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Copyright c 2003 by E.K.

Boukas
Chapitre 6
Analyse fr equentielle
El-K ebir Boukas
el-kebir.boukas@polymtl.ca

Ecole Polytechnique de Montr eal


Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 1/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Objectifs
Tracer les diagrammes de Bode, de Black et de Nyquist pour
nimporte quel syst` eme
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 2/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Objectifs
Tracer les diagrammes de Bode, de Black et de Nyquist pour
nimporte quel syst` eme


Etudier la stabilit e dans le domaine fr equentiel
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 2/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Objectifs
Tracer les diagrammes de Bode, de Black et de Nyquist pour
nimporte quel syst` eme


Etudier la stabilit e dans le domaine fr equentiel
D eterminer les performances des syst` emes (facteur de
surtension, bande passante, marge de phase, marge de gain ...)
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 2/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Objectifs
Tracer les diagrammes de Bode, de Black et de Nyquist pour
nimporte quel syst` eme


Etudier la stabilit e dans le domaine fr equentiel
D eterminer les performances des syst` emes (facteur de
surtension, bande passante, marge de phase, marge de gain ...)
D eterminer les caract eristiques de la fonction de transfert en
boucle ferm ee en se servant des abaques
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 2/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Sommaire
Diagrammes de Bode, de Black et de Nyquist
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 3/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Sommaire
Diagrammes de Bode, de Black et de Nyquist
Stabilit e de Nyquist
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 3/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Sommaire
Diagrammes de Bode, de Black et de Nyquist
Stabilit e de Nyquist
Abaques de Hall et Black-Nichols
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 3/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Sommaire
Diagrammes de Bode, de Black et de Nyquist
Stabilit e de Nyquist
Abaques de Hall et Black-Nichols
Performances des syst` emes
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 3/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Forme de la r eponse fr equentielle
G(s) R(s) Y (s)
Transformation : r(t) = sin(t) = R(s) =

s
2
+
2
Y(s) = G(s)R(s)
Y(s) =
K
1
s
+
K
2
s +
+
0 si t
..
k
1
s + p
1
+
k
2
s + p
2
+ . . .
K
1
=

s +
G(s)|
s
=
1
2
M()e
()
K
2
=

s
G(s)|
s
=
1
2
M()e
()
y(t) = K
1
e
t
+ K
2
e
t
= M() sin(t + ())
avec M() = |G()|
et () = arg G()
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 4/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Forme de la r eponse fr equentielle - Exemple
k
s + 1
R(s) Y (s)
G(s) =
Y (s)
R(s)
=
k
s + 1
= G() =
Y ()
R()
=
k
j + 1
r(t) = sin(t) = Y() =

s
2
+
2

k
+ 1
|G()| =
k
_

2
+ 1
, () = arctan()
y(t) =
k
_

2
+ 1
sin(t arctan())
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 5/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode
Boucle ouverte G(s) =
K
s
l
_
1 + b
1
s + . . . + b
m
s
m
1 + a
1
s + . . . + a
n
s
n
_

Echelle semi-log M() = 20 log


10
|G()|, (db)
() = arg(G()), (
o
)
Basses fr equences G(s) =
K
s
l
M() = 20 log
10
(K) (20l) log
10
()
() = l

2
Hautes fr equences G(s) =
Kb
m
s
m
a
n
s
n+l
M() = 20 log
10
_
Kb
m
a
n
_
20(n+ l m) log
10
()
() = (n+ l m)

2
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 6/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode en Basses fr equences
M
db
M
db
M
db
M
db

o


0
o
0
90
o
180
o
270
o
20 40 60
l = 0 l = 1 l = 2 l = 3
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 7/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode en Hautes fr equences
M
db
M
db
M
db

o


90
o
180
o
270
o
20
40 60
n+ l m = 1 n+ l m = 2 n+ l m = 3
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 8/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode de l

El ement proportionnel
G() = K, K > 0
|G()| = K
arg(G()) = 0
o
M() = 20 log
10
|G()|
= 20 log
10
(K), (db)
() = arctan
_
0
K
_
= 0
o
M
db

0
o
20 log
10
K
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 9/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode de l

El ement int egral


G() =
1

|G()| =

=
1

() = arg() = 90
o
M() = 20 log
10
_
1

_
= 20 log
10
(), (db)
() = 90
o
M
db

20
90
o

c
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 10/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode de l

El ement diff erentiel


G() =
|G()| =
() = +

2
M() = 20 log
10
(), (db)
() = +90
o
M
db

+20
+90
o

c
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 11/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode de l

El ement du premier ordre - 1


G() =
1
1 +
M() = 20 log
10

1 +
2

2
() = arctan()

