorului despre reuita parial a fiecrui educat. Nu gsim nici un inconvenient psihopedagogic sau de alt natur pentru a nu putea afirma c reuitele pariale ale tuturor elevilor netezesc calea spre reuita final. Este foarte probabil ca nvarea continu, urmrit prin evaluarea continu, s ajute att elevul, ct i educatorul s progreseze ordonat i sigur spre reuit n realizarea obiectivelor terminale la un nivel, dac nu optimal, cel puin acceptabil al performanelor colare.

APLICAII
Aplicaia 5. Elaborai n paralel cu un (o) coleg ()obiectivele operaionale la 2 capitole pornind de la o program oarecare pe care o stabilii amndoi. Folosii amndoi procedura lui Gilbert de Landsheere. Comparai rezultatele. Aplicaia 6. Reexaminai obiectivele pe care le-ai scris n aplicaia nr. 5. Negociai mpreuncu partenerul i alctuii unmini-manual de standarde de performan minimal, optimal i maximal.

215

CAPITOLUL 4. METODOLOGIA ELABORRII SCENARIILOR DE IMPLEMENTARE N CLAS A MICRO-PROIECTELOR PEDAGOGICE


Din imaginea grafic a proiectului pedagogic lipsete ultima dintre operaiile sugerate de tehnologia educaiei. Unii autori consider c aceasta poate fi gndit separat ca o operaie anex a proiectului pedagogic propriu-zis.

4.1. Cum se construiete un scenariu didactic


Jinga i Negre (1983) susin, n acest sens, necesitatea unui scenariu pedagogic (Katims, 1970) prin care neleg un instrument de implementare n cmpul concret al aciunii pedagogice a proiectului de activitate didactic. Raiunea scenariului pedagogic este urmtoarea: un proiect didactic este ntotdeauna numai un calcul pe hrtie; or, se pune problema transpunerii eficiente a acestuia n practic.

216

O transpunere n practica pedagogic este eficient numai n msura n care se adecveaz corect fenomenelor educaionale date. Aceasta din urm condiioneaz pur i simplu eficacitatea realizrii unei aciuni didactice. Ce categorii de fenomene educaionale constituie mai pregnant terenul aciunii pedagogice i planul instruirii ? Majoritatea cercettorilor converg n direcia admiterii c aceste fenomene sunt de natur motivaional n ceea ce l privete pe elev i aptitudinal-vocaional n ceea ce-l privete pe educator. MOTIVAIA, N SPECIAL MOTIVAIA NVRII, CONDIIONEAZ EFICACITATEA REALIZRII UNUI PROIECT PEDAGOGIC.

ntr-adevr, orict de reuit ar fi un proiect pedagogic oarecare, nu se poate sconta i reuita unei activiti didactice exclusiv pe aceast baz. ansa ca n baza unui proiect pedagogic bine gndit s putem realiza o activitate didactic eficient este determinat de motivaia nvrii i de vocaia pedagogic. n 1977, Ausubel i Robinson, lund n considerare mai multe teorii ale motivaiei, ajungeau la concluzia general c orice fiin uman aflat ntr-o activitate oarecare traverseaz o serie de evenimente motivaionale care se desfoar cronologic n succesiunea urmtoare: impuls iniial determinat exterior stare de impuls resimit pe plan subiectiv comportament de cutare a scopului i de clarificare a obiectivelor atingerea scopului reducerea impulsului consecine ale reducerii impulsului.

Determinan i de impuls

Stri de impuls

Cutarea scopului

Atingerea scopului

Reducerea impulsului

Efectele reducerii impulsului Cunoatere a rezultatelor scontate Atitudini, emoii,stress etc. 217

Figura Nr. 46. Succesiunea temporal a evenimentelor motivaionale n timpul realizrii unei sarcini de lucru Schema de mai jos sugereaz posibilitatea intensificrii sau accelerrii acestor evenimente motivaionale n funcie de ponderea sau importana care li se acord n activitatea respectiv. Principial, o clas de elevi aflat ntr-o activitate de nvare trece prin aceleai evenimente motivaionale. A lua n considerare n procesul nvrii att aspectele pozitive ct i pe cele negative ale fiecrui eveniment motivaional constituie, nendoielnic, cea mai raional soluie pentru a implementa eficace un proiect pedagogic. n acest sens, R.M. Gagn consider c orice activitate didactic trebuie s se desfoare sub forma a zece evenimente instrucionale. Fa de cele prezentate de ctre acest autor, se cer nc fcute unele amendamente sub multiple aspecte pentru a putea fi utilizate corespunztor n condiiile specifice colii romneti obligatorii.

Determinanii impulsulu i

Stri de impuls

Cutare a scopului

Atingerea scopului

Reducere a impulsulu i

Efecte ale reducerii impulsulu i

Cunoatere a rezultatelor scontate

Atitudini , anxietat e,stress

Captar ea ateniei

Enunul obiectiv e-lor

Actualizarea ancorelor

Sarcini de nvare

Dirijare a nvri 218 i

Obine -rea performane -lor

Asigura rea feedbackului

Evalu area

Intens ificare a reteniei

Asigura -rea transferului

Figura Nr. 47. Derivarea evenimentelor instrucionale din succesiunea evenimentelor motivaionale ntr-o activitate uman ( Negre i Jinga, 1983 ) Mai nti cteva lmuriri de principiu. Evenimentele instrucionale nu trebuie confundate cu momentele leciei tradiionale (chiar dac intervin n asemenea momente). Altfel spus cele zece evenimente instrucionale propuse de autorul citat nu sunt zece pri de lecie, ci mai degrab fenomene motivaionale care, o dat declanate de ctre educator, trebuie s-i pstreze efectul pn cel puin la sfritul leciei; succesiunea evenimentelor instrucionale trebuie s asigure un cumul progresiv de motivaie a nvrii (care se va repercuta pozitiv asupra vitezei asimilrii, dac admitem c ritmul nvrii este dependent, ntre altele, i de nivelul motivaiei intrinseci a acesteia). n acest fel, n timp, putem spera la o accelerare general a ritmurilor de nvare. n fine, cteva precizri privind exigenele declanrii i realizrii fiecrui eveniment instrucional n forma n care se pot dovedi adecvate modelului didactic pe care l propunem. Captarea ateniei tuturor elevilor pn la sfritul activitii oblig educatorul si nceap activitatea ntr-un mod care evit demobilizarea sau stressul. (Ce-ai avut de pregtit pentru astzi? este unul din debuturile tipic demobilizatoare). n principiu, este vorba de a declana principalele elemente motivaionale (atenia, interesul fa de ceea ce se va ntmpla, dorina de activitate, activismul propriu-zis) la fiecare elev n parte. Elaborarea procedeelor de captare a ateniei nu este o operaie simpl ce ar putea fi redus la a spune ceva distractiv elevilor la nceputul leciei (procedeu demobilizator nu mobilizator); este mai degrab vorba de condiionri ale comportamentului prin sanciuni pozitive structurate dup modelul general al experimentelor de condiionare. Dac se va realiza comportamentul X, va urma aciunea benign Y. Evident, astfel de condiionri pozitive nu pot fi realizate dect plecnd de la ceea ce elevii percep ca sanciune pozitiv; altfel spus, li se pot promite satisfacii legate de motivele, interesele, dorinele lor specifice vrstei i, uneori, chiar colectivului clasei, dac vor realiza obiectivele i sarcinile activitii didactice.

219

Ingeniozitatea i cunotinele psihologice ale educatorului joac un rol fundamental n elaborarea procedeelor de declanare a acestui tip de motivaie care i va determina pe elevi s participe intens la ntreaga activitate. Oricum, a neglija aceste procedee echivaleaz cu a desfura lecia ca i cnd clasa ar fi lipsit de elevi. Menionm c trebuie evitate condiionrile prin sanciuni negative (note mici, ameninarea cu corigena etc.), care induc comportamentul de respingere a nvrii i duc la nclcarea legii efectului.

Enunul obiectivelor urmrite (pe nelesul elevilor) este obligatoriu, ntruct asigur caracterul contient al nvrii i declaneaz un tip nou de motivaie eminamente raional care cumulat cu cel propus anterior produce o puternic mobilizare pentru activitatea de nvare.

Actualizarea ancorelor nvrii. nainte de a trece la realizarea propriu-zis a sarcinilor de lucru, este imperios necesar s se verifice dac realizarea lor este posibil; altfel spus, dac obiectivele activitii n curs se sprijin pe legturi anterioare solide; fiecare obiectiv operaional trebuie neles ca fiind ancorat prin una sau mai multe legturi de nvare de obiective anterior realizate: cunotineancor, idei-ancor, deprinderi-ancor, abiliti-ancor, capaciti-ancor, competene-ancor etc. Dac obiectivele vor viza, de fiecare data, asimilarea cunotinelor eseniale, atunci actualizarea continu a ancorelor nu va fi altceva dect o verificare permanent a ntregii materii eseniale parcurse prin readucerea n memoria elevilor a cheilor de nelegere n profunzime a respectivei discipline, ceea ce este, desigur, mai avantajos dect practica obinuit de a verifica, n fiecare or, toate amnuntele leciei precedente (i numai sporadic elementele de baz ale ntregii materii parcurse).

Este esenial ca actualizarea ancorelor s nu consume prea mult din cuantumul de timp al leciei (din experiena noastr a rezultat c nu se recomand mai mult de 5-6 minute pentru o or de curs!), ntruct apar efecte de stress care demobilizeaz elevii i induc comportamentul de respingere a nvrii.

Prezentarea

sarcinilor

situaiilor

de

nvare;

dirijarea

(conducerea/managementul) nvrii, obinerea performanelor; asigurarea conexiunii inverse. Aceste evenimente se declaneaz n succesiunea dat, de un numr de ori echivalent cu numrul de obiective operaionale urmrite. (Nu se recomand ns asumarea a mai mult de 4-5 obiective ntr-o lecie, ceea ce atrage, nc o dat, atenia asupra importanei alegerii exacte a coninuturilor eseniale i a stabilirii

220

riguroase a obiectivelor operaionale prioritare; ambele operaii sunt posibile dac educatorul se va raporta, consecvent, la obiectivele terminale ale capitolului sau sistemului de lecii prevzute n planificarea semestrial a materiei). Prezentarea sarcinilor de lucru i a condiiilor de realizare (informaiile necesare, materiale, tehnica de lucru, timpul de lucru etc.) va fi urmat de o dirijare nemijlocit (sprijin) pe care educatorul trebuie s-l acorde cu precdere grupului n pericol de a nu putea realiza sarcina (elevi cu ritmuri lente i cu lacune multiple n nvare); o dat obinute performanele (n principiu toi elevii trebuie ajutai s reueasc), se vor furniza clasei informaii cu privire la corectitudinea procedurii i indicaii difereniate individualizate, pe ct posibil, - de corijare a comportamentului de nvare. Este esenial ca educatorul s acorde sprijin, cu prioritate, grupului n pericol de a nu reui cel cu ritm lent de nvare. Se va trece apoi la prezentarea sarcinii de nvare urmtoare, urmnd aceleai procedee. Este rstimpul n care educatorul trebuie s fac dovada maximumului talent pedagogic de care este capabil, pentru a ncuraja toi elevii i a nu descuraja pe nici unul

Evaluarea formativ a progresului realizat. S-ar putea afirma c acest eveniment constituie cheia succesului modelului pe care l propune. Activitatea const n aplicarea i corectarea n clas, mpreun cu elevii, sub forma autocorectrii! a testelor formative derivate din sistemul de obiective prevzut n proiectul pedagogic al activitii. Chiar dac proiectul se extinde pe mai multe lecii, evaluarea progresului trebuie practicat in finalul fiecrei lecii pentru fiecare obiectiv realizat.

Motivul este simplu: evaluarea formativ nregistreaz achiziiile realizate la nivelul memoriei de scurt durat; or, se tie c aceasta constituie un fel de poart de trecere ctre memoria de lung durat care asigur temeinicia nvrii; constituie un adevr banal c nu se pot introduce direct achiziiile cognitive n memoria de lung durat, ci numai prin intermediul memoriei imediate; este aadar fundamental pentru educator ca i pentru elev s afle exact dac a achiziionat n memoria imediat cunotinele eseniale; numai n acest fel elevul va putea continua, avizat, studiul individual acas, iar educatorul va avea la dispoziie un nou diagnostic n baza cruia s poat organiza continuarea instruirii n cadrul programelor suplimentare i a orelor de curs. Evaluarea progresului transpune n practic principiul conform cruia, n finalul leciei, elevul trebuie s dovedeasc faptul c mai poate face nc o dat singur ceea ce a nvat s fac ajutat de educator; cu alte cuvinte, itemii testului formativ/sumativ solicit fiecare elev

221

n parte s mai realizeze, nc o dat, performanele de care a devenit capabil, cel puin la nivelul minim acceptabil n definiiile obiectivelor operaionale urmrite. O importan covritoare sub raportul efectului formativ o are autocorectarea testului de ctre elevi, sub ndrumarea educatorului sau a unui proctor (elev care a rezolvat testul propriu fr nici o greeal, putndu-l utiliza ca gril de corecie); n acest fel, fiecare elev i contientizeaz erorile i nva corectndu-i-le iar, n timp, capt deprinderi din ce n ce mai avansate de autocontrol i autoevaluare obiectiv a propriilor capaciti de nvare.

n fine, rezultatele testelor de progres trebuie s constituie baza pe care educatorul stabilete sarcinile de studiu individual (temele pentru acas) care trebuie astfel formulate nct s intensifice retenia celor nvate i s asigure transferul lor pregtind instruirea ulterioar.

Evident, sarcinile de studiu individual pot fi difereniate sau chiar individualizate. Este important ns ca ele s fie suficient de bine dimensionate pentru a satisface principalele legi ale nvrii eficiente: s fie rezonabile cantitativ, pentru a nu antrena efectele negative ale legii economiei de efort i de timp (elevii nu vor realiza corespunztor teme pentru acas supradimensionate pentru simplul motiv c trebuie s se adapteze la suprasolicitare); s satisfac legea efectului (temele pentru acas trebuie s solicite mecanisme de nvare superioare, de felul nvrii prin descoperire sau problematizrii care confer satisfacii n procesul nvrii i s evite teme care solicit mecanisme inferioare, de genul memorrii de informaii etc. , care produc disconfort psihic i insatisfacii); s asigure continuitatea nvrii (trebuie excluse temele pentru acas care presupun utilizarea unor cunotine eseniale neasimilate n clas).

4.2 Cteva sugestii practice privind utilizarea eficient a timpului de nvare n clas.
In 1983 am utilizat, dup o sugestie a lui Katims (1977) expresia de scenariu didactic pentru a desemna instrumentul de transpunere n practic a unui proiect pedagogic oarecare; acesta poate fi considerat ca o anex de realizare efectiv a activitii didactice concepute tiinific; acelai instrument poate fi utilizat pentru o just repartiie a timpului n desfurarea activitii ca n sugestiile din schema urmtoare, valabil pentru o lecie de 40 de minute4 ,n care trebuie realizate 4 obiective: Activitatea de nvare Dozarea timpului

222

Evenimentul instrucional Captarea ateniei Enunul obiectivelor Actualizarea ancorelor Prezentarea sarcinilor, dirijarea nvrii, obinerea performanelor asigurarea conexiunii inverse Evaluarea progresului Asigurarea reteniei transferului i Realizarea SO4 Rezolvarea testului Corectarea testului Teme pentru Realizarea SO1 Realizarea SO2

Timp maxim

Timp minim

2 1

1 30

5 4 6 5 5 5

4 3 5 4 -

i Realizarea SO3

acas 2

a difereniate Fig Nr 48. Prototipul unui scenariu didactic

Timpul constituie, desigur, bunul nostru cel mai de pre i cheltuirea lui cu folos constituie o adevrat art. Folosirea timpului pentru nvare n lecii presupune, credem, luarea n considerare a cel puin cteva reguli eseniale. 1. nainte de a ne gndi la orice alt modalitate de folosire a timpului n lecie trebuie s rezervm pentru evaluare cel puin zece minute din totalul disponibil (ca n exemplul nostru). 2. Se apreciaz, apoi, un timp rezonabil necesar pentru a declana i desfura celelalte evenimente instrucionale prin prisma totalului disponibil. 3. Odat repartizat timpul maxim disponibil urmeaz o operaie de utilitate practic inestimabil: aprecierea unui timp minim necesar pentru a putea desfura evenimentele care preced evaluarea n cazul n care ritmul desfurrii activitii ar fi accelerat n limita posibilitilor.
223

4. Este nelept ca n desfurarea efectiv a leciei educatorul s se nscrie n limitele timpului minim stabilit pentru fiecare eveniment, ntruct n mod obinuit consumm mai mult timp dect estimm; 5. Orice economie de timp realizat pe parcursul desfurrii efective a leciei trebuie trecut exclusiv n beneficiul unui singur eveniment instrucional: evaluarea ba, mai mult, beneficiul de timp trebuie folosit nu pe tot parcursul evalurii, ci numai n etapa corectrii testelor - momentul cel mai productiv al ntregii lecii, momentul n care se realizeaz ntr-adevr comparaia dintre ceea ce s-a preconizat (obiectivele) i ceea ce s-a obinut (rezultatele) i care, dincolo de efectul instrucional propriu-zis comport efecte formative maxime. Se nelege c elaborarea scris a scenariilor (ca i cea a micro-proiectelor pedagogice, de altfel) este obligatorie pentru educator numai pn n momentul n care i-a transformat demersul pe care ele l presupun n deprindere de a conduce eficient, n acest fel, activitile didactice. Nu-i mai puin adevrat c viteza transformrii acestui demers didactic n deprindere (art!) este diferit de la un educator la altul. Imposibil nu este, bineneles, pentru nimeni o atare tentativ. Trebuie s admitem ns c prsirea unor obiceiuri i obinuine mai vechi va face nc mult vreme dificile aceast modificare i c, n general, schimbrile de optic i de atitudine didactic nu sunt uoare. Contiina faptului ns c asemenea renunri i nnoiri n comportamentul didactic l pot ajuta s determine reuita real la nvtur a tuturor elevilor l oblig pe orice educator autentic s le considere drept opiuni demne de atenie, care trebuie realizate cu maxim urgen.

CAPITOLUL 5. UTILIZAREA METODELOR INTERACTIVE I COOPERATIVE N MASTERY LEARNING


n acest capitol sunt furnizate exemple proiecte pedagogice bine gndite, de scenarii pedagogice i de simulri didactice incidente critice, studii de caz, jocuri de rol .a. - pentru a sugera cursanilor modaliti de determinare a eficacitii generale a instruirii i nvrii la limba romn, limba francez i limba englez. Rostul acestor exemple este acela de a pregti cursanii pentru abordarea modulului urmtor dedicat optimizarii competenelor cadrelor didactice pentru diferenierea instruirii n modele mastery learning. O parte dintre acestea sunt realizate de specialiti i experi ; cea mai mare
224

parte sunt ns creaii ale studenilor de la Facultatea de litere a Universitii din Bucureti realizate sub ndrumarea prof. univ. dr. Ion Negre-Dobridor n anul universitar 2010-2011.

5.1 Cteva proiecte didactice bine gndite i scenariile de implementare a acestora n clas
5.1.1 Proiecte i scenarii pentru instruirea de tip mastery learning la limba romn
PROIECT PEDAGOGIC pentru desfurarea activitii didactice cu tem ADVERBUL ora I, clasa a V-a Autor: student Eliza Staicovici( sub ndrumarea prof. dr. Ion Negre-Dobridor )
OBIECTIV E OPERAIONALE La sfritul activitii didactice toi elevii vor fi capabili: O1: s defineasc adverbul ca parte de vorbire neflexibil care determin un verb,un adjectiv sau un alt adverb i care arat caracteristica unei aciuni, stri sau a unei nsuiri;obiec tivul va fi considerat atins dac fiecare elev va defini complet,fr adausuri fr omisiuni, sau inversiuni. CONINUTUL ESENIAL CAPACITI DE NVARE STRATEGII DIDACTICE SARCINI DE NVARE SO1 Identificai adverbele din propoziiile urmtoare i artai ce pri de vorbire determin: -Atunci MihaiViteazul a hotrt s-l atace ndat pe Sinan-Paa. -El a fost destul de mndru de izbnda sa. -Domnul s-a gndit aproape totdeauna la unire. SITUAII DE NVARE nvarea de noiuni; explicaia; conversaia. EVALUAREA FORMATIV

C O1:Definiia adverbului Adverbul este partea de vorbire neflexibil care determin un verb,un adjectiv sau un alt adverb i care arat caracteristica unei aciuni,stri sau a unei nsuiri.

Clasa este alctuit din trei grupe de elevi cu ritmuri de lucru diferite. G1:grupa elevilor cu ritm lent de nvare. G2:grupa elevilor cu ritm mediu de nvare. G3:grupa elevilor cu ritm rapid de nvare. Grupa unu dispune de capacitile necesare realizrii obiectivelor unu i doi.

I(O1) Completeaz: Adverbul este .................... care arat....... ....................... sau a unei....... .

225

O2:s recunoasc adverbele care arat locul, timpul i felul n care se desfoar aciunea, ntrun text dat;obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac fiecare elev va recunoate cel puin trei adverbe dintre cele ase utilizate i nu va sublinia niciun cuvnt care nu este adverb. O3: s creeze propoziii n care s foloseasc diferite feluri de adverbe; obiectivul va fi considerat atins dac fiecare elev va reui s creeze cel puin cinci propoziii.

C O2: Atunci am plecat departe de locurile acelea. Trisem bine acolo,dar le-am prsit lesne,imediat ce se ivise ocazia.

S O2 Trece n tabel cel puin trei adverbe din textul dat : de loc......... de mod....... de timp........

Descoperirea; rezolvarea de probleme, conversaia.

I(O2) Completeaz cel puin trei propoziii cu adverbele care trebuie: 1.Am fost la coal. 2.m-am ntlnit cu colegii pe care nu-i mai vzusem. 3.De.ne-am ntors..acas. 4.N-am fost..la mare.

C O3: Adverbele:afar, ieri, deodat,cndva, agale, repede,uor,ime diat, bine, altminteri, mine,mereu, ncolo, aiurea,niciodat.

S O3 Construiete cel puin 5 propoziii cu fiecare dintre cele adverbele date. G1-5;G2-7;G310.

Explicaia, exerciiul,dialog ul, nvarea de noiuni. .

(I O3) Compunei un text de 5-8 rnduri cu titlul n parc,folosind adverbe de mod, de timp i de loc.

Scenariul desfurrii activitii EVENIMENTUL INSTRUCIONAL Captarea ateniei

ACTIVITATEA DE NVARE

DURATA

Le reamintesc elevilor prile de vorbire 2 studiate:verb,substantiv,articol,adjectiv,pronume, numeral. Obiectivele sunt trecute n proiectul didactic 2

Enunul obiectivelor

226

Prezentarea sarcinilor de nvare i dirijarea nvrii;obinerea performanei

Evaluarea performanei

S(O1). Identificai adverbele din propoziiile urmtoare i artai ce pri de vorbire determin: -Atunci Mihai-Viteazul a hotrt s-l atace ndat pe Sinan-Paa. -El a fost destul de mndru de izbnda sa. -Domnul s-a gndit aproape totdeauna la unire S(O2) Trece n tabel cel puin trei adverbe din textul dat:de loc.de mod, de timp... S(O3) Construiete cel puin 5 propoziii cu fiecare dintre adverbele date: afar,ieri, deodat, cndva agale,repede,uor,imediat,bine, altminteri, mine, mereu, ncolo, aiurea,niciodat. G1-5;G2-7;G3-10 Prezentarea i rezolvarea individual a testului formativ: a)Completarea definiiei lacunare a adverbului. b)Completeaz cel puin trei propoziii cu adverbele care trebuie:. 20 1.Am fost la coal. 2.m-am ntlnit cu colegii pe care nu-i mai vzusem. 3.Dene-am ntors.acas. 4.N-am fostla mare. c)Compunei un text de 5-8 rnduri folosind adverbe de mod , de timp i de loc. Comentm mpreun eventualele erori aprute la testul 3 formativ. Tema pentru acas:Ex.5/46 si 10/23 care cer elevilor s recunoasc adverbele i s corecteze propoziiile n care 3 adverbele sunt incorect folosite.

Asigurarea reteniei Asigurarea transferului

PROIECT DIDACTIC de realizare a lectiei cu tema: Verbele auxiliare Obiective Analiza resurselor Strategii didactice operationale educationale cognitive ContiCapacitati de Sarcini de Situatii nut invatare invatare invatare esenial

de

Evaluare formativa

La sfarsitul lectiei, 98 % dintre elevii clasei a V-a vor fi capabili: O1:sa identifice verbele la perfect compus din textul citit.Obiectivul va fi considerat atins daca elevii vor identifica toate verbele existente.

A alunecat, a ridicat,a prins,a sarutat,a chiuit

G1:grupul elevilor cu ritm lent de invatare; G2:grupul elevilor cu ritm mediu de invatare; G3:grupul elevilor cu ritm rapid de invatare.

S(O1):Cititi cu atentie textul si identificati verbele la perfect compus.

S(O1):conditii externe: Elevii vor avea la dispozitie textul din manual. Conditii interne:invatarea de principii

I(O1):Subliniati cu o linie verbele la perfect compus din urmatoarele propozitii.

227

O2: sa recunoasca in textul citit predicatul exprimat doar prin verbul a avea. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins daca toti elevii vor identifica verbul. O3:sa identifice in text verbele formate cu ajutorul auxiliarelor a avea/a vrea /a fi,precizand si modul acestora. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins daca vor fi identificate 2 din cele trei existente, O4: sa precizeze conditiile in care verbul a fi este predicativ,dand si exemple. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins daca toti elevii vor identifica conditiile.

,,Am multe idei grozave .

S(O2):Gasiti in textul citit predicatul exprimat doar prin verbul a avea.

S(O2):conditii externe: Elevii vor avea la dispozitie textul din manual. Conditii interne:invatarea de principii

I(O2):Alcatuiti o propozitie in care verbul a avea sa fie predicativ.

As dresaconditio naloptativ Vor citiindicativ Sa fi invatatconjuncti v perfect -cand raspunde la intrebare a unde/can d? -cand are sensul de a exista,a se afla, a se intampla

S(O3):Identifi cati in textul citit verbele formate cu ajutorul auxiliarelor a avea/a vrea /a fi. La ce mod sunt acestea? S(O4):In ce situatii verbul a fi este predicativ? S(O4):conditii externe: Elevii vor avea la dispozitie intrebarile ajutatoare ale propunatoarei. Conditii interne:rezolvare a problemelor.

I(O3):Ce statut au verbul a avea, a vrea, a fi in urmatoarele enunturi?

I(O4):Alcatuiti un scurt dialog(5-6 replici) in care verbul a fi predicativ sa apara de trei ori.

Scenariul desfasurarii activitatii: Evenimentul instructional Durata Captarea atentiei 2

Activitatea de invatare Discutie despre ultima vizita la circ,pentru a se putea face trecerea la textul din manual-,,Carte de citire,carte de iubire(Nichita Stanescu,Gheorghe Tomozei) Se vor enunta obiectivele: O1,O2,O3,O4. S(O1):Cu ajutorul intrebarilor ajutatoare ale propunatoarei,elevii vor identifica verbele la perfect compus din textul citit. S(O2):Folosind cunostintele dobandite,elevii vor identifica predicatul exprimat doar prin verbul a avea. S(O3):Recitind textul din manual,elevii vor identifica verbele formate cu ajutorul auxiliarelor a avea, a vrea, a fi. S(O4):Cu ajutorul indicatiilor propunatoarei,elevii vor preciza situatiile in care verbul a fi este predicativ.

Enuntul obiectivelor Conducerea noii invatari

30 22

Dirijarea invatare

proceselor

de

Obtinerea performantei

228

Asigurarea feed-backului

Evaluarea Asigurarea retentiei

12 30

Se va realiza prin schema lectiei: VERBELE:-predicative(formeaza singure predicat) -nepredicative(auxiliare) A AVEA=auxiliar cand ajuta la formarea perfectului compus de la indicativ si a modului conditional-optativ A VREA=auxiliar cand participa la formarea viitorului A FI=auxiliar cand ajuta la formarea modului conjunctiv,timpul perfect si a modului conditional optativ,timpul perfect. Verbul A FI este predicativ cand are sensul de a exista, a se afla intr-un anumit loc,a se intampla si raspunde la intrebarile unde/cand? . Se va da testul formativ si se va corecta in clasa folosind un elev. Tema pentru acasa:exercitiile 1 si 2 din manual,pagina 119.

PROIECT DIDACTIC pentru realizarea lectiei cu tema:Verbele auxiliare Obiective Analiza resurselor Strategii didactice operationa-le educationale cognitive Continut La sfarsitul lectiei, 98 % dintre elevii clasei a V-a vor fi capabili: O1:sa identifice verbele la perfect compus din textul citit.Obiectivul va fi considerat atins daca elevii vor identifica toate verbele existente. O2: sa recunoasca in textul citit predicatul exprimat doar prin verbul a avea. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins daca toti elevii vor identifica verbul. O3:sa identifice in text verbele formate cu ajutorul auxiliarelor a avea/a vrea /a fi,precizand si A alunecat, a ridicat,a prins,a sarutat,a chiuit Capacitati de invatare G1:grupul elevilor cu ritm lent de invatare; G2:grupul elevilor cu ritm mediu de invatare; G3:grupul elevilor cu ritm rapid de invatare. Sarcini invatare de Situatii invatare de

Evaluare formativa

S(O1):Cititi cu atentie textul si identificati verbele la perfect compus.

S(O1):conditii externe: Elevii vor avea la dispozitie textul din manual. Conditii interne:invatarea de principii

I(O1):Subliniati cu o linie verbele la perfect compus din urmatoarele propozitii.

,,Am multe idei grozave.

S(O2):Gasiti in textul citit predicatul exprimat doar prin verbul a avea.

S(O2):conditii externe: Elevii vor avea la dispozitie textul din manual. Conditii interne:invatarea de principii

I(O2):Alcatuiti o propozitie in care verbul a avea sa fie predicativ.

As dresaconditionaloptativ Vor citiindicativ Sa fi invatatconjunctiv

S(O3):Identifica ti in textul citit verbele formate cu ajutorul auxiliarelor a avea/a vrea /a fi. 229

I(O3):Ce statut au verbul a avea, a vrea, a fi in urmatoarele enunturi?

modul acestora. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins daca vor fi identificate 2 din cele trei existente, O4: sa precizeze conditiile in care verbul a fi este predicativ,dand si exemple. Obiectivul va fi considerat atins daca toti elevii vor identifica conditiile.

perfect

La ce mod sunt acestea?

-cand raspunde la intrebarea unde/cand? -cand are sensul de a exista,a se afla, a se intampla etc.

S(O4):In ce situatii verbul a fi este predicativ?

S(O4):conditii externe: Elevii vor avea la dispozitie intrebarile ajutatoare ale propunatoarei. Conditii interne:rezolvarea problemelor.

I(O4):Alcatuiti un scurt dialog(5-6 replici) in care verbul a fi predicativ sa apara de trei ori.

Scenariul desfasurarii activitatii: Evenimentul instructional Durata Captarea atentiei elevilor pn la activitii tuturor 2 sfritul

Activitatea de invatare Discutie despre ultima vizita la circ,pentru a se putea face trecerea la textul din manual-,,Carte de citire,carte de iubire(Nichita Stanescu,Gheorghe Tomozei) Se vor enunta obiectivele: O1,O2,O3,O4. S(O1):Cu ajutorul intrebarilor ajutatoare ale propunatoarei,elevii vor identifica verbele la perfect compus din textul citit. S(O2):Folosind cunostintele dobandite,elevii vor identifica predicatul exprimat doar prin verbul a avea. S(O3):Recitind textul din manual,elevii vor identifica verbele formate cu ajutorul auxiliarelor a avea, a vrea, a fi. S(O4):Cu ajutorul indicatiilor propunatoarei,elevii vor preciza situatiile in care verbul a fi este predicativ. Se va realiza prin schema lectiei: VERBELE:-predicative(formeaza singure predicat) -nepredicative(auxiliare) A AVEA=auxiliar cand ajuta la formarea perfectului compus de la indicativ si a modului conditional-optativ A VREA=auxiliar cand participa la formarea viitorului A FI=auxiliar cand ajuta la formarea modului conjunctiv,timpul perfect si a modului conditional optativ,timpul perfect. Verbul A FI este predicativ cand are sensul de a exista, a se afla intr-un anumit loc,a se intampla si raspunde la intrebarile unde/cand? . Se va da testul formativ si se va corecta in clasa folosind un elev. Tema pentru acasa:exercitiile 1 si 2 din manual,pagina 119.

Enuntul obiectivelor nelesul elevilor Conducerea noii invatari Dirijarea invatare proceselor

pe 30 22 de

Obtinerea performantei

Asigurarea feed-backului

Evaluarea Asigurarea retentiei

12 30

230

5.1.2 Proiecte pentru activiti mastery learning de limba francez


PROJET PDAGOGIQUE Leon dacquisition des connaissances de grammaire avec le sujet Le pass: Limparfait(I) AUTEUR: tudiant la Facult des Lettres Florin Mihail Stavrescu sous la direction de Prof. dr. Ion Negre-Dobridor OBJECTIFS OPRATIONNELS LE LES LES STRATEGIES LEVALUATCONTENU CAPACITS DIDACTIQUES ION ESSENDENSEIGNEFORMATIVE LES LES CIEL MENT TCHES SITUATIONS DENSEIGNEM ENT La classe est SO1:Indi- La conversation I(O1) compose de trois quez les dorientation; Souligniez les groupes dlves avec verbes La rcitation; verbes des rythmes de travail limparf- La lecture par limparfait dans le diffrentes. Le group ait qui rles; texte donn. 1 a les capacits apparai- Lexplication. ncessaires pour ssent dans raliser les objectifs 1 le texte. et 2.

la fin de la classe, les lves seront capables de : O1: reconnatre dans un texte authentique les verbes limparfait. Lobjectif sera accompli si chaque lve soulignera au moins trois de six verbes limparfait et sil ne soulignera un verbe qui nest pas limparfait. O2: utiliser dans des CO2: exercices et dans la Avoir, tre, conversation des manger, verbes aux temps laver, penser. tudis. Lobjectif sera accompli si chaque lve va crer au moins cinq propositions.

SO2: Lexplication. Construise Lexercice crit. z au moins Lexercice oral. 5 propositions avec chacun des verbes limparfait. Gr.1 5; Gr.2 7; Gr.3 10.

I(O2) Ralisez un texte dans lequel vous allez utiliser beaucoup des verbes limparfait. Le texte doit avoir au moins cinq propositions.

O3: dialoguer, en CO3: employant des Donner, verbes donns dans parler, crer, diffrentes vouloir, contextes. Lobjectif devoir. sera accompli si chaque lve va employer au moins cinq verbes limparfait.

SO3: Lexercice oral. I(O3) Notez Lexercice crit, Ralisez dans vos structural et utilisez dans cahiers au transformaconversation moins tionnel. dans lcrit trois de mots cinq dsignent verbes que activits vous avez courantes . dcouvrit.

et la et les qui les

231

LE SCNARIO DE LA CLASSE Les vnements de la classe Lactivit denseignement La dure La captation de lattention des Le professeur pose quelques questions ses lves : 2 lves Vous tes prpars pour notre classe? Vous aimez les classes de franais ? Lnonciation des objectifs La vrification connaissances antrieures Les objectifs se trouvent dans le projet pdagogique. 2 des Le prof demande aux lves douvrir les manuels, les 5 cahiers de devoirs. Le contrle et la correction du devoir.

La prsentation des tches SO1:Indiquez les verbes limparfait qui apparaissent 25 denseignement. dans le texte. Lacquisition des connaissances. SO2: Lobtention de la performance. Construisez au moins 5 propositions avec chacun des verbes limparfait. Gr.1 5; Gr.2 7; Gr.3 10. SO3: Notez dans vos cahiers au moins trois de cinq verbes que vous avez dcouvrit. Lvaluation de la performance. La prsentation et la rsolution individuelle du teste 10 formatif. I(O1) Souligniez les verbes limparfait dans le texte donn. I(O2) Ralisez un texte dans lequel vous allez utiliser beaucoup des verbes limparfait. Le texte doit avoir au moins cinq propositions. I(O3) Ralisez et utilisez dans la conversation et dans lcrit les mots qui dsignent les activits courantes. La fixation des connaissances acquises Lvaluation de lactivit collective : par des remarques 3 sur le travail des lves (sur les fautes inhrentes). L valuation de lactivit individuelle : par des notes qui rcompensent les meilleures rponses. Le prof donne le devoir crit: lexercice no. 5 la page 3 101 : Mets les verbes limparfait Le professeur donne aux lves toutes les informations ncessaires pour rsoudre correctement les exercices.

Devoir la maison

5.1.3 Proiecte pentru activiti mastery learning de limba englez LESSON PROJECT Student teacher: Dobre Ctlina-Elena (directed by Professor Dr. Ion Negre-Dobridor) Date: April 8th, 2011 Grade: V B Object: English 232

Title of the lesson: Youve got a lot to learn! Type of lesson: integrated skills (speaking, listening, reading and writing). Textbook: Welcome 3 Length: 45 Aims: To the end of the lesson, all children must: revise and reinforce grammar concerning the Present Perfect Simple; develop their listening- comprehension abilities; their reading and speaking skills. read a text for specific information write a report Didactic strategy: Didactic methods: The conversation, the exercise, the explication, the discovery. Forms of organisation the pupils activity: Individual activity and team work. Resources: The normal capacities of learning and the previous knowledge. Visual and audio aids: the textbooks CD; textbook; workbook(vocabulary and grammar practice); worksheets; blackboard; chalk. Bibiography: Gray, Elizabeth, Virginia Evans. Welcome 3. Express Publishing, 2001. Gray, Elizabeth, Virginia Evans. Welcome 3-Workbook.Express Publishing, 2001. Dooley, Jenny, Virginia Evans. Grammarway. vol.4, Express Publishing, 1999. AIMS ESSENTIAL CONTENTS CAPACITIES DIDACTIC STRATEGIES OF Tasks of learning Situations LEARNING learning EVALUA TION

of

To the end of the lesson, The revision of a Gr.1- with a Teacher invites all children must: grammar lesson. slow rhythm of students to -Exercise learning give some O1- revise and reinforce examples of grammar concerning the Gr.2 -with a sentences in Present Perfect Simple. medium rhythm which they use The aim will be touched of learning the Present when each pupil will be Perfect Simple. able to give some Gr. 3- with a fast examples of sentences rhythm of in which they use the learning Present Perfect Simple.

Exercise 9 and 10 from page 72 and a worksheet.

O2develop their Listening, writing, Gr.1- with a Teacher plays the -The conversation Exercise 11 listeningcomprehension, slow rhythm of tape and students -the exercise from page comprehension abilities; communication learning have to listen the -the explication 73. their reading and skills. Gr.2 -with a text and match the - the discovery. speaking The aim will medium rhythm pictures with the be touched when each of learning descriptions. pupil will be able to Gr. 3- with a fast Teacher plays the understand the message rhythm of tape again and from an audio tape, the learning now, students content of a lesson and correct their he will be able to have a answers. Teacher 233

conversation with his deskmate.

asks students to present their answers in order to correct them together.

O3-read a text for Reading, writing, Gr.1- with a Students have to -The conversation Exercise specific information speaking skills. slow rhythm of read the text -the exercise 12, 13 from The aim will be touched learning loudly and fill in page 73. when each pupil will be the gapswith the able to the content of a Gr.2 -with a suitable words. lesson and the unknown medium rhythm Teacher gives the words from the lesson. of learning meaning of new words or refreshes Gr. 3- with a fast their memory in rhythm of case they already learning knew the words and he uses the blackboard to note them. Then, students have to do ex.13. This exercise asks them to answer the questions about the text. Teacher asks them to read their answers and corrects them when is needed.

O4-write a report Reading, Gr.1- with a The aim will be touched writing, slow rhythm of when each pupil will be speaking skills. learning able to understand and Revision of use the conventions of vocabulary Gr.2 -with a writing a report. knowledge medium rhythm of learning Gr. 3- with a fast rhythm of learning Teacher requests one of the students to read the exercise and the model given then she explains students what do they have to do. Then, students start 234

-The conversation -the exercise -the explication

Exercise 7from page 37.

working on their assignment. Didactic scenario THE EVENTS OF THE LESSON THE ACTIVITY LEARNING OF TIME Maxim Minim 5 minutes

The teacher asks the students what 8 minutes 1. Captatio benevolentiae/ Warm-up their homework was and students answer.They had to do B from page 43. SS come to their teachers desk and they do their homeworks correction with the help of their teacher. This happens for 3-5 students. -Students read the homework -The teacher corrects the possible errors with the help of the students 2. The enunciation of aims Teacher asks students: When do we 4 minutes use the Present Perfect Simple? Then, teacher invites students to give some examples of sentences in which they use the Present Perfect Simple. Teacher gives them a worksheet. They have to revise Present Perfect 4 minutes Simple. Teacher explains what the exercise 9 10 minutes is about and allows SS two minutes to do it. Students have to work in pairs in order to solve exercise 10. (2) They present their dialogues orally.Then, the students receive a worksheet with five exercises. They have to do the first two exercises from the worksheet in five minutes and then, they correct their answers with the help of their teacher. They will solve the exercise 3 in two minutes and the exercises 4 and 5 in five minutes. After each exercise, teacher asks them about the result of their work and they correct the answer together. Teacher plays the tape and students 4 minutes have to listen the text and match the pictures with the descriptions.( 4) Teacher plays the tape again and now, students correct their answers. Teacher asks students to present their answers in order to correct 235

2 minutes

3. The core of the lesson. 4.The presentation of the tasks.

2 minutes 8 minutes

5. The feedback

2 minutes

them together. 6. The knowledge assurance. Students have to read the text loudly 10 minutes and fill in the gapswith the suitable words. Teacher gives the meaning of new words or refreshes their memory in case they already knew the words and he uses the blackboard to note them. Then, students have to do ex.13. This exercise asks them to answer the questions about the text. Teacher asks them to read their answers and corrects them when is needed. (10) Teacher requests one of the students 5 minutes to read the exercise and the model given then she explains students what do they have to do. Then, students start working on their assignment. The teacher assigns homework to the students:(ex. 14 from page 73.). Teacher explains students that these exercises (12, 7) will help them to do their homework 6 minutes

3 minutes

7.The evaluation and the transfer.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Simple: Martha...........................(find) a new job. She is starting next week. He....................................(write) five letters. My mother............................(cook) dinner. I...........................................(lose) my key. They...................never............(be) in Australia. We.......................................(buy) a new bed. I............................................(not work) today. ..........................................(speak) he to his boss? My friends.............................(go) to a restaurant for lunch. Tom.........................never.................(feel) like this before. Your sister...........................................(already /buy) the tickets. 2. Correct the mistakes: I have see this film before. Linda have already bought a new dress for the party. Have you ever tastes Japanese food? Joe has been in Paris last week. She has went to the shops. I have broke my leg. You have bought a book two days ago. They has eaten a soup. 3.Give the past participle ( the III rd form of the verb) for the following verbs: eat- meet read- send write- break236

look- traveldrink- dogo- havedrive- feelfly- give4. Complete the table in Present Perfect Simple.

positive He has written a letter.

negative

question

They have not stopped. Have danced? She has worked. Andy has not slept. 5. Write sentences in present perfect simple. 1. they / ask / a question 2. he / speak / English 3. I / be / in my room 4. we / not / wash / the car 5. Annie / not / forget / her homework LESSON PROJECT Student teacher: student Dobre Ctlina-Elena (directed by Professor Ion Negret-Dobridor) Date: April 8th, 2011 School: No. 309 Grade: IV B Type of lesson: integrated skills (speaking, listening, reading and writing). Title of the lesson: Where were you? Textbook: Set sail 4 Length: 45 Aims:

we

to revise and reinforce grammar concerning the Past Tense Simple; to develop the pupils listening- comprehension abilities to make the pupils use the days of the week in their conversations; to develop the pupils reading and speaking skills; to introduce or revise vocabulary related to time expressions and ordinal numbers.

Visual and audio aids: the textbooks CD; textbook; workbook(vocabulary and grammar practice); worksheets; blackboard; chalk. Bibiography:

Dooley, Jenny, Virginia Evans. Set sail 4. Express Publishing, 2005. 237

Dooley, Jenny, Virginia Evans. Set sail 4-Vocabulary and grammar practice. Express Publishing, 2005. Dooley, Jenny, Virginia Evans. Grammarway. vol.4, Express Publishing, 1999.

THE EVENTS OF THE LESSON 1.Captatio benevolentiae/ Warm-up( 5-8) Aims: to draw the pupils attention and to introduce the new lesson. Interaction: T-S. Skills: speaking, reading. Activities: greetings, homework checking, introduction of the next lesson. 1st Activity: Greetings(<1) Procedure: informal conversation: -SS:Hello, Miss! T:Hello class! How are you today? -SS:We are fine. You? T:Im fine, thank you. Sit down, please! 2nd Activity: Homework checking( 2-3) Aims: to evaluate students home activity Interaction:T-S Skills: reading Procedure: -The teacher asks the students what their homework was and students answer.They had to do ex. C and D from page 45. SS come to their teachers desk and they do their homeworks correction with the help of their teacher. This happens for 3-5 students. -Students read the homework -The teacher corrects the possible errors with the help of the students. 3rd Activity: warming up for the next lesson (3-4) Aims: to revise and reinforce grammar concerning the Past Tense Simple. Interaction:T-S Skills: speaking, reading and writing. Procedure: Teacher asks students: When do we use the Past Tense Simple of the verb to be? Then, teacher invites students to give some examples of sentences in which they use the Past Simple of the verb to be. !!! IMPORTANT: whenever students dont understand the teachers questions and affirmations she will translate them into Romanian. 2.The core of the lesson(approx. 35) Aims: -to make the lesson seem fun and exciting, to involve students in individual and group activities to do exercises with Past Simple, the days of the week and ordinals. Interaction: T-S, S-S. Skills: reading, listening, writing, comprehension, communication skills. Activities: 1st Activity: a worksheet(15) Aims: to revise the Past Simple, time expressions and ordinal numbers. Interaction:T-S Skills: reading, wrtiting. Procedure: Teacher explains what the exercise C is about and allows SS two minutes to do it. T: Have you finished?, SS: No. T: Ok, then Ill leave you one more minute, SS: Weve finished it now, T: Lets hear some answers. Teacher corrects eventual mistakes. Then, the students receive a worksheet with five exercises. They have to do the first two exercises from the worksheet in five minutes and then, they correct their answers with the help of their teacher. They will solve the exercise

238

3 in two minutes and the exercises 4 and 5 in five minutes. Teacher asks them about the result of their work and they correct the exercises together. 2nd Activity: ex. 7 from page 60 (4) Aims: -to develop the pupils listening- comprehension abilities -to make the pupils use the days of the week in their conversations Interaction: T-S, S-S. Skills: listening, writing, comprehension, communication skills. Pocedure: Teacher plays the tape and students have to listen the text and fill in the gaps with the suitable words.( 4) Teacher plays the tape again and now, students correct their answers. Teacher asks students to present their answers in order to correct them together. 3rd Activity:ex. 8, 9 from page 61 (10) Aims: to develop the pupils reading and speaking skills Interaction: T-S, S-S. Skills: reading, writing, speaking skills Pocedure: Students have to read the text loudly and fill in the gaps. Teacher gives the meaning of new words or refreshes their memory in case they already knew the words and he uses the blackboard to note them.Then, he asks students to describe the extra picture. Then, they will play a game in which they have to think of a place they were last night with a famous person.(10) 4th Activity: ex.10 from page 62 (5) Aims:- to introduce or revise vocabulary related to time expressions to revise the Past Simple Interaction: T-S Skills: reading, writing, speaking skills Procedure: Teacher requests one of the students to read the exercise and the model given then she explains students what do they have to do. Then, students start working on their assignment. T: If you have any questions please ask me, as I have said before Ill be pleased to help you. Students have to solve this exercise in five minutes. Four of the students read their answers and the teacher corrects errors. 5th Activity:ex. 6 from page 60 and ex. 11 from page 62.(1-2) Aims: to repeat the newly learn words in a fun way. Interaction: T-S Skills: listening, reading, singing. Procedure: Teacher plays the tape once and then asks the children to repeat along with the tape. She plays the tape twice and the students and she repeat the tape. 3.The end of the lesson(2) The teacher assigns homework to the students:(ex.4 from the worksheet in negative and interrogative form). The teacher dismisses the class. Important!!! Whenever students dont understand the teachers questions and affirmations she will translate them into Romanian. Each of the unknown word is translated by the teacher, when possible with students help, and then written by the teacher on the blackboard as notes. Revision Past Tense Simple. The days of the week. Ordinal numbers. 1. Fill in the gaps with the Past Tense Simple of the verb to be: example: I.....was.... a student last month. Where.......... you yesterday? He...........not a student last year. It .............. on the 26th of March, two weeks ago. 239

My parents ............. very busy three days ago. Sarah ................... at the zoo last weekend; she was at cinema. My friends.............. on holiday in Italy.

2. Put the following sentences to the Past Tense Simple:


business meeting

concert at the shops

cinema

English Italian course restaurant

Mon

Tue

Wed
business meeting

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

concert

Example: We are in the classroom. .......We..were in the classroom.... Is he a teacher............................................ teacher? .................................................................. They arent students. ............................................................. Are they at home? ............................................................. ............................... It is not winter. ................................................................ ................................ Tom and Mary are in the park. .................................................... ....................... My aunt is very happy. ...................................................... .......................................

3.Write the days of the week: Example: U S Y T E A D: Tuesday A F R Y I D: ................................................................................................................................. U A N Y D S : ................................ .............................................................................................. A Y W D E D E N S: .......................... ........................................................................................ N A D Y O M: ...................................... ........................................................................................... T S A R U Y A D: ............................. ......................................................................................... R H U D A T S Y: .............................. ............................................................................................. S E Y U T D A: ................................... ................................................................................................ 4. Have a look at Tom's diary and answer the questions in complete sentences. 1. When was his English course? His English course was on Thursday. 2. When was his business meeting? ................................................... 3. When was he to the Italian restaurant? ................................... 4. When was he at the concert? .................................................... 5. When was he at the cinema?.................................................... 6. When was Tom at the shops?.................................................... 5. Give an ordinal number for the following: 1. the first; 2-............................................; 5-....................................... 23-.............................................................. 30-............................................................. 41-............................................................. 17-............................................................. LESSON PROJECT Student teacher: Dobre Ctlina-Elena 240

Date: April 8th, 2011 School: No. 309 Grade: IV C Type of lesson: integrated skills (speaking, listening, reading and writing). Title of the lesson: Where were you? Textbook: Set sail 4 Length: 45 Aims: to revise and reinforce grammar concerning the Past Tense Simple; to develop the pupils listening- comprehension abilities to make the pupils use the days of the week in their conversations; to develop the pupils reading and speaking skills; to introduce or revise vocabulary related to time expressions and ordinal numbers. Visual and audio aids: the textbooks CD; textbook; workbook(vocabulary and grammar practice); worksheets; blackboard; chalk.

Bibiography: Dooley, Jenny, Virginia Evans. Set sail 4. Express Publishing, 2005. Dooley, Jenny, Virginia Evans. Set sail 4-Vocabulary and grammar practice. Express Publishing, 2005. Dooley, Jenny, Virginia Evans. Grammarway. vol.4, Express Publishing, 1999. THE EVENTS OF THE LESSON 1. Captatio benevolentiae/ Warm-up( 5-8) Aims: to draw the pupils attention and to introduce the new lesson. Interaction: T-S. Skills: speaking, reading. Activities: greetings, homework checking, introduction of the next lesson. 1st Activity: Greetings(<1) Procedure: informal conversation: -SS:Hello, Miss! T:Hello class! How are you today? -SS:We are fine. You? T:Im fine, thank you. Sit down, please! 2nd Activity: Homework checking( 2-3) Aims: to evaluate students home activity Interaction:T-S Skills: reading Procedure: -The teacher asks the students what their homework was and students answer.They had to do B from page 43. SS come to their teachers desk and they do their homeworks correction with the help of their teacher. This happens for 3-5 students. -Students read the homework -The teacher corrects the possible errors with the help of the students. 3rd Activity: warming up for the next lesson (3-4) Aims: to revise and reinforce grammar concerning the Past Tense Simple. Interaction:T-S Skills: speaking, reading and writing.

241

Procedure: Teacher asks students: When do we use the Past Tense Simple of the verb to be? Then, teacher invites students to give some examples of sentences in which they use the Past Simple of the verb to be. !!! IMPORTANT: whenever students dont understand the teachers questions and affirmations she will translate them into Romanian. The core of the lesson(approx. 35) Aims: -to make the lesson seem fun and exciting, to involve students in individual and group activities to do exercises with Past Simple, the days of the week and ordinal numbers. Interaction: T-S, S-S. Skills: reading, listening, writing, comprehension, communication skills. Activities: 1st Activity: C from page 45 and a worksheet(15) Aims: to revise the Past Simple, time expressions and ordinals. Interaction:T-S Skills: reading, wrtiting. Procedure: Teacher explains what the exercise C is about and allows SS two minutes to do it. T: Have you finished?, SS: No. T: Ok, then Ill leave you one more minute, SS: Weve finished it now, T: Lets hear some answers. Teacher corrects eventual mistakes. Then, the students receive a worksheet with five exercises. They have to do the first two exercises from the worksheet in five minutes and then, they correct their answers with the help of their teacher. They will solve the exercise 3 in two minutes and the exercises 4 and 5 in five minutes. Teacher asks them about the result of their work and they correct the exercises together. 2nd Activity: ex. 7 from page 60 (4) Aims: -to develop the pupils listening- comprehension abilities -to make the pupils use the days of the week in their conversations Interaction: T-S, S-S. Skills: listening, writing, comprehension, communication skills. Pocedure: Teacher plays the tape and students have to listen the text and fill in the gaps with the suitable words.( 4) Teacher plays the tape again and now, students correct their answers. Teacher asks students to present their answers in order to correct them together. 3rd Activity:ex. 8, 9 from page 61 (10) Aims: to develop the pupils reading and speaking skills Interaction: T-S, S-S. Skills: reading, writing, speaking skills Pocedure: Students have to read the text loudly and fill in the gaps. Teacher gives the meaning of new words or refreshes their memory in case they already knew the words and he uses the blackboard to note them.Then, he asks students to describe the extra picture. Then, they will play a game in which they have to think of a place they were last night with a famous person.(10) 4th Activity: ex.10 from page 62 (5) Aims:- to introduce or revise vocabulary related to time expressions to revise the Past Simple Interaction: T-S Skills: reading, writing, speaking skills Procedure: Teacher requests one of the students to read the exercise and the model given then she explains students what do they have to do. Then, students start working on their assignment. T: If you have any questions please ask me, as I have said before Ill be pleased to help you. Students have to solve this exercise in five minutes. Four of the students read their answers and the teacher corrects errors. 5th Activity:ex. 6 from page 60 and ex. 11 from page 62.(1-2) Aims: to repeat the newly learn words in a fun way. Interaction: T-S Skills: listening, reading, singing.

242

Procedure: Teacher plays the tape once and then asks the children to repeat along with the tape. She plays the tape twice and the students and she repeat the tape. 3. The end of the lesson(2) The teacher assigns homework to the students:(ex. D from page 45.). The teacher dismisses the class. Important!!! Whenever students dont understand the teachers questions and affirmations she will translate them into Romanian. Each of the unknown word is translated by the teacher, when possible with students help, and then written by the teacher on the blackboard as notes. Revision Past Tense Simple. The days of the week. Ordinal numbers. 3. Fill in the gaps with the Past Tense Simple of the verb to be: example: I.....was.... a student last month. Where.......... you yesterday? He...........not a student last year. It .............. on the 26th of March, two weeks ago. My parents ............. very busy three days ago. Sarah ................... at the zoo last weekend; she was at cinema. My friends.............. on holiday in Italy. 4. Put the following sentences to the Past Tense Simple: Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun

Example: We are in the classroom. .......We..were in the classroom.... Is he a teacher? .................................................................. They arent students. ............................................................. Are they at home? ............................................................. It is not winter. ................................................................ Tom and Mary are in the park. .................................................... My aunt is very happy. ...................................................... 3.Write the days of the week: Example: U S Y T E A D: Tuesday A F R Y I D: ................................ U A N Y D S : ................................ A Y W D E D E N S: .......................... N A D Y O M: ...................................... T S A R U Y A D: ............................. R H U D A T S Y: .............................. S E Y U T D A: ................................... 4.Have a look at Tom's diary and answer the questions in complete sentences. 243

7. When was his English course? His English course was on Thursday. 8. When was his business meeting? ................................................... 9. When was he to the Italian restaurant? ................................... 10. When was he at the concert? .................................................... 11. When was he at the cinema?.................................................... 12. When was Tom at the shops?.................................................... 5. Give an ordinal number for the following: 2. the first; 2-............................................; 5-....................................... 23-.............................................................. 30-............................................................. 41-............................................................. 17-.............................................................

5.2 INCIDENTE CRITICE


Critical Incident este una dintre cele mai eficiente metode interactive pentru instruirea motivat classroom learning - a activitilor de predare-nvare a limbilor i literaturilor moderne i desigur i a limbii i literaturii materne. O situaie problematic relativ simpl real sau imaginar oblig pe cei care nva s lucreze individual, n microgrupuri i colectiv pentru a gsi soluii, a lua decizii sau a proiecta aciuni. Este evident c situaiile problematice pot fi luate din viaa real sau din literatur. Orice oper literar conine episoade conflictuale, situaii dramatice, dileme logice sau/i psihologice. Ele pot fi convertite n incidente critice de orice profesor cu imaginaie pedagogic. Dincolo de sarcinile de nvare concrete pe care profesorul de literatura romn, literatura francez sau literatura englez le solicit n clas, se va declana un efect pe termen lung de mare valoare: interesul elevilor pentru aflarea ntregului coninut al operei din care s-a desprins un anumit episod pe carese va ntemeia patima cititului. In cele ce urmeaz oferim exemple sugestive de incidente critice create de experi dar i de studeni ai Facultii de Litere care au nvat s foloseasc n practica instruirii de tip mastery learning aceast metod interactiv de mare i multipl eficien. Pierdut n largul oceanului (incident expertizat de Marina Comercial A SUA) SITUAIA PROBLEMATIC Un amic putred de bogat, posesorul unui iaht luxos, v-a invitat s facei o croazier, n vacan, n sudul Pacificului. Pe neateptate a izbucnit un incendiu devastator. Cauza nu se cunoate. Vasul, echipamentul i coninutul au fost practic distruse. V aflai n deriv i iahtul se scufund lent. V aflai ntr-o poziie extrem de nesigur. Principalele instrumente de navigaie au fost i ele distruse n rstimpul n acre ceilali pasageri i echipajul v cereau disperai s acordai prioritate luptei contra incendiului. Cea mai bun estimare pe care o putei face n legtur cu poziie este aceasta: v aflai la aproximativ 1000 de mile marine sud-vest de cea mai apropiat coast. Vei gsi mai jos doar 15 articole care au rmas intacte n urma incendiului.

244

Pe de alt parte, barca de salvare pneumatic, prevzut cu vsle, a rmas intact; este n stare perfect i suficient de mare pentru a v transporta mpreun cu marinarii i toi pasagerii; ba chiar i cu cele 15 articole. Un marinar a avut inspiraia de a inventaria i buzunarele celor scpai cu via i a gsit: un pachet de igri, mai multe cutii cu chibrituri i 5 bilete de banc. Sarcina const n a aranja cele 15 articole n funcie de importana lor, din perspectiva supravieuirii dvs.

MODUL DE LUCRU Punei cifra 1 n faa articolului care vi se pare cel mai important pentru supravieuirea dvs., cifra 2 la al doilea ca importan i tot astfel pn la cifra 15. Folosii tabelul care urmeaz. ARTICOLE ORD. IND. DIF. MARINA DIF. COM. SUA ORD. ORD.PLEN DIF. MICRO PLEN GRUP

un sextant o aglind de buzunar un bidon cu 25 l. de ap potabil o plas de aprare contra narilor un set de sufertae cu hran de tipul celor militare hri ale pacificului o pern plutitoare (omologat) un bidon cu 10 l. amestec de ulei i benzin pt.un motor in 2 timpi un mic receptor tranzistori o bomb antirechin o foaie de plastic, subire, opac, de aprox. 5 m2 un flacon cu un sfert de litru de rom de 800 5 m. de frnghie de nailon dou cutii cu batoane de 245 radio cu

ciocolat material de pescuit suma diferenelor I. II. III.

Clasamentul stabilit de ofierii marinei comerciale a statelor unite Elementele cele mai importante atunci cnd cineva este pierdut n mijlocul oceanului sunt articolele care atrag atenia i care asigur supravieuirea pn la sosirea salvatorilor. Instrumentele de navigaie sunt de mic importan. Chiar dac un mic vas de salvare ar fi capabil s ating uscatul, ar fi imposibil s fie ncrcat cu destul ap i hran pentru asigurarea subzistenei n toat aceast perioad. Prin urmare, oglinda i bidonul cu zece litri amestec de ulei i benzin sunt de prim importan. Aceste articole pot servi ca semnale pentru intervenii de ajutor aeriene sau maritime. De o importan secund sunt apa i hrana. Scurtele explicaii care nsoesc clasamentul nu reprezint toate utilizrile poteniale ale articolelor clasate, ci, mai curnd, importana prioritar a fiecruia dintre ele.
1. Oglind de buzunar: semnal pentru interveniile aeriene i maritime.

2. Bidon cu 10 litri amestec de ulei i benzin: acest amestec plutete pe ap i l putem aprinde cu ajutorul unui bilet de manc i al unui chibrit. 3. Bidon cu 25 de litri de ap potabil: importan evident. 4. Set de sufertae cu hran: asigur raia alimentar de baz.
5. folie din plastic subire, opac, de aproximativ 5 m2: utilizabil pentru colectarea apei

de ploaie, putnd constitui, totodat, un element protector. 6. Dou cutii cu batoane de ciocolat: rezerv de hran. 7. Material de pescuit: clasat mai jos dect ciocolata, deoarece puin valoreaz mai mult dect nimic. Nu exist nici o certitudine c se va putea prinde pete. 8. 5 m. de frnghie din nailon: poate fi utilizat pentru prinderea unor echipamente, prevenindu-se cderea lor peste bord. 9. perna plutitoare (omologat): poate servi drept colac de salvare, dac cineva cade n ap. 10.
11.

Bomb antirechin: importan evident. Flaconul de rom: conine 800 alcool, poate servi ca antiseptic n cazul unor

rniri; n rest, nu prezint importan (ar putea provoca deshidratarea, dac ar fi consumat).
246

12. 13. 14. 15.

Un mic tranzistor: mic valoare, nefiind emitor; pe de alt parte, n apropiere Hrile Pacificului: fr valoare, n absena unui echipament de navigaie Plas aprtoare contra narilor: nu exist nari n mijlocul Pacificului. Sextant: fr valoare, n absena unor suporturi sau a unui cronometru.

nu se afl nici o staie emitoare. adiional; important este nu unde ne gsim, ci unde se afl salvatorii.

Cheia logic a exerciiului face ca, n clasament, articolele de semnalizare s fie plasate naintea hranei i a apei de bu, deoarece, fr acestea, nu exist practic anse de a fi reperat i salvat. n plus, cea mai mare parte a aciunilor de salvare au loc n primele 36 de ore, i pe aceast durat se poate supravieui fr hran i ap.
Supravieuirea pe munte (Staicovici Eliza- Maria, Facultatea de Litere, An III, Romn- Englez) Situaia problematic: E aproximativ ora 16:20, 10 noiembrie i v aflai mpreun cu civa colegi pe malul unui lac din munii Bucegi situat la 2050 de m altitudine. V-ai rtcit din cauza stratului gros de nori i dup estimrile voastre v aflai la aproximativ 5 km mprejurimile sunt distan de locul unde v-ai putea refugia. n general stncoase i abrupte. Temperatura este de -2 oC, dar noaptea poate

ajunge la -18 o C. Viteza vntului este de 65-75km/h, n general dinspre NV spre SE. Soarele rsare la ora 06:15 i apune la 17:45. Suntei mbrcat gros, cu cciul i bocanci, ns unii dintre voi au mbrcmintea umed. n rucsacurile pe care le ducei n spate avei obiectele prezentate n tabelul de mai jos: Obiecte Busol O can de 4,5 litri cu sirop de brad Cte un sac de dormit Tablete de carbon pentru dezinfectarea apei O bucat mare de pnz rezistent 13 buci de chibrituri ntro cutie impermeabil Un cablu de 60 m, testat s reziste pn la 150 kg O lantern cu patru baterii Un litru de rom (60 0) Set de brbierit cu oglind Ceas detepttor Topor Camera spart a unei 247 Soluie individual Soluie de Soluie grup specialist Diferena I Diferena II

biciclete Cartea Steaua polar ghid de orientare Punctajul tu Sarcini - Ierarhizai obiectele din tabel, marcnd cu 1 cel mai important i cu 14 cel mai puin important obiect i notai soluia n fia de lucru, n coloana corespunztoare. Acordai 7 min. pentru aceast etap. - mprii-v n grupe de cte 5-7 persoane; comparai soluiile individuale la care ai ajuns i negociai o soluie a grupului. Notai aceast decizie n coloana corespunztoare pentru soluia de grup din fia de lucru. Acordai 10 min. pentru aceast etap. - Comparai soluia sugerat de salvamontist cu soluia individual i cu cea de grup i calculai diferena. - Calculai suma diferenelor obinute pe coloane i trecei suma obinut n csua punctajul meu, respectiv punctajul grupului. Analizai rezultatele obinute i decidei care dintre soluii au fost mai eficiente: soluia individual sau cea de grup, tiind c un punctaj mic nseamn c soluia este mai aproape de soluia salvamontistului. Soluie dat de un expert- salvamontist Busol O can de 4,5 litri cu sirop de pin Cte un sac de dormit cu puf Tablete de carbon pentru dezinfectarea apei O bucat mare de pnz rezistent 13 buci de chibrituri ntr-o cutie impermeabil Un cablu de 60 m, testat s reziste pn la 150 kg O lantern cu patru baterii Un litru de rom (60 0) Set de brbierit cu oglind Ceas detepttor Topor Camera spart a unei biciclete Cartea Steaua polar - ghid de orientare Incident critic AMINTIRI DIN COPILARIE (LA SCALDAT) de Ion Creanga 248 12 7 5 14 8 1 9 6 10 4 11 2 3 13 Punctajul grupului

Ordonai scenele dup momentele desfurrii aciunii:

(titlul lecturii) __________________________________________________________________________________ (numele autorului)

3. Explic expresiile:

Cu toat inima= _________________ Nu-mi vd capul de treburi =________________


4. Completeaz cu cuvintele lips: __________________________ Las toate la pmnt= ntr-o diminea, mama il scoal= _________________________ O iau la sntoasa pe __________ . l roag s o ______________, avnd grij de __________________, legnndu-l, pentru c tatl e plecat la ____________. Biatul promite, dar numai el tie ce i trece prin ______________. Era o zi frumoas, cu cer _______________ . Cnd mama nu l mai observ, acesta se furieaz la ______________. Dup un timp, mama l249 ________________, dar acesta nu rspunde. i d seama c biatul a plecat la ________________ , i pleac dup ______. i ia hainele i l las n ____________ goal. Ajunge acas ruinat i i cere ____________ cu glas tremurat.

5. Scrie nsuiri pentru personajele lecturii:

Imagini

Ordinea individual a Diferena de percepie a Ordinea real a imaginilor date ordinii imaginilor imaginilor din fragmentul intitulat : La scldat

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Supravieuirea pe o insul pustie (Incident inspirat din literatur: Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe) V aflai pe o corabie mpreun cu alte trei persoane n largul mrii. O furtun puternic se pornete din senin. Furtuna poart corabia spre o stnc. Pentru a v salva de impactul ciocnirii v folosii de singura barc de salvare a echipajului. Din pcate, barca este prea mic pentru patru persoane i n scurt timp se rstoarn. Corabia se lovete de stnc, oprindu-se mai apoi ntr-un banc de nisip. Valurile v despart de ceilali, aruncndu-v pe o insul pustie. Dup ce v recptai forele, dai un ocol insulei. Descoperii pe coasta opus corabia euat. Nu avei cum s chemai ajutoare, aa c v gndii la o modalitate de a supravieui cteva zile, pn la venirea unei echipe de salvare. Pe corabie gsii cteva articole care v-ar putea fi de ajutor.

250

NIC

MAMA

SARCINI: 1. Numerotai aceste articole n ordinea descresctoare importanei lor; 2. Pentru autoverificare citii romanul lui Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe a. Un cufr cu haine b. Dou briceaguri c. O cutie cu chibrituri d. Ciocan i cuie e. Un set de tacmuri f. Dou kilograme pesmei g. Zece metri de frnghie h. Trei pnze de corabie i. Un kilogram i jumtate pastram j. Cinci litri de ap potabil k. O puc i un pistol l. Un ferstru m.Treizeci de monede de aur n. O sticl de rom o. Praf de puc SOLUIILE LUI ROBINSON 1.j;2. F;3. C:4. I;5. N;6. K;7. O;8.b 9. l;10.d;11.h;12.g;13.m;14.a;15.e . 5.2. STUDII DE CAZ Studiu de caz aplicat personajului feminin Ana din romanul Ion de Liviu Rebreanu (studenta Dumitru Ruxandra, Facultatea de Litere) Tipologic, Ana ntruchipeaz destinul femeii din mediu rural, dup consideraia lui G.Clinescu, femeia reprezint dou brae de lucru, o zestre i o productoare de copii. Ana, fata lui Vasile Baciu, se detaeaz nc din primele pagini ale romanului, n momentul horei, alturi de Florica i n contrast cu ea. Prin cele dou apariii feminie autorul prefigureaz, de fapt, cele dou glasuri ntre care va pendula Ion: glasul pmntului i glasul iubirii. Prin acest studiu de caz se vrea rezolvarea unei ntrebri , i anume : 251

Cine este de vin pentru moartea Anei ? 1. S fie oare faptul c Ana este orfan de mam ? 2. S fie oare din cauza faptului c tatl ei este ursuz , este czut treptat n patima buturii i vede n Ana un vrajma care i-ar tirbi proprietatea prin cstorie? 3. S fie oare iubirea oarb pe care Ana i-o poart lui Ion? 4. S fie oare condiia de inferioritate a femeii date fiind prejudecile de care era stpnit societatea vremii? 5. S fie oare de vin prbuirea suportului moral care i-a fost iubirea? 6. S fie oare de vin comportamentul animalic pe care-l arat Ion fa de ea ? 7. S fie oare vorba de un caracter slab deinut de aceast femei ? 8. S fie oare vorba doar de un moment de necumptare i de un moment de saturaie la care ajunge personajul, i de aceea se sinucide ? 9. S fie oare de vin relaia lui Ion cu Florica ? 10. S fie oare de vin sentimentul sufocrii ntr-un spaiu limitat din care ea manifesta firesc tendina de evadare. Inadaptarea colar (studiu de caz realizat de studenta Briciu Tamara, Facultatea de Litere) Obiective: La sfritul activitii, toi elevii vor fi capabili s: - identifice o cauz care a determinat-o pe Georgiana s-i schimbe conduita colar; - elaboreze unui plan de intervenie pentru remedierea situaiei; - produc cel puin un argument convingtor n favoarea propriei opinii. Descrierea situaiei: Ne aflm ntr-o coal general din provincie, judeul Buzu n anul 2011. Georgiana B. este elev n clasa I. Eleva nregistreaz rezultate slabe la nvtur, atingnd cu greu standardele minimale de performan. Ea este lipsit de respect fa de tat, dezinteresat fa de activitatea colar, nervoas, agitat i prezint tulburri de comportament. Datorit faptului c mama este plecat n Italia ea rmnne n grija tatlui, aceasta avnd grave probleme cu alcoolul. Georgiana B. a profitat de lipsa de interes a acestuia n evoluia sa colar i ca urmare au nceput s se manifeste tulburri de comportament i de nvtur. Georgiana B. este tot timpul deprimat, nu are prieteni i nu socializeaz cu elevii din clas. De asemenea are numeroase absene nemotivate. Nu vorbete n clas dect atunci cnd i se adreseaz n mod direct o ntrebare. Care credei c este cauza schimbrii i cum se poate remedia situaia? (problem de optimizare presupune conjugarea mai multor opinii pentru stabilirea deciziilor care trebuie luate) 252

1. Tatl Georgianei B Georgiana este un alt copil acas- tatl ne spune c i este greu de cnd a plecat mama in Italia, c Georgianei i este dor de mama ei, c fata i simte lipsa. De la plecarea mamei are din ce n ce mai multe probleme cu ceilali i de multe ori refuz s mearg la coal, dac nu vorbete cu mama sa la telefon, dimineaa, nainte de a pleca. Are un comportament ostil i agresiv fa de sora sa. Vorbete urt, de multe ori sare la btaie, dac sora sa i atrage atenia c nu vorbete frumos. Tatl nu-o pedepsete, pentru ceea ce face, considernd c va veni timpul cnd Georgiana i va da seama c greete i nu va mai fi violent, iar cnd mama se va ntoarce, totul va intra n normal. Crede c de vin este nvtoare pentru c nu se ocup suficient de Georgiana. Soluia Georgianei ar fi oferirea da sarcini precise i implicarea n diverse aciuni, pentru a fi resposbilizat. 2. nvtoarea clasei crede c Georgiana rspunde ezitant, cu o voce nesigur, abia auzit, se nroete la fa i evit s priveasc n ochi nvtoarea cnd i se cere s rspund oral n faa colegilor. Cnd trebuie s lucreze individual n clas nu-i termin niciodat activitatea, nu rmne linitit i i deranjeaz colegii. Georgiana B. are capaciti intelectuale de nivel mediu. Rezolvarea problemei depinde de familie i de implicarea tatlui n viaa elevei. De asemenea este necesar o strns legtur cu familia, astfel nct prezena s fie de 100%. 3. Directorul colii crede c Georgiana e demotivat de faptul c nu i s-a dat ocazia s-i mreasc ncrederea n sine i s-i mbunteasc aptitudinile n situaiile n care interacioneaz cu grupul de elevi (clasa), prin responsabilizarea sa n competiii, concursuri. n aceast situaie, se va apela i la ajutorul psihologului colar, dat fiind natura cronic a problemei Georgianei. 4. Psihologul colii ajutarea Georgianei de a depi teama de a participa la ore, spunndu-i prerea n faa colegilor si, printr-un sistem de sprijin i ncurajare din partea nvtoarei. n al doilea rnd, mai puin exigen din partea nvtoarei n materie de teme scrise i o atitudine ct mai flexibil. Randamentul Georgianei la nvtur va crete, dar se impune n continuare ajutorul doamnei nvtoare, prin program de lucru suplimentar printr-o edin de o or pe sptamn n afara orelor de clas. n al treilea rnd, comportamentul su agresiv, fa de sora ei, fa de tatl ei este datorat lipsei mamei, n care copilul are mare ncredere. Momentan, ea se simte abandonat de mam. n continuare i psihologul colar, i doamna nvtoare vor aplica tehnici experimentale pentru a ameliora starea de team i de inadaptare colar a Georgianei. Modul de desfurare a activitii: - n prima etap, studiul individual al cazului propus (2 minute) - n a doua etap, studiul cazului pe grupuri mici, de cte 4-5 elevi (5 minute) - n a treia etap, analiza situaiei n plen: fiecare grup i prezint concluziile, apoi are loc dezbaterea moderat de profesor (15 minute)

253

5.3 JOCURI DE ROL


Acest tip de activitate are o importan decisiv pentru dezvoltarea elevilor. Caracterul su formativ, stimulator i interactiv contribuie la apariia unor deprinderi care le permit acestora s neleag mai bine situaiile complexe ntlnite la nivel cotidian. Jocul devine o modalitate de exersare a capacitilor imaginative n sensul construirii unor circumstane verosimile. Atmosfera creat are rolul de a spori ncrederea n sine a participanilor i de a le mbunti capacitile de evaluare critic. Un alt element favorabil este asimilarea unor tactici de argumentare logic ce se pot dovedi benefice pentru circumscrierea unor ipostaze specifice ale mediului social. Exerciiul ludic pe care l vom descrie este adresat unor elevi ce aparin claselor gimnaziale, iar menirea sa este de a reliefa structura dialogului i modul n care acesta este determinat de context. Relaionarea uman depinde ntotdeauna de elemente ambientale, dar i de tipologia vorbitorilor, fiind un proces sensibil la o palet ntreag de factori. Elevii vor nelege mai eficient aceste variaii dac le vor observa nemijlocit, intrnd, prin intermediul unei reprezentaii, n diferite ipostaze.