1

= M() = 0 db
() = 0
o

1

= M() = 20 log(), db
() = 90
o
M
db

20 db/dec
90
o

c
r eelles
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 12/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode de l

El ement du premier ordre - 2


G() = 1 +
M() = 20 log
10

1 +
2

2
() = arctan()

1

= M() = 0, db
() = 0
o

1

= M() = 20 log(), db
() = 90
o
M
db

+20 db/dec
+90
o

c
r eelles
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 13/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode de l

El ement du deuxi` eme ordre - 1


G() =

2
n
1 + 2
n
() + ()
2
=
1
_
1

2
n
_
+ 2

n
M() = 20 log
10

_
1

2
n
_
2
+ 4
2

2

2
n
() = arctan
_
_
_
_
_
2

n
1

2
n
_
_
_
_
_

n
= M() = 0 db
() = 0
o

n
= M() = 40 log
10
_

n
_
db
() = 180
o
M
db

40 db/dec
180
o

c
r eelles
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 14/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode de l

El ement du deuxi` eme ordre - 2


G() = 1 + 2

n
+ (

n
)
2
= (1

2
n
)
2
+ 2

n
M() = 20 log
10

_
1

2
n
_
2
+ 4
2

2

2
n
() = arctan
_
_
_
_
_
2

n
1

2
n
_
_
_
_
_

n
= M() = 0 db
() = 0
o

n
= M() = +40 log
10
_

n
_
db
() = +180
o
M
db

+40 db/dec
+180
o

c
r eelles
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 15/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Bode dun syst` eme dordre quelconque
G(s) = K

2
s + 1
(
3
s + 1)(
4
s + 1)
1

3
<
1

2
<
1

4
G
1
(s) = K (K > 1)
G
2
(s) =
2
s + 1
G
3
(s) =
1

3
s + 1
G
4
(s) =
1

4
s + 1
M
db

2
1

4
1

3
G
1
G
2
G
3
G
4
G

+90
o
0
o
90
o
0
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 16/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Black - G en eralit es
On se base sur la fonction de transfert en B.O. :
G(s) =
K
s
l
_
1 +b
1
s +. . . +b
m
s
m
1 +a
1
s +. . . +a
n
s
n
_
Diagramme de black : Relation entre M() en (db) et () en (
o
)
M() = f [()]
Le diagramme de Black est trac e pour variant de 0 ` a
Le diagramme de Black est directement d eduit du diagramme de Bode.
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 17/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Black en basses fr equences
M
db
M
db
M
db
M
db

o
= 0 = 0 = 0

= 0
90
o
180
o
270
o
l = 0 l = 1 l = 2 l = 3
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 18/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Black en hautes fr equences
M
db
M
db
M
db

o
= = =
90
o
180
o
270
o
n+ l m = 1 n+ l m = 2 n+ l m = 3
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 19/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Black dun el ement int egral
G() =
K

M() = 20 log
10
|G()|
= 20 log
10
(K) 20 log
10
()
() = arg(G())
= arctan(K) arctan
_

0
_
= 90
o
si = 0 M() = , () = 90
o
si = M() = , () = 90
o
si = K/ M() = 0, () = 90
o
M
db

o
= 0
=
90
o
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 20/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Black dun el ement diff erentiel
G() = K
M() = 20 log
10
|G()|
= 20 log
10
K
() = arg(G())
= arctan
K
0
= +90
o
si = 0 M() = , () = 90
o
si = M() = , () = 90
o
si = 1/K M() = 0, () = 90
o
M
db

o
=
= 0
+90
o
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 21/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Black dun el ement du premier ordre - 1
G() =
K
1 +
M() = 20 log
10
(K) 20 log
10

1 +
2

2
() = arctan()
si = 0 M() = 20 log
10
(K)
() = 0
si = M() = , () = 90
o
si =

K
2
1

M() = 0
() = arctan(

K
2
1)
M
db

o
= 0
=
90
o
K

c
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 22/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Black dun el ement du premier ordre - 2
G() = K(1 +)
M() = 20 log
10
(K) + 20 log
10

1 +
2

2
() = arctan()
si = 0 M() = 20 log
10
(K)
() = 0
si = M() = , () = 90
o
si =

1 K
2
K
M() = 0
() = arctan(

1 K
2
K
)
M
db

o
= 0
=
+90
o
K
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 23/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Black dun el ement du deuxi` eme ordre - 1
G() =
K
1 + 2

n
+
_

n
_
2
=
K
_
1

2
n
_
+ 2

n
M() = 20 log
10
(K) 20 log
10
_
_

_
1

2
n
_
2
+ 4
2

2

2
n
_
_
() = arctan
_
_
_
_
_
2

n
1

2
n
_
_
_
_
_
si = 0 M() = 20log
10
(K)
() = 0
si = M() = , () = 180
o
M
db

o
= 0
=
180
o
K

c
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 24/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Black dun el ement du deuxi` eme ordre - 2
G() = K
__
1