Etapa de pregtire:

Exist unele reguli standard care este bine s fie nsuite de nceptori. Dar se pot imagina o varietate probabil infinit de situaii problematice care solicit reguli adecvate. Cele de baz sunt cele care urmeaz. Clasa se organizeaz circular, pentru ca fiecare elev sa aib contact vizual cu toi ceilali participani (este o modalitatea optim de amplificare a receptivitii interlocutorilor). Se enun cteva reguli: o singur persoan vorbete la un moment dat; ntrebrile se adreseaz doar dup finalizarea unei reprezentaii etc. Elevii se mpart n grupe de cte 4-5. Fiecare grup primete o fi de lucru sigilat. Acest detaliu capteaz atenia copiilor i crete gradul de implicare. Profesorul puncteaz principalele cerine ale jocului: fiele conin o descriere sumar a unor situaii reale de dialog (se precizeaz locul i, dup caz, statutul persoanelor care converseaz); elevii trebuie s concep replicile adecvate pentru contextul dat, iar apoi s i distribuie roluri, tocmai pentru a juca discuia redactat; colegii care asist au ca sarcin evaluarea reprezentaiei n funcie de limbajul folosit (formal/ informal) i delimitarea unor caracteristici care s diferenieze personajele jucate. Pe fie informaiile succinte pot fi formulate astfel: blocai n lift; ciocnirea cu un necunoscut ntr-o librrie; dialog n cabina unui tren etc. Acest moment de organizare poate dura ntre 10 i 15 min.

Desfurarea jocului

Sarcina de a te raporta la context este n multe privine dificil. Profesorul va rspunde tuturor nelmuririlor exprimate de elevi. Este necesar un timp consistent pentru rezolvarea cerinei, la care se adaug secvenele actoriceti propriu-zise. Un interval de 30 de minute se poate dovedi insuficient, de aceea este recomandat ca jocul s aib loc atunci cnd este posibil prelungirea sa pe durata a dou ore de curs. Dup fiecare reprezentaie se vor asculta ntrebrile colegilor i se vor lua notie pornind de la

254

principalele observaii expuse. Punctele cheie se vor scrie la tabl, pentru a oferi elevilor repere n analiza pe care o desfoar.

Etapa concluziilor

Pentru a conferi jocului o tent competitiv se pot acorda note la finalul fiecrui moment scenic. Echipa ctigtoare poate primi un premiu simbolic. Toate grupele au obligaia de a juca n faa colegilor. La final profesorul va recapitula aspectele eseniale adresnd ntrebri.

Amintiri din copilrie de Ion Creang (Joc de rol prin metoda plriilor gnditoare) (Student : Dumitru Ruxandra, Facultatea de Litere, Universitatea din Bucureti ) TIPUL LECIEI : lecie de dobndire de noi cunotine, de formare a priceperilor i a deprinderilor n receptarea textului literar. Clasa se mparte n ase grupe.Se dau urmtoarele comenzi: Jucai-v ! Lucrai n perechi ! Comunicai ! GRUPA I

plria alb

1. Prezentai date despre viaa i opera lui Ion Creang.

2. Realizeaz o scurt prezentare a crii Amintiri din copilrie . GRUPA II

255

plria albastr 1. Povestete ,n cel mult zece rnduri, una din nazbatiile lui Nic.

2. Identific trsturile operei epice, autor, personaje. GRUPA III

plria galben

1. Realizeaz planul de idei al naratiunii studiate. 2. Realizeaz o scurt prezentare a personajului principal. GRUPA IV

plria verde 1. Imagineaz-i un dialog cu personajul Nica.

256

2. Realizati o poezie sau un desen pornind de la naratiunea studiata. GRUPA V

plria neagr

2. Ce nu i-a plcut sau ce fapte dezaprobi din povestirea citita? 1. POTI FI I TU ACTOR! Imagineaza-ti o aventura in care ai putea sa fii personaj. GRUPA VI

plria portocalie

1. Prezentarea unor ntmplri din copilria voastr.

2. Extrageti citate din Amintiri din copilarie de Ion Creanga in care sa fie prezentat personajul principal, si satul natal.

257

Complicaii majore cu opionalele ( joc de rol conceput de studenta Roxana Fluerau, Facultatea de Litere) Descrierea situaiei Alegerea disciplinelor opionale o dat cu nceperea clasei a VI-a. Elevii vor cdea de acord mpreun cu dirigintele n privina a cte ore vor efectua i ce materii de opional se potrivesc mai bine i sunt agreate mai mult de ctre acetia. Va avea loc o dezbatere n care se va ncerca soluionarea contradiciilor pe aceasta tem. Distribuirea rolurilor: Avem urmatoarele: grupa A, grupa B, grupa C, profesorul-diriginte, profesorul de istorie, profesorul de geografie, profesorul de limb strain. Clasa urmeaz s fie mprit n cele trei grupe, fiecare dintre ele susinnd o materie. Fiecare grupa va veni cu argumente n ceea ce privete necesitatea anumitei ore, i va aduce contra argumente n ceea ce privete celelalte grupe. Este un joc colectiv n care se pune accent pe unitate . Profesorii, alturi de diriginte, vor prezenta punctul lor de vedere i vor decide n funcie de grupa care aduce argumentul cel mai solid. Rolurile: -Grupa A: susintoare a limbii strine, va explica necesarul cunoaterii unei limbi strine ca fiind un pas spre cultura fiecruia, ca abilitate util pe viitor. Rolul este unul destul de dificil, dat fiind c, n clasa a VI-a deja au n gril dou limbi strine . -Grupa B: format din elevi pricepui la istorie, incluzndu-l i pe olimpic dar i pe eful clasei, va propune o or tip distracie n care istoria va fi prezentat ntr-un mod plcut, n care nu se va nva mecanic; prezint contraargumente solide n ceea ce privete ideea grupei A. -Grupa C: susintoare a geografiei. Rolul acesteia este de a i face pe ceilali ateni la importana geografiei. -Profesorul de geografie: se va supune majoritii. Vine pregtit, i prezint materia, susintor al grupei C. Rolul su este s-i ajute pe cei din grup. Profesorul de istorie: are aceeai atitudine ca profesorul de geografie, susintor al grupei B. Profesorul de limb strin : susintor al grupei A. Profesorul-diriginte : este imparial , supune la vot ntregul colectiv. La terminarea dezbaterii are rolul de a-i ntreba pe fiecare n parte, ca reprezentant al fiecrei grupe, despre dorinele lor. Are totodat rolul de a negocia cu grupele i de a-i transmite rspunsul profesorului care va ine ora de practic pe parcursul anului n urma hotrrii majoritii. Desfasurarea jocului : -se acorda un timp de 10 minute pentru grupe ca s-i pun n ordine ideile. -timp de 10 minute fiecare grup va aduce argumente pro i contra, se va dezbate, se va vota. Rezultatul nu va mai putea fi modificat, materia considerat cea mai util va face parte din orarul sptmnal al elevilor pe parcursul anului n curs. 258

Totul se va desfura pe parcursul unei ore de dirigenie (50 min) Concluzii : -utilitatea jocului vine n spijinul elevului, faptul c el este o parte a dezbaterii l va motiva . Fie c este un susintor pro sau contra, acest lucru va conta n viitor, el fiind parte activa a rezultatului. Un caz cutremurtor (Joc de rol realizat de studenta Ungureanu Ioana- Ctlina, Facultatea de Litere, probabil pornind de la o ntmplare real ) Prezentarea situaiei problematice: Se descoper c eleva C.C. din clasa a XII-a H a liceului teoretic Mihai Eminescu din municipiul I. are o relaie cu profesorul de Istorie al aceluiai liceu. Directoarea colii este foarte revoltat la aflarea acestei veti, n special pentru c este cunoscut faptul nu este prima dat cnd acest profesor este implicat ntr-o situaie de acest gen. Aceasta expune situaia att prinilor elevei, ct i comitetului profesoral i decid convocarea unui consiliu n care s se discute acest incident, n sperana gsirii unei soluii. Distribuirea rolurilor: Participanii vor avea la dispoziie urmtoarele roluri: eleva acuzat, profesorul acuzat, prinii elevei, diriginta clasei, directoarea liceului, femeia de serviciu, psihologul colii, profesorii i elevii liceului. Participanii care nu au primit un rol bine delimitat vor face parte din consiliul profesoral i cel al elevilor. Acetia pot interveni oricnd pe parcursul dezbaterii, aducnd argumente pro sau contra. Eleva acuzat va susine c nu consider c poate fi nvinuit de nimic, sentimentele ei pentru profesor fiind unele pure. Ea chiar crede c relaia lor va fi de lung durat i c faptul c el este profesorul ei nu constituie niciun impediment. Profesorul acuzat este de aceeai prere cu eleva, specificnd c relaia lor nu reprezint un risc pentru buna funcionare a liceului, nu este un impediment n buna desfurare a orelor de curs. Prinii elevei sunt contieni c fiica lor a nclcat regulile colii, dar asigur conducerea c vor lua msuri n aceast privin i cer o pedeaps uoar pentru copilul lor. Diriginta clasei intervine n favoarea elevei, susinnd c este prima dat cnd aceasta are o comportare necuviincioas. Aceasta recunoate faptul c i eleva a greit, dar susine c vina profesorului este mult mai mare. Femeia de serviciu este cea care descoper relaia celor doi. Ea susine c nu este prima dat cnd acest profesor are un comportament necuviincios n incinta liceului. Ea are rolul de martor al acuzrii. Directoarea liceului este foarte revoltat de descoperirea acestui caz. La aceasta se adaug i faptul c nu este prima oar cnd profesorul de istorie este implicat ntr-un scandal de acest fel, el fiind prin urmare un recidivist. Nu este prima oar cnd ntrunete consiliu pentru o astfel de situaie i este hotrt s ia o msur drastic pentru a evita viitoare situaii de acest fel.

259

Psihologul colii ncearc, pe ct posibil s medieze aceast discuie, oferind att argumente pro, ct i contra. Acesta ncearc s menin un echilibru. Desfurarea jocului: Se acord un timp de 40 de minute pentru dezbaterea schiat mai sus. La aceast dezbatere vor lua parte toate personajele, inclusiv elevii i profesorii care nu au fost individualizai. La sfritul acestei dezbateri directoarea colii va anuna msurile care vor fi luate i cum va fi gestionat problema pe viitor.

5.4.

ANTRENAMENT

PENTRU

NVAREA

GRUPURI

MICI

(ETEROGENE I COMPETITIVE)
CANDY COMPANY -JOC DE COMPETIIESITUAIA LUDIC O mare companie de dulciuri a realizat un sortiment nou de ciocolat i vrea s l lanseze pe pia. Are nevoie de o reclam de 5 minute pentru radio care s dea o denumire ct mai atractiv produsului i s genereze apetitul consumatorilor de orice vrst. n acest sens compania a anunat o licitaie la care sau nscris mai multe firme de advertising. Grupul dvs. este o firm de advertising. Trebuie s realizai : 1. O reclam ct mai ingenioas de 5 minute ptr. Radio; 2. Un nume ct mai atractiv al produsului. Scopul dvs. este s-i depii pe ceilali competitori i s ctigai cei 2 milioane de euro oferii de companie celei mai reuite reclame. REGULILE DE JOC I DE EVALUARE Organizai-v liber, dup preferine, n grupuri de cte 5 membri i acionai ca o echip de advertising. Reclamele vor fi prezentate de ctre fiecare echip i evaluate public n faa staff-ului companiei i a echipelor concurente. Fiecare echip va acorda note de la 1 la 10 celorlalte echipe concurente lund n considerare: a. Ingeniozitatea reclamei i a numelui 260

b. Incadrarea n timpul stabilit Evaluatorii i vor argumenta pe scurt notele. Ctigtoare va fi declarat echipa cu scorul cel mai mare.

APLICAII
Operaii de proiectare i realizare a activitilor de nvare n modelele de determinare a eficacitii generale a instruirii folosind i crend tehnici i simulri interactive. Aplicaia 8. Exerciii de utilizare a metodelor interactive: Role playings, case studies i dramatizrile Aplicaia 9. Exercitii de utilizare a metodelor interactive: Ice bracking i Critical Incidents Aplicaia 10. Crearea de jocuri de rol i studii de caz Aplicaia 11. Crearea de materiale pentru alte metode interactive Aplicaia 12. Elaborare de teste docimologice

DOCUMENTARE
Documentarul Nr. 1
NOT Studiul reprodus mai jos este una dintre cele mai complete i mai sintetice viziuni asupra devenirii civilizaiei i culturii omeneti prin intermediul planificrii i organizrii contiente a educaiei indivizilor umani. Parcurgndu-l cu atenie, cursanii i vor constitui cu uurin o imagine realist asupra importanei proiectrii i implementrii de curricula n n societate i, totodat, vor putea medita responsabil asupra consecinelor pe care le implic schimbrile educaionale determinate contient.

World History Curriculum Daniel J. Elazar ( ARTICOL PUBLICAT n Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs )
Introduction Approximately 90 miles north of San Francisco, on the Pacific Coast, sits Fort Ross State Park, a quiet and pleasant restoration of a small frontier settlement. In the 1820's, Fort Ross was the southern most Russian outpost in North America. For a brief moment, it reflected the outer limits of the expansionist ambitions of certain Russian leaders, who saw in the still politically chaotic Pacific coast of North America of the early nineteenth century a chance to extend Russian hegemony southward in the face of the rival British, American and Spanish claims. The Russian effort was brief and unsuccessful. It had no real support from St. Petersburg (then the capitol of the Russian Empire) and was confronted by intense opposition from the rival claimants. The Russians abandoned the fort in the 1830's, withdrawing to Alaska where they were to sit for another generation until Secretary of State William Seward arranged to purchase that territory for the United States in 1867. Today, Fort Ross is a collection of restored log structures whose piquant history is an added attraction for visitors to a lovely section of the Californian coast. In one sense, however, Fort Ross is far more significant than its brief history would indicate. It represents the point of convergence of those elements of what we generally define as Western civilization in their movement to encircle the globe. Its founding and brief history brought to a culmination four millennia or more of expansion that ultimately embraced the whole world. Over five thousand years before the founding of Fort Ross, the Near Eastern civilizations out of which western civilization was to spring, were inventing civilization itself in the fertile crescent from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates valleys. Some two millennia later, Israel gave birth to Judaism which 261

became the religious foundation of western civilization. A millennium thereafter the Greeks began the development of western philosophy and science. Between the Semitic peoples of western Asia and the Hellenic peoples of the Greek isles, the contributions of these two civilizations were spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin during the course of the millennium immediately prior to the rise of Christianity. Two thousand years ago, Christianity was born out of the Jewish people and within its first millennium synthesized its understanding of Jewish religious civilization with the contributions of Greek philosophy and civilization and spread throughout Europe. The energies of the West thus organized and released, the following millennium saw the Christianized Russians move eastward across Siberia and the Bering Straits and the Christianized Spanish, French, Dutch, and British peoples move westward across the Atlantic, away from their European heartlands, to colonize vast new territories and implant western civilization within them. The eastward movement of the Russians and the westward movement of the other European nations finally met - after having girdled the globe - in northern California at Fort Ross, thereby completing literally millennia of migration, settlement and cultural transformation. The consequences of this western globe-girdling have become quite apparent in the twentieth century as the entire world has entered the embrace of western civilization. While Western Civilization has succeeded in girdling the globe it has done so at every step by absorbing important elements from the other civilizations it has encountered sometimes more and sometimes less, so that 150 years after the building of Fort Ross, Western Civilization had been transformed; first into modern civilization and then into world civilization. Today, the history of humanity needs to be based on an understanding of that interplay of civilizations and how the new world civilization now emerging is more than simply western civilization but is indeed an amalgam of the world's civilizations that has been continuing since the very beginning of time. The history of the world can be looked upon as the story and the record of how humanity emerged as a single entity in East Africa tens of thousands of years ago, progressively divided itself into sharper and finer divisions racial, ethnic, and national while at the same time moving to a world unified on a more complex basis. Today we have reached the point where a unified world history can be seen and understood by all. What remains is to reorganize our teaching of world history to incorporate the worldwide perspective while at the same time not falling into the trap of making all historical events equal so as to give equal weight to all peoples and places at all times or to equate the history of public events with that of private behavior. This curriculum is designed to do just that. It takes what may be called a "civilizational" approach, looking at different civilizations, first and foremost West and East, but also North and South. We shall try to understand how civilizations in the various areas of the world either interacted or acted separately from one another over nearly ten thousand years of human history. In doing so we will follow several themes: 1. the common source and ties binding the human race as a whole as well as its separation into various subgroups; 2. the pattern of human migrations which populated and have organized the populations of the world, first creating the distinctions among humans and, in the last five hundred years, bringing about their reamalgamation; 3. the frontier (in the sense that Frederick Jackson Turner used the term) as the driving force behind those migrations and the consequences of successive frontiers in bringing about human development or the lack of frontiers in retarding that development; 4. the role of human invention in responding to those frontier challenges and in repeatedly reinventing the world which human beings occupy, examining the human capacity to invent things that can elevate us or things that can destroy us; 5. the other great force driving humanity, namely, the force of religious belief which, more than any other human factor, has galvanized humans to decisive action or to change themselves. 6. humans and their institutions, the way in which humans have organized their lives and cultures to respond to the first five. All of these themes have been of vital importance in guiding human history since the beginning and in every subsequent era. They form the basis for our understanding of how humans function in history. These are the themes on which we will focus in this curriculum. 262

The study of history is a matter of selection and judgment. Human activity is carried on at so many levels and with so many facets that any attempt to record and make sense of its history requires selection and the exercise of judgment in evaluating the record produced by what is selected. In this respect history is prismatic rather than systematic. That is to say, what is selected and studied is based upon the questions asked, i.e., what facet is being explored. Thus the study of world history will involve examining the historical record through examining that (or those) facets which have been most influential in shaping the history of the world. Consequently, it will have much more to do with public affairs than, let us say, if we were to study the history of the family which involves more of the private dimensions of life, a different facet in most respects. The selection of one facet or another does not necessarily reflect on the importance of that facet in the overall scheme of things but on the questions being asked. This curriculum will focus on the facet of world history and will concentrate on issues of public importance first and foremost, looking at personal and private matters only insofar as they bear on those of public importance. If human life is a prism, the different faces of the prism also act as a control on the historian's judgment. In other words, while the historian looks at history and makes his or her selection on the basis of a particular view into the prism, the face of the prism itself must be to some degree controlling since it can only show the historian what is there and the historian must honestly try to discover what the face has to reveal. Thus, while every historian, like every human being, comes with a particular set of leanings or judgments, he or she would not be a historian if he or she was not bound by the historical realities reflected back by the particular face of the prism and by other faces as well. The orientation of this curriculum is toward the identification and exploration of those peoples, civilizations, and forces that have molded the world as we know it. If this at times seems "Eurocentric," it should be understood as accurately reflecting the forces that have shaped the world which have been heavily influenced by European civilization at least since the late Middle Ages. The curriculum's approach to European and other civilizations, however, is not at all Eurocentric. Indeed, it shares in the critique of Eurocentrism which often has distorted the perspective through which we in the West see the world. For example, since the Age of Exploration and Discovery, the Eurocentric world has focused on Atlantic Europe and North America, relegating Asia, Africa, and South America to a secondary position. But if we emancipate ourselves from that perspective and go back before the rise of Islam, we will find a world centered on the Mediterranean including within it southern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa equally active in one common sphere of activity with close connections between them and between the part of each continent within the sphere to those parts beyond it. That is a very different perspective than the Eurocentric perspective of today. By the same token, when we speak of the conquest of the world by Western civilization, we are not simply or even basically speaking of military conquest. Nor is all of Western civilization European. In our own times, for example, just as Western industrialism and economic development has conquered the world, so, too, has rock music, a North American synthesis of African, Jewish, and southern white musical expression that has become the basis of popular musical culture around the world. The MTV station seen in Asia is located in India and develops that popular musical culture in the style of Indian music, which is notably different from the MTV broadcast in North America; the synthesis takes place but the music is unmistakably rock. In other words, just as "Eurocentrism" is a bias, so, too, is the assumption that Eurocentrism means a bias toward European white male elites. By now, various groups, many of them distinctly outside of the original European elites, have participated in the conquest of the world by Western civilization and both the role of "elites" and those outside must be noted fairly and fearlessly. The Common Source of Humanity The combination of archeological and DNA explorations has brought us to a knowledge of a common source of all humanity in East Africa, even though contemporary theory holds that there was literally a first woman and a first man and that all subsequent humanity are descended from them. The history of the emergence of the first two homo sapiens and the spread of their descendants around the world in such a way that they became separated into various subgroups teaches us about the unity and diversity of humanity both. Both are critically necessary and how human history is, in one respect or another, an 263

interplay of that unity and diversity with both contributing to human behavior either in its underlying uniformities and similarities or in its manifest differences. Human Migration A major source of the separations and differences for tens of thousands of years that is now becoming a major source of human reintegration is to be found in the pattern of human migration. Those migrations, beginning from East Africa, populated and organized the populations of the world, generated the differences among peoples, yet brought different peoples into contact in different ways, at times hostile, at times symbiotic, and at times friendly. The very process of migration has changed individuals and peoples by bringing them into contact with new and unfamiliar environments and creating circumstances that have forced them to adapt and adjust to those new and different environments and circumstances. Humans appear to have a drive to migrate and at the same time the act of migration keeps humanity on its toes. The Frontier The term "frontier" was transformed by Turner from the European definition describing the border or border zone between two states or countries to what became the American one, describing the border between the settled and unsettled, the "civilized" and the "wilderness." The frontier, in Turner's view, was a dynamic process. As a result, the central political problem of growth is not simply how to handle the physical changes brought by each frontier, real as they are. It is how to accommodate newness, population turnover, and transience as a way of life. This is the frontier situation. It is a recurring one in history and needs to be understood if we are to find ways to solve our problems, or at least meet them adequately, and at the same time, preserve those characteristics which have enabled certain countries to continue to develop for a period far longer than has been historically true in the case of other countries and societies. The frontier is not merely a dramatic imagery but a very real process, indeed the basic socio-technical process that informs the experience of certain people and countries. As a process, it is dynamic and essentially progressive, although fraught with problems of its own, as is every other dimension of human life. A frontier in the sense used here involves ten characteristics: 1. Frontier activities are those devoted to the exploration of that which was previously unknown and the development of that which was previously "wild" or undeveloped. 2. The frontier involves extensive new organization of the uses of the land (or space), uses so new that they are essentially unprecedented but so much a part of the process in question that they will be applied across the length and breadth of the continent. 3. The frontier involves an expanding or growth economy based on the application of existing technologies in new communities or new technologies in settled communities. 4. The frontier movement, though manifesting itself as a single "whole," actually coalesces a number of different "frontiers," both geographic and functional, that exist simultaneously and successively; each with its own goals, interests, character, and frontiersman, yet all tied together by their common link to the central goals, interests, and character of the larger frontier of which they are parts. 5. The frontier generates opportunities to grow, change, risk, develop, and explore within its framework amid elements of risk and action, and demands responses involving courage, freedom, and equality. 6. There must be reasonably free access to the frontier sector of society for all who want it. 7. A frontier situation generates a psychological orientation toward the frontier on the part of the people engaged in conquering it, endowing them with the "frontier spirit." 8. The "feedback" from the frontier leads to the continuous creation of new opportunities on many level of society, including new occupations to be filled by people who have the skills to do so, regardless of such factors as family background, social class, or personal influence, thus contributing to the maintenance or extension of equality in the social order. 9. The frontier feedback must influence the total social structure to the point where the society as a whole is significantly remade. 264

10. The direct manifestations of the frontier can be found in every section of a country or region at some time (usually sequentially) and are visible in a substantial number of localities that either have, or are themselves, frontier zones. In essence, these frontier characteristics are what the frontier spirit is all about. To manifest itself, a frontier needs a great deal of freedom and willingness to take risks that really are risks that is to say, without some outside source protecting the risk-takers from negative consequences because that same outside source will limit the benefits which can be gained from the positive results. People with the frontier spirit see opportunity where others see only danger; will tend to say "yes, it can be done," rather than immediately responding "no, it has never been done before." Most can handle the ups and downs of risk-taking and are able to begin again, if necessary. The frontier spirit animates two types of people: frontiersmen and pioneers. Frontiersmen are those who go out ahead of the camp and who gain their primary satisfactions from exploring something new or from the fallout of being first at something and thus freer with regard to it than those who follow them. They may or may not gain the more conventional benefits of pioneering but often do not, nor are those their primary interest. Pioneers, on the other hand, seek those conventional gains. First and foremost, they follow the frontiersmen to plant settlements where only explorers have gone before them; in the imagery of the land frontier, to farm the land rather than merely trap furs on it, not to invent computers but to establish networks in cyberspace and profit from them. In sum, frontiersmanship and the frontier spirit are as much a part of culture as of personality. Personality may be the most important when we try to identify individuals with that spirit, but certain cultures appear to produce more people with those personality traits than do others. Some cultures seem to have a penchant to produce a modal personality that is frontier- oriented. Even in such cases, no doubt, we are talking about a minority of the population, but a minority significant and large enough to influence the entire society. This is similar to the case of other kinds of revolutionary movements, particularly religious, where whole populations are moved by key minorities in key positions. Human Invention The application of the foregoing principles and the human "package" that they produce is expressed through the role of human invention in response to those frontier challenges. The new circumstances brought about by migrations and frontiers can only be mastered through human invention of all kinds, in technology, in ideas, in mores and ways of living, as individuals, in families, groups, and society. While Americans are more conscious of the role of invention than most, since American society has given such a prominent place to inventors and inventions in very concrete and visible ways, humanity in general has tended to think of invention primarily in the realm of technology and not sufficiently in other human realms. One can make a good case that history is about invention, its furtherance, and resistance to it and its consequences, as well as the impact of inventions themselves. Religious Belief The by now well documented apparent need of human beings to "believe in something," that is to say, to reach out beyond themselves as individuals to transcendent powers that outlive the human lifespan, has been recognized as a dominant human psychological characteristic if nothing else. In fact, humans, in their reaching out, have developed religious belief which in its more primitive forms simply answer those psychological needs but in its largest and highest expression provides humans not only with the satisfactions of belief but with guidance as to how they should live their lives. Great systems of religious belief not only provide humans with great satisfactions but place great demands on them to be better than they might otherwise be if they imply followed their own natural inclinations. Indeed, human nature as expressed in human psychology may lead humans to satisfy the aforementioned needs through religious belief, but true religion serves to raise humans beyond their natures. Within human nature there is the capacity to go beyond normal human limitations, but since that requires great effort, there must be a will to do so. Religious belief and religions have been the great forces driving that will. A proper understanding of history would provide an understanding of how this is so, the various forms it has taken, and how to evaluate those forms in light of our transcendent goals for human improvement and the improvement of the world. 265

Humans and Their Institutions History is dynamic. It moves along forward, backward, and sideways. Every kind of human behavior can be found within it. It does not seem to follow any clear rules. At least for some, generalizations from or about history seem to be futile or impossible. Yet the dynamics and confusions of history should not obscure the truth that humans make, transmit, preserve, and change their history through their institutions. No matter how attractive any particular story or actor in history may appear to be, the significance of the story or the actor is only in proportion to the degree to which institutions are involved. By institutions, we mean the structures of civilization, the forms which political and social life take, and the organized or structured expressions of particular cultures or ways of life. Civilizations are, in the last analysis, congeries of institutions, among which are law, religion, government, economies, educational systems - one could go on to list many others. Institutions and Cultural Orientations While there are many different kinds of cultural orientations that inform and shape the institutions of civilization, all may be reduced to one or another of three basic models or ideal types. They are hierarchy, organic development, and covenant. Particular polities and societies are, in most cases, some combination of all three but every one has a dominant orientation to one or another. Hierarchies organize authority, power, and status in a pyramidal fashion with clear divisions between higher and lower elements in the pyramid and greater authority and status, and usually power as well, ascribed to the higher and less to the lower. Hierarchies may be more rigid or more flexible, but in the end they always come out to be hierarchies. The model of a hierarchy is the pyramid. Hierarchies are often, one might even say usually, established by conquest, sometimes by conquest from the outside and sometimes by conquest from within. They are frequently maintained by force or at least by the threat of force. Organic development describes social organizations generated by what seems to be accident or chance, whereby people in specific situations respond in limited ways to deal with specific situations or tasks. Over time institutions are formed as a result of those limited responses, adhering to one another and persisting through the generations. There seems to be little in the way of overarching design in the institutions, societies, or the civilizations produced by this kind of development. In one sense organic development is less a matter of higher or lower than hierarchy, but in another, history reveals that the end result of these kinds of incremental developments is usually the development of an elite occupying the center of the polity, society, or civilization, with the rest of the population outside of the central circle located in the peripheries, what Robert Michel referred to as "the iron law of oligarchy." This suggests that without planning and making provisions to the contrary, authority, power and status will inevitably gravitate toward a central elite, leaving the others outside. When people perceive themselves to be equals, they reject submission to power pyramids or to the iron laws of oligarchy and choose to establish their institutions and societies by reflection, choice, and design. They do so by covenanting among themselves, that is to say, coming together and agreeing to morally based pacts that provides for the constitutionalized distribution of authority and power among themselves to preserve as much liberty and equality as possible within a political and social order where institutions necessarily restrict liberty to some extent to enable people to live in society and recognize those necessary inequalities generated by the human condition and needed for society to survive and flourish. Covenants are designed to provide that all those entering society preserve some share in its shaping, either by acting together collectively or cooperatively, or by acting individually, thereby preserving basic liberties and equality. The result is a mosaic, or matrix of arenas of political and social organization framed by common institutions established by agreement. As indicated above, these three models are ideal types. In fact, in the real world they are usually combined in some way, with all civilizations, societies, and institutions having hierarchical, organic, and covenantal elements, but different ones begin from different starting points and emphasize one of these models more than the others. For example, East Asian civilizations as a rule are more hierarchical while English-speaking civilizations as a rule are more covenantal. Both have mixtures of other models within them and some specific countries or institutions may be predominantly of one of the other models. By the same token, continental European civilizations tend to be either hierarchical 266

or organic, but in the modern period acquired elements of the covenantal model. We will deal with these models where appropriate in the following discussion. The models, their mixtures, and the struggles among them and between institutions, polities, or civilizations having one or another, made a decisive difference in history, in shaping the direction of parts of the world and then the world as a whole. Not only that, but their study adds a special spice to the study of history. First Period: Before History (prehistoric times to approximately 4000 BCE) Human history begins with the invention of writing sometime around 3750 BC or approximately 5750 years ago (significantly close to the date that both the Jewish and Christian traditions note as the date of the creation). Of course we have archeological records that go back considerably further and paleontological records that extend back 3.6 million years in the case of the first finds of homo sapiens, beings that were human in the way that we are, and 6 million years for the first prehumanoids. Finds such as Australopithecus, Pithecanthropus, and Neanderthal man have entered the human lexicon and mark the beginnings of what we take to be human life. Perhaps most exciting are the discoveries of the past few years, since the beginning of contemporary genetics based on DNA and on the studies pursuant thereto, that all human genes can be traced back to one woman and one man in East Central Africa, the "Adam and Eve" of the human race. It is now fairly certain that homo sapiens originated in East Central Africa as the works of the Leakeys, father and son, have demonstrated. The additional findings of the geneticists only strengthen the Leakeys' findings and also bring us closer to understanding the beginnings of humanity. From East Central Africa, the Kenya of today, these early homo sapiens began to spread around the globe. All of this took place in what is defined as the Pleistocene Age, which is divided into three periods: the Lower Paleolithic or Older Old Stone Age, from 600,000 years ago to 100,000 years ago; the Middle Paleolithic, from 100,000 to 50,000 years ago; and the Upper Paleolithic, from 50,000 to 10,000 years ago. During those 600,000 years we have found evidence of four ice ages and three interglacial periods which are benchmarks in human development. By the end of the Pleistocene period, not only had humans migrated throughout the world, but what today we identify as the basic human races, the Mongoloids of Asia, the Negroids of central Africa, the Caucasoids of West Asia and Europe, and the Australians were all clearly established. Our material evidence from the Pleistocene Age includes skeletal remains of proto-humans and early humans, stone and bone weapons and tools, and, toward the end of the age, cave art. Although the matter is not clear, we can learn something about the patterns of migration from these discoveries. At least three of the four groups of tools had their origins in Africa. The fourth might have since the finds are on the south shore of the Mediterranean, on the Iberian Peninsula, and in southern France. The finds for one group are concentrated on the Asian mainland in southeast and east Asia. The finds of the second in western and central Europe and west and south Asia. The third group finds are found in the same area, the fourth group primarily in Europe but seemingly brought northward by people from Africa. The first material evidence of religion comes from this period, as well, with findings that indicate belief in magic, a hunting cult, and a belief in gods as well. After the end of the fourth ice age around 10,000 BCE and the retreat of the ice northward, the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) culture period began. Most of our material evidence for it is from west Asia and throughout Europe from the Mediterranean to the Scandinavian coast plus Africa. It seems that most settlements were along or near the seacoast and that people lived by hunting and gathering, often living in small settlements either in caves or huts of their own construction. Tools become more sophisticated and included canoes and skin-covered boats, paddles, fishhooks, and weapons for hunting both large and small game animals. Dogs were domesticated. The division of labor giving women responsibility for collecting plant foods and men for hunting was evident. In the Middle East primitive farming began and brick buildings were constructed in the earliest cities such as Jericho. The Mesolithic period was replaced by the Neolithic. It came relatively soon in the warmer parts of the world while the Mesolithic period persisted into the second millennium BCE in northern areas. Neolithic people had become more sophisticated. They made more sophisticated pottery (e.g., funnelnecked beakers). They invented more sophisticated weapons (e.g. the battle-axe). They developed 267

more extensive trade based on more travel by rivers and by roads or paths, with the latter even improved by logs and branch in wet places. The wheel was invented, more animals were domesticated including horses and oxen, and from the evidence, their religions developed a belief in life after death, a heavenly god or gods, as well as continuing to believe in magic and evil spirits. Culture expanded and people moved to new settlements when they needed new land. This was the era of the so-called Neolithic Revolution (Gordon Childe), with the domestication of wild grains for cultivation and sheep, goats, pigs, and asses. At the very end of the period, the first cities (hardly more than villages) were founded (e.g. Jericho and Damascus), with buildings constructed of dried brick. There were great advances in art, in the way of jewelry, sculpture, decoration, and both abstract and naturalistic representations of humans and animals. Stone construction was introduced. The first sacred buildings were erected in the form of temples in the Mesopotamian cultural area. The first steps were taken toward language in the form of picture language which later evolved into cuneiform and hieroglyphics. With the development of writing, a new era could be said to have begun. What, to me, seems most interesting about this period before history is the story of the emergence of humans as it unfolded. It is especially interesting to learn that there was a single human race with even common mother and father, and that their migrations led to the development of very real and lasting diversity among them. This combination of fundamental unity along with very real diversity has accompanied humanity from earliest times to the present, with the human visions that we have come to admire all reflecting a striving for restoration of that unity in one way or another with the best visions seeking to achieve unity without eliminating the enhancing elements of diversity and the worst visions seeking unity only through the triumph of one group over another. In essence the human vision is in part a search for the benefits of the farthest past, albeit not by going back, which cannot be done, but by going forward. The second major item of interest is the pattern of human migrations, how humans have been a migrating, one might say (in Frederick Jackson Turner's terms), a frontier phenomenon, since our emergence as a species. That continuing frontier and the challenges it poses, effectuated in part through migrations, has been a constant motivating force for human development. The third point is that humans are an inventing species from the first. We make a constant effort to overcome our limitations, weaknesses, and/or discomforts through inventions. More than that, we have the same capacity for inventing things that elevate us or things that destroy us. The invention of art and agriculture come alongside the invention of better weapons of destruction. Four, the emergence of religious belief and its apparent development into cults, indicating that humans have been believing creatures since earliest times and that it is impossible to conceive of humans without belief systems to which they are attached and rituals to symbolize and express them. All of these four themes have continued to be of vital importance in guiding human history in every subsequent era. It can be said that they form the basis for our understanding of how humans function in history. These are the themes around which we will focus in this curriculum. Second Period: Beginnings (C.4000-2000 BCE) This unit shall focus in more closely on the emergence of civilization or civilizations in East Asia, particularly China; South Asia, particularly the Indus Valley; West Asia, particularly Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent; North Africa, particularly Egypt; and should also examine developments in this period in the other regions mentioned above, but should emphasize the specific civilizations whose impact has been most completely articulated and longest lasting in the world. Much of this period is referred to as the Bronze Age. Metalworking developed in the Middle East, but by the fourth millennium BCE, the period under consideration here, it had spread to Europe as well, principally in the Balkans but rapidly throughout the rest of eastern and western Europe. While this led to a more sophisticated material culture, the social culture that went along with it remained basic in Europe throughout this period. While the evidence from material culture gained through archeology for this period is great, including the discovery of the first written records, this still has many of the element of prehistory in the sense that we must piece things together from archeological evidence, some recorded myths, and monumental inscriptions describing the victory of one ruler or another, usually exaggerated and at times not even accurate, as we have come to know from other sources. The first documents were found in excavated libraries or archives but do not have a historical record upon which to draw. Nevertheless, civilization does come into its own in this period and very different patterns of 268

civilization are established, both in Africa where earlier forms of civilization continued, in the four centers of advanced civilization and perhaps even in Europe. In the regions of the advanced civilizations, primitive migration and normalism is no longer a major factor. That kind of migration is confined to the peripheries and in the civilized areas themselves a relatively sedentary age begins in which there is much less migration and what there is is more sophisticated. On the other hand, there is a great burst in those areas in the development of the accoutrements of civilization in terms of a technology, government, administration, economics, and religion. In the case of the latter, the great creation myths are given sophisticated form to become the basis for the mythic system of the West but probably also of south and east Asia. Not only that, but we can distinguish the three forms of political and social organization that are to accompany humans at least from then on: hierarchy, organic development, and pact or covenant. The former, usually the result of conquest, either external or internal by some powerful individual or group, leads to a political and social order organized as a power pyramid, where the last word is at the top and the pyramid is built so that those at the top can exercise maximum possible control up and down the line. Egypt is the best example of that. In the organic model, people as families, clans, or tribes more or less drift together, settling at the same point and at some point need to organize themselves. This usually happens when the heads of the families, tribes, or clans come together as a governing elite and divide power among themselves based on the ability of each to control those within his group. What emerges is a circle with a governing or ruling inner circle or a center surrounded by a periphery within its orbit. This was the pattern in the Mesopotamian city states. It is hard to say whether the third model was found in this period, although we may assume so. It was a model whereby all individuals or families in a particular area were considered equal and came together as equals to establish pacts, usually sacred, for organizing their lives. Originally these were probably peoples that saw themselves descended from some common ancestor and hence related, thereby establishing the basis for their equality. Under such arrangements, no hierarchies were dominant, nor were elites able to gain control of the inner circle. Rather there is a specialization and differentiation based upon a rough but genuine equality among those bound by the pact. Whereas the first two were well established by the time this period ended, the third was not to take on full form until the next period. If Africa is the heartland of the first period, the Middle East is the heartland of the second. It is there that the major civilizational advances are made. A major sign of this is that area led the way in the invention of writing in this very early stage. By doing so, in essence it established the dominance of its myths which were later to migrate westward to become the central myths and beliefs of Western civilization and ultimately to spread throughout the world. At some point around 6,000 years ago or 4,000 BCE, the first advanced civilizations emerged following the "Neolithic Revolution." These were the riverine civilizations in Egypt along the Nile, in Mesopotamia along and between the Tigris and the Euphrates, in India along the Indus, and in China along the Hwang Ho. The historian Wittfogel has referred to these as "hydraulic societies" and has written an elaborate theory of the emergence of sophisticated techniques to manage the water upon which they depended including centralization of government. In fact, what emerged were different forms of social organization in each place, which have been amazingly persistent in shaping the civilizations that emerged from each ever since. All four emerged in the great belt of arid land, desert and near desert, that stretches from the Sahara to east Asia. It is possible that a climate change which began in the Mesolithic period led to the growth of those desert belts after the population had increased in what were originally watered areas, as a result of simple farming. If so, the inhabitants of those areas had to migrate to the fertile river valleys and organize the use of the rivers to provide water to enable their societies to continue to exist. The development of a more sophisticated economy eliminated the need for all to engage in subsistence farming and began an economy of exchange and economic specialization beyond simple trading. Not only did economic exchange increase but also specialization took place with regard to more sophisticated craftsmanship, defense, religious life, administration, and technology. This led to social stratification and the development of a differentiated society covering the means of production, trade, defense, and organization. 269

Cities became centers for the production and exchange of goods, for trade and markets, for religion and defense, and became generators of civilization, not merely convenient places for agriculturalists to meet and exchange. City walls were built and temples and other sacred buildings were erected. To carry on all of this, writing developed, first as a kind of picture language as in the Egyptian hieroglyphics or the Chinese word characters. Almost immediately thereafter, Mesopotamian populations developed cuneiform, which was a step beyond the earlier pictograph. They also began to write on clay tablets. These early civilizations included metalworking, brickmaking, the use of square hewn stones for construction, polygonal wall construction, working in precious metals and stones, production of thinwalled vessels, large sculptures, polished stone, irrigation, urban settlement, and writing. Political and social organization became differentiated and more sophisticated. Egypt and the Old Kingdom (2850-2052 BCE) The six-hundred-mile-long stretch of the Nile Valley from the Mediterranean into the African Desert from ten to fifteen miles wide became the site of the Egyptian empire, the oldest of the empires of the ancient world. The two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt developed around 3000 BCE. They united under Narmer and Ahi. A joint capital was founded at Memphis at the boundary between Upper and Lower Egypt. Since the two kingdoms and their joint successor were separated from other populations because of their physical location, they developed in substantial isolation. Except for border struggles with nomadic tribes, they were able to dictate when and where they came into contact with others. They did through periodic invasions into Lebanon at the north and Nubia on the south. The first two dynasties, known as the Thinis period, functioned between 2850 and 2650 when dynasties III to VI beginning from 2650 and lasting to 2190 constituted the age of the pyramids. A hierarchical political and social order emerged, capped by the pharaohs, each of whom was revered as a god or the son of a god. They maintained a state religion to support pharoanic rule. Power was centralized, a sun-based religion was the state religion, and the Great Pyramids were built. Society was hierarchically ordered into sharply differentiated classes of rulers, priests, warriors, officials, craftsmen, traders, peasants, and slaves. All of the polity was organized around the annual flooding of the Nile and the ability of the ruler and his administration to control and regulate that flooding, for which they used writing and newly developed accounting procedures to organize the technology, the economy, and the food supply. Egyptian society did not develop a flourishing urban civilization but rather used cities as administrative centers for an essentially rural civilization. It was entirely appropriate and probably no accident that the symbol of that civilization became the pyramid, the embodiment of the hierarchical approach to social and political organization. As we know, pyramids were built by the pharaohs in that period as their tombs and monuments. By the sixth dynasty, the pharaohs were becoming increasingly weaker and the power of feudal lords increased. The unitary state began to break down as struggles broke out among the feudal lords. The south gained its independence. All of this is reflected in the literature of the times. Between 2190 and 2052 the feudal lords remained powerful and in conflict until regional rulers of Heracleopolis gained power and reestablished a centralized state. During this entire period hieroglyphic writing was the norm. A solar calendar of great accuracy was developed, probably to support the solar religion. In Mesopotamia, on the other hand, cities became the centers of civilization. Each was independent or semi-independent, governed by councils of local notables, those who occupied the key positions in the city's political and social order. These were essentially oligarchies in which the rulers were no more than first among equals. These cities seemed to have developed more or less organically out of responses to necessity in the valley of the two rivers. The first such civilization was the Sumerian civilization. The Sumerians settled in southern Mesopotamia sometime between 3200 and 2800. They divided the land into city-states which had their own patron gods, although they shared the same pantheon. Local princes known as lugal, meaning great man, dominated both the priesthood and the city in each case. Their economy was a kind of state socialism. Cuneiform writing was developed. Somewhere around the year 3000 in the Middle East there was a great flood in both Egypt and Mesopotamia involving the Nile, the Tigris, and the Euphrates. Mesopotamian civilization left us the 270

Gilgamesh Epic from that period, while the Bible leaves us with an account of the Flood and the religious explanation for it. The origins of the Sumerians are shrouded in mystery. There is some evidence that they came up from the Horn of Africa. There is other that leads us to speculate that they came from the Indian subcontinent. Samuel Noah Kramer has given us the best account that we have of Sumerian civilization, summarized in his book History Begins at Sumer. In any case, their migration either northward or westward was critical to the establishment of civilization, especially Western civilization of which they can be said to be the forerunners. Between 2800 and 2500, Semites entered the area. With them came monarchy and the development of a centralized religious center at Nippur. Earlier connections between the priesthood and the political order that led to the earlier combination of political and priestly power, was ended, and with that a market economy was initiated. Three centers of power formed: the palace, the temple, which became a power (the ziggurat), and the market. In 2500 or thereabouts, the Kish dynasty was overthrown and separate dynasties were founded in Ur and Lagash. The latter was commemorated in the oldest historical document that we have, called the Stella of the Vultures, which records the deeds of the son of the dynasty's founder. The dynasty lasted to 2360 when it was overthrown by Lugal Zaggisi (king of the lands) of Uma who conquered Lagash, Ur, Ereh, Larsa, Kish, and Nippur and advanced to the Mediterranean, founding an empire. He was the last of the Sumerian rulers and was overthrown by Sargon I of Akkad, who established the Akkadian empire, which included parts of Syria and Asia Minor as well as Mesopotamia. Sargon founded a centralized state and built a new capital at Akkad. His empire lasted until 2150 when it was conquered by Gutians from Iran. One hundred years later Utu Khegal, King of Ereh, drove the Gutians out and restored the Sumerians to power in the year 2050. Meanwhile, civilization advanced in northern Mesopotamia. City states like Ebla flourished and left large cuneiform libraries recently rediscovered which give us extensive documentation of life in that millennium. The Indus Valley Before 2500, the Indus Valley consisted of separate Neolithic industrial centers such as Amri, Nal, Quetta, Kulli, and Indara. In 2500, Haratta emerged as the most important center. Haratta civilization introduced rajahs (kings) and maharajahs (superior kings) as rulers in cities laid out according to a checkerboard plan with a castle hill dominating each. It is likely that they had contact with the Sumerians, although they developed a separate culture. The Indo-Europeans Meanwhile, north of the region between central Europe and southern Russia on the Kirghiz steppes, the Indo-Europeans began to emerge. We have little archeological evidence of them since they were nomadic peoples, but their language became the basis for the Indo-European languages. By and large they were organized under a patriarchal system of large families and tribes with a pastoral economy. Their migrations, which began at the very end of this period, were both westward into Europe and southeastward into India. The first settled European civilization which the Indo-Europeans founded was the Minoan civilization in Crete between 2600 and 2000. They built harbor cities on the island. At the same time, other centers were formed in the Aegean region in what was called the early Helladic epoch. A peasant society developed in Thrace, Phocis, Boeotia, Attica, Argolis, and Corinth, with close communication with the Semitic and Hemetic civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean. Asia Minor became a meeting ground of civilizations as the Indo-Europeans migrated southwestward and the Semites migrated northwestward to what became the first "West." New Directions Humanity, having diversified racially and geographically, entered a period of sophisticated diversification based upon the combination of major migrations and the development of strategies or adaption of the migrating peoples to the new areas in which they relocated. In every case, those strategies had to be implemented through invention. In all, humans rose to the challenge but the uneven character and spread of their inventions made the difference from civilization to civilization in 271

two ways: One is technical - that is to say the level of sophistication that they attained. The second is political - how they organized their civilizations and the societies within them. The combination of their technical and political inventions within their geo-historical locations shaped or reshaped their religious beliefs in light of their migratory experiences. Hence in hierarchical Egypt, the human on top of the hierarchy was seen as a man-god while in oligarchical Mesopotamia the gods were also seen as dominga super oligarchy above humans but interacting with them in ways subject to human manipulation. In Indian and China, on the other hand, inventions seemed to reach a kind of plateau and these civilizations turned in different directions. In those parts of the world where invention was arrested for one reason or another or failed to progress at the rate that it did elsewhere, the civilizations themselves became more static. They fell prey to the more dynamic civilizations or were pushed into the backwaters of world history. Third Period: The Beginnings of East and West (2000-500 BCE) With the central elements of civilization as we know it in place in Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China, world history took a new turn in this period. The period saw the beginnings of the conscious division of the world into East and West. The civilizations of the former were grounded in a search for harmony through quiescent individual acceptance of the myriad natural forces beyond human control, and the latter, the pursuit of human development through the harnessing of the many dynamic forces in the world through conflict and the management of the tensions that stimulate human progress. The Indian and Chinese civilizations and their offshoots came to represent the East, while the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations and their offshoots, particularly the Israelite and Greek peoples, came to represent the West. Persian civilization developed in this period as a kind of bridge. In this period, those offshoots often emerged out of rebellion against the great empires or civilizations already in existence. In the process and direction of those rebellions, they sharpened the differences between East and West while maintaining contact between the two. By the end of the period, the differences between Eastern and Western civilizations were clearly defined and the course of each more or less laid out. We shall focus on Western civilization which, over the next four millennia, spread around the world and became the dominant civilizational thrust, albeit, only after absorbing elements of other civilizations. The two peoples that were critical factors in shaping this period were Israel and Hellas, that is to say, the Hebrew and Greek peoples. The Israelites gave the world monotheism and laid the religious foundations of Western civilizations and the Hellenes gave us philosophy beginning at the very end of this period, out of which came the definitions of excellences in Western civilization. Both monotheism and the idea of what constitutes excellence were to be the principal shapers of first the Western world and then the world as a whole. While the Israelites and the Greeks founded what became Western civilization, their location and flourishing in west Asia and its immediate European and African environs meant that their cultures and communities were still linked to both East and West and partook of the civilizations of both. Hence they were bridging cultures as well as architects of the separation. So, too, in their own way were the great cultures of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Egyptian culture was both tied to the other cultures of the Fertile Crescent and west Asia and also reached southward and westward into Africa, down the Nile and north and south of the Sahara Desert. Meanwhile, in the farther reaches of Africa south of the Sahara, independent and separate African cultures took form. So, too, Mesopotamian culture had a powerful influence on the Iranians (Medes and Persians) who lived to the east. Elements of Mesopotamian culture reached the Indus Valley via the Persians. For example, all students of linguistics know that, with the exception of the pictographic writing of the Mayans and the east Asians, all alphabets, east and west, grow out of the original Semitic alphabet of western Asia whose earliest expressions have been found along the eastern Mediterranean coastal areas from Sinai to Phoenicia (Lebanon and coastal Syria today) from whence it was diffused to Europe and Asia. In its diffusion the original alphabet was modified, both East and West to become, in time, the Greek, Latin, and Cyrillic alphabets that the Western world uses today and the Arabic and south Asian alphabets that are used in the East. Only north and east of the Himalayas did an independent culture area develop, minimally influenced by the root cultures of the Fertile Crescent, 272

although from ancient times there was trade between the two regions whose extent is just being rediscovered in our times. The beginnings of Israel and Hellas had much in common. The Israelites began their great project perhaps 600 years before the Hellenes to introduce their greatest contribution, namely, ethical monotheism, at about the time that the Hellenes were beginning to emerge. The peak of the Hellenic contribution came at the very beginning of the next epoch in the golden age of the Greek city-states at a time when Israel was moving into the second phase of its project, the development of Judaism as we have come to know it. The beginnings of both are in the confrontation with the great empires of the Nile Valley, Mesopotamia, and the Iranian steppes that dominated or tried to dominate their respective parts of the world. Both simultaneously drew from the cultures of those great empires and, in their revolt against them, tried to reshape those cultures and to winnow out what for them were their best aspects, refine those aspects, and turn them into instruments for further development. Unlike many later world-class conflicts which were interracial, these revolts were essentially within the same racial groupings or transracial. The Israelites emerged out of conflict with the Semitic peoples in the Middle East, while the Hellenes emerged in confrontation with the Indo-European peoples of central Asia and beyond. Not only are there no signs of racial prejudice in the history of these peoples, there are no discussions of white against black or yellow or brown or any other combination of these. Instead, there are all kinds of records indicating that there was no racial issue, that, indeed, the races mixed insofar as they came into contact. Both the Israelites and the Hellenes were small peoples confronting large and powerful empires. In both cases, the small peoples involved emphasized quality over quantity in their respective projects. Indeed, their respective emphases on quality are among the most notable features of their civilizations, based upon their recognition of their smallness and their confrontation with much larger empires. Another element the two have in common is their location at the crossroads between Asia, Africa, and Europe. Israel is particularly well-located in that respect, but the Hellenes in their original location in Asia Minor were hardly less so. Finally, we should consider that, while the great empires against whom the Israelites and Hellenes revolted and fought were increasingly imperial, that is to say, hierarchical and inequitable in their character - what nineteenth century historians referred to as oriental despotisms, both the Israelites and the Hellenes were essentially egalitarian, popular, and non-centralized in their orientations toward life in political society. They were united by ideas rather than by power pyramids and succeeded in holding their peoples together through those ideas, their spread, and exercise. Their institutions were empowered through their critical ideas and their revolts invariably involved a significant dimension of revolt against power pyramids and their power holders. All of this ultimately combined to give Western civilization its essential characteristics, even if, as is often the case, their implementation of those ideas within their societies left much to be desired. The Greek polis is still looked upon as a classic polity in world political history, while the Israelite tribal federation has inspired generations of political scientists and theologians in the development of their ideal polities. Both the Israelites and the Ionians originated in migrations. The Bible, indisputably the single greatest and most influential book in Western civilization, gives us the record of the sacred history of the Israelites. That sacred history is founded in great migrations, first, the migration of Adam out of the Garden of Eden as a result of expulsion; second, the dispersion of the peoples of the world as a result of God's displeasure over the Tower of Babel whereby the human race tried to become like God, i.e., to challenge God's supreme power, according to the biblical account; third, and most important for our purposes here, the migration of the Patriarch Abraham and his family from northern Mesopotamia westward to the land of Canaan by God's command so as to detach himself from the land of his birth, his civilization, and his kin, and thus be open to the fundamental transformation of his culture to build a new way of life based on monotheism that would not be encumbered by the forms of the old in place. Abraham's migration is ultimately followed by the migration of his grandson Jacob and the Israelites to Egypt. After generations of Egyptian slavery, the by-then very numerous Israelites led by Moses, left Egypt in the great Exodus to return to Canaan. Through that decisive migration they fully established themselves in what became the Land of Israel. 273

The Bible goes on to describe two other sets of migrations at the end of the epoch, one, the forced exile of ten of the Israelite tribes by the Assyrians at the very end of the eighth century BCE and then the forced exile of the last two tribes by the Babylonians relatively early in the sixth century BCE. The period culminates with a small but significant return migration of Israelites from Babylonia to the Land of Israel after the Persians conquered the Babylonian empire and destroyed it. The Bible treats these migrations with the significance they deserve. The attempt to establish new civilizations based upon new ideas and beliefs can only be done if people are detached from familiar surroundings and relationships and forced to build anew because the old and familiar cannot sufficiently provide for them. Contrast the difference between the American and French revolutions in our time. The American Revolution came as the culmination of an initial migration from Britain and northwestern Europe involving Pilgrims, Puritans, Dutch Reformed, Huguenots, and Scots, who sought a new world in which to build a new way of life, which contributed greatly to the measure of its success. The French had to have their revolution in the midst of the old order, the Ancien Regime, and could never fully disrupt the institutions or habits of the old order, despite far more radical efforts than ever tried in the new United States, including the reign of terror, an attempt to replace the Christian calendar with a new revolutionary one, and many other such devices. For example, the French army to this day considers its first loyalty to be to France, which survives from regime to regime, because the army had its origins in pre-revolutionary France and was able to serve the revolutionary regime and the regimes that followed it on the grounds that it was serving France. Thus, the biblical insight as to the importance of migration for renewal is very important and still stands. The Ionian peoples were also migrants into the western part of Asia Minor where they settled and founded their cities. Ionia was the mother city of more than ninety urban settlements along the coast of the Black Sea. Hence, their history also contains a record, albeit less explicit, of their migrations and their civilization was also born after the peoples who gave it birth had been detached from their original places of settlement. The migrations of Indo-European tribes known as Ionians or Aeolians (Achaeans) is usually believed to have taken place between 1850 and 1600 BCE as a series of movements by tribes and parts of tribes into the region. These migrations, which took place about the same time as Abraham left Mesopotamia for Canaan, were followed after 1250 BCE, about the time that the Israelites left Egypt, by a new wave of migrations. Over the following 250 years there occurred the Delian migration. The Illyrians advanced to the Mediterranean Sea. Northwestern Greeks settled in Epirus, Aetolia, and Acarnania. The Aeboians migrated to Crete and southwestern Asia Minor by sea and to the Peloponnesus by land. Another wave of Greek colonization further to the west took place between 750 and 550 BCE. It was brought about by the development of crafts, the expansion of maritime trade, and the emergence of a population surplus which had to be relocated. There also was a growing indebtedness of the peasantry and social conflicts, especially in Greece proper (e.g., Corinth and Athens). There was also emigration for political reasons. What united all of this colonization was a new consciousness of life asserting itself with elemental power. The colonization involved the founding of a mother city, often influenced by an oracle, which planted satellite colonies around the Mediterranean for both trading and agrarian purposes. Each colony acquired political autonomy, but also maintained its connections with the mother city through common cults and customs. The expansion proceeded westward because the Greeks were blocked by the Assyrians to the east. Hellenic civilization essentially spread on the northern coast of the Mediterranean because the Carthaginians, themselves descendants of the Phoenician colonists of Carthage, dominated the southern and far western Mediterranean. Both the Israelite and Greek migrations were into what were then called the lands of the West and, in essence, established another fundamental element of Western civilization, what Americans later referred to as "westering." In a sense, Asia's Mediterranean coast from the Sinai Peninsula to the Dardanelles and the area immediately east of it to a depth of perhaps 100 to 150 miles was the first conscious West of human history; that is to say, it was referred to at the time as the land of the West and the Semitic peoples who settled those lands were known as Amorites or the peoples of the West. The building of new civilizations in those lands by various peoples Hittites, Phoenicians, Israelites, and Ionians - was the first conscious westering process to be recorded in history. Out of those 274

westering elements, the Israelites and the Ionians emerged to successfully give birth to the major elements that became known as Western civilization. By the end of the period, the Israelites had also embarked on a colonization effort of a different sort. Exiled from their land, they were not in a position to found separate and independent cities as colonies but were forced to establish minority communities in lands occupied and governed by non-Israelite majorities. To do so, the Israelites developed a diaspora with communal institutions such as the synagogue that could be implanted wherever a group of Jews were settled together and could function with some measure of autonomy within the host society. Thus, two forms of colonization were in place by the end of the period: one, the establishment of new, independent entities in available spaces, and the other, the establishment of diaspora communities in already settled areas. Both would continue as useful and acceptable means of colonization in the world. The recorded history of those peoples that we have is a history of what we would later come to call frontier challenges and responses, the process of organizing peoples in new territories to form new peoples with new political and social institutions. The migrations and the formation of new peoples and new institutions should be the essence of our interest in them. What were the frontier challenges that faced them and how did the Israelites and Ionians respond to these challenges? The Israelite response was essentially religious and rural, while the Ionian response was essentially aesthetic and urban. The subjects which help define a frontier include a "West," the role of migration and its impact on cultural change, the problem of land distribution, equal or equitable access to land, and the question of appropriate governmental forms to serve frontier situations. We can view the Israelite and Ionian experiences as parallel phenomena at the western extremity of Asia. In both land frontiers led to the development of their forms of civilization. Applying Turnerian categories, we see that they played a role in that development similar to that played by frontier settlement elsewhere in later times. If so, both Hebraic and Hellenic civilizations had their origins in the West Asian frontier from the Negev to Asia Minor. From the Hebrews and the Greeks Western civilization expanded along two lines over the next three millennium. One went westward through the Mediterranean, then northwestward through west central Europe and western Europe, across the North Sea to the British Isles and Iceland, and then across the Atlantic Ocean to North and South America. The other line moved northward around the Black Sea into the Russian steppes, then eastward across Siberia, then across the Bering Straits to Alaska where it turned southward. The two lines met at Ft. Ross in northern California, about 70 miles north of San Francisco, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, thereby completing the encirclement of the world. Ft. Ross was an outpost built by the Russians in their efforts to penetrate southward, just north of the northernmost mission settlements established by the Spanish in the late eighteenth century in their effort to expand northward and just below the point where the British and Americans were penetrating into what was then referred to as the Oregon Territory. While circumstances brought about a Russian retreat after a relatively few years, that retreat was accompanied by greater British and American penetration into Alaska and the Yukon, continuing the links between the eastern and western branches of Western civilization, achieved after 3,800 years of "westering." Offshoots of the first line also spread northward into Scandinavia, southward to southern Africa, and eastward through south and southeast Asia to east Asia, in some cases having frontier characteristics. In the century following the meeting of the two streams, the land frontier - more accurately, the rural land frontier - was completely settled by the West and, except for a few isolated spots, ceased to be a vital force in the development of civilization. Indeed, in most places the frontier period was a short one, marked by the sociological and political fluidity of the settlement of new territories which, once occupied, ceased to manifest the characteristics of a frontier. The frontier challenges for both peoples essentially involved entry and settlement of their respective territories, establishing institutions - political, social, and religious - that enabled them to express the new societies that they were building. In the case of political institutions, both established federal arrangements, first confederations and then regimes more like federations, in Israel based upon tribes and in Ionia based upon cities. The Greek polis is still looked upon as a classic polity in world political history. While the Israelite tribal federation has inspired generations of political scientists and theologians in the development of their ideal polities. Socially, in both societies there were three 275

defined groups: citizens, resident aliens, and slaves. The Israelites granted equal civil and social rights to both citizens and resident aliens, had limited terms of servitude for Israelite slaves, and reserved the political and religious rights for citizens. The Greeks distinguished between citizens, resident aliens, and slaves across all three dimensions. By and large, these responses were inventive since they not only had to serve new societies but new societies that were far more egalitarian in their orientation than any non-tribal societies that preceded them. Any examination of those responses, whatever technological advances were involved with them, would be very useful. For example, the Greeks entered into the Iron Age earlier than the Semitic peoples including Israel. Indeed, the Israelites had to acquire Iron Age technology from the Philistines, that branch of the Hellenic peoples who migrated southward, apparently from Crete, to the coast of Israel. The greatest inventiveness of both peoples was directed toward the realm of religion and philosophy. Israel's great contribution was in the field of religion and, indeed, that contribution set the tone of Western and subsequently world civilization from then on. Israel's great contribution was monotheism, and ethical monotheism at that. We must understand that monotheism is not a matter of arithmetic, one god against more than one. It is a basic and total transformation of the way people look at the world. All polytheisms essentially view the world as cyclical and controlled by fate. There is no beginning and no end, hence no progress, only a repetition of a sequence of events fixed either for the human race as a whole or for certain groups of humans. The cycles can be great ones, as in the case of Indian religion which sees worlds being created and destroyed after very long periods of time, or they can be based upon shorter cycles as seems to have been the case with regard to Greek religion, but cycles they are. Everything is going to repeat itself, at least in its essence, and humanity does not move forward. In that sense there is no history, for history has to have a beginning and potentially an end. Beyond that, the world is ruled by fate. Even the gods are subject to fate as the Greek myths describe. The gods represent a kind of a club. There are greater and lesser gods but basically they are all equal members of the club. The gods can interact with humans and do so in ways that have all the flaws of human behavior, without the restraints that humans have placed on themselves by virtue of the limits of human power or their moral expectations. The gods, with fewer limitations, can indulge their appetites to a greater degree. Those appetites include sexual appetites and appetites for greed, revenge, power - all the weaknesses of humanity. The gods interact with humans to satisfy these appetites and passions. In pagan religions, the task of humans is to achieve self-protection by pacifying and conciliating the gods or learning how to manipulate them through magic. All of these lie at the foundations of pagan rituals. The gods need to be propitiated, pacified, and manipulated. Sacrifices are designed to propitiate and pacify, imitative rituals such as fertility rites are designed to manipulate the gods. Monotheism, on the other hand, posits one powerful transcendent being who is not part of the natural world but transcends the natural world, who initiates history through His creation and moves it along certain paths which, if humans follow them faithfully, will ultimately bring about their redemption, i.e., the end of history and human suffering. In the interim there must be progress toward that final end and humans are encouraged to be progressive to enable things to move along. Moreover, monotheism has a strong ethical dimension. There is a distinction between good and bad. Appetites must be controlled for the good to occur. The good consists of fulfilling God's commandments which include, even emphasize, commandments that are designed to promote justice, charity, kindness, neighborliness, and righteousness. God is not neutral with regard to these qualities, but loves good and hates evil. These differences mark the great gulf between monotheism and polytheism. Monotheism also recognizes that nature per se is neutral and what is natural is not always what is best, that God has made humans responsible in this world, not only for respecting nature but for directing nature, including human nature, into the service of the good. If Israelite religion through the Bible and then Judaism and, later, Christianity and Islam was designed to bring the world under monotheism for its own good, Greek thought emphasized excellence rather than the good. That excellence could vary from excellence in the pursuit of the excellence of the body expressed through sport, excellence of the mind as expressed through philosophy, and excellence in the pursuit of morality as expressed in obedience to the laws, but the emphasis was on excellence. The greatest work of the Greeks, Homer's Iliad, composed at about the same time as the Bible, is a 276

celebration of excellence within the framework of the cyclical world of polytheism and the tragedies that are fated to result. All of the activities of the Greeks, from the athletic to the aesthetic to the moral, are predicated on this achieving of excellence. At the end of the epoch, that drive for excellence of thought was to lead to the birth of systematic philosophy, the greatest Greek contribution to human self-definition. Philosophy initially developed in Asia Minor from the seventh century before the common era. Its first exponents were located in Asia Minor and in colonies far from the Hellenic heartland, testifying that it was also a frontier experience that rose out of the interaction of Greek cities with the frontier challenges and nonGreek societies. Biblical monotheism and Greek philosophy were later synthesized by Philo, a Jew from the Hellenistic city of Alexandria, Egypt, into a single system. That system was adopted by Christianity after its birth and institutionalization and became the system that directed the thought of the West for 1,600 years until it was challenged by Spinoza, another Jew living in the Reformed Protestant Netherlands in the seventeenth century of this era. Meanwhile, the great empires of the Middle East came and went. The Egyptian empire in the Nile Valley which extended its powers southward into Ethiopia and northward along the Mediterranean coast as far as Asia Minor; the Assyrian empire of Mesopotamia which extended its power throughout the valley of the two rivers and westward to the Mediterranean; and the new Babylonian empire which replaced partially three Assyrian empires (the old, 1800-1375 BCE; the middle, 1375-1047 BCE; and the new, 1047-625 BCE). After 539 BCE the empire of the Medes and the Persians conquered western Asia and tried to conquer the Hellenic peoples in Asia Minor and in Greece proper. The history of Greece acquires its central character through the successful struggle of the Greeks to resist Persian domination, just as the history of Israel consists of the efforts of the Israelites to survive by maneuvering between the Egyptian and the several west Asian empires. Meanwhile, in China, in the years between 1500 and 1000 BCE, while Israel and Helles are emerging to define Western civilization, the Shang dynasty established a feudal state in northeastern Hunan which initiated the transformation of neolithic China into a more institutionalized feudal state governed by Taoism, a religion dedicated to the search for the ordered universe through a combination of ancestor worship, fetishism, and the pursuit of harmony with those forces. Regional empires rose and collapsed in both India and China. What seemed to be the most lasting "achievements" of both were the establishment of permanent hierarchical arrangements through which to organize society including political society, the caste system in south Asia, and Chinese feudalism in east Asia. These were to become so rooted that they were to continue to have their influence long after their original manifestations had been eliminated or transformed. In India, that same period was the early Vedic period in which the Aryans conquered the Dravidians, the original inhabitants of the subcontinent, forcing them to the southern part of the subcontinent. These Indo-Europeans brought the chariot with them to give them military superiority. The Vedas, written in Sanskrit, became sacred scriptures establishing a systematic polytheism and a caste system for the human believers. Both were to last until late modern and even postmodern times and to continue to shape the South Asian peoples. In Africa, only the Nile Valley peoples as far south as Ethiopia entered into the mainstream of world history during this period, primarily in connection with Egyptian culture and political power. Fourth Period: The Shift to Europe (500 BCE-500 CE) While the great civilizations of the world continued to flourish in their respective locations throughout this period, the European segments of Western civilization became especially powerful and set the stage for their later dominance. The cutting edge of civilization was transferred to the West from the Middle East. The first step in that direction came through the flourishing of Greece and the rise of speculative philosophy and a comprehensive aesthetics during the Greek Golden Age in the fifth and early fourth centuries BCE. Then from the middle of the fourth century onward for the next two centuries, Hellenism flourished. Hellenism was a syncretistic civilization whereby the Greek conquerors of western Asia and northeastern Africa developed a syncretism of Greek, West Asian, and Egyptian elements into a neo-Hellenic civilization that represented the last significant attempt to unite East and West until modern times. Rome and the Roman empire replaced the Hellenistic empires to the east in the first century BCE, and the Carthaginian empire to the south and west a century and a half earlier, establishing a new border 277

between East and West, between the Roman and Parthian empires. This was the period in which Rome grew, flourished as a world empire, and declined, dominating the stage in the Old World. It was also the period in which the Jews developed Judaism as we know it and then gave birth to its offshoot, Christianity, which became the first mass-based monotheistic religion, especially in the West. With the triumph of Christianity, paganism virtually disappeared in the West, remaining only in northern Europe for another six hundred years. Paganism survived in the rest of Asia, and Africa, and the Western Hemisphere still unknown to the West. South Asian civilization flourished separately but with inputs from the Middle Eastern civilization. East Asian civilization was far more separate, despite continuing trade contacts with west Asia. New civilizations developed in Africa south of the Sahara, also influenced by those in north Africa, and entirely separate civilizations developed in the Americas. An almost completely separate history was being developed outside of the Mediterranean. Africa south of the Sahara was only slightly more connected to the West. The Roman empire was finally brought down by the invasions of barbarian tribes from the East. Those tribes settled in central and northern Europe and contributed to shaping the map of Europe as we know it today by establishing new peoples. Two great migrational trends can be noted. One was the sweep of the barbarian tribes out of China and the great steppes of east-central and central Asia into eastern, central, and even western and southern Europe. Those tribes, while primitive compared to the civilizations they encountered south of the Caucasus, Carpathian Mountains, and the Alps, were filled with a tough military spirit and were strong in their collective institutions, including political institutions that were less hierarchical than those they confronted among the civilized peoples they encountered. Coming to better lands in Europe than they had known on the steppes, they settled down and ultimately merged with the indigenous populations to form today's European peoples. The other great migrational stream consisted of peoples who were exiled from their lands as a result of military conquest and religious oppression. Their major migrations were generally westward: Greeks, Jews, and countless other Asians who were conquered by the Romans and taken westward as slaves or prisoners or who migrated westward of their own free will when their homelands could no longer provide them with a decent living or life. Less massive was the migration eastward into the western and northern parts of the Indian subcontinent by similar populations displaced from the various Persian/Iranian empires that controlled the territory between the eastern edge of the Roman empire and India proper. The first migration was more in the classic frontier model; that is to say, people searching for new lands and new opportunities, while the second was more in the dispersion model, peoples who had to migrate not because they wanted to but because of the circumstances in which they found themselves, circumstances generated by human activities such as wars, conquests, and famines. By and large, this was a period in which the frontier as we have described it here had less of an impact. Most of the areas that were settled and resettled as a result of these population movements were already inhabited. Only in northern Europe and in the desert areas of northern Africa and western Asia was there a line between the settled and the unsettled. Northern Europe did, indeed, become a frontier area as the steppe tribes spread into those unoccupied or very lightly populated areas and made them their own. The desert areas also saw some localized frontier situations as in the desert immediately south of the settled parts of the Land of Israel in what is today the Negev and the Sinai Peninsula where settlement was extended into desert areas by the development of sophisticated irrigation techniques. But on the whole, the battle with the desert was (and is) a continuing one with sometimes the desert winning and sometimes humans winning and extending their settlements into it. In any case, the frontier areas were all related to the rural land frontier, so that once the land was settled, the frontier disappeared, since there was no means for continuing the experience. On the other hand, there was considerable invention, especially for a pre-industrial age. The Romans were particularly inventive in material matters and technology. Their inventions ranged from better road building to serve the needs of their empire to the construction of systems of indoor plumbing to make life easier. The Jews and Greeks continued their inventiveness in their traditional fields of religion and philosophy, the Jews by inventing both rabbinic Judaism and Christianity, and the Greeks by inventing systematic philosophy and aesthetics. Both developed institutions to transmit their ideas that were very long-lasting. Some still remain with us, such as the synagogue, the church, and the academy. 278