2
n
_
+ 2

n
_
M() = 20 log
10
(K) + 20 log
10
_
_

_
1

2
n
_
2
+ 4
2

2

2
n
_
_
() = arctan
_
_
_
_
_
2

n
1

2
n
_
_
_
_
_
si = 0 M() = 20log
10
(K)
() = 0
si = M() = , () = 180
o
M
db

= 0
=
+180
o
K
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 25/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Nyquist
D enition Cest la partie imaginaire de G()
en fonction de la partie r eelle de G()
Fonction de transfert en boucle ouverte
G() = R
e
() + I
m
() = Me
()
Lien entre Nyquist, Bode et Black
Nyquist = I
m
() = f [R
e
()]
Bode = 1 : M
db
= f()
2 :
o
= f()
Black = M() = ()
I
m
()
R
e
()
= 0
=
()
M
(

c
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 26/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Fonction de transfert en boucle ouverte
G(s) =
K
s
l
_
1 +b
1
s +. . . +b
m
s
m
1 +a
1
s +. . . +a
n
s
n
_
Diagramme de Nyquist en basses fr equences
I
m
R
e

=
0
l = 0
I
m
R
e
= 0 = 0
l = 1
I
m
R
e

=
0

=
0
l = 2
I
m
R
= 0 = 0
l = 3
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 27/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Nyquist en hautes fr equences
I
m
R
e
=
n +l m = 1
I
m
R
e
=
n +l m = 2
I
m
R
e
=
n +l m = 3
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 28/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Nyquist de l el ement int egral
Fonction de transfert
G(s) =
1
s
= G() =
1

=
1

si = 0 R
e
() = 0, I
m
() =
si = R
e
() = 0, I
m
() = 0
si =
1

R
e
() = 0, I
m
() = 1
I
m
R
e
= 0

Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 29/50


Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Nyquist dun el ement diff erentiel
Fonction de transfert
G(s) = s = G() =
si = 0 R
e
() = 0, I
m
() = 0
si = R
e
() = 0, I
m
() =
si =
1

R
e
() = 0, I
m
() = 1
I
m
R
e

=
0

Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 30/50


Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Nyquist dun el ement du premier ordre - 1
Fonction de transfert
G(s) =
1
1 +s
=
G() =
1
1 +
=
1
1 +
2

1 +
2

2
si = 0 = R
e
() = 1, I
m
() = 0
si = = R
e
() = 0, I
m
() = 0
si =
1

= R
e
() =
1
2
, I
m
() =
1
2
I
m
R
= 0

1
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 31/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Nyquist dun el ement du premier ordre - 2
Fonction de transfert
G(s) = 1 +s =
G() = 1 +
si = 0 = R
e
() = 1, I
m
() = 0
si = = R
e
() = 1, I
m
() =
si =
1

= R
e
() = 1, I
m
() = 1
I
m
R
=

=
0
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 32/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Nyquist dun el ement du deuxi` eme ordre - 1
Fonction de transfert
G(s) =

2
n
s
2
+ 2
n
s +
2
n
=
G() =
1

2
n
_
1

2
n
_
2
+
_
2

n
_
2

n
_
1

2
n
_
2
+
_
2

n
_
2
si = 0 = R
e
() = 1, I
m
() = 0
si = = R
e
() = 0, I
m
() = 0
si =
n
= R
e
() = 0, I
m
() =
1
2
I
m
R
= 0

n
1
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 33/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Diagramme de Nyquist dun el ement du deuxi` eme ordre - 2
Fonction de transfert
G(s) =
1

2
n
(s
2
+ 2
n
s +
2
n
) =
G() =
_
1

2
n
_
+ 2

n
si = 0 = R
e
() = 1, I
m
() = 0
si = = R
e
() = , I
m
() = +
si =
n
= R
e
() = 0, I
m
() = 2
I
m
R
=

=
0
1
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 34/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Stabilit e - Crit` ere de Nyquist