Politically, the age continued the struggle between hierarchical imperialism and popular republicanism, at times supported by federalism. The Romans began with an adaptation of the Greek polis and initially expanded their empire through a series of treaties between Rome, the great polis, and other city-states which it conquered. These cities were related to Rome as foederatii. Those federal relationships, while quite different from the comprehensive federations and confederations of a later age (they were similar to the federacy or associated state relationships that exist today, e.g., between the United States and Puerto Rico or the United States and the Marshall Islands), were nonetheless authentic federal linkages that preserved the local autonomy of the cities in question but transferred powers over foreign policy and defense to Rome. The system persisted until it was destroyed during the Roman empire when the formal constitutional framework was changed to match the true imperial distribution of power, but by that time it had long since become a paper framework only. This period was one of great upheavals in religion throughout the world. The period started out with a series of religious revolutions including the emergence of Buddhism in India and its spread to south and southeast Asia and the emergence of Confucianism as a quasi-religious system in China and east Asia, all of this within a single century in the sixth and fifth centuries BCE. The Israelite religion of the Bible was transformed by Ezra into normative Judaism organized around the halakhah, the sacred law of the Jewish people that combined both civil and religious elements. While this religious revolution did not change the moral character of biblical teachings, it changed the means by which those moral teachings would be made operational. Instead of kings, priests and prophets, Ezra introduced an assembly of those educated in those codes to teach and interpret them. This republican meritocracy became the principal pillar of Jewish religious and civil self-government for the next millennium. An intellectual paganism developed among the Greeks, led by the Greek philosophers different and, indeed, considerably more sophisticated in character and content than the popular paganism. In Persia, the emergence of Zoroastrianism with its belief in two gods, one of good and one of evil, replaced the older polytheism of the Persians. Buddha was active in India and Confucius and Lao-Tze in China. These great Asian religious reforms came at approximately the same time as the Greeks were introducing their great philosophic reforms so that the juncture between the sixth and fifth centuries BCE became a period of extraordinary transformation in belief and intellectual endeavor throughout the civilized world of the time, East and West, each civilization in its own way. Not until our own times has there been such a convergence of transformatory movements in a single century, a time when all four forces that we have identified here as being critical to the civilizational process seemed to converge. In the middle of the period, Christianity and gnosticism were born as well as a number of other pagan cults, but the day of overt paganism was coming to an end in the West. After several centuries of struggle that involved substantial persecution of Christians by the Romans, Christianity triumphed to become the Roman state religion and as such to be given the keys of the kingdom. That transformation put Christianity in the position to become the overwhelmingly dominant religion in Europe, a task mostly accomplished by the end of the period, and quantitatively and intellectually the major religion of the West. It also enabled the Church to persecute other religions. The triumph of monotheism in its Catholic and Orthodox Christian forms reorganized and in many respects transformed European thought and behavior in fields far beyond the immediately religious. The rise of Christianity may indeed be the biggest story of the period in terms of its lasting influence. Its successful synthesis of the striving for piety and justice of Judaism, and the striving for rationality and excellence of the Greeks was to generate the engine that has driven Western civilization to its central position as the foundation stone of world civilization. Once these characteristics were combined and assimilated by the energetic and aggressive (often too aggressive) peoples of Europe, the way was clear to move ahead but it took another thousand years to complete that three-way combination. By the end of the period, Christianity had divided into two major wings, Catholic and Orthodox, and had also developed a number of separate Christian churches, mostly national in character; that is to say, serving particular nationalities. These began the permanent schisms in Christianity which continue to the present. The period began with the Babylonian Exile and dispersion of the Jews and the Greco-Persian Wars. The destruction of Judea by the neo-Babylonian empire led to the dispersion of the Jews throughout the Fertile Crescent and into the Balkans, but unlike the situation with other peoples, the Jews, held 279

together by their "peculiar" religion, vastly different from the paganism surrounding them, retained their identity as a separate people and their very presence began to spread the monotheistic idea. Fifty years later, the neo-Babylonian empire was conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia who allowed those Jews who wished, to return to their land, which became an autonomous state within the Persian empire. Simultaneously, in the middle of the sixth century BCE, Persia conquered the Greek cities of Asia Minor. At the turn of the century those cities revolted against Persian rule and were destroyed. The Persians then initiated their campaigns to conquer the cities of Greece proper because they had assisted in the Ionian revolt. The fight went on for fifty years until peace was established between Persia and Athens in 448. Athens, the great gainer from the victory, entered into its golden age, led by Pericles, but half a generation later initiated the Pelaponessian Wars (431-404) which, when they ended thirty years later, had essentially bankrupted the city in every way. Meanwhile, Socrates began the transformation of philosophy that he, Plato, and Aristotle brought about, that was to be Athens' greatest legacy to the world. During the fourth century Macedonia became the dominant power in the Hellenic world. Its greatest emperor, Alexander the Great established his empire and with it, Hellenism, from the Adriatic to the Indus and from the Caucasus to the Upper Nile. Alexander's approach to solving the Greco-Persian problem was to fuse the two populations, but his premature death ended this last effort to completely meld East and West. The breakup of his empire and its successors restored the political separation but enabled the cultural mixing to continue and intensify. The successor empires continued to exist and to preserve the Hellenistic world until first century BCE when they were overrun by the Romans. The westward shift of the Western world already had taken a major step forward in the eighth century BCE when first Carthage and then Rome were founded. Carthage was a Phoenician colony and, hence, of West Asian (Semitic) origin. For the next 600 years there was a struggle between the Semitic/North African peoples on one side, led by Carthage, and the Indo-European/Latins led by Rome on the other over who would control the Western world. While it is not often helpful to speculate on the "ifs" of history, it pays to give a moment's thought to what would have happened if Carthage had won in that struggle. Carthage was an expression of Semitic-Canaanite culture. It had consolidated its position in Spain until the Romans drove them out of the Iberian Peninsula. Had they beaten the Romans, it is possible that all of what has become Latin Europe where the Romance languages prevail would have spoken a Semitic rather than an Indo-European language. Beyond the language question, the cultural changes in the map of Europe would probably have been equally profound. As it was, Carthage was defeated, and while there would be one more great incursion of Semitic-North African peoples into Europe, that of the Muslims in the eighth century, the Semitic influence on Western civilization receded from the political realm and shifted to the realm of religion, science, and philosophy, of which more later. Neither Israel nor Greece, the intellectual and spiritual heartlands of those civilizations, directly participated in that struggle. Nor were either represented by the two actual contenders, Carthage and Rome. For the first 240 years Rome was ruled by kings. At the time it became a republic, the first RomanCarthagian treaty was concluded. For the next 300 years Rome and Carthage actively competed and fought with one another until Rome finally destroyed Carthage and established the IndoEuropean/Latin civilization as the dominant one in the West. All the while, the Roman republic was extending its control over the Italian peninsula and the northern shore of the Mediterranean, westward to the Atlantic and eastward to Asia Minor. The destruction of Carthage may have been decisive for Western civilization but it was disastrous for the Roman republic. It opened an era of civil wars that led ultimately in the middle of the first century BCE to the end of the republic and the establishment of imperial rule. During all that time, however, the Roman empire expanded. It took until the end of this entire period for imperial Rome to collapse, which it did as a result of the barbarian invasions from the north and the internal decline from within the empire and Rome itself. In the interim, the empire had reached what is today the English-Scottish border in the northwest, to the German border with the Low Countries, France and Switzerland in the north, and the Russian-Romanian border and the Black Sea in the northeast. It included all of today's Turkey and western Asia including Syria and Israel, as far as Mesopotamia. The empire also held the whole north shore of Africa. 280

Roman civilization spread throughout the areas of its rule and as Latin civilization left its enduring impact on Europe, we continue to live off of it or its syntheses with the civilizations around it. Rome was also very inventive governmentally in the systems of governance that it devised for that empire and its various provinces. Israel was one of the first nation-states in the world along with its immediate west Asian neighbors Araam (Syria), Moab, and Edom. It also was the first federation. The Greeks perfected the polis, the independent city, and bequeathed it to the West and also invented confederations of cities. Rome perfected imperial rule. No empire survived as an empire longer than any other in the West, rivaled only by the Chinese and Japanese empires in the East. It did so initially by developing a third form of federalism, asymmetrical federal association or federacy. Importantly, all three had republican roots and foundations. Meanwhile, immediately to the north of the established peoples in Mediterranean Europe, there appeared a group whose pedigree goes back as far as their neighbors to the south but who remained within local rather than continent-wide political and social frameworks and hence their visible influence on history was less. These were the Celts, who settled from Asia Minor, across Europe, to Iberia and the British Isles. The Celtic peoples are known mostly through archeology rather than historical records because they apparently never had an imperial instinct. The importance of Celtic foundations in shaping the local cultures in places as diverse as Switzerland, Spain, Ireland, Brittany, and Scotland only became recognized much later. The Roman empire reached its greatest extent in the third century. From then on it became more of an absolute state headed by soldier-emperors. At the same time, it came under increasing pressure internally from Christianity and externally from the Germanic tribes who originally were found in southern Scandinavia, Denmark, and Schleswig. The name "German" first appeared at the beginning of the first century BCE. The German tribes were differentiated into three groups: the north Germanic tribes living in Scandinavia; the east German tribes who had migrated from Scandinavia to the region east of the Elbe. These included the Vandals, the Bergundians, and the Goths who were to become so important in leading the assault on the Roman empire a century later; and the west German tribes, most of whom settled down in particular localities and only one of whom, the Franks, acquired the same importance and menace as their east German compatriots. They were governed by a certain primitive republicanism and were polytheistic. At the same time, the Slavic peoples were entering eastern Europe. The Slavs were in some cases connected with the Germans. Behind them were the mounted nomads from the Asian steppes. These included the Huns, the Bulgars who settled in Bulgaria, the Magyars who settled in Hungary, and the Khazars who settled north of the Caucasus. Altogether these were the peoples involved in the great barbarian migrations from the late fourth through the sixth centuries, of which the east Germans are the most prominent. These peoples, after they settled down, formed the backbone of the different nations of Europe that we know today, reaching across into the western third of North Africa. Meanwhile, Rome was undergoing various political and administrative changes, increasingly losing to the barbarian invaders. Constantine the Great adopted Christianity at the beginning of the fourth century. The capital was moved from Rome to Byzantium, renamed Constantinople, to remove it from the pagan influences of Rome itself. At the end of that century, the empire was formally divided into the Eastern and Western Roman empires. The Western empire ceased to exist in 476, while the Eastern empire continued to exist for another 1,000 years. While the Roman empire was at its peak, the Jews in their land made several efforts to throw off its yoke, leading to the destruction of the Second Jewish Commonwealth at about the time that Christianity emerged. The Jews were then dispersed throughout the known world of the time. As a diaspora they continued to be influential factors in world history because of the cohesion and intellectual energy they maintained even in their dispersion wherever they found themselves. The Greeks, who initially saw themselves as the true civilizing forces in the Roman empire, were also reduced to no more than a local people at about this time, who barely managed to keep the light of classical Greek knowledge alive in their academies. In a certain sense, the Eastern Roman empire in its Byzantine personality was an extension of Greek culture, but it represented a rejection of classic Greek culture in favor of a Christianized version. The former which was not to reappear as an overt influence in the West for another millennium, after having been preserved by Jews and Muslims in the intervening years. 281

In the East, the Persian empire became the Roman empire's leading rival. The Medes and the Persians were centered on a high plateau between the earlier civilizations of Iraq and the Punjab in India that came to be known as Iran or the land of the Aryans. The Persian empire achieved its central power position in the sixth century BCE. At its height the Persian empire included all of settled western Asia and reached from the Mediterranean to the Indus. It also conquered Egypt and the area that is now European Turkey but failed to conquer the city-states of Greece. At the same time as the Persian empire arose, Zoroaster (either 660-583 or c.570-c.500 BCE) appeared to found a new religion based on revelation. The Persian empire encouraged local autonomy in over 120 states and also religious toleration. It was the first major Indo-European power but became an oriental despotism after a century and was destroyed a century later by Alexander the Great. With its destruction, the eastern Mediterranean coast and the heart of western Asia passed out of the sphere of the Asian heartland and became linked again with the West, a linkage that was to remain for the next 1,000 years. India at that time passed out of the late Vedic period, emerging with its caste system fully developed. Gautama Buddha (563-483 BCE) appeared on the scene in India at about the same time as Zoroaster did in Persia. His teaching, Buddhism, represented a purification of Hinduism. It emphasized the importance of moral conduct so that through reincarnation moral individuals could ultimately enter Nirvana. Buddhist influence was strong in India throughout this whole period, especially among the ruling classes. It would be only in the eighth century of this era that Hinduism would succeed in driving Buddhism out of India. After India's brief brush with the West in the person of Alexander the Great, the major part of the subcontinent was united under the Maurya Dynasty whose greatest emperor was Asoka. With the collapse of that empire, the northern and western parts of India were pulled into the realm of the various Persian and Parthian empires. It was not until the fourth century of the present era that an indigenous Indian empire was reestablished and even it was brought down by the incursions of the white Huns from the Asian steppes. The third of the great moral reformers to appear in Asia in the period between the mid-sixth and midfifth centuries BCE was Confucius (551-479 BCE), who appeared in China at that time. Confucius established an ethical system and a meritocracy that manifested itself in a bureaucratic hierarchy for the administration of China. Together both became the essence of Chinese civilization. His work was supplemented by that of Lao-Tze, a mystic who gave Taoism a new dimension but who essentially agreed with Confucius that human society was to be governed by wise men. His teachings reenforced the Confucian system of thought and government. After an epoch of warring states, the Ch'in Dynasty established a unitary centralized state in the third century BCE which continued under the Western Han and Eastern Han Dynasties more or less until the end of the period under question. Fifth Period: The Eastern Challenge (500-1500 CE) This unit should focus on the resurgence of the East during the period in which Europe was plunged into the Dark Ages and only slowly began to recover itself in the Renaissance. While that was true of Europe, there were major cultural developments outside of Europe, particularly in Asia and Africa, that had a great impact on world history, particularly the rise of Islam in the seventh century. The new faith not only conquered all of west Asia and north Africa but which invaded Europe through the Iberian Peninsula and was only stopped at the Battle of Tours in France. The Islamic conquest rolled eastward into the Punjab and then continued through military and religious means to establish Islam as a major presence in central Asia, western China, and southeast Asia as far as what is today Indonesia and the southern Philippines. In Africa, Islam penetrated south of the Sahara and along Africa's east coast as far as Zanzibar. A century after its rise, it had become a world religion rivaling Christianity in its scope and exceeding it in its militancy. Since then, it can be said that monotheism has dominated the world. Even though monotheism formally represents only half of the world's population, it sets the tone for all but a few isolated animists. Monotheism itself remains divided into three great religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, each internally divided further and the first two periodically in conflict with the last, to the north and east of the Islam world. This was the period in which Japan and Korea were consolidated. Great empires developed in China and Mongolia that turned westward and spawned the Mongol invasions of the West. Those invasions were so fierce that they succeeded in wiping out the original civilizations of the West in western Asia, 282

leaving Europe alone to carry the torch of Western civilization, caught between the Muslims to the south and the Mongols to the east. Between the eighth and eleventh centuries, Christian Europe was further embattled by the still pagan Vikings of the north who launched a two-pronged attack on Christendom, or so it can be viewed in retrospect. One prong reached down the west coast of Europe including Normandy and France, both coasts of Britain, and the northern and eastern coasts of Ireland, and then sweeping into the Mediterranean as far east as Sicily, which the Normans, the Frenchified Vikings, conquered. Sweeping eastward, the second prong of the Viking "assault" penetrated the east coast of the Baltic sea, heading down through Russia following the river system as far as the Black Sea, and then, as traders, even further into west Asia itself. Ultimately, a beleagured Christendom did succeed in imposing Christianity on the Scandinavian countries, thereby sending those Vikings who refused to submit, off to the west where they settled Iceland, Greenland, and Vineland (North America). Meanwhile, within Europe, feudalism led to countless local conflicts which prevented European Christendom from achieving political unity equal to its religious unity. The one great effort which western European Christianity was able to launch was the Crusades. In the process of temporarily capturing the Holy Land, the Crusaders did more damage to Eastern Christianity, not to speak of the Jews in their way, than they did in the long run to the Muslims. The weakening of the Byzantine empire by the Crusader invasions opened the door to its invasion from the east by the Ottoman Turks (also from the Central Asian steppes) and to its ultimate collapse in the last century of this period. Outside of Europe this was the period of the great empires in black Africa to which Africans and AfroAmericans in particular have turned in recent years as examples of African high civilization. Parallel to the African efforts were those in the Americas particularly the Aztec empire in Mexico, the Mayan empire in southern Mexico and Central America, and the Inca empire in Peru and western South America. Those three represented the climax of native American civilization prior to the coming of the Europeans and were notable creations indeed. Although this period was not as "dark" as once portrayed, it was the period of greatest contraction of European civilization in the context of world civilization since the rise of the ancient Greeks. The barbarians who had migrated to Europe in the previous period spent this one entrenching themselves, developing first into separate peoples and then separate states. The only frontier-oriented migrations from Europe were those of the Vikings to the northwest Atlantic and North America. While those had little to no impact on the world scene, they were in themselves good examples of the relationship between certain kinds of migrations and frontiers and how where a migration is associated with the opening of new frontiers, the combination promotes liberty and democratic republicanism, as it did in Iceland and Greenland. The only other major migration that could have had the same kind of effect was the Polynesian migration that settled the Pacific islands. Moving eastward from what are today Malaysia and Indonesia, those migrants ultimately settled all of the inhabitable islands of the south and central Pacific, establishing Polynesian civilization in the process, the last of the world civilizations to be touched by the reach of Western civilization a millennium later. It, too, had no real impact on the world at the time and also remained an extremely local affair, scattered over a vast peripheral area. This was perhaps the longest period of closed frontiers in human history since the beginning of civilization. The closest approximation to frontier-like phenomena one can find in Europe proper was the establishment of cities serving the mercantile class and craftsmen whereby the city became a vehicle for the establishment of greater self-government and a communitarianism based upon greater equality. The cities' government if rather oligarchical, had strong republican elements. Almost all of those European cities were republics, nominally owing allegiance to the regional or imperial rulers of the territories in which they were located but actually quite autonomous. The Jews, too, enjoyed or were forced to confront a certain kind of frontier. A permanently persecuted minority in Europe, they nevertheless lived in autonomous communities of their own, usually as autonomous parts of other European urban settlements. The constant expulsions they faced from the various feudal-governed territories in which they found themselves led them to have to rebuild their lives repeatedly in new territories. Judaism and Jewish law as had developed from biblical times had kept the Jewish people republican throughout. Even their kings were constitutional monarchs. In medieval Europe they brought that republicanism to a new level of achievement for local and regional communities and even for the Jewish people worldwide, anticipating almost the entire array of 283

political ideas and instrumentalities that in the next period were to become prominent in Christian Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth Europe. The other exception was the German colonization of the east in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. This took the form of the extension of feudalism based on agriculture and rural organization. When cities were established, they were given autonomy similar to the cities in the Holy Roman empire which gave them protection to maintain their ethnic as well as their class identities. By and large, this colonization did not succeed and the German settlers left the land and either moved to the cities or returned to Germany. In general, this also was not a period of invention. Even in the frontier-like situations, the level of invention was very low, just enough to enable the people involved to meet the new challenges. Indeed, as late as the early Renaissance, people with inventive minds like Leonardo Da Vinci developed their inventions in theory only. We have Leonardo's records and now know that his inventions would have worked, but he never tried them. The same was true at the other end of Eurasia, the Chinese did indeed invent many things which were later separately invented in Europe, but the Chinese treated them all as toys, useful in their ritual life rather than as instruments for changing their daily lives, and so did not develop those inventions. In the realm of government, feudalism, for all its drawbacks, did serve to produce some idea of constitutionalism and republicanism, albeit mostly in theory, breeched in practice. Still, it was sufficient to enable the more honestly republican elements in Europe to at least emerge in the cities. The only exceptions were in Scandinavia where the valleys of Norway were small republics untl the coming of Christianity which, allied with strong kings, imposed hierarchical regimes on them. Iceland and Greenland were rural seafaring republics from their founding until their conquest by Denmark. In the mountainous areas of Europe, along that ragged set of ranges separating northern and southern Europe, centering on the Pyrennes and the Alps, and to some extent down the spine of Italy, mountain republics survived (Andorra, Santurino) or emerged as bastions of democratic republicanism (Switzerland). During the medieval period, especially from the thirteenth century onward, similar peripheral areas such as the swampy lowlands north of the mouth of the Rhine (now the Netherlands), which only the brave were willing to try to reclaim from the sea, also proved hospitable to free people and republican government. These points consolidated themselves in the latter half of the Middle Ages, almost like the remaining glaciers in the high mountains after a retreating ice age. From them their influence was to spread throughout Europe, then to North America and the other new worlds of settlement. Ultimately those ideas and practices have spread in some manner or form throughout the world as democratic republicanism. In short, those little pinpoints of light in the Dark Ages preserved the spirit of liberty and republicanism. To recapitulate, these were in the order of their influence, the mountain republics of the European heartland, the swampland republics of the lowland periphery, the cities of the bourgeoise, the Viking colonies, and the autonomous Jewish communities. Elsewhere in the despotic world, the only exceptions to despotism were those tribal societies not absorbed or incompletely absorbed within the despotic empires, that were able to maintain their primitive tribal democracies, and perhaps a few mountain villages able to preserve a kind of republicanism. Our knowledge of both is almost entirely lost to history and is discovered by archeology and anthropology at best. Religion dominated the period as in no other in recorded history. Unfortunately, it also took several steps backward in its influence on other human "goods." The religions which had formerly encouraged liberty and justice now for the most part became supporters of feudalism and hierarchy and remained so for a long enough time for that worldview and the injustices that came with it to become deeply entrenched in European civilization. Alexis de Tocqueville was to point out that, in Europe, religion and liberty were inevitably antagonistic to one another, which had a number of consequences. Christianity, whether Catholic or Eastern Orthodox, not only acquiesced in the hierarchical feudal order that set about to systematically abolish republicanism and local autonomy but actually encouraged such efforts in a kind of devilish covenant with the secular feudal rulers, becoming so fully identified with them that only a Reformation that broke Christianity into pieces could even partially change the direction of the Church. Islam, while more hospitable to the discussion and consideration of ideas than Christianity for much of this period, was founded on the rejection of tribal republicanism as pagan and the substitution of a comprehensive, systematic, hierarchical system of 284

government as part of the Islamic world view. That alliance became so well entrenched that it is only beginning to be eroded in our days and the change has many opponents. Perhaps the only exception, and then only partially, to this was Judaism which, perhaps because of its special circumstances, never had the ability to develop or to unite with the instruments of oppression that came to be so influential in other religions. Of the oriental religions, little more need be said. Confucianism, indeed, had tried to introduce a humanistic hierarchical approach at the beginning of the previous period. The result, however, was a bureaucratic despotism tempered only by the degree of moderation built into Chinese civilization. Japan, less attuned to that moderation, generated a hierarchical system modified only to the extent that it had long periods of feudalism as well. Hinduism became utterly identified with its caste system. In Africa, except for the tribal societies that survived as autonomous entities, the situation was just as bad. The African empires were as despotic as any. They did not even have the leavening of a republican theory. The empire was the personal property of the ruler who could do with his subjects what he pleased. That was even true in some of the tribal environments. The same was true in North America. The empires were hierarchical despotisms. Only in the more primitive parts of the Americas where tribalism survived did primitive tribal democracy survive with it. No doubt this is one of the reasons that Western civilization ultimately triumphed. It was the only one to preserve republicanism, and sometimes even democratic republicanism, under advanced civilizational conditions rather than just in the most primitive ones, and even its record was limited in this period to a few then-despised examples that managed to escape the efforts of the major European rulers to crush them. In the meantime, Europe and indeed much of the world was organized into large empires embracing smaller feudal units with the power of each fluctuating in relationship to the other. As the Middle Ages wore on in Europe, some of the successful feudal units developed into large enough entities to begin to take on the form of states along lines that we would come to recognize in modern times. By the end of the period, countries like Spain, Portugal, France, and England had just become or were on the threshold of becoming states in a post-medieval sense. For those interested in tracing the burst of energy that revived the West, they should keep their eyes on the regions that in the Middle Ages were called "marches." These were borderlands areas where wars took place but also where populations had to relate to one another and to be inventive in finding ways to do so. Meanwhile, in the northeastern and eastern Mediterranean, Byzantium survived. It became the vehicle for the spread of what had become Western civilization northward into Russia. There Byzantine civilization was taken over by the Russians and developed into a modification of its earlier form. It was to be spread eastward in the next period. China in this period was influenced to some degree by Buddhism. Despite the many dynastic and territorial changes, the cohesive Chinese civilization was formed during this period. This was the period of Chinese inventions such as gunpowder, firecrackers, printing, and porcelain, that remained unexploited. Japan also emerged as a separate entity at this time, taking its writing and its bureaucratic state organization from China and using both to strengthen its separation from previously dominant Korea. Japanese Shinto became the state religion. Japanese strength was consolidated in the thirteenth century when, in a great effort, it repulsed the Mongol invaders. The Mongols came out of northwestern China and spread both eastward and westward, capturing northern China by breaching the Great Wall and then the rest of China after that, attempting to capture Japan but failing, succeeding in its efforts to capture the whole Iranian plateau and Mesopotamia and raiding as far west as the Mediterranean coast and Syria and Palestine. The Mongols captured almost all of the open lands of what is today Russia. In eastern Europe they reached Lithuania, most of Poland, and into Hungary as far as the Adriatic coast, sowing devastation wherever they went. The Mongol destruction was so great that western Asia did not recover from it until modern times. During its period of expansion, Islam penetrated the Indus area but was stopped there. It was three hundred years before they next advanced into the Punjab. From there they continued to advance until at the beginning of the thirteenth century they established the Sultanate of Delhi which lasted for more than three hundred years until early in the sixteenth century, interrupted only by the Mongol invasion under Timur. 285

Perhaps the most interesting century in this whole period was the thirteenth century which seemed to have been the climactic century of the period all over the world. That was the century of the Mongol invasions and greatest advance, the establishment of the great mendicant orders in Catholicism - the Franciscans and the Dominicans and the Comeroids, the establishment of the Inquisition, the age of Thomas Aquinas and Maimonides, and the Albegensian Wars, the last Crusade and the fall of the last parts of the Crusader kingdom to the Muslim reconquest. The century began with the issue of Magna Carta in England (1215) and concluded with the establishment of the Swiss Confederation (1291), the two great beacons of liberty in the Middle Ages; the successful Christian reconquest of most of Spain; the high point of the Hanseatic League in the Baltic; the consolidation of the French national state; the establishment of the elected German monarchy; the conversion of the Teutonic knights in eastern Europe, to give just a sample of the century's events. The period concluded with a culmination of events in the fifteenth century that opened the way to the next period. In the Catholic Church, the Conciliar movement began the era of Church reform. In the East, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople and ended the Byzantine empire to create a new power in west Asia and the Balkans. In Spain, the Christians completed the reconquest of the peninsula from the Muslims and expelled the Jews. The Portuguese began the Age of Exploration by attempting to find a route to the East around Africa, while in 1492 Columbus "discovered" America for Europe. The European slave trade increased enormously as a result of the finds of the discoveries of Africa and "white" Europeans and "black" Africans began to have a significant history together which, despite its very painful beginnings, has continued ever since. The thrust of European explorations was to reach and begin trading with Asia. While that did not happen until the next period, it did mean that this period ended with Asia having entered European consciousness and the reconceptualizing of the world not only as physically round but as interconnected. Humanity was only a short step away from beginning a worldwide history. Sixth Period: The Resurgence of the West (1450-1750 CE) The challenge from the East failed either because it did not have anything better to offer the West or because when it did, it did not know how to exploit what it had to offer. The first was the problem of the Mongols and the second, the problem of the Chinese. In the end, all they left the West was a strong impression of Oriental barbarism and despotism that was to color Western attitudes toward the East for centuries to come and to enable Westerners to ignore or denigrate the very real achievements in the East. Focused Western use of the inventions that came to represent progress in the next period, many of which originated in the East but were not developed there, put the West in a much stronger position, and the very energetic and combative West used its strength to conquer the East and, for that matter, the rest of the world outside of Europe. To do so, the West first had to put its own house in order, in the sense that it had to launch its own house along paths that transformed medieval Europe and opened the door to modernity. The fact is that the West did so and in relatively short order from an historic point of view. It did so first through the Renaissance of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries which revived humanism, learning, and the classic arts. The idea of humanism was the key to the Renaissance ideology. By humanism they meant that returning to the great human sources of antiquity it was possible to overcome the otherworldly-centered doctrine of scholasticism which had dominated medieval Christianity. Humanism took many forms but shared this common conception. The humanists explored ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Latin classics, reintroducing them to the Western world. This restoration of ancient texts became the effort to give them expression through literature, drama, and the arts. This was accompanied by the movement for civic republicanism, especially in the northern Italian city-states, the idea of cultured, civic-spirited, people leading in the governance of their respective cities. Then the Protestant Reformation came on the heels of the failed attempt of the Conciliar movement to reform the Catholic Church from within. The Protestant Reformation succeeded, and greatly. It shattered the unity of Western Christendom, took a further step forward in depaganization of the West, and launched the West on the road to democracy through its doctrines and organization. Following on its heels was the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century whereby medieval science and philosophy were overthrown and thought placed on a whole new premise that removed the earth from the center of the universe and humanity off center stage along with it. All of this was set within the context of the Age of Explorations whereby Europeans not only discovered new worlds beyond Europe but began to conquer and settle them. 286

The four events that marked the beginning of the new age were the invention of printing in 1445, the fall of Constantinople in 1453, ending the Byzantine empire and bringing the Ottoman empire into its most glorious period, Columbus' discovery of America in 1492 for the Europeans, and the beginning of the Reformation when Martin Luther nailed his theses on the church door in 1517. Thus, in the space of 72 years the foundations of the medieval world was overturned. The fall of Constantinople was the last successful assault of the East on the West, although it was just the beginning of Ottoman expansion into Europe and the Ottomans twice reached the gates of Vienna, the last time in 1689. Both times they were defeated, as they were in the sea battles of the Mediterranean, so that 1453 can be seen as the high point of successful Ottoman expansion. The Ottomans continued to hold southeastern Europe for the next several centuries and, indeed, were not removed from the Balkans until the beginning of the twentieth, but, by the same token, that region, which still played an active role in human civilizations at the time of the Ottoman conquest, was slowly reduced to a backwater. The first half of this period of expansion was dominated by Spain under Hapsburg rule because of marriages became the rulers of Spain (and Portugal as well) and the Holy Roman empire. Spanish power declined at the beginning of the seventeenth century and was replaced briefly by the Dutch who, as a small country, overreached themselves in their efforts to achieve world power and were ultimately reduced to poverty and replaced by the English in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century. The seventeenth and first half of the eighteenth centuries became known as the Age of Reason, a period of great philosophic and scientific discovery and invention in Europe. The period was presided over by kings who perceived themselves as ruling by the divine right who themselves became subject to the new Age of Reason and by a rising middle class gaining power through the advance of capitalism and the wealth that it produced for them and their countries. Migration received a major boost in this period with the discoveries in the Western and Southern Hemispheres and the development of new connections between Europe and Asia. By the end of the period, Europeans had begun to settle every unsettled space on the globe at least in its beginnings. Australia and New Zealand were the last to be settled at the very end of the eighteenth century. Migration took place in three forms. First were the European settlers to the New World. They can be grouped into three basic categories: those who went for ideological reasons, in almost every case to pursue a religious vision of building a new Jerusalem or a city upon a hill in some empty territory (which actually may not have been so empty). Then there were those who went in pursuit of wealth and glory. A third category consisted of those who sought to escape persecution or forced military duty or to gain religious freedom. The second category involved those who emigrated as a result of force. Principal among them were the African slaves transported to the New World. The period started with the medieval expulsions of the Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, from Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1497. The Jews' migration, both eastward and westward, not only responded to the tragedy but threw off a tremendous amount of energy that became critical to the expansion of the Ottoman empire and the settlement of the new worlds. Another group consisted of Europeans indentured and transported either to take up or to be indentured. Many in this last group were criminals who were given the choice of imprisonment or migration. Since the punishments were far more severe than the crimes, certainly by the end of this period, there were many immigrants convicted of petty crimes who emigrated to avoid harsh punishments. A third group of migrants consisted of those who migrated because they were forced off of their lands by incoming migrants from elsewhere. Most of these were tribal groupings in the territories newly discovered by the Europeans. The history of the Native Americans, in that respect, is particularly instructive, but so, too, is the history of African and Australasian groups. The final category consisted of those rural to urban migrants who left their lands to seek greater freedom or opportunity in city settings. That was to become a principal migration category in the next period, but it began in this one. Here we should add the migration of the so-called Bantu peoples from Central to Southern Africa in search of new lands and new forms of social and political organization, who in time became the Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, and Tswana peoples of Southern Africa. The results of all of this were worldwide population upheavals caused by migration and its effects, and a shifting and mixing of populations that had not been seen for more than a thousand years and on an extent that had never occurred before in history. 287

The catalyst of these migrations was the opening of the Great Frontier. That frontier, unlike earlier land frontiers, was to set off a chain reaction whereby the frontier phenomenon, once unleashed, was able to continue through different stages. As its earlier stages were exhausted, new ones opened up, to start a process that still continues at the end of the twentieth century in ways that could never have been even dreamed of by those who opened the first frontier. The scope of this frontier was, and remains, vast. Essentially it involved the entire earth except Europe and certain long-settled core regions in Asia and Africa. Western Europeans pioneered frontiers in three great areas of the Americas - North America, the Caribbean and Central American region, and South America, southern Africa, and the South Pacific, and made abortive attempts to enter the core areas in Africa and East Asia. Eastern Europeans pioneered in Siberia, advancing all the way from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Southern Europeans attempted to open frontiers in Northern Africa and the Middle East. The Great Frontier has had great impact, not only on those who pioneered it but on those who were in their way. In a sense there were three kinds of impacts: the impact on the frontiersmen and pioneers who settled in new lands and who built new societies where those lands were sufficiently unoccupied; the impact on the peoples displaced by the new settlers; and, in those places where the peoples were too numerous, where they either repelled the new settlers in time or were subjugated by them, the impact on their lives and civilizations. All three groups need to be considered in looking at the history of the world. Another significant question is the differing character of different frontiers, for example, the difference between the settlement of British North America by the British and Siberia by the Russians, based on the differences in the pioneers, the people displaced, and the different uses to which the different frontiers were put. This transition period also saw the beginning of the Age of Invention. Indeed, the period can be said to have begun with the invention of printing in 1445, a clear contestant for one of the greatest inventions of all time. The degree to which printing transformed the world, opening up the possibility of universal literacy and universal access to printed materials, in the process making censorship of ideas impossible and opening up new possibilities and problems for freedom of speech. The Renaissance itself was an age of invention in arts and culture, the seventeenth century became an age of invention in science and philosophy, and the eighteenth century, in technology. The connection between invention and the frontier became closer and closer as the frontier stimulated needs and inventions in response to those needs. Other inventions of the period included gunpowder, in use for firearms from the fourteenth century, and the compass and other navigational aids that made seagoing voyages possible. Not all were equally beneficial to humanity. For example, the first massive use of artillery (the technological application of the earlier invention of gunpowder) was in the siege of Constantinople when the Turks used their heavy guns to blast holes in the city's walls, thus giving them their victory. Indeed, military inventions advanced tremendously even in this period, although nothing like what happened in the next. It was in this period that the weapons of earlier ages were all but abandoned in favor of gunpowder and its derivative weapons. The key to the transformations brought about in this period may well lie with religious transformation. In the fifteenth century, reformers from within the Catholic Church attempted, through the Conciliar movement, to change the Church organization so they could get at some of the behavioral and theological problems that had developed in medieval Catholicism. They did not succeed, nor did the first reformers in Central Europe. The mixture of religion and politics led to both groups being crushed politically and religiously. Martin Luther successfully inaugurated the Protestant Reformation in 1517. His sober, hierarchical, and even rigid brand of Protestantism that subsequently became known as Lutheranism captured much of Germany and the Scandinavian countries. He was followed almost immediately by Huldrich Zwingli of Zurich who founded Reformed Protestantism, later known as Calvinism, even though the two are not exactly identical. Whereas Luther continued the medieval doctrine of rendering unto Caesar what is Caesar's and unto God what is God's, and kept his church essentially involved in spiritual reformation, Zwingli sought to build the kingdom of God on earth. Hence, his church had to undertake both theological and political reformation. In Switzerland that was possible city by city without conflicting with the political culture already functioning in that country. Rejecting both were the free churches that arose in western 288

Germany that rejected the idea of church and state entanglement and sought to build congregations of believers driven by matters spiritual and ignoring matters political outside of their own church governance. Finally there was Anglicanism, essentially a continuation of Catholic ideas within an independent church form established in England, in part to serve the political needs of Henry VIII. Luther soon allied himself with the rulers of the countries where his version of Protestantism was becoming strong and, with their support, developed Lutheranism as the established church in many German principalities and all of the Scandinavian kingdoms. Zwingli's Reformed Protestantism captured city after city in Switzerland and the Rhine River Valley and developed strong bodies of adherents in France (the Huguenots) where, in the end, Catholicism allied with the state prevailed; in the Low Countries; and in Scotland. In all of the places where Reformed Protestantism was strong, there emerged a Protestant republicanism that opposed tyrants even as it demanded local religious conformity. Reformed Protestants in England became the Puritans, whose name indicated that they wanted to purify the Anglican Church as much as the Catholic, which they had rejected. In the seventeenth century they launched the first of the great modern revolutions, the English Civil War, against royal absolutism, opening the way for modern democracy. The Reformation also brought a period of religious-based or -justified warfare which lasted until 1648 when the Treaty of Westphalia established the modern state system and its international order known as the balance of power, that lasted until World War II. In that treaty, the princes of Europe agreed to remove religion from the public agenda, thereby starting on the road to privatization. States would no longer go to war over which religions would be established where, but would accept the religions of their respective rulers as their state religions and compete over secular matters only. Since this was a period of absolute monarchy (the divine right of kings), this kind of agreement was possible. At the beginning of the next period when absolutism was dissolved in Europe, the idea that religion would be kept off the public agenda, except perhaps on an internal basis, and increasingly not even there, remained. Religiously, one of the most important aspects of the Reformation was the way it further detached Christians who became Protestants from the remains of paganism and idolatry. When Christianity first began to become a popular religion, a century or more after the death of Jesus, it did so by being willing to become syncretistic; that is to say, it embraced local gods and their festivals and transformed the gods into Christian saints and the festivals into Christian holidays. While in time the regional gods were forgotten, the result was still a compromise because the saints were seen as powerful in their own right as long as proper obeisance was made to Christian belief in worshipping them. Protestantism rejected all of that. It sought a stark, unadorned religion, the worship of God through the mediation of Jesus and no one else. Their churches were simple and unadorned in contrast to the rather ornate and even baroque Catholic churches that they rejected as symbolizing paganism. Thus, Christianity, a further step removed from the pagan side of its origins, was able to take an important step toward the kind of pure monotheism which it advocated in principle. Indeed, some Protestants, the Unitarians for example, went so far as to reject the Trinity and the divinity of Jesus to even further purify their monotheism. This new Christianity was to return to influence Catholicism's later movement in that direction as well. The next vital thing the Reformation achieved was to make the Bible accessible to all. From the perspective of Reformation theology, every individual was responsible for his or her individual religious acts and consequently had to know how to act. The only way to know to know how to read and understand the Bible. Coming as it did, just after printing had been invented, it now became possible to print Bibles for mass distribution. Indeed, the sixteenth century was a great period of Bible printing and translation. In their work, the leaders of the Reformation consulted the original Hebrew and Greek texts to get the most accurate renderings they could, considering that the Bible for them was the literal word of God and had to be clearly and accurately understood by everyone. This new biblicism promoted literacy in the Protestant world. It also promoted individual autonomy as many individuals looked to Scripture directly for guidance rather than to their priests or even ministers. In an important follow-on to this new biblicism came the restoration of the idea of covenant as a central principle in Christianity, certainly for Reformed Protestants, and for its introduction into the 289

struggle for democratization and modernization. As a religious idea in the sixteenth century, covenant became the foundation of the federal theology (as Reformed Protestants termed it) which saw the human relationship with God as the result of the pact (covenant) between the two described in the Bible. This idea was a very daring one because it presented God as self-limiting for the sake of human initiative. Humans were thus empowered to be partners, albeit junior partners, with God. In the seventeenth century, that idea was secularized as the idea of the political compact in which humans covenanted with each other to establish civil society. In the eighteenth century, the covenant idea became the root of modern constitutionalism. Hence the constitutional democracy that we all know today has its roots in that Reformed Protestant revival of the biblical idea of covenant which was not only important in the fight against tyrants and hierarchies but could be made operational in political systems that would protect liberties. It should be noted that a kind of proto-capitalism emerged in the sixteenth century parallel to the Reformation. It would not become full-fledged capitalism for another century or two but the outlines were there, and it began to influence human thought. The African kingdoms of the eleventh to fifteenth centuries represented the high point of indigenous African civilization after ancient Egypt. Some of these African kingdoms were Muslim and others pagan until the Europeans arrived and began to convert the royal families to Christianity. The coming of the Europeans expanded the slave trade and turned the kingdoms' leaders into collaborators in that dreadful business. The leaders of these kingdoms shifted their economies to benefit from the new slave markets which, in the end, probably led to the destruction of their empires. Africa was first affected by European explorations as early as the second half of the fifteenth century. It was only in the early sixteenth century that India felt that impact, first through a Portuguese commercial empire which by the end of the century had been seized by the English and, after that, by the Dutch, the British, and the French. In the Americas also, the Aztec, Mayan, and Inca empires were reaching their peak. The Mayans actually faded in the fifteenth century, losing out to the Toltecs, but the Aztecs and the Incas reached their peak just before the Spanish arrived to conquer them early in the sixteenth century. The Spanish, appalled by the barbarism of human sacrifice, forced the Indians to accept Christianity and incorporated their territories into the Spanish empire. The Portuguese conquest of Brazil, a less developed Indian area, led to the division of Latin America into Spanish and Portuguese segments. By mid-century, except for the areas deep in the hinterland, all of Latin America had been absorbed into those two empires. North American settlement, on the other hand, came only in the seventeenth century; the spanish in the south (as early as 1565) and southwest, the French in Quebec and the British and Dutch and Swedes along the east coast of what is now the United States. The contrast is instructive. The Spanish and Portuguese conquered the relatively densely populated areas from the Rio Grande to the Straits of Magellan at a time when feudalism still survived in Iberia. They found it quite suitable for transplantation to the New World and introduced feudal orders including a class system that distinguished between European natives, natives of America of European descent, mixed bloods, and purely native. To this was added early on a population of African slaves after it turned out that they were better slaves than the native Americans. Thus the Latin American frontier was aborted by the importation of medieval models. By the time the French reached Quebec, their medieval order was in the process of disintegrating. Moreover, many if not most of the settlers of French Canada were Bretons from the Celtic part of France. Hence the French could only introduce limited hierarchical and feudal arrangements, which lasted until the British conquered Quebec in 1759. The British themselves settled along the east coast of what is now the United States and the Atlantic provinces of Canada. While some of their settlers came in pursuit of wealth, the most influential ones came in pursuit of religious utopias or religious freedom. They set the tone and established a more egalitarian society based on covenantal principles as filtered through Puritanism and Reformed Protestantism. In China, the last Mongol emperor was driven out at the end of the fourteenth century and a new dynasty came to power which ruled until 1644. Under the new dynasty China also began an era of expansion, sending naval expeditions as far as Africa to open new trade routes and directing Chinese emigration towards Southeast Asia. The strong Chinese concentrations in Southeast Asia date from that period, but in a relatively few years the Europeans arrived to dominate them. At the beginning of 290

the sixteenth century the Europeans were given bases at Canton and Macao. Toward the end of the century Jesuits were encouraged and engaged in missionary activity in return for imparting mathematical and technical skills. Meanwhile, Chinese medicine developed acupuncture. In Japan, the country effectively broke into small principalities in the era of the Samurai which lasted from 1478 to 1573. European firearms and Christianity were introduced. A new Japanese empire was created after 1573 and European access was severely restricted in 1639. In India, the Moghul empire in northern India was subjugated by 1526, using artillery. Akbar, the greatest of the Moghul emperors governed in the latter half of the sixteenth century, promulgated an edict of toleration for all religions and maintained personal contacts with Jesuits and Parsis (Zoroastrians). At the beginning of the seventeenth century, England began its colonization of India. During this period, Urdu, based on Hindu grammar and Persian Arabic vocabulary, became the language of the state, while Hindi, Bengali, Punjabi, and Maharashtri also developed. Many familiar Indian customs including the strict isolation of women, the increase in child marriages, and the burning of widows were introduced at this time. There also was a burst of intellectual, artistic, and architectural activity including the building of the Taj Mahal in the mid-seventeenth century. Hinduism divided into many sects including Sikhism. As European colonialism increased, the Spanish and Portuguese lost their monopoly. The initial challenges to them came in connection with the Reformation. The revolt of the Netherlands against the Spanish led to Dutch expansion in North America (New Amsterdam), South America (in northeastern Brazil, an attempt that did not succeed), southern Africa (the founding of white settlement at Capetown and the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 and thereafter), Ceylon, and the Dutch East Indies. Dutch traders penetrated China and Japan. The English followed on the heels of the Dutch, heavily settling in North America and also colonizing the Caribbean and spreading their trading companies to South and Southeast Asia. The French also attempted colonizing efforts in North America, the Caribbean, and the Far East. These efforts led to conflict among the imperial powers, beginning the first of what were to be seven "hot" world wars in the modern epoch and one worldwide Cold War in the postmodern. World Wars I and II were the sixth and seventh of those wars. The first world conflict began in the seventeenth century. It was followed by four more in the eighteenth. Although the first five were seen principally as European wars, in fact they were fought on all parts of the globe because of the new trading and colonial expansions of Europe and increasingly made use of troops not only from the countries involved but from their colonies. This procession of world wars was clear evidence of the worldwide expansion of Western civilization and its beginnings as the world's civilization. Seventh Period: The West Reinvents the World (1650-1950) This period covers the modern epoch which begins in the middle of the seventeenth century with the Treaty of Westphalia and the English Civil War, and concludes with the end of World War II, the beginning of the nuclear age, and the age of decolonization. The modern epoch completes the story of the spread of Western civilization throughout the world and how modernization became one version or another of Westernization. It concludes with Europe having exhausted itself in its conquest of the rest of the world and especially through its incessant internecine wars. In the process, European hegemony passed to its New World offshoots, particularly the United States, which picked up the falling flag and, by judiciously combining the European version of Western aspirations with the aspirations of nonEuropean, indeed, non-Western peoples, transformed Westernization into modernization and reaffirmed its dominant role. In this period, we explore the rise of capitalism, democracy, individualism, the industrial revolution, and modern technology to the threshold of the cybernetic age and how the various civilizations, areas, and regions of the world responded differently or were affected differently by those several guiding factors. While some things need to be looked at region by region, the general approach should be a universal one to see how all the pieces fit together in what had become, by 1650, a single worldwide history whereby major events have worldwide impacts and are usually worldwide in scope. For example, what we know as World War II was really the seventh world war. The first occurred in the struggle between the British, Dutch, and French in the seventeenth century; the second between the same forces at the beginning of the eighteenth; the third, what to Americans was known as the French and Indian War in the middle of the eighteenth; the fourth was the American Revolutionary War which rapidly became a worldwide conflict between the French and the British involving the Spanish, 291

the Dutch, and many others; the fifth was the bundle of Napoleonic Wars that had an even wider spread. Then the world avoided world war for a hundred years until World War I which was the sixth, while World War II was the seventh. In all of these wars, nations, states, and peoples in all parts of the world were involved and battles were fought in all parts of the world, both at sea and on land, and later in the air as well. A chronological division of this period would look at the segment from the mid-seventeenth to the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, say until the end of the Napoleonic Wars, as the period of the great revolutions that gave shape to the modern epoch both political (as in the English Civil War at the beginning of this segment of the period, and the American and French Revolutions toward its end); scientific and technological, (beginning with the mid-seventeenth century revolutions in biology, physics, astronomy, mathematics, and chemistry, and continuing through the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century that led to the application of the principles of the scientific revolution); and philosophic (in the Age of Reason and the Enlightenment) which saw the transformation of ancient and medieval philosophy into a new modern system resting on very different premises, far more psychological and "scientific" and less judgmental than earlier philosophic systems. The second segment included the nineteenth century, from 1815 to World War I, a period of relative peace and progress in Europe during which the Western world assimilated the developments of the first half of the modern epoch and, at the same time, extended its rule, through colonialism, to every corner of the rest of the world. Major segments of the non-European world settled by Europeans (North America, Latin America, Australasia, and parts of the European periphery) gained independence, setting the model for decolonization that was to sweep the world after World War II. The third segment, from World War I to the end of the period, covers not only the two wars and the world scene in the interwar period with the Great Depression and its consequences, but also the rise of Communism, the Bolshevik Revolution, the National Socialism of the Nazis in Germany and the Fascists in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and elsewhere, the emergence of the welfare state in the democratic countries of the West, the Mexican Revolution with its particular brand of radicalism, the beginnings and expansion of the anti-colonialist struggle in Asia and Africa, and the struggle for equal rights in the United States, especially by Afro-Americans but also the earlier struggle of Southern and Eastern European immigrants and by Jews in Europe. Even more than in our study of previous historical periods, the issue of centers and peripheries becomes significant. Whereas in earlier periods one could identify greater and lesser centers with a certain amount of separation between them, the transformations of modernity linked virtually all of them, far more than they ever had been. The central civilization of the epoch was the West, actually a cluster of centers with new ones added as the West consolidated its expansion. The peripheries consisted of those civilizational areas whose role was more localized and self-contained. They may have had some regional influence but it was secondary to the influence of the Western center. A secondary area of emphasis is on the major cultural transformations that were particularly pronounced in this modern epoch as modernization spread throughout the world and Westernization was transformed into modernization. The far more intensive impact of culture contact made cultural transformations much more visible and extensive. Finally, the interactions between patterns of settlement and levels of technology also intensified, especially with the onset of the industrial revolution. The initial discovery, exploration, and settlement of the new worlds in the latter part of the previous period had its major material impact in the spread of new world products not previously found in the old world tobacco, for example, chocolate, or corn throughout the world. With them Europeans also acquired the techniques for using them. In the modern epoch the response of the Europeans and the settler descendants to their encounters with the new worlds was to develop new technologies and invent new devices to exploit those technologies that would help them in their settlement of those new worlds. It can fairly be said that this was a major impetus for technological development, change, and invention throughout the modern epoch, beginning with the steamship, progressing through the railroad to the automobile and the internal combustion engine in the field of transportation, the harnessing of electricity, and the development of first the telegraph and then the telephone and the radio in the field of communication; the manufacture of iron and then steel to make the equipment to build steam engines and automobiles or whatever and sewing machines to manufacture clothing. 292

For example, as people moved off the farms into the cities, their work became more specialized so they no longer made their own clothing or shoes but had to purchase ready-made items. In other cases, these inventions became necessary in order for Europeans and other Westerners to reach out to other parts of the globe, whether in the form of regular steamship lines from Europe to the Middle East inaugurated in the 1830s, or railroads to cross the American prairies, plains, and mountains, inaugurated in the 1840s in the United States. Migration in the modern epoch was of three kinds: that connected with the great frontier in which elements of Europeans and Africans and smaller numbers of Asians came or were brought to the New World as settlers or to make settlement possible and to help the frontier societies move on from the rural-land to the urban-industrial frontier. The second kind was rural to urban migration as a result of the industrial revolution and its offshoots. The third was displacement and involved growing numbers of refugees. Particularly in Europe, but in the latter stages of the epoch in North America and Latin America, southern Africa, and Australasia as well, farmers and other people who lived in rural areas moved to the cities in search of opportunities in the new urban-industrial world. In Europe, the industrial revolution was not a frontier phenomenon. This was mostly because people were driven off their lands by the changing character of the economy, including the changing character of agriculture which had less room for small subsistence farms and required more massive farming efforts, as well as because wages were better in industry. In Africa and Asia, the colonial powers and their allies both used cities for commercial and governmental purposes which attracted people because they offered a better chance to earn a living than in their even more marginal subsistence farm. Some migration was generated by colonialism itself, involving not only the colonial rulers and those who staffed the colonial administrations and armies, but also their allies. For example, British colonialism was very heavily dependent on a British-Muslim alliance, either with indigenous Muslims who stood by the British locally or non-indigenous Muslims brought in to the British colonial areas to assist the British. Commerce in those areas, moreover, was principally in the hands of Jews, Parsis, or Chinese who emigrated to the new areas from their areas of origin to take advantage of the opportunities. British settlers in the Caribbean and in Africa also imported South Asians, particularly the peoples of India, to settle in their colonies to do work that the British upper classes would not undertake. Thus were born the large South Asian concentrations in central and southern Africa, the Caribbean Islands, northeastern South America, and in the Pacific, at least as far as Fiji. Chinese found their way into these colonies as well, sometimes in overwhelming numbers. In part, that was a continuation of the emigration efforts of the Chinese dynasties in the last part of the previous epoch. The French and to a lesser extent the Italians and the Germans used a different approach. When the French annexed Algeria they opened its doors to European colonists, primarily Italians and French from southern France. Those colons came in and settled on previously Arab lands where they stayed until the French ended their rule over Algeria at the end of the 1950s, at which time almost all of them abandoned those lands and moved to France. A similar situation prevailed in Libya where the Italians colonized the area, and in the African colonies of Germany until the British with their African allies captured them in World War I. The frontier remained a very powerful influence throughout the modern epoch. It began with the ruralland frontier which persisted for 400 years until World War I, more or less, and which brought with it the first settlement of these new worlds, spreading farms, ranches, mines and towns catering to those industries across the land. It is fair to say that all of the pre-seventeenth century territorial frontiers were one-time occurrences, bounded in a particular territory and time-span. The one possible exception, depending on definition, was that of the Jews, whose original land frontier was like all the others but whose history of exile, dispersion, and resettlement gave them at least two additional opportunities to return to the Land of Israel under frontier conditions. On the other hand, the frontiers, initiated simultaneously with the opening of the modern epoch or within that epoch, more often than not set off this frontier chain reaction. Early in the nineteenth century United States, the rural-land frontier generated an urban frontier which was based upon industrial development, just as the rural frontier was based upon the availability of free (or cheap) land. The generation of new wealth through industrialization transformed cities from mere regional service centers to producers of wealth in their own right. That frontier persisted for more than 100 years as a major force in American society as a whole and, as we shall soon have 293

reason to note, perhaps another 60 years as a major force in various parts of the country. The population movements and attendant growth on the urban-industrial frontier generated the second settlement pattern in the United States, of free-standing cities built around the new industrial base from coast to coast. The American frontier is paradigmatic. The continuing frontier, wherever it is found, has all the characteristics of a chain reaction. In these lands of great opportunity, each frontier, once opened, has bred its successor and has been replaced in turn by it. Each frontier stage has generated its own new world with new opportunities, new patterns of settlement, new occupations, new challenges and new problems. While colonization was continued by much of Europe on the other continents in the modern epoch, what became truly frontier colonization essentially narrowed down to the English-speaking world. Once the French and the Dutch were driven out of North America, the British had control of all the sufficiently unpopulated lands where that kind of frontier could develop. The Spanish and the Portuguese confronted masses of Indians whom they had to accommodate and absorb, except in the central and southern reaches of Argentina and Chile where, because Spanish society did not leave room for a truly open frontier, the frontier ended with the completion of land settlement. The Iberian settlement of Latin America began in the sixteenth century, a century before the modern frontier process with its dynamic characteristics opened up. There the Iberian settlers brought the social, political, cultural, and economic patterns of the late Middle Ages to territories rather heavily populated by aboriginal peoples, most living in highly developed civilizations with (for them) strong political frameworks. Nevertheless, they were relatively easily overwhelmed by the Spanish and Portuguese and their military technology. The populations remained, so that the land was not empty in any respect, and the techniques used to establish Iberian hegemony had to take that into consideration. The Spanish and Portuguese did so in the medieval manner. The French ran into the same problem in all of their colonies, even in Algeria where they did succeed in planting a large population. Otherwise, the existing indigenous populations far outnumbered any efforts on the part of new settlers to transform those territories into frontiers. The British had all of English-speaking North America, the least inhabited islands of the Caribbean, Australia and New Zealand open for them to settle by the millions and true frontiers developed in all. With the exception of the Caribbean, all also set off chain reactions so that new frontier stages appeared as the old ones were closed (in each region of the larger countries). Only in Africa did the British get into the kind of situation that their European neighbors encountered everywhere. The British tried to bring in settlers, but the lands were not sufficiently vacant to overwhelm the indigenous inhabitants. At the same time it is true that wherever there were many indigenous inhabitants and a sufficient number of colonists, cross-racial contacts inevitably developed and at least some led to intermarriage and the biological mixing of races for the first time in thousands of years. This was particularly true in Latin America. It was even true in South Africa where the white settlers tried to practice a strict apartheid. Given the racist attitudes prevalent in Europe at the time, some of which were echoed by the indigenous peoples as well (for example, the Japanese to this day have a strong streak of racism against non-Japanese and against intermarriage of Japanese with non-Japanese, even other Asians). These ties were frowned on except where they were hierarchical; that is to say, where whites could mobilize indigenous peoples to be their servants or middlemen between them as rulers and the people over whom they ruled. Nevertheless, the stage was set by the end of the modern epoch, actually at the time of the strongest white racism, for postmodern patterns of cross-racial and national integration. In this connection it is difficult to overestimate the degree of racism that affected the modern world from the 1870s until the end of World War II. This was the period when "scientific" theories of racial superiority and inferiority were developed to distinguish between peoples within Europe as well as between Europeans and non-Europeans, when there was probably the least appreciation of cultural differences, and when prejudice moved from religious concerns, which in many cases had a certain basic legitimacy (for example, Spanish opposition to Aztec and Inca human sacrifice or British opposition to the suttee, that is to say, the burning alive of a man's widow upon his death, and racism which rejected a people simply because of their race, regardless of how they lived or how well they chose to accept Western norms). No doubt, what brought racism down was Nazism when the Nazis carried racism to its logical conclusion, namely, genocide and the effort to destroy so-called inferior races by murdering all of them. The world finally awakened to the evils of racist thinking and the way became open for a change of minds and hearts. 294

More than ever in the past, invention and the frontier went hand in hand. Indeed, the felicitous connection between science, technology, invention, and frontiersmanship led to the possibility of the frontier becoming a chain reaction and, once new lands were settled, for the frontier to continue by other means. That is indeed what happened, most particularly in the United States but in the other frontier countries as well. While invention could make less of a difference in the industrializing countries that did not go through the frontier experience, even here it could loosen up older restrictions and open the door to greater freedom, opportunity, and democracy, although it seems that just as frequently the opportunities that were opened only partially in the face of rather rigidly hierarchical societies led to fascism and totalitarianism as the preferred popular response. Here, the contrast between Germany and the United States or Russia and the United States could be very enlightening. Where neither an indigenous frontier or an indigenous inventiveness were to be found, a vacuum was created which those who reflected both, namely Europeans or who had access to inventiveness or to both came to fill. Colonialism was as much a matter of filling vacuums as it was a deliberately designed effort on the part of Europeans or their settler offspring. Indeed, colonialism was stimulated in part by the statism promoted after the Treaty of Westphalia by which every European state sought to become totally independent, totally homogeneous, and totally self-sufficient. The fact that none of these could be achieved, and in almost every case at least two of the three were contradictory, made no difference when those ideas were at their peak. So France, for example, sought to control territories with the raw materials needed to become self-sufficient abroad, while at the same time repressing and suppressing the indigenous minorities at home. Great Britain, ambivalent about modern statism, did not try to suppress indigenous minorities, only to make certain that the English ruled them. It sought markets abroad, and in the process found it necessary to conquer a good part of the world to guarantee those markets. Religion played a dual role in all of this. On the one hand, Christians, convinced of the superiority of Christianity and hence of Christian civilization, found in their Christianity powerful support for overseas colonization of both the frontier and the colonialist kind. The need to Christianize the pagans of the world also provided a strong support for those settlement and colonialist efforts and made even the brutal among them more respectable by giving them an alliance with the Church or various religious groups concerned about saving heathen souls. On the other hand, Christianity also provided the antidote in the sense that the cruelties of frontier settlement and colonialism were opposed by influential groups in the name of Christianity because of Christianity's moral principles. At first, the latter were often lost in the clamor and excitement of conquest, but in the end they won out, beginning with the American Revolution in the eighteenth century and culminating in the post-modern epoch, the subject of the next historical period. Religion was a powerful influence throughout the whole epoch, even as it was becoming increasingly privatized. The Treaty of Westphalia may have formally pushed it off of the agenda of interstate conflicts, but individual states still continued to support particular established religion or, even if not established churches, then Christianity as a whole. Slowly, other religions were accepted into the fold although the line against pagans and atheists remained firm and unbridgeable until after World War II. Even now their role raises problematic questions in most countries. The United States was the first country to extend itself beyond Christianity to accept what in the eighteenth century were felicitously called "Jews, Turks, and infidels," i.e., Jews who were obviously highly monotheistic but rejected the divinity of Jesus; Turks, a term generally used for Muslims at the time, who were also fully monotheistic but came from cultures very different from those of Christianity and therefore only followed behind Jews with whom Christians had first-hand contact in Europe and, for that matter, in the New World; and infidels, that is to say, non-believers, who presented a much more difficult problem in that, in the views of the time, people who were nonbelievers could not be expected to take oaths made before God seriously because they did not believe in God. Even after infidels were included, there was no provision for heathens. That was beyond the pale; that is to say, polytheism was in that sense worse than atheism. The strongest exponents of both positions were Reformed Protestants who took a very strong stand against those whom they believed to be sinners, but also took a very strong stand against immoral behavior on the part of those who considered themselves Christians. In a certain sense the Catholics were the most relaxed on these matters with Catholicism most experienced in accepting human weaknesses, including both human weakness in general and the weaknesses of Christian conquerors in 295

particular. Thus in Latin America the conquerors did commit great cruelties, while at that same time the Christian missionaries and clergy secured the integration of converted natives into the local societies, recognizing them as human beings with souls, deserving of minimal fairness. The Protestant colonists, on the other hand, were usually restrained in their cruelty but had little provision for recognizing natives who did not fully assimilate into their religiously informed culture. Throughout all of this, Calvinism was a powerful driving force in the promotion of both capitalism and democracy and should be examined from that perspective. At the same time, after the American Revolution the trend throughout the Western world was to separate church and state and keep religion as a private matter, to give state citizenship and state interest precedence over it, beginning a process of excluding religion from the public square. It was to have very significant consequences in the next period. Still, religion remained a powerful force in the lives of the world's peoples throughout the modern epoch and the process of privatization proceeded differentially in different countries and civilizations. The history of non-Western civilization in the modern epoch could no longer be treated separately from that of Western civilization except insofar as pockets remained untouched or minimally touched by the world trends. For example, the Plains Indians in the United States were much affected by the coming of the Europeans to North America long before they encountered them in person, in the sense that they were driven westward out of their lowland, prairie, and forest regions by Native Americans driven westward from the east coast by the pressure of the European settlers and they acquired horses from tribes that had been exposed to the Spaniards long before they saw any Spaniards. The Indian subcontinent, lacking any comprehensive governmental structure and divided into many princely states, was easily brought into the Western orbit by the British and, to a lesser extent, the French and the Portuguese. China, which did have a central government of reasonable strength at the beginning of the period, was more resistant and even tried at the end to fight the Western influences, the consequences of which were that the old Chinese empire collapsed in 1911 and was replaced by an unstable republicanism mixed with warlordism until the indigenous Communist takeover of the country in 1946-49. Japan, after initially allowing Westerners to enter the country at selected sites, both for purposes of trade and even allowed missionizing, made a turnabout and destroyed the Western outposts, becoming totally isolated from the West for several centuries until the Americans forced it to open up in the 1850s, after which it adopted Western modes and inventions, developed an imperialism of its own, and ultimately came into direct military conflict with the West beginning with the Russo-Japanese War and continuing in World War II. Africa, whose northern reaches had been part of the ancient world and whose southern tip was settled at the very beginning of the modern epoch, was the last continent to be freely penetrated by the West in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It had already been transformed by Westerners through the slave trade which attained massive proportions from the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries, changing the character if not the course of African civilizations. One of the most important developments in the modern epoch was the spread of democratic republicanism, what we refer to today simply as democracy. At the beginning of the epoch this took the form of challenging the divine right of kings. Royal absolutism was rendered obsolete and eliminated in relatively short order by the middle of the epoch. It was replaced by a republicanism that recognized rule by elites but increasingly empowered ordinary people to participate in the governing process in some manner. The opening of the process to all adults was not achieved until the very last generation of the epoch when women were granted the right to vote, but the direction was clear by the mid-nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, people began speaking about democracy rather than democratic republicanism and the democracy of which they spoke was increasingly liberal democracy; that is to say, the empowerment of the individual, the reduction of government restraints on individuals to achieve social goals, and the recognition of every individual's civil rights. The democratic persuasion still was confined to a minority of the countries and civilizations of the world, but it was the cutting-edge minority, many of whom were still in the process of democratizing, at least by today's standards. Many retained strong elements of the communal unity that they had inherited from premodern periods and in many cases democracy was simply integrated into that communalism to become a kind of communal democracy which recognized the primacy of the community or the dominant group in the community. 296