Equation caract eristique


1 +G(s)H(s) = 0
Crit` ere de stabilit e
N = Z-P
N = nombre dencerclements dans le sens horaire du point 1 +0
P = nombre de p oles ` a parties r eelles positives de G(s)H(s)
Z = nombre de z eros ` a parties r eelles positives de 1 +G(s)H(s)
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 35/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Interpr etation du crit` ere N=Z-P
Pour quun syst` eme soit stable, il faut que Z = 0
Si P = 0 pour obtenir un syst` eme stable on doit avoir Z = 0 et
donc N = P P encerclements de 1 +0 dans le sens
anti-horaire
Si P = 0 pour obtenir un syst` eme stable on doit avoir Z = 0
N = 0 aucun encerclement de 1 +0
Si on a un encerclement de 1 +0 dans le sens horaire
syst` eme instable
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 36/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Stabilit e par Nyquist : Exemple
Fonction de transfert en boucle ouverte :
B.O.
_

_
G(s)H(s) = K
1
s(3s + 1)(s + 1)
T() =
4K
(1 3
2
)
2
+ 16
2

K(1 3
2
)
(1 3
2
)
2
+ 16
3
stabilit e
_

_
I
m
() = 0 =
1

3
R
e
() > 1 K <
4
3
Les diagrammes sont en page suivante
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 37/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Crit` ere de stabilit e de Bode
1 = syst` eme stable
2 = syst` eme ` a la limite de stabilit e
3 = syst` eme instable
M
db
180
o

1
2
3
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 39/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Crit` ere de stabilit e de Nyquist simpli e
1 = syst` eme stable
2 = syst` eme ` a la limite de stabilit e
3 = syst` eme instable
I
m
R
e
1 2 3

1
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 40/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Crit` ere de stabilit e de Black
1 = syst` eme stable
2 = syst` eme ` a la limite de stabilit e
3 = syst` eme instable
M
db

o
1 2 3

1
180
o
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 41/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Abaques de Hall
Objectif : D eterminer la r eponse fr equentielle en boucle ferm ee ` a partir du
diagramme de Nyquist obtenu pour la boucle ouverte
I
m
R
e
M
i
M
j
I
m
R
e

j
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 42/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Abaques de Hall - Proc edure
Juxtaposer le diagramme de Nyquist du syst` eme en boucle ouverte sur
labaque
noter les valeurs des courbes equigain et equiphase passant par chaque
point dintersection
construire le diagramme de Nyquist du syst` eme en boucle ferm e
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 43/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Abaque de Black-Nichols
Objectif D eterminer la r eponse fr equentielle en boucle ferm ee ` a partir du
diagramme de Black obtenu pour la boucle ouverte
Phase en
o
G
a
i
n
e
n
d
b
2 db
6 db
12 db
150
o
90
o
30
o
0
+6
+12
+18
6
12
18
0
30 60 90 120 150 180 210
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 44/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Abaque de Black-Nichols - Proc edure
juxtaposer le diagramme de Black du syst` eme en boucle ouverte sur
labaque
noter les valeurs des courbes equigain et equiphase
passant par chaque point dintersection
construire le diagramme de Bode du syst` eme en boucle ferm ee
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 45/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Performances des syst` emes - Diagramme de Bode
0
180
o
M
db

ph

am

G =
1
|G(
am
)|
= + arg [G(
ph
)]
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 46/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Performances des syst` emes - Diagramme de Bode - suite
M
db

M
p

p
Facteur de Surtension

b
-
3
d
b
M
db

M
p

p
Bande passante
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 47/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Performances des syst` emes
A O

I
m
R
e
1
1
G =
1
OA
Nyquist
180
o
G

M
db

o
Black
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 48/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Performances des syst` emes
1
M
db

p
M
p
Nichols
1
I
m
R
e

p
M
p
Hall
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 49/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Conclusions

Etude de la r eponse fr equentielle


Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 50/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Conclusions

Etude de la r eponse fr equentielle


Pr esentation des diff erents diagrammes (Bode, Black, Nyquist)
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 50/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Conclusions

Etude de la r eponse fr equentielle


Pr esentation des diff erents diagrammes (Bode, Black, Nyquist)
Pr esentation des diff erents abaques (Black-Nichols, Hall)
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 50/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Conclusions

Etude de la r eponse fr equentielle


Pr esentation des diff erents diagrammes (Bode, Black, Nyquist)
Pr esentation des diff erents abaques (Black-Nichols, Hall)
D enition des diff erentes performances dans le domaine fr equentiel
Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 50/50
Copyright c 2003 by E.K. Boukas
Analyse frquentielle
Conclusions

Etude de la r eponse fr equentielle


Pr esentation des diff erents diagrammes (Bode, Black, Nyquist)
Pr esentation des diff erents abaques (Black-Nichols, Hall)
D enition des diff erentes performances dans le domaine fr equentiel

Etude de la stabilit e par le crit` ere de Nyquist


Syst` emes Asservis, 2004 p. 50/50