At the beginning of the modern epoch, the philosophers of democratic republicanism had developed the idea of civil society, namely, a political order framed by government but in which a substantial segment of societal life was in the private sphere, particularly in the economic and religious realms, and where collective activity was often undertaken by voluntary associations, public nongovernmental bodies through which people cooperated with one another voluntarily and thus eliminated the need for government action. The rise of statism and its later combination with socialism cut into the principles of civil society from the governmental side, while the rise of liberal democracy cut into the civil society idea from the perspective of the individual. The result was the decline of consciousness of the idea, although the democratic reality involved its continuation in practice to the point where even totalitarian polities that claimed to be democratic had to pay lip service to the elements in the civil society model, although, indeed, totalitarianism involved the preservation of the forms while taking over the contents. Political democracy became the goal of many peoples and became part of the anti-colonialist struggle, even as state involvement in previously private or public non-governmental spheres grew in response to the needs of an industrialized society or as socialism or welfare state liberalism spread. Indeed, many of the elements of both were made into "rights" to which every human being was "entitled." By the end of this period, two major struggles were going on in the world, one, a struggle between two modern forms of government democracy and totalitarianism for hegemony. At the same time, both were also struggling with each other for influence with traditional societies, most of which had strong authoritarian dimensions but were often seeking new ways as they modernized. Eighth Period: Toward Globalization (1945- ) After the end of World War II the world entered into what some have called a postmodern epoch, initially in response to the upheavals of the period from 1914 to 1945 including both World Wars and the Great Depression of the interwar period, the rise and spread of Communism, and the rise, spread, and defeat of Fascism. This period inaugurated a world significantly different from that of the modern epoch. First of all, the nation-state and the statism associated with it in the modern epoch began to be transformed through a new interdependence stemming from a new world order. Nowhere was this more so than in connection with the economy. The Great Depression had taught the leaders of the world that protective trade barriers only led toward worldwide catastrophe. Moreover, the economy itself became increasingly globalized. While the first 45 years of this period witnesses a struggle between the Communist world and the free world which was based on a combination of market capitalism and the welfare state, Communism and its partner, state socialism, which had proved to be so attractive during the first half of the twentieth century, were demonstrated to have clay feet economically (not to speak of politically and socially). Only those countries which judiciously combined capitalism and the welfare state emerged successful, economically and socially. In part this was due to the great good sense of the United States and its leadership who in the immediate postwar period, did not take full immediate advantage of its weakened allies or full revenge upon those it had vanquished during the war but rather assisted in their reconstruction, at the very least as a bulwark against Communism and Soviet imperialism. It was indeed touch and go for a while with the Community movement threatening to acquire power through elections in Western and Southern Europe. In the end, however, the economic miracles wrought by the countries benefitting from U.S. assistance made the difference. While the struggle continued for another four decades, in the end the Communist states were bankrupted and unable to meet the economic or political demands of their people and hence collapsed. The end of World War II brought with it the opening of the nuclear age with its threats of potential mass destruction. If global economics and the reorganization of the world to accommodate it made a long-term difference, nuclear weaponry made an even greater one in its immediate impact. The United States and shortly thereafter the Soviet Union as nuclear powers appreciated the destructive capacity of nuclear weapons and kept theirs under sufficient control even during a massive nuclear and conventional weapons arms race. The threat of nuclear weapons limited the hot wars of the period in a number of ways and kept the Cold War from erupting into a hot one no matter how angry the great powers were at one another. Economic need, combined with the need to prevent Europe from continuing with the curse of intracontinental wars, led to the establishment of the European Community, now the European Union, 297

in the 1950s. After an abortive attempt to establish a United States of Europe, the EC represented a more modest set of linkages not federal but confederal in character. "Sold" to the European public as a sophisticated set of trade treaties at first, it soon became apparent that the EC was more than that. After a "time of troubles" it emerged even stronger than it had begun and, with the adoption of the Single European Act and the Treaty of Maastricht, it became the first full-fledged postmodern confederation. Many other less institutionalized, less comprehensive multi-state relations developed in other parts of the world as well. The two great themes of this period were decolonization and globalization. The first was connected to the great decline of racism as a defining around the world (not just in the West, although the decline took place first and foremost in the West) while the second became the new defining view after triumph of democracy and capitalism over totalitarianism and communism. Both elements were direct consequences of the impact of World War II, even though signs of both had appeared even before. Anti-colonial movements were born first and actually were born in the West in the various colonialist countries where opponents of colonialism developed strong opposition to colonialist government policies. Indigenous opposition to colonialism from the colonies themselves beyond their initial military resistance to conquest emerged shortly thereafter. The United States, the most reluctant of the colonial powers, was the first to begin withdrawal or plans for withdrawal from their colonial possessions almost simultaneously with acquiring them in the Spanish-American War. Germany lost its colonies in World War I, but they were conquered by other colonialist powers, Japan and Great Britain. The success of the Japanese in World War II awakened the Asian peoples' sense that they could resist the powerful West and greatly strengthened anticolonialist movements there that had developed in the interwar period. Indeed, the Asian colonies were, with minor exceptions, the first to get their independence after the war. The success of the Asians stimulated African anti-colonialist movements, although Africa did not emancipate itself until the early 1960s. By that time, the European colonial powers, weakened by World War II and their recovery efforts, had lost interest in colonies, having discovered that trade rather than rule was a better bargain. Hence they even began to pressure those colonies that did not want independence, as in the Caribbean, to take it because the mother countries were no longer willing to support them. Most of the former colonies became independent states. A few became associated states that voluntarily continued their ties with their former rulers. Still others developed federacy arrangements as in the case of the United States and Puerto Rico whereby they obtained great internal autonomy but remained linked to the former mother country but as a federated unit tied to it. By the end of the 1980s, Western colonialism was essentially over. The last bastion of colonialism to fall was the Russian empire. Despite the Soviet effort to give their empire a different appearance, it was just that. The Russians had colonized Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, central Asia in the eighteenth and nineteenth, and Eastern Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth. All of that was swept away with the Eastern European states' revolt against Communism and the collapse of the USSR. The Eastern European and Baltic states became independent once again, while the fifteen Russian republics each became independent within a loose confederal arrangement. The collapse of the Soviet empire brought an end to the Cold War, the dominant feature of the first generation of the post-modern epoch. The fear of nuclear war kept the Cold War "cold" rather than becoming "hot," although in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan the world came close because one side or the other was directly involved. Elsewhere, regional or internal hot wars were fought by the surrogates of the two great powers, the United States and the USSR. The Cold War was essentially a battle of diplomatic maneuver, military threat, and economic manipulation. In all of these the West had the advantage because of the power of the United States and the ability of American aid to strengthen the power of its allies and to enable them to become self-generating economically. The Soviets were literally driven into bankruptcy and a last ditch effort to save the USSR through liberalization came too late. With the end of the Cold War, globalization could begin to flower. The first signs of globalization had already appeared in the late nineteenth century but were so dominated by statism, both normatively and as a reality, that they were considered signs of interstate cooperation, almost entirely in the form of posts and telecommunications. While more such developments occurred after World War I within 298

the context of the League of Nations or parallel to it, it was really not until the end of World War II that globalization began to emerge as a force in its own right. Initially, globalization reflected the efforts of the United States and its allies to prevent a new depression after wartime demobilization, and so in 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, agreements were put into place to provide for international monetary and trade stability. In 1945 the United Nations was founded and while it did not become what its founders hoped, it did serve as a forum for certain kinds of actions and as a link for international technical services that supported globalization. In the 1950s and 1960s new devices were developed to supplement the original ones, primarily in the economic and secondarily in the social fields. By the 1980s most states were at least in regional economic arrangements and the vast majority were in worldwide ones as well. While all were technically treaties, they were the kind of treaties that despite formal rights of withdrawal, no state could afford to. National sovereignty had been curbed for even the most powerful nations, if only because no nation could take the risk of having a nuclear war or going it alone economically. The difference between politically sovereign states and the constituent states of federations was diminishing to, in effect, establish a system in which 180 formally politically sovereign states and twice that number of federated states were merging into one international system. While this did not seem to be leading to some kind of world government, at least not immediately, it did generate a worldwide framework of interconnections and linkages that were being constitutionalized since they could not be dissolved. When linked together, these two phenomena had even more significant consequences. In the aftermath of World War II when the Nazis brought racism to genocide, there was a revulsion against racial discrimination. At least formally, the barriers between the races began to fall, both internally, as between whites and non-whites in the United States, and globally. Over the next fifty years a major reevaluation of the races occurred around the world. While still to some extent based on stereotypes, the assumption that whites were better disappeared in most quarters. The peoples of East Asia were recognized as a powerful new force on the world scene and afforded great respect for their achievements. The other colored races also were accorded new respect. Moreover, cultures began to mix. African and most especially Afro-American cultural patterns entered the mainstream of popular culture and indeed began to mold it. Opportunities were opened to people of every race, if not always entirely equally, with far greater equity than ever before, and representative figures from every race were able to rise to the very top in their respective fields. The forms of globalization assured that this would be the case in international political affairs, while efforts to overcome prior racism made it possible for non-whites to rise in the economic spheres in most of the richer countries of the world where they were present. With the transformation of the South African apartheid regime in the early 1990s, the last formally racist polity, with the possible exception of Japan, ceased to exist. Racial discrimination had become a matter of habit and custom wherever it continued to exist and not a matter of public policy. What of the major themes that we have followed through human history? Migration, which had become such a major element in the modern epoch, continued to play a major role in the world but took on new forms as a result of globalization. No longer a matter of "one shot" movements from rural to urban areas or from one country to another in the search for opportunity, migration now became a continuing process of movement from place to place and across borders. Here, too, the United States was the pioneer. It seems that people who had moved from the Old World to the New, having severed their old ties so completely, were more receptive to continuing to migrate in search of opportunity if it seemed to be necessary. This they communicated to their children and children's children, so Americans became a migrating people within the United States, from east to west, from south to north, and then from north to south and wherever opportunity seemed to present itself. It became increasingly unusual to find children living near their parents and the U.S. Census showed that the average American changed his or her residence at no more than five year intervals. Of course these averages could be misleading and there are people who stay in their same residences or neighborhoods for most or all of their lives, but the pattern was clear. It took longer for this pattern to begin to develop in Old World settings where permanence of residence was the norm, but it began to happen through metropolitanization whereby people thought of themselves as not moving out of their area but simply looking for better housing. It spread to include transborder commuting for job opportunities and, as developed countries began to need people 299

to work in specialized occupations or in less desirable jobs, "guest workers" began to move from the poorer countries to the richer, presumably not to migrate permanently but to take advantage of employment opportunities. Moreover, the globalization of commerce and industry meant that "colonies" of people from the developed countries began to settle in different parts of the world to conduct the business of their firms. In short, the new global economy brought with it a new kind of trans-border migration and settlement. Military necessity added to this new migrational pattern as the major powers, particularly the West, established military bases around the world during the Cold War. In many places these migrations were tied to the twentieth century frontier stages. Between the world wars, the urban-industrial frontier gave birth in turn to a third frontier stage, one based upon the new technologies of electronic communication, the internal combustion engine, the airplane, synthetics, and petro-chemicals. These new technologies transformed every aspect of life and turned urbanization into metropolitanization. This third frontier stage generated a third settlement of the United States, this time in metropolitan regions from coast to coast, involving a mass migration of tens of millions of Americans in search of opportunity on the suburban frontier. The metropolitan-technological frontier emerged in full strength after World War II in North America, South Africa, Australia, and somewhat later in Israel. The metropolitan frontier generated conditions that stimulated and required the new-style migration and made it possible. These migrations were immense. Tens of millions of people moved onto the metropolitan frontier either from adjacent older urban areas or from more distant rural ones. The metropolitan frontier was not just a matter of moving to new places of residence, but transformation of patterns of work, settlement, and society. The introduction of commuting principally through private transportation and especially the automobile, the great separation between residence and place of work, the development of technologically sophisticated industries and service industries transformed manufacturing workers and developed a much larger and stronger white collar population. Greater affluence led to new standards of living and, in time, made possible the transformation of the family in its nuclear form, as it had become known in the modern epoch, into a more casual set of relationships and less intergenerational in character. The new affluence weakened the power of religion in the sphere of personal behavior. By generating more heterogeneous communities, it pushed religion further out of the public sphere and into the private. Public enforcement of a public moral standard declined as the combination of heterogeneity and new definitions of democracy led to greater demands for individual freedom of choice in a wide variety of areas previously considered necessary to the maintenance of public order. The technological component of the metropolitan-technological frontier saw transformations from the first-stage industries of the industrial revolution to second- or third-stage industries - automotive, telecommunications, plastics and synthetics, petrochemical, and more sophisticated processing for older industries, aviation, to name only a few. It was estimated already in the 1950s that over 60 percent of the employment opportunities available at that time did not exist for the fathers of those of employment age because the jobs did not exist. Again, this provided for increased opportunities and, at least for some, substantially increased mobility. Higher education became more common and at least high school education was needed for occupational success in most jobs. If the United States raced ahead of the pack in all of these phenomena, the other developed nations soon caught up, making obsolete earlier systems of labor training and apprenticeship. It was still possible to see a frontier line separating the metropolitan frontier and other parts of the country, only now the line was at 500 people per square mile and usually circled around older cities that were at the core of the metropolitan regions. At a certain point in the frontier's advance, the locus of employment, commerce and industry shifted from the old central city to the new suburban fringe and commuting patterns changed from being spokes toward a common center to one of leading in every direction. Not long after that change in the basic metropolitan pattern took place, the metropolitan frontier came to a close. It was not that the suburban areas did not continue to expand, only that the expansion had become routine and the only frontier-like characteristics were those that adhered to a particular local area where growth was transforming the style of life. Although the closure of the metropolitan frontier coincided with the rebellions of the late 1960s or their aftermath, in the United States it gave rise to a strong "limits of growth" movement of environmentalists who argued that we had to abandon our frontier attitudes and settle down to a world with less development. The truth is that a fourth frontier stage opened, first in North America and then in the other frontier societies. As the first post-World 300

War II generation came to an end in the mid-1970s the third stage of the American frontier no longer seemed to be compelling. At the same time, despite the "limits of growth" rhetoric, there was every sign that a fourth stage was beginning - a citybelt-cybernetic frontier generated by the metropolitantechnological frontier just as the latter had been generated by its predecessor. The cybernetic revolution had begun with the invention of first computers in the late 1940s, but did not really begin to transform society down to the popular level until the 1970s. One of the transformations they wrought was to make it possible for people to live outside of metropolitan areas, either in what had come to be called exurbia or in rural areas that were urbanized as small towns. These rurban settlements of citybelts offered a whole new way of life which was soon further engulfed by the progress of cybernetics and space exploration to become what began to be called "cyberspace" involving life on the Internet or at least via the computer networks. This new way of living tied in well with globalization on the macro level by offering a micro level equivalent for ordinary people as well as for the world's leadership. In advanced developed societies, this even led to a change in the class structure, replacing the old hierarchical structure with a new, more egalitarian, one, on one hand, but more separated, on the other. It consists of the governing classes, those who are involved at all levels and all positions of governing their globalized society and its components; the talking classes, those who led by communicating and making more communication possible; the service classes, who provided services rather than goods for the global society; the entrepreneurial classes, whose initiatives produced the new wealth that society needed; the working class, which held the more traditional jobs that had been generated by older frontiers; and a growing underclass of people who were not suited or could not be trained to find any useful place for themselves on the new frontier and who became the source of the frontier's most visible problems. Just as the rural-land frontier gave birth to the urban-industrial frontier, it, in turn, gave birth to the metropolitan-technological frontier. In the postmodern epoch, the metropolitan-technological frontier has given birth to the rurban-cybernetic frontier which is the latest stage in the chain reaction. Today different countries are situated on different points of this chain reaction, principally animated by one or another of the four frontier stages, although more than one may exist simultaneously within a particular country. On the other hand, some countries have moved from the first frontier stage to the second or even the third and then lost the characteristics of a frontier. Still, the likelihood is that if the chain reaction is initiated, it will continue at least into the fourth stage. While the full frontier conditions described here occurred only in the handful of frontier societies, increasingly if not from the beginning they occurred to immigrants from all parts of the world who settled in those frontier societies. The United States, for example, began principally with northern Europeans and Africans, but in time peoples came from all parts of Europe and then in our own times from all parts of the world. Today, Asians are as likely to be taking advantage of the new frontier as anyone else. Indeed, if one projects the settlement of Asians on the map of the United States to see where they are concentrated, it is quickly evident that the major concentration of Asians is either on the West Coast, the first point of arrival in the United States, or in college towns, all of which are centers of current frontier activities because of the very importance of higher education in the frontier process. In the Old World, while the frontier did not have the kind of impact that it did in the New, consequences or "fallout" from the cutting edge of each frontier had an impact on them as well. At first that impact was merely a matter of modernization, the adaptation to the contemporary situation of the time. With globalization, it is now more than that and may actually have accelerated to the point where it is much closer to a frontier experience. When every African village has one or more radios and Indian villagers can acquire family television sets, in effect, normal space has been eliminated in favor of cyberspace and people at least become witnesses to some frontier phenomena, if not direct participants in the frontier. Thus, the impact upon them is greater than the impact of the urbanindustrial frontier on Europe of the nineteenth century when that continent was undergoing modernization. Meanwhile, a new frontier stage is forming in space. Part of it will be a continuation of cyberspace which includes the "settlement" and development of what we might call inner space. Beyond that is outer space and interplanetary activity, which may be, historically speaking, just around the corner. 301

Invention has become even more important than in the past because with the land frontier ended, inventions have opened and formed the new frontier stages. Moreover, invention has become more sophisticated, no longer involving the mythic picture of a single figure inventing in his garage but teams of people in universities, in great corporate laboratories such as Bell Labs and IBM, or in the Silicon Valleys of the world. Invention is still primarily concentrated in the West, but the East has begun to be able to take inventions and improve on them - Japan, for example. Other parts of East Asia are beginning to do the same. While each frontier has continued to manifest itself on the land, by the very nature of things it has been driven by inventions that become ever more transformatory to the point where we now have to worry about the impact of inventions that erase the line between reality and fantasy which cannot be erased in real life, despite the illusions that are now immediately and overwhelmingly available to more and more of the world's population through communications and cybernetic technology. Internet may make communication instantaneous, which does have its impact, but it does not enable people to share real experiences in a real way. Still, the fact that this has happened makes invention central to the redefinition of reality. As the impact of invention has become more concentrated, the impact of religion seems to have become more diffused. Since it is still as true as ever that every individual needs to believe in something, the religious impulse remains as powerful as ever, but the increasing complexity and "sophistication" of the world has led that impulse down new and, at times, strange paths. In the modern epoch, ideologies - of utopian reform, of total reconstruction, of racism, or whatever - became secular religions for millions of people. The terrible consequences of that particular perversion of faith were equal to the consequences of the religious wars of immediate premodern times that were brought on by conflicts between traditional religions in Europe. Just as those religions suffered rejection as a result, the ideologies collapsed during the first fifty years of the postmodern epoch. While some of their former adherents found their way back to traditional religion, many joined with those who had abandoned or weakened their ties to traditional religion to, in effect, return to paganism, that is, a belief in material things. While they no longer worship idols and only a few have actually turned to a belief in pagan gods, their effective worship of material success and goods without any religious restraints has turned them into pagans. On the other hand, after the crisis of belief and commitment to traditional religions in the last century of the modern epoch, when those traditional religions had to confront the challenges of modern science, there has been a religious revival in many quarters. Most frequently, it seems, this has taken the form of a turn to religious fundamentalism; that is to say, a rejection of the ideas and outlook of modernity (though not a rejection of its technology or material improvements) in an effort to return to "the old-time religion." Each of the world's cultures has found a fundamentalism appropriate to it. For example, among Protestants it is a fundamentalism of individuals being "born again" and finding salvation as individuals. For Catholics, in many cases it is a return to or an effort to hold on to traditional rituals, Latin, or the revival of older church customs such as speaking in tongues. For Muslims, it is a virulent form of anti-Westernism. For Jews it is a return to an ultra-strict observance of Jewish law. For Buddhists it often takes the form of identification with one of the more demanding Buddhist sects. For a much smaller minority in all parts of the world, the return to religion has sought to combine religious sensibility and commitment with the best aspects of contemporary society. The degree of religiosity varies from country to country and civilization to civilization, with the United States in the lead in the West, followed by Israel and Switzerland. Only a minority is falling away from religious standards in the Muslim world. Conversions to Christianity and especially Islam continue in black Africa, with a resulting seriousness about religion notably lacking in other places, and a continuation of normal religious indifference in East Asia, except in the matter of folk religion. In the brief time of the postmodern period that we have already encountered, issues of politics and government have revolved around democracy and democratization, meaning, in particular, greater individual freedom, human rights, the elimination of governmental enforcement of social restraints, and basic political participation, e.g., voting, for all adults. The last gasp of the totalitarian challenge came with the Communist effort to seize power throughout the world, which was beaten back by the Free World in the Cold War. While the Free World has its own deficiencies and flaws, there was no question that it represented the better of the two choices. 302

The people who experienced both made their choice abundantly clear by successfully revolting against Communism in the period between 1989 and 1992. They were so successful that the Soviet Union itself collapsed. The democracy that was favored throughout the world was some variant of liberal democracy geared to the freeing of individuals from externally imposed restraints, their empowerment in some way, and the protection of their human rights. The older communal democracy continued to retreat in the sense that, when given a choice, most people seemed to reject the constraints needed to maintain community that communal democracy required unless they were motivated by religious or very strong ethnic considerations. Still, the resurgence of religion and especially ethnicity meant that communal democracy continued to survive and to seek new ways of expression in keeping with the new demands for individual rights and liberties. The great contribution of the revolt against Communism in Eastern Europe was the revival and restoration of the idea of civil society, a founding idea of the modern epoch that is being used again 300 years later as a founding idea of the postmodern epoch. These democratic elements not only were manifested in country after country but began to be built in to the new globalized system as well which added human rights protections to its agenda.

Documentarul Nr. 2
NOT Documentarul de mai jos reproduce cteva fragmente din rscolitorul crez pedagogic al lui John Dewey creatorul conceptului de curriculum educaional i cel mai mare dintre gnditorii americani care s-au aplecat asupra problematicii educaiei. Concepiile sale despre rolul experienei n formarea oamenilor i despre rolul educaiei n costruirea i progresul societii au contribuit decisiv la transformarea SUA n cea mai prosper i mai avansat aralumii contemporane. Studiind crezul lui Dewey, cursanii vor contientiza deplin nu doar importana educaiei ci i modul responsabil i tiinific n care ea ttrebuie conceput, organoizati condus pe principii pedagogice autentice.

My Pedagogic Creed by John Dewey School Journal vol. 54 (January 1897), pp. 77-80
ARTICLE ONE. WHAT EDUCATION IS I believe that all education proceeds by the participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race. This process begins unconsciously almost at birth, and is continually shaping the individual's powers, saturating his consciousness, forming his habits, training his ideas, and arousing his feelings and emotions. Through this unconscious education the individual gradually comes to share in the intellectual and moral resources which humanity has succeeded in getting together. He becomes an inheritor of the funded capital of civilization. The most formal and technical education in the world cannot safely depart from this general process. It can only organize it; or differentiate it in some particular direction. I believe that the only true education comes through the stimulation of the child's powers by the demands of the social situations in which he finds himself. Through these demands he is stimulated to act as a member of a unity, to emerge from his original narrowness of action and feeling and to conceive of himself from the standpoint of the welfare of the group to which he belongs. Through the responses which others make to his own activities he comes to know what these mean in social terms. The value which they have is reflected back into them. For instance, through the response which is made to the child's instinctive babblings the child comes to know what those babblings mean; they are transformed into articulate language and thus the child is introduced into the consolidated wealth of ideas and emotions which are now summed up in language. I believe that this educational process has two sides - one psychological and one sociological; and that neither can be subordinated to the other or neglected without evil results following. Of these two sides, the psychological is the basis. The child's own instincts and powers furnish the material and give the starting point for all education. Save as the efforts of the educator connect with some activity which the child is carrying on of his own initiative independent of the educator, education becomes reduced 303

to a pressure from without. It may, indeed, give certain external results but cannot truly be called educative. Without insight into the psychological structure and activities of the individual, the educative process will, therefore, be haphazard and arbitrary. If it chances to coincide with the child's activity it will get a leverage; if it does not, it will result in friction, or disintegration, or arrest of the child nature. I believe that knowledge of social conditions, of the present state of civilization, is necessary in order properly to interpret the child's powers. The child has his own instincts and tendencies, but we do not know what these mean until we can translate them into their social equivalents. We must be able to carry them back into a social past and see them as the inheritance of previous race activities. We must also be able to project them into the future to see what their outcome and end will be. In the illustration just used, it is the ability to see in the child's babblings the promise and potency of a future social intercourse and conversation which enables one to deal in the proper way with that instinct. I believe that the psychological and social sides are organically related and that education cannot be regarded as a compromise between the two, or a superimposition of one upon the other. We are told that the psychological definition of education is barren and formal - that it gives us only the idea of a development of all the mental powers without giving us any idea of the use to which these powers are put. On the other hand, it is urged that the social definition of education, as getting adjusted to civilization, makes of it a forced and external process, and results in subordinating the freedom of the individual to a preconceived social and political status. I believe each of these objections is true when urged against one side isolated from the other. In order to know what a power really is we must know what its end, use, or function is; and this we cannot know save as we conceive of the individual as active in social relationships. But, on the other hand, the only possible adjustment which we can give to the child under existing conditions, is that which arises through putting him in complete possession of all his powers. With the advent of democracy and modern industrial conditions, it is impossible to foretell definitely just what civilization will be twenty years from now. Hence it is impossible to prepare the child for any precise set of conditions. To prepare him for the future life means to give him command of himself; it means so to train him that he will have the full and ready use of all his capacities; that his eye and ear and hand may be tools ready to command, that his judgment may be capable of grasping the conditions under which it has to work, and the executive forces be trained to act economically and efficiently. It is impossible to reach this sort of adjustment save as constant regard is had to the individual's own powers, tastes, and interests say, that is, as education is continually converted into psychological terms. In sum, I believe that the individual who is to be educated is a social individual and that society is an organic union of individuals. If we eliminate the social factor from the child we are left only with an abstraction; if we eliminate the individual factor from society, we are left only with an inert and lifeless mass. Education, therefore, must begin with a psychological insight into the child's capacities, interests, and habits. It must be controlled at every point by reference to these same considerations. These powers, interests, and habits must be continually interpreted - we must know what they mean. They must be translated into terms of their social equivalents - into terms of what they are capable of in the way of social service. ARTICLE TWO. WHAT THE SCHOOL IS I believe that the school is primarily a social institution. Education being a social process, the school is simply that form of community life in which all those agencies are concentrated that will be most effective in bringing the child to share in the inherited resources of the race, and to use his own powers for social ends. I believe that education, therefore, is a process of living and not a preparation for future living. I believe that the school must represent present life - life as real and vital to the child as that which he carries on in the home, in the neighborhood, or on the play-ground. I believe that education which does not occur through forms of life, forms that are worth living for their own sake, is always a poor substitute for the genuine reality and tends to cramp and to deaden. I believe that the school, as an institution, should simplify existing social life; should reduce it, as it were, to an embryonic form. Existing life is so complex that the child cannot be brought into contact with it without either confusion or distraction; he is either overwhelmed by multiplicity of activities which are going on, so that he loses his own power of orderly reaction, or he is so stimulated by these 304

various activities that his powers are prematurely called into play and he becomes either unduly specialized or else disintegrated. I believe that, as such simplified social life, the school life should grow gradually out of the home life; that it should take up and continue the activities with which the child is already familiar in the home. I believe that it should exhibit these activities to the child, and reproduce them in such ways that the child will gradually learn the meaning of them, and be capable of playing his own part in relation to them. I believe that this is a psychological necessity, because it is the only way of securing continuity in the child's growth, the only way of giving a background of past experience to the new ideas given in school. I believe it is also a social necessity because the home is the form of social life in which the child has been nurtured and in connection with which he has had his moral training. It is the business of the school to deepen and extend his sense of the values bound up in his home life. I believe that much of present education fails because it neglects this fundamental principle of the school as a form of community life. It conceives the school as a place where certain information is to be given, where certain lessons are to be learned, or where certain habits are to be formed. The value of these is conceived as lying largely in the remote future; the child must do these things for the sake of something else he is to do; they are mere preparation. As a result they do not become a part of the life experience of the child and so are not truly educative. I believe that moral education centres about this conception of the school as a mode of social life, that the best and deepest moral training is precisely that which one gets through having to enter into proper relations with others in a unity of work and thought. The present educational systems, so far as they destroy or neglect this unity, render it difficult or impossible to get any genuine, regular moral training. I believe that the child should be stimulated and controlled in his work through the life of the community. I believe that under existing conditions far too much of the stimulus and control proceeds from the teacher, because of neglect of the idea of the school as a form of social life. I believe that the teacher's place and work in the school is to be interpreted from this same basis. The teacher is not in the school to impose certain ideas or to form certain habits in the child, but is there as a member of the community to select the influences which shall affect the child and to assist him in properly responding to these influences. I believe that the discipline of the school should proceed from the life of the school as a whole and not directly from the teacher. I believe that the teacher's business is simply to determine on the basis of larger experience and riper wisdom, how the discipline of life shall come to the child. I believe that all questions of the grading of the child and his promotion should be determined by reference to the same standard. Examinations are of use only so far as they test the child's fitness for social life and reveal the place in which he can be of most service and where he can receive the most help. ARTICLE THREE. THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF EDUCATION I believe that the social life of the child is the basis of concentration, or correlation, in all his training or growth. The social life gives the unconscious unity and the background of all his efforts and of all his attainments. I believe that the subject-matter of the school curriculum should mark a gradual differentiation out of the primitive unconscious unity of social life. I believe that we violate the child's nature and render difficult the best ethical results, by introducing the child too abruptly to a number of special studies, of reading, writing, geography, etc., out of relation to this social life. I believe, therefore, that the true centre of correlation of the school subjects is not science, nor literature, nor history, nor geography, but the child's own social activities. I believe that education cannot be unified in the study of science, or so-called nature study, because apart from human activity, nature itself is not a unity; nature in itself is a number of diverse objects in 305

space and time, and to attempt to make it the centre of work by itself, is to introduce a principle of radiation rather than one of concentration. I believe that literature is the reflex expression and interpretation of social experience; that hence it must follow upon and not precede such experience. It, therefore, cannot be made the basis, although it may be made the summary of unification. I believe once more that history is of educative value in so far as it presents phases of social life and growth. It must be controlled by reference to social life. When taken simply as history it is thrown into the distant past and becomes dead and inert. Taken as the record of man's social life and progress it becomes full of meaning. I believe, however, that it cannot be so taken excepting as the child is also introduced directly into social life. I believe accordingly that the primary basis of education is in the child's powers at work along the same general constructive lines as those which have brought civilization into being. I believe that the only way to make the child conscious of his social heritage is to enable him to perform those fundamental types of activity which makes civilization what it is. I believe, therefore, in the so-called expressive or constructive activities as the centre of correlation. I believe that this gives the standard for the place of cooking, sewing, manual training, etc., in the school. I believe that they are not special studies which are to be introduced over and above a lot of others in the way of relaxation or relief, or as additional accomplishments. I believe rather that they represent, as types, fundamental forms of social activity; and that it is possible and desirable that the child's introduction into the more formal subjects of the curriculum be through the medium of these activities. I believe that the study of science is educational in so far as it brings out the materials and processes which make social life what it is. I believe that one of the greatest difficulties in the present teaching of science is that the material is presented in purely objective form, or is treated as a new peculiar kind of experience which the child can add to that which he has already had. In reality, science is of value because it gives the ability to interpret and control the experience already had. It should be introduced, not as so much new subjectmatter, but as showing the factors already involved in previous experience and as furnishing tools by which that experience can be more easily and effectively regulated. I believe that at present we lose much of the value of literature and language studies because of our elimination of the social element. Language is almost always treated in the books of pedagogy simply as the expression of thought. It is true that language is a logical instrument, but it is fundamentally and primarily a social instrument. Language is the device for communication; it is the tool through which one individual comes to share the ideas and feelings of others. When treated simply as a way of getting individual information, or as a means of showing off what one has learned, it loses its social motive and end. I believe that there is, therefore, no succession of studies in the ideal school curriculum. If education is life, all life has, from the outset, a scientific aspect; an aspect of art and culture and an aspect of communication. It cannot, therefore, be true that the proper studies for one grade are mere reading and writing, and that at a later grade, reading, or literature, or science, may be introduced. The progress is not in the succession of studies but in the development of new attitudes towards, and new interests in, experience. I believe finally, that education must be conceived as a continuing reconstruction of experience; that the process and the goal of education are one and the same thing. I believe that to set up any end outside of education, as furnishing its goal and standard, is to deprive the educational process of much of its meaning and tends to make us rely upon false and external stimuli in dealing with the child. ARTICLE FOUR. THE NATURE OF METHOD I believe that the question of method is ultimately reducible to the question of the order of development of the child's powers and interests. The law for presenting and treating material is the law implicit within the child's own nature. Because this is so I believe the following statements are of supreme importance as determining the spirit in which education is carried on:

306

1. I believe that the active side precedes the passive in the development of the child nature; that expression comes before conscious impression; that the muscular development precedes the sensory; that movements come before conscious sensations; I believe that consciousness is essentially motor or impulsive; that conscious states tend to project themselves in action. I believe that the neglect of this principle is the cause of a large part of the waste of time and strength in school work. The child is thrown into a passive, receptive or absorbing attitude. The conditions are such that he is not permitted to follow the law of his nature; the result is friction and waste. I believe that ideas (intellectual and rational processes) also result from action and devolve for the sake of the better control of action. What we term reason is primarily the law of orderly or effective action. To attempt to develop the reasoning powers, the powers of judgment, without reference to the selection and arrangement of means in action, is the fundamental fallacy in our present methods of dealing with this matter. As a result we present the child with arbitrary symbols. Symbols are a necessity in mental development, but they have their place as tools for economizing effort; presented by themselves they are a mass of meaningless and arbitrary ideas imposed from without. 2. I believe that the image is the great instrument of instruction. What a child gets out of any subject presented to him is simply the images which he himself forms with regard to it. I believe that if nine-tenths of the energy at present directed towards making the child learn certain things, were spent in seeing to it that the child was forming proper images, the work of instruction would be indefinitely facilitated. I believe that much of the time and attention now given to the preparation and presentation of lessons might be more wisely and profitably expended in training the child's power of imagery and in seeing to it that he was continually forming definite, vivid, and growing images of the various subjects with which he comes in contact in his experience. 3. I believe that interests are the signs and symptoms of growing power. I believe that they represent dawning capacities. Accordingly the constant and careful observation of interests is of the utmost importance for the educator. I believe that these interests are to be observed as showing the state of development which the child has reached. I believe that the prophesy the stage upon which he is about to enter. I believe that only through the continual and sympathetic observation of childhood's interests can the adult enter into the child's life and see what it is ready for, and upon what material it could work most readily and fruitfully. I believe that these interests are neither to be humored nor repressed. To repress interest is to substitute the adult for the child, and so to weaken intellectual curiosity and alertness, to suppress initiative, and to deaden interest. To humor the interests is to substitute the transient for the permanent. The interest is always the sign of some power below; the important thing is to discover this power. To humor the interest is to fail to penetrate below the surface and its sure result is to substitute caprice and whim for genuine interest. 4. I believe that the emotions are the reflex of actions. I believe that to endeavor to stimulate or arouse the emotions apart from their corresponding activities, is to introduce an unhealthy and morbid state of mind. I believe that if we can only secure right habits of action and thought, with reference to the good, the true, and the beautiful, the emotions will for the most part take care of themselves. I believe that next to deadness and dullness, formalism and routine, our education is threatened with no greater evil than sentimentalism. I believe that this sentimentalism is the necessary result of the attempt to divorce feeling from action. ARTICLE FIVE. THE SCHOOL AND SOCIAL PROGRESS I believe that education is the fundamental method of social progress and reform. I believe that all reforms which rest simply upon the enactment of law, or the threatening of certain penalties, or upon changes in mechanical or outward arrangements, are transitory and futile. 307

I believe that education is a regulation of the process of coming to share in the social consciousness; and that the adjustment of individual activity on the basis of this social consciousness is the only sure method of social reconstruction. I believe that this conception has due regard for both the individualistic and socialistic ideals. It is duly individual because it recognizes the formation of a certain character as the only genuine basis of right living. It is socialistic because it recognizes that this right character is not to be formed by merely individual precept, example, or exhortation, but rather by the influence of a certain form of institutional or community life upon the individual, and that the social organism through the school, as its organ, may determine ethical results. I believe that in the ideal school we have the reconciliation of the individualistic and the institutional ideals. I believe that the community's duty to education is, therefore, its paramount moral duty. By law and punishment, by social agitation and discussion, society can regulate and form itself in a more or less haphazard and chance way. But through education society can formulate its own purposes, can organize its own means and resources, and thus shape itself with definiteness and economy in the direction in which it wishes to move. I believe that when society once recognizes the possibilities in this direction, and the obligations which these possibilities impose, it is impossible to conceive of the resources of time, attention, and money which will be put at the disposal of the educator. I believe it is the business of every one interested in education to insist upon the school as the primary and most effective instrument of social progress and reform in order that society may be awakened to realize what the school stands for, and aroused to the necessity of endowing the educator with sufficient equipment properly to perform his task. I believe that education thus conceived marks the most perfect and intimate union of science and art conceivable in human experience. I believe that the art of thus giving shape to human powers and adapting them to social service, is the supreme art; one calling into its service the best of artists; that no insight, sympathy, tact, executive power is too great for such service. I believe that with the growth of psychological science, giving added insight into individual structure and laws of growth; and with growth of social science, adding to our knowledge of the right organization of individuals, all scientific resources can be utilized for the purposes of education. I believe that when science and art thus join hands the most commanding motive for human action will be reached; the most genuine springs of human conduct aroused and the best service that human nature is capable of guaranteed. I believe, finally, that the teacher is engaged, not simply in the training of individuals, but in the formation of the proper social life. I believe that every teacher should realize the dignity of his calling; that he is a social servant set apart for the maintenance of proper social order and the securing of the right social growth. I believe that in this way the teacher always is the prophet of the true God and the usherer in of the true kingdom of God.

Documentarul Nr.3
NOT . Studiind acest documentar cursanii vor putea s neleag mai exact n ce a constat ruptura ideatic i practic dintre curriculumul modern i gndirea pedagogic postmodernist care a avut loc la debutul anilor 90 ai secolului XX. Cel mai important ctig este acela de a nltura o confuzie grav care, din pcate i-a fcut loc i n coala romneasc : cea dintre nondirectivism curent pedagogic ce s-a manifestat la nceputul secolului al XX-le i postmodernism micare pedagogic aprut la sfritul secolului al XX-lea. A le diferenia net esteabsolut necesar n practic.

curentul nondirectivist a fost, n esen, o pledoarie neorousseauist pentru natur i pentru abandonarea copilului n natur, pentru neintervenia educatorului n educaie, pentru laisezfaire i libertinaj colar; acestea au dat natere n practic unor aberaii pedagogice periculoase precum unele dintre free schools; 308

paradigma postmodernist este, esenialmente o pledoarie contestatar pentru cultur i pentru formarea multidimensional a omului, pentru evitarea unidimensionalizrii omului prin specializare ngust. Articolul de mai jos are meritul de fi fost scris de una dintre cele mai proieminente i mai obiective perrsonaliti ale postmodernismului pedagogic. Dar este numai o voce. S nu uitm ns c William Pinar a caracterizat dezbaterile curriculare postmoderniste ca reprezentnd o cacophony of voices. Curriculum change and the postmodern world: is the school curriculum-reform movement an anachronism? DOUNE MACDONALD Doune Macdonald is in the School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia. She teaches health and physical education curriculum studies. Her most recent publications are in the fields of teacher education, curriculum reform, and gender equity. When visiting friends and watching the activity in their chookhouse,1 I was reminded of the chaos currently occurring in the light of a proposed curriculum change in Australian schools (Lingard et al. 2000). With no disrespect to educators or teachers in the schools, or to the curriculum theorists who informed the innovation, it seemed that this particular curriculum innovation was being lobbed onto schools, whereupon the principal, that is the rooster, and teachers, that is the chickens, went into a flurry of activity. However, like the modernist schooling system in which entrenched knowledge and practices often override the innovative ideal (Eisner 2000), the chookhouse quickly returned to its normal routine. Despite the extensive knowledge and experience that curricularists seemingly have with respect to implementing meaningful curriculum change, the goals and processes of change are narrowly proscribed by existing structures, resources and traditions, with the result that schools always fall short of meeting the needs of young people and their communities. Furthermore, in response to the 'crisis' in schooling and curriculum reform, recent debates surrounding curriculum studies, theorizing and reform have been highly critical, using such descriptors as 'disarray', 'blind', 'floundering', 'failure' and 'schism' (Reid 1998, Hlebowitsh 1999, McGinn 1999, Westbury 1999). Some (e.g. Wraga 1999) assert that curriculum is fraught with oppositional discourses, the fragmentation of interests and the separation of concerns into theory and practice. A 'solution' for the latter is for curriculum work to be grounded in deliberative knowing and practical action (Hlebowitsh 1999, Henderson 2000). Others see the future as somewhat exciting, given the complex competing and conflicting narratives and the opportunities that can arise from the 'search for a more sophisticated, analytical, and perhaps managerial understanding of schooling and of the curriculum . . . ' (Westbury 1999: 358--359). I contend that curricularists should look in other directions rather than continue to be occupied with increasingly anachronistic reform projects. With this argument in mind, in the first section of this paper I examine curriculum-reform strategies and theories, drawing specific examples from physical education (PE). I argue that the ways in which curricularists continue to drive curriculum-reform projects take little account of several significant postmodern phenomena. Where, what, how and which young people learn seems to have been overlooked in the curriculum-reform movement. In the second section I suggest that any curriculum change with the aim of managed, systemic, school-based and partnership-driven curriculum reform is an anachronism. Cohesive, controlled and shared curriculum changes across, or even within, schools are modernist projects---as are schools themselves---marginal to young people's learning as we move further towards or into postmodernity. Approaches to curriculum reform The design and execution of education reforms . . . provide an opportunity for radical breakthroughs in understanding, for giant leaps in learning. (McGinn 1999: 7) The pursuit of education reform has a long history. Reform is normal, widespread, constant and optimistic. Yet, underpinning curriculum reform is a contest over what is chosen, by what processes, by whom, with what intent and with what result. Struggles over curriculum and its management are, in a sense, struggles over what education is for, and whose knowledge is of most worth---learners', 309

parents', teachers', or curriculum authorities'? Curriculum reform, sponsored by well-meaning educational authorities, whose views are framed and constrained by modernist schooling structures, often fails to account for the voices of young people (Brooker and Macdonald 1998). The following three models of curriculum change and reform, drawing upon examples from PE, represent differing attempts by powerful groups to impact upon what and how students learn in schools. Top-down Attempts at curriculum reform in North America and the UK during the 1960s and early 1970s led to the development of the so-called 'teacher-proof' curriculum package as a central component of reform. As the term 'teacher-proof' suggests, the intent was to minimize the teacher's influence on curriculum reform by developing a tight relationship among educational objectives, curriculum content, and assessment instruments---all packaged in a set of curriculum materials or texts produced by specialized curriculum writers removed from the school. In this context, the educational purposes of the school, and the teacher, were to play a subsidiary role to those of educational administrators and their discipline-based curriculum writers: the goal was the achievement of high levels of fidelity between the conception and practice of curriculum reform. Questions of curriculum change became focused upon managing the diffusion and uptake process. The top-down model of curriculum reform continues to be employed in PE. In France, for example, the PE curriculum is shaped by official texts prepared by Groupe Technique Disciplinaire, composed of education officials, teachers, academics, and other key stakeholders. The PE syllabus prescribes the range of activities, the time allocation, and the assessment for all French students who are heading towards a common baccalaureate (Amande-Escot 1997). Similarly, the national curriculum exercise in England and Wales has also reflected a somewhat centralized approach to curriculum change with the explicit aim of having a codified curriculum produce a new (and cohesive) social order reflective of dominant groups. 2 Penney and Evans (1999) have documented how the largely centralized production of legally binding, 'official' national texts has resulted in the resurgence of competitive games and sport in the PE curriculum, despite widespread contestation. Bottom-up Research on curriculum development during the 1970s and early 1980s revealed the difficulty in achieving the goals of top-down teacher-proof curriculum packages. Curriculum innovations were invariably transformed between conception and implementation, and local forces, including the teacher and the school environment, played a key role in the apparent 'slippage' between conception and practice. Innovations failed to account for the temporal, social, economic and cultural factors that delimit and steer the possibilities for change in specific contexts (Kirk 1988). To improve the 'fidelity' of innovations, curriculum researchers began to advocate the central role of teachers in curriculum reform and the need for teachers to 'own' aspects of the changes that were sought. In late 1970s and the 1980s, the emergence of new approaches to curriculum reform, such as school-based curriculum development (SBCD) and action research---both particularly influential in Australia---began to consolidate a trend towards locating schools and teachers at the centre of curriculum-reform efforts. For some advocates, SBCD represented a democratization of curriculum development, in which the 'real experts', teachers, were justly given control of curriculum development (Kemmis and McTaggart 1988). However, what occurred in many Australian states and in the USA were less demanding, poorly resourced and loosely assessed curricula. The consequences for PE were the loss of systemic attention and support (e.g. Vickers 1992). Where localized programmes in PE have received attention, many have been concerned with physical activity instruction that falls outside the formal school curriculum, such as those programmes working with 'at risk' young people (e.g. Hellison et al. 2000) or strategies to engage specific populations such as girls. Partnerships Throughout the 1980s and 1990s research, critique and re-assessment of school-based strategies for change acted as a corrective to the extreme manifestations of the 'bottom-up' notion of curriculum reform. Critics of school-based curriculum reform drew attention to the problematic nature of the teacher's role as the change agent. Studies of teacher-initiated innovation reported that, even in this 310

context, 'slippage' occurred between the formal doctrine of the innovation and its practice (Fullan 1999). Advocates of action research re-assessed the possibilities for this strategy to change schools on their own (Tinning et al. 1996). Consequently, a new model of curriculum reform involved collaborative relationships between administrators, curriculum developers, professional associations, researchers, teacher educators, teachers and parents, 'partnerships'. Such partnerships, in Fullan's (1999: 61) terms, involve 'acrossboundary collaboration'. Ennis (1999), for example, has described a US peace-education curriculum initiative, 'Sport for peace', jointly led by district education officers, community groups, teachers, academics/researchers, and, notably, students. The features of this change model include collaboration across schools, teacher professional development, community and student input to meet local needs, and systematic data collection, monitoring, and revision. Partnership projects have tried to reform the health and PE curriculum at national and state levels in Australia in a similar way (Kirk and Macdonald 2001).3 But Fullan (1999) and others (McGinn 1999, Adams 2000) offer the 'lessons' that curriculum change is multi-dimensional, messy and trying, shaped by local contexts, should include classroom teachers, and is most effective when both top-down and bottom-up partnerships are employed. When reform fails, critics often blame 'resistance' (most often by teachers), 'incorrect' implementation, bad design and the generation of unanticipated outcomes. They rarely question their own assumptions about schools, schooling, learning and young people. Thus the above-mentioned models and lessons are framed by a fairly rigid set of assumptions grounded in the modernist education system (Miller 2000). In other words, the curriculum-reform problem is set within a vision of schooling that: is highly regulated in terms of time and space, views knowledge as rational, linear and arranged in separate and distinctive bundles, views students as consumers of the official school curriculum, and aims for a regulated, democratic and egalitarian social order (Leistyna et al. 1996). Contemporary policies around curriculum change carries assumptions of linearity, control, identifiable outcomes and well-articulated plans, be they at the teacher, subject, school or systemic level. Curriculum change and the postmodern world Modernist curriculum reform, whether it be 'top-down', 'bottom-up' or 'partnership', has been concerned with directed, purposive, systematic and intentional change. Even where contemporary theoretical frameworks, such as identity theory (Apple 1999) or pedagogic discourse (Bernstein 1996), have been employed to inform curriculum change they have been employed with a particular view of schooling, learning and young people that is essentially modernist. But such understandings fail dramatically to take into account the contemporary conditions of high modernity as defined by Giddens (1991), or indeed those of a postmodern world. Here postmodernity is understood to focus on difference and diversity, recognize shifts in time, space and boundaries, and position the self as socially and historically constructed. I understand that educators should be circumspect in engaging wholeheartedly with postmodern discourses. McLaren and Farahmandpur (2000), for example, argue that postmodernist position is 'hyper-individualistic', with an overemphasis on identity politics, consumerism, pluralism and choice, and has lost sight of the reproductive power/constraints of capitalism. But in arguing that postmodernism may be not much more than 'an obfuscating label' (Barrow 1999: 415) or 'theoretical chic' (McLaren and Farahmandpur 2000: 28), McLaren and Farahmandpur go on to acknowledge that postmodernists have drawn attention to circuits of power, the globalization of knowledge and culture, and how schooling is cultural work that until recently has been understood through universal narratives that have tended to be masculinist and heteronormative. Following this position, a postmodern curriculum may be viewed as: moving towards an open system with constant flux and complex interactions. requiring interactive and holistic frameworks for learning, with students becoming knowledgeproducers rather than knowledge-consumers. As Doll (1989: 250) writes, 'A postmodern curriculum will accept the student's ability to organize, construct and structure, and will emphasize this ability as a focal point in the curriculum'. 311

transformative rather than incremental with respect to change. Such change requires errors, chaos and uncertainty through the actions of the learners, and should bypass bureaucratic control that operates in oppressive ways. What follows are four interrelated commentaries that further develop the notion of a postmodern curriculum and thereby critique the curriculum-reform movement. My specific claim is that current PE curriculum reform, although structured around genuine partnerships, is marginal to young people's future learning. Death of the subject It is an interesting time for disciplinary knowledge and its representations in school subjects. What are the boundaries/limits of a discipline? How can the disciplinary knowledge be applied for greater relevance? The structure of the disciplines in universities and their translation into school subjects 'triumphed' in the 1960s. Educational philosophers suggested that valid forms and fields of knowledge arise from intellectual disciplines created and systematically defined by scholars in the primary field, often scholars working in universities, and then translated for use as school subjects. However, as Goodson (1988: 177) suggests, contemporary curriculum documents are no longer stories of 'the translation of an academic discipline, devised by (dominant) groups of scholars in universities, into a pedagogic version to be used as a school subject'. Bernstein (1996) suggests that the reconfigurations of disciplinary knowledge have occurred recently, and continue to occur, in line with rapid growth in new and varied applications of knowledge. Worldwide, educators are seeing the clustering of subject matter into learning areas that extend beyond subjects. In Australia and New Zealand this clustering has tended to extend as far as the creation of 'key learning areas'---where PE sits alongside health education, outdoor education, home economics and religious education, under the umbrella of health and PE (Macdonald and Glover 1997). As a result debate has shifted to the value of traditional disciplines, the ways in which disciplines shape school subjects and the value of having school subjects at all. The middle-school literature exploring the needs of 9- to 15-year-olds has also challenged the extent to which disciplinary knowledge meets the needs of young people. Yet, most PE curriculum-reform projects have retained a strong subject, if not learning area, focus. The institutionalization of knowledge via disciplines and subjects limits the possibilities for freedom or autonomy for teachers and students and the possibility of making meaningful connections across schooling. For example, in the Australian state of Queensland there is currently the trial of 'new basics', new ways of prioritizing and organizing interdisciplinary learning that move beyond the subject. These new basics are 'life-pathways and social futures', 'multiliteracies and communications media', 'active citizenship', and 'environments and technology' (Education Queensland 2000). These are akin to the knowledge and skills Young (1998) refers to as a curriculum of the future that requires connectivity across subject matter in order to produce well-rounded and technologically literate learners with economic, political, cultural and sociological understandings. Where does subject-based reform fit within such new ways of thinking about the organization of knowledge? Taking equity seriously If the role of a school as a modernist project is to assist all students to reach their individual potentials, it has patently failed. Curriculum reforms directed towards schools and teachers have failed to override the influences of what students bring to the school---their neighbourhood, socio-economic status, gender, and ethnicity. Schooling, and thereby the school curriculum, is generally reproductive. It is active in reproducing the economic and cultural imbalances upon which a society is built (e.g. Bowles and Gintis 1977). Although having points of disagreement, both Bourdieu (1974) and Bernstein (1996) have analysed cultural reproduction and the ways in which particular cultural capitals based upon language, values, comportment, etc. 'combine to determine behaviour in school and the attitude to school which make up the differential principle of elimination operating for children of different social classes' (Bourdieu 1974: 35). With the school as a bounded sphere of learning failing so many children, educators need to recruit and recognize new spaces and places for learning that are effective and engaging, but are beyond formal curriculum planning and reform projects. 312

If the school curriculum is to become an emancipatory experience for a much larger section of each cohort of students, this is going to require much greater involvement of many people who currently have no direct links with school, including parents and employers, and many activities by teachers and pupils which are not confined to the school nor, in conventional terms, are usually defined as 'educational' at all. (Young 1998: 32) This sentiment has also been expressed in much of the recent work of Lawson (e.g. 1998) who is arguing for attention to shift from the formal curriculum delivered by specialist teachers to how coalitions of professionals and community members can become available to young people to enhance their learning. Curriculum-reform projects must broaden their sights with respect to who might constitute a partner and must look to where and how new spaces and places for learning might be created. Young people, identity and the consumer curriculum There are many cultural identities in any one space such as a school system or school. This has profound implications when curriculum-builders are asked to select a set of cultural attributes, knowledge, meanings, values and skills for conscious transmission through the planned curriculum. At times, this selection reflects cost-effectiveness, they buy in 'pre-packaged American software' (Gough 2000: 235). At others, selection becomes simply privatization, with profit-making companies taking over school districts (Reid 1998). Although making a selection and shaping it into a curriculum that suits the heterogeneity of young people is highly contentious, if not impossible, curriculum-makers continue to do so as seen with PE in the UK (Penney and Evans 1999). Furthermore, what it means to be a school student is being reinvented through the interests of corporate capital. 'As culture becomes increasingly commercialized, the only type of citizenship that adult society offers to children is that of consumerism' (Giroux 2000: 19). Young people's interaction with the curriculum is becoming like that of a consumer and a product (Wright and Macdonald in press). For many young people their preferred engagement with physical activity outside school is at odds with what the formal school curriculum offers. As they become increasingly impatient of curricula that are deemed irrelevant, and aware of varied pathways and places for learning, as critical consumers they can bypass pre-selected, given, and inert curriculum and seek alternatives. In doing so, curriculum artifacts of synthetic states or nation-states 'that seek to construct uniform social identities' are redundant (Ross 2000: 89). Global technology and free-range learning As I have already suggested, young people have a lifestyle and mindset that enables them to access much of their learning outside school. The information revolution and the public pedagogies that this entails 'must be engaged seriously as knowledge-producing technologies and spheres that demand new types of learning and critical skills from both young people and adults' (Giroux 2000: 30). In cyberspace the learner is 'free' within the constraints of corporatized technologies to explore haphazardly without boundaries and prescribed directions, and take on many and varied identities. Global media and technologies give many young people access to ideas and opportunities for engaging forms of physical activity outside their substantive culture. Reid (1998: 501) suggests that 'materials and means to construct personal projects of education and communication will be available . . . to all of us'; yet much curriculum reform narrowly focuses upon the school as the only site of meaningful learning. Ray Kurzweil (1999), who has been employed as a consultant some of the world's largest technology companies, has plotted the shifts in education he sees running parallel with shifts in technology. By the year 2030, he predicts that human learning will be 'primarily accomplished using virtual teachers and . . . enhanced by widely available neural implants' (p. 221). Although neural implants may seem farfetched, Kurzweil's work underscores the rapid and inexorable expansion of learning technologies that must be accounted for when considering curriculum futures. More specifically, given the focus on the body and embodiment in modernist PE, the potential attraction of students to the 'body-less' world of learning in cyberspace should be central to how physical educators think about their subject's content and pedagogy, and what it means to be physically educated. Conclusion 313

'To talk about the future of curriculum is risky' (Morris 2000: 5), but such talk is necessary if curriculum workers are to attend to questions of relevance, inclusion and choice with respect to young people's learning. While the literature in the curriculum field recognizes the difficulty in creating meaningful curriculum change within current school structures, the majority of innovations and analyses are blind to the bigger and more significant questions surrounding change: Who are the young people in schools? and What, where and how do they learn? If curriculum reform continues to focus upon subjects, teachers, school-based lessons and other modernist structures of schools that obfuscate difference, meaningful learning and the impact of technology, the reform movement will become more irrelevant to the lives of young people. 'Blind', 'floundering' and 'failure' will be apt. Notes 1. A 'chookhouse' is an Australian expression for a poultry shed or chicken run, typically a crude structure of tin sheeting and wire. 2. The Chief Executive of the Schools Curriculum and Assessment Authority for England and Wales declared that 'the culture and traditions of Britain should be at the core [of the National Curriculum]. Seen in this light, the central role of British history, Christianity and the English literary heritage are axiomatic' (Tate in Ross 2000: 11). 3. Although extensive and genuine partnerships may be successful through bringing together a range of stakeholders who each have an interest in the nature of change in schools, few partnerships seem to account for the cultures and perspectives of young people. References ADAMS, Jr., J. E. (2000) Taking Charge of Curriculum: Teacher Networks and Curriculum Implementation (New York: Teachers College Press). AMANDE-ESCOT, C. (1997) Selection criteria for physical education teachers in France from 1947-1989. European Physical Education Review, 3 (1), 49--57. APPLE, M. W. (1999) Power, Meaning and Identity: Essays in Critical Educational Studies (New York: Peter Lang). BARROW, R. (1999) The need for philosophical analysis in a postmodern era. Interchange, 30 (4), 415--432. BERNSTEIN, B. (1996) Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory, Research, Critique (London: Taylor & Francis). BOWLES, S. and GINTIS, H. (1977) Schooling in Capitalist America: Education; Reform and the Contradictions of Economic Life (New York: Basic Books). BOURDIEU, P. (1974) The school as a conservative force: scholastic and cultural inequalities. In J. Eggleston (ed.) Contemporary Research in the Sociology of Education (London: Methuen), 32--46. BROOKER, R. and MACDONALD, D. (1998) Did we hear you? issues of student voice in a curriculum innovation. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31 (1), 83--97. DOLL, Jr., W. E. (1989) Foundations for a post-modern curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 21 (3), 243--253. EDUCATION QUEENSLAND (2000) 2010: Queensland State Education (Brisbane, Aus.: Education Queensland). http://education.qld.gov.au/corporate/newbasics/# (visited 14 February 2002) EISNER, E. W. (2000) Those who ignore the past . . . : 12 'easy' lessons for the next millennium. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32 (2), 343--357. ENNIS, C. D. (1999) Communicating the value of active, healthy lifestyles to urban students. Quest, 51 (2), 164--169. FULLAN, M. (1999) Change Forces: The Sequel (London: Falmer). GIDDENS, A. (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press). GIROUX, H. A. (2000) Stealing Innocence: Youth, Corporate Power, and the Politics of Culture (New York: St. Martin's Press). GOODSON, I. F. (1988) The Making of Curriculum: Collected Essays (London: Falmer). GOUGH, N. (2000) Locating curriculum studies in the global village. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32 (2), 329--342. 314

HELLISON, D. R., CUTFORTH, N. J., KALLUSKY, J., MARTINEK, T. J., PARKER, M. AND STIEHL, J. (2000) Youth Development and Physical Activity: Linking Universities and Communities (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics). HENDERSON, J. G. (2000) Linking inquiry authenticity and deliberative knowing: a fundamental challenge in curriculum studies. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 16 (3), 69--72. HLEBOWITSH, P. (1999) The burdens of the new curricularist. Curriculum Inquiry, 29 (3), 343--354. KEMMIS, S. and McTAGGART, R. (1988) The Action Research Planner (Geelong, Aus.: Deakin University Press). KIRK, D. (1988) Physical Education and Curriculum Study: A Critical Introduction (London: Croom Helm). KIRK, D. and MACDONALD, D. (2001) Teacher voice and ownership of curriculum change. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 33 (5), 551--567. KURZWEIL, R. (1999) The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence (New York: Viking). LAWSON, H. A. (1998) Here today, gone tomorrow? a framework for analyzing the development, transformation, and disappearance of helping fields. Quest, 50 (2), 225--237. LEISTYNA, P., WOODRUM, A. and SHERBLOM, S. (1996) Breaking Free: The Transformative Power of Critical Pedagogy (Cambridge: Harvard Educational Review). LINGARD, R., MILLS, M. and HAYES, D. (2000) Teachers, school reform, and social justice: challenging research and practice. The Australian Educational Researcher, 27 (3), 93--109. MACDONALD, D. and GLOVER, S. (1997) Subject matter boundaries and curriculum change in the health and physical education key area. Curriculum Perspectives, 17 (1), 23--30. McGINN, N. (1999) What is required for successful education reform? Learning from errors. Education Practice and Theory, 21 (1), 7--21. McLAREN, P. and FARAHMANDPUR, R. (2000) Reconsidering Marx in post-marxist times: a requiem for postmodernism? Educational Researcher, 29 (3), 25--33. MILLER, J. L. (2000) What's left in the field . . . a curriculum memoir. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32 (2), 253--266. MORRIS, M. (2000) The pit and the pendulum: taking risks talking about the future of the curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 16 (3), 3--6. PENNEY, D. and EVANS, J. (1999) Politics, Policy and Practice in Physical Education (London: E. & F. N. Spon). REID, W. A. (1998) Erasmus, Gates, and the end of curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 30 (5), 499--501. ROSS, A. G. (2000) Curriculum: Construction and Critique (London: Falmer). TINNING, R. I., MACDONALD, D., TREGENZA, K. and BOUSTEAD, J. (1996) Action research and the professional development of teachers in the health and physical education field. Journal of Educational Action Research, 4 (3), 389--405. VICKERS, J. (1992) While Rome burns---meeting the challenge of the reform movement in education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63 (7), 80--87. WESTBURY, I. (1999) The burdens and the excitement of the 'new' curriculum research: a response to Hlebowitsh's 'the burdens of the new curricularist'. Curriculum Inquiry, 29 (3), 355--364. WRAGA, W. (1999) Extracting sun-beams out of cucumbers: the retreat from practice in reconceptualized curriculum studies. Educational Researcher, 28 (1), 4--13. WRIGHT, J. and MACDONALD, D. (in press) Young people and their engagement in physical culture. Sport, Education and Society. YOUNG, M. F. D. (1998) The Curriculum of the Future: From the 'New Sociology of Education' to a Critical Theory of Learning (London: Falmer).

Documentarul Nr. 4.
NOTA Consultnd acest documentar cursanii vor avea prilejul s afle ce frmntri au precedat n dezbaterile culturale i curriculare marile sinteze paideutice ale secolului XXI. Ele sunt cu att mai

315

interesante cu ct coala romneasc nregistreaz astzi consecinele acestor dezbater cu rsunet mondial.

Conference on After Postmodernism - University of Chicago [The conference was November 14-16, 1997] The Conference posed a specific question: If we absorb postmodernism, if we recognize the variety and ungroundedness of grounds, but do not want to stop in arbitrariness, relativism, or aphoria, what comes after postmodernism?
What postmodernism teaches is not new. Heraclitus said, "You cannot step into the same river twice" and his student added, "not even once, since there is no same river." The ancient Eristics showed the unreliability of logic alone. The variety of viewpoints was well represented in the wild range of personages that Plato brought together in the gathering of philosophers in the Protagoras. Richard McKeon taught the variety in the fifties: Anything you assert instances always only one approach. However you proceed, McKeon can supply three other ways to do it, with different outcomes of course. The current relativism is historicist, which may be its worst version because while it sees only an arbitrary succession of different sets of assumptions throughout history, it also claims that we cannot move among them as with McKeon; supposedly we are locked into one set that is dominant in our historical period. Postmodernism brought much that we wish to retain. It brought play and humor, no small contribution. It made visible the economic, political, gender, and colonizing hegemony inherent in western "objectivity" and "universality." Postmodernism puts the recognition of the ungrounded variety of assumptions first. Although always recognized, the problem appeared only at the periphery. Or it might be tucked in, half-hidden, for the benefit of those who already recognize it. For example, after a long series of quite wild distinctions: The Stranger: We must always make our distinctions so that they cut between the bones. The Youngster: But Stranger, how can we tell whether they cut between the bones, or not? The Stranger: That is a question we will take up another time. (Plato, Statesman, 262) It is a postmodern contribution to begin from this awareness and to make it obvious to everyone, rather than keeping it as a subtle knowing-better reserved for the few. Many people sense that there is somewhere further to go. Yes, every assertion is made from some vantage point, and depends at least partly on culture, politics, and language, which we can only pretend to control. All assertions seem to pretend to control. All words bring an unavoidable "metaphysics." But, since it is unavoidable, can we do no more than constantly remind each other of it? Is the furthest thinking only decentering, undecidability, rupture, limbo, aporia, flux? For the most part it results in arbitrariness, stoppage, an inability to think further. Overcoming this effect is the topic of our conference. We want to think further, to begin a discourse that moves on, after postmodernism. Several lines of an "After Postmodernism" discourse, issues on which we need not agree, but have developed various specific points or steps -- paths of thinking after postmodernism: Is there a distinct role for logic, and for a kind of scientific objectivity that would not be naive? How can conceptual systems function in relation to more-than-conceptual intricacy? In what sense do we move beyond the utterly different meanings that each culture gives even to the most universal words such as "body" and "person?" Is there a path from Wittgenstein? He could let a word acquire many new meanings. Although one cannot represent language, no concept or metaphysics controls new uses of words in situations. Can we speak-from practice-and-theory and implicitly intricate bodily experiencing? Can we speak-from ourselves without subjectivity/objectivity? (Example: "If someone has a pain in the hand ... one does not comfort the hand, but the sufferer." Wittgenstein, P I 286) Can a new phenomenology speak-from intricacy, rather than attempting "description?"

316

Can we articulate the implicit political and ethical stand of using the critique of assumptions to free people, rather than to silence them?

Science, logic, mathematics, well formulated theories, empirical research We think that post-modernism does not relate pertinently to these topics. The post-modern critique of science provides no re-understanding of anything specific in science; it has no import for how we understand scientific procedures and findings, or how we might reconceptualize a scientific object. It has little to say to science beyond globally denigrating all of it as obviously not "objective," not free of all sorts of assumptions. This insight must lead to more than arbitrariness. For example, recently a competent anthropologist's report on his field work engendered lively questions. Then he said: "From post-modernism we know that there are no facts, so I can really say anything I want." It stopped the discussion. Recently a Nobel Laureate physicist was asked to comment on an interpretation of specific findings. He approved, point by point. When asked to say more, he added: "In physics today you can say anything you want." A retort from the side of logic and empirical science is surely possible, after first accepting the fact of ungroundable assumptions and the impossibility of naive objectivity. In what way does science involve a more sophisticated kind of objectivity than that which is currently derided as naive? Or, in what way does logic involve more than the pretense of clean-cutting patterns that fail to cut cleanly? These are sample questions. Human Nature, the subject, culture, ethnography The members of an animal species all feed on similar food, build similar shelters, and have similar mating procedures. In this regard humans are not even one animal species. Only some tissue processes are the same. To think of human beings as one species seems like the merest "biologism" (as Heidegger called it). Is there a way to think about inter-human parameters (perhaps of a new kind), taking account of the utterly different meanings that the cultures give to even the most universal words such as "body," "religion," "person," "marriage," and so on? In what language could one examine the question? This is a problem not only because of cultural and conceptual relativism, but because what one can say in language about language will instance, and cannot encompass, the ongoing working of language. One cannot pretend to step outside of language and pretend to be making observations and inferences from there -- of course in words -- whether about language or about something before or without language. Practice, Experience, the Body, Giving Birth, Psychotherapy Since individuals exist only in historical, cultural, and linguistic contexts, how can something that might be called "experience' play some roll in our thinking? We know that assertions cannot be grounded in a supposedly neutral experience. And since all description imports its assumptions and categories, we know that no observational reports are just neutral. Insights and examples from specialized practices such as law or psychotherapy, or from movements such as Feminism, might shed light on the following question: Is there a mode of thinking with or from what is variously appealed to when one invokes practice, experience, the body, psychotherapy, the experience of giving birth, or anything else which would not be utterly derivative from linguistic historical and cultural assumptions? On the one hand it seems selfevident that there is; on the other hand, except uncritically, how may it play a role in thinking? American Pragmatism Until Oxford Linguistic Analysis crowded it out, the work of Peirce, James and Dewey was dominant in American universities. Its main ethos was a kind of answer to earlier versions of our question. Pragmatism deliberately employed the variety of approaches, finding a way to do so in the very nature of practice. Something about doing eluded the pretended determinism of the different interpretations. Instead, assumptions and values could be seen as generated from practice, and modified by it. Current attempts to rediscover this have not been widely hailed as successful. We must first save Pragmatism 317

from the simplistic corruption which gave it its bad name: Its criterion seems to be "what works," but without a way to examine the purposes which are of course assumed, when something is said to work, or not to work. Can we articulate how Pragmatism can answer this charge? Wittgenstein Unlike most philosophy, theory, and science, Wittgenstein spoke from just that place from which we ordinarily speak: in midst of situational involvement where words mean what they do, what changes they make in the situation in which we say them. This would seem to be the very place that poses the problem that all assertions are from a "situated" center. Is an advance possible from Wittgenstein if he is read, not as basing himself on external observation, but as speaking in and from situatedness? Phenomenology One cannot offer a neutral description of phenomena, but can something more than speculation play some role in a kind of thinking that could claim to be phenomenological? Ourselves: The self, ("subject," "I,") Is it really true, as currently maintained, that we cannot say anything from or about ourselves if we reject the old subject/object dichotomy and other rejected assumptions? Articulation of assumed values The lack of grounds for any approach, centering, or categories has provided a valuable opening for critiques of the dominant approaches by feminism, anti-colonialism, and other liberating movements. But implicitly these movement go beyond critique, and beyond post-modernism which holds that liberation is impossible because some categories, distinctions and social controls will always again resurround any liberating attempt, and also that liberation is not a ground for deciding anything. Going beyond these two tenets of post-modernism, can we articulate the assumption that we will and should use the demise of all categories to free people, rather than to justify Dostoyevsky's Ivan, or one's own "superior" culture, class, or "free" market economics? The University of Chicago ethos Like post-modernism, but a generation earlier, the University of Chicago shifted the recognition of ungrounded variety from the outer limits of thought to the center and the beginning. No student can be here for more than a few weeks without encountering our ethos that there are many intellectual approaches to any issue, and no possible resolution of this fact. One professor tells an audience of first-year students: "The University of Chicago holds that every approach is canceled out by some other approach, so there is no point in studying any of them." The students laugh. This indicates both that they have already encountered the problem, and that it is a puzzle, since they find the thinking here so extremely exciting and rewarding. Obviously the different viewpoints do not just cancel out, but how and why not has never been articulated. We constantly speak of it here, but the unavoidable variety is just as familiar elsewhere, and its positive role is recognized. It must therefore be possible to articulate in detail exactly how it has long affected one's thinking, and how one deals with it. This is something familiar, but usually private. Articulating it would open a new discourse.

Documentarul nr. 5
Cele 8 competene cheie pentru nvarea de-a lungul ntregii viei
Recommendation 2006/962/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning [Official Journal L 394 of 30.12.2006]. SUMMARY

318

Key competences for lifelong learning are a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context. They are particularly necessary for personal fulfilment and development, social inclusion, active citizenship and employment. Key competences are essential in a knowledge society and guarantee more flexibility in the labour force, allowing it to adapt more quickly to constant changes in an increasingly interconnected world. They are also a major factor in innovation, productivity and competitiveness, and they contribute to the motivation and satisfaction of workers and the quality of work. Key competences should be acquired by: young people at the end of their compulsory education and training, equipping them for adult life, particularly for working life, whilst forming a basis for further learning; adults throughout their lives, through a process of developing and updating skills. The acquisition of key competences fits in with the principles of equality and access for all. This reference framework also applies in particular to disadvantaged groups whose educational potential requires support. Examples of such groups include people with low basic skills, early school leavers, the long-term unemployed, people with disabilities, migrants, etc. Eight key competences This framework defines eight key competences and describes the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to each of these. These key competences are: communication in the mother tongue, which is the ability to express and interpret concepts, thoughts, feelings, facts and opinions in both oral and written form (listening, speaking, reading and writing) and to interact linguistically in an appropriate and creative way in a full range of societal and cultural contexts; communication in foreign languages, which involves, in addition to the main skill dimensions of communication in the mother tongue, mediation and intercultural understanding. The level of proficiency depends on several factors and the capacity for listening, speaking, reading and writing; mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology. Mathematical competence is the ability to develop and apply mathematical thinking in order to solve a range of problems in everyday situations, with the emphasis being placed on process, activity and knowledge. Basic competences in science and technology refer to the mastery, use and application of knowledge and methodologies that explain the natural world. These involve an understanding of the changes caused by human activity and the responsibility of each individual as a citizen; digital competence involves the confident and critical use of information society technology (IST) and thus basic skills in information and communication technology (ICT); learning to learn is related to learning, the ability to pursue and organise one's own learning, either individually or in groups, in accordance with one's own needs, and awareness of methods and opportunities; social and civic competences. Social competence refers to personal, interpersonal and intercultural competence and all forms of behaviour that equip individuals to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life. It is linked to personal and social well-being. An understanding of codes of conduct and customs in the different environments in which individuals operate is essential. Civic competence, and particularly knowledge of social and political concepts and structures (democracy, justice, equality, citizenship and civil rights), equips individuals to engage in active and democratic participation; sense of initiative and entrepreneurship is the ability to turn ideas into action. It involves creativity, innovation and risk-taking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives. The individual is aware of the context of his/her work and is able to seize opportunities that arise. It is the foundation for acquiring more specific skills and knowledge needed by those establishing or contributing to social or commercial activity. This should include awareness of ethical values and promote good governance; cultural awareness and expression, which involves appreciation of the importance of the creative expression of ideas, experiences and emotions in a range of media (music, performing arts, literature and the visual arts). 319

These key competences are all interdependent, and the emphasis in each case is on critical thinking, creativity, initiative, problem solving, risk assessment, decision taking and constructive management of feelings. A European reference framework for European Union (EU) countries and the Commission These key competences provide a reference framework to support national and European efforts to achieve the objectives they define. This framework is mainly intended for policy makers, education and training providers, employers and learners. It is a reference tool for EU countries and their education and training policies. EU countries should try to ensure: that initial education and training offer all young people the means to develop the key competences to a level that equips them for adult and working life, thus also providing a basis for future learning; that appropriate provision is made for young people who are disadvantaged in their training so that they can fulfil their educational potential; that adults can develop and update key competences throughout their lives, particularly priority target groups such as persons who need to update their competences; that appropriate infrastructure is in place for continuing education and training of adults, that there are measures to ensure access to education and training and the labour market and that there is support for learners depending on their specific needs and competences; the coherence of adult education and training provision through close links between the policies concerned. It forms the basis for action at Community level, particularly within the Education and Training 2010 work programme and, more generally, within the Community education and training programmes. In this respect, the Commission should make a special effort to: help EU countries to develop their education and training systems, apply the reference framework so as to facilitate peer learning and the exchange of good practices and follow up developments and report on progress through the progress reports on the Education and Training 2010 work programme; use the reference framework for the implementation of the Community education and training programmes whilst ensuring that these programmes promote the acquisition of key competences; use the reference framework to implement related Community policies (employment, youth, cultural and social policies) and to strengthen links with social partners and other organisations active in those fields; assess, by December 2010, the impact of the reference framework within the context of the Education and Training 2010 work programme as well as the experience gained and the implications for the future. Background The transversal nature of key competences makes them essential. They provide added value for employment, social cohesion or young people (European Youth Pact), which explains the importance of lifelong learning in terms of adapting to change and integration. The reference criteria, which make it possible to judge improvements in European performances, featured in a 2005 report with contrasting results. In response to the concerns expressed at the Lisbon European Council on 23 and 24 March 2000, which were repeated in the revised Lisbon strategy in 2005, the key competences form part of the objectives of the Education and Training 2010 work programme, the Commission communication of 2001 on making a European area of lifelong learning a reality and the subsequent Council resolution adopted in 2002. These last two put forward specific proposals on making key competences a priority for all age groups. For its part, the 2004 joint interim report on the progress of the Education and Training 2010 work programme made the case for drawing up common European references and principles. Daniel Juda Elazar (1934-1999) a fost un profesor de la Universitatea Bar-Ilan ( Israel ) i Universitatea Temple , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania .i fondator i ptiine politicereedinte al Centrului 320

Ierusalim pentru Afaceri Publice . Este autorul teoriei celor patru legminte ale devenirii lumii iudeo-cretine. Prin intermediul programului de formare ABILITARE PE CURRICULUM, din cadrul proiectului POSDRU, Formarea continua a profesorilor de Limba romana, engleza si franceza in societatea cunoasterii ID 62536, beneficiar Inspectoratul Scolar Judetean Braila, partener Universitatea Bucuresti Facultatea de Phihologie si stiintele educatiei, se vor forma i dezvolta cursanilor competene i atitudini de responsabilitate social i fa de mediu att prin achiziionarea de echipamente care s rspund cerinelor actuale de mediu ct i prin asigurarea administrrii n siguran a sistemelor tehnice la sfritul perioadei lor de funcionare, respectiv a selectrii celor ce devin neutilizabile i a modalitilor adecvate de gestionare a deeurilor rezultate la sfritul perioadei de utilizare. O astfel de abordare va conduce la creterea contientizrii cetenilor n ceea ce privete necesitatea protejrii mediului i utilizrii resurselor n mod raional i eficient. Programul de formare axat pe proiectarea i implementarea curriculumului centrat pe competene rspunde obiectivului Egalitatea de anse prin : implicarea n formare a tuturor cursanilor, fr discriminare de gen, a persoanelor cu vrste diferite, cu impact pozitiv asupra relaiilor ntre generaii, favoriznd schimbul de competene caracteristice fiecrei categorii de vrsta. De asemenea, grupul int va cuprinde att femei ct i brbai, promovndu-se o atitudine pozitiv fa de non-discriminarea sexual, de mediu, de provenien etc.. De asemenea, se are n vedere dobndirea de noi abiliti de ctre cadrele didactice, ducnd astfel la dezvoltarea capacitii de non-discriminare dup orice criteriu n realizarea proiectrii i implementrii curriculumului centrat pe competene.

321