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2. Asamblri filetate 2.

Threaded assemblies

Asamblrile filetate demontabile sunt realizate cu ajutorul unor piese filetate conjugate, n figura 2.1 piesa 1, filetat la exterior, se numete urub, iar piesa 2, filetat la interior, se numete piuli. Elementul principal al urubului i piuliei este filetul.

The dismountable threaded assemblies can be effected by mating the adjoint threaded parts. As the fig.2.1 shows, the part 1 which is externally threaded is the screw and the part 2 which is internally threaded is the nut. The main element of the screw and nut is the thread.

l 2

Fig. 2.1 Dup rolul funcional, asamblrile filetate pot fi: -de fixare, cu sau fr strngere iniial; - de reglare, servind pentru fixarea poziiei relative a dou piese; -de micare, transformnd micarea de rotaie, imprimat obinuit urubului, n j micare de translaie pentru urub sau piuli; - de msurare. Asamblrile prin filet au rspndire larg n construcia de maini i, anume, peste 60% din piesele componente ale unei maini au filet. Clasificarea organelor filetate i tipizarea elementelor lor constructive sunt precizate n STAS 1450/1...5. Considering their funcional role, the threaded assemblies can be: - fastening assemblies, with or without iniial clamping; -adjusting threadea assemblies, which are intended to fasten the relative position of two parts; - motion assemblies which transform the rotation motion which is usually imparted1 to the screw or boit, into a translation motion of the screw or nut; - measuring assemblies. Threaded assemblies are widely used in mechanical engineering industry, i.e. more than 60% of the elements of a machine are threaded parts. The threaded parts and their elements are typified according to STAS 1450/1...5.

Elemente ale asamblrilor filetate


Filetul. Filetul este o nervur elicoidal pe o suprafa de revoluie cilindric sau conic la exterior n cazul urubului, i la interior, n cazul piuliei. Filetul se poate executa la aceeai valoare a diametrului mediu, cu pas mare, normal, i fin, nfurat spre dreapta sau, spre stnga n condiii funcionale deosebite. Fileturile pot

Elements of threaded assemblies


The thread. A screw thread is a helical ridge on a cylindrical or conical revolution surface. Externai threads are threads on bolts, screws and stud bolts. Internai threads are those in nuts and tapped holes. The thread can be manufactured at the same value of the pitch diameter, having heavy, normal or fine pitch

avea unul sau mai multe nceputuri.

thread and the direction to right or left, under special operating conditions. One or more starts can be provided on a thread. The most used screw threads in this field are as foilows:

Fileturile cu cea mai mare utilizare n domeniul de fa sunt: -filetul metric ISO; -fitetul Whitworth, n inci, cu unghiul ntre flancuri de 55; -filetul n inci, cu unghiul ntre flancuri de 60; -filetul pentru uruburi pentru tabl; -filetul pentru uruburi pentru lemn. Filetul metric ISO. Elementele geometrice ale filaturilor metrice ISO sunt prezentate n tabelul 2.1 i fig. 2.2.

-ISO metric threads; - inch Whitworth threads, flank angle of 55; - inch threads, flank angle of 60; - tapping screw thread; - wood screw thread.
ISO metric threads.The basic elements of the ISO metric threads are to be found in the table 2.1 and fig. 2.2. Tabelul/ Table 2.1

Elementele geometrice/ Basic elements


Profilul/Thread form Unghiul profilului/Half-angle of thread Pasul/Thread pito h Numrul de nceputuri/No.of starts Diametrul exterior/Major diameter Diametrul interior/Minor diameter Diametrul mediu/Pitch diameter nlimea teoretic/Height of fundamental triangle nlimea total/Total heiqht Unghiul de nfsurare/Winding angle Sensul de nfsurare/Winding direction

Simbolul/ Designation
a P i

d; D di;Di d2; D2 H Hi
/^m

dreapta/right, stnga/left

Fig. 2.2 Profilul teoretic al filetului este trasat cu linie subire i este de nlime H .Profilul de baz al filetului este profilul teoretic al filetului fa de care se definete profilul urubului i al piuliei, ntre vrful filetului piuliei i fundul filetului urubului exist un joc radial H/16. Fundul filetului urubului este rotunjit, micornd efectul de concentrare al tensiunilor. The theoretical thread profile is drawn in thin line and it is of H height. The basic thread profile is the theoretical thread profile in respect to which the screw and nut profiles are defined. Between the nut thread crest and screw thread root there is a radial clearance H/16 . The screw thread root is rounded, thus reducing the effect of stress concentration.

STAS 6564 reglementeaz diametrele i paii fileturilor metrice folosite la fabricarea organelor de asamblare filetate. Paii pot fi normali sau fini n funcie de felul asamblrii pe care dorim s o realizm. Tabelul 2.2 cuprinde diametrele nominale i paii fileturilor ISO cu dimensiunile limit pentru organe de asamblare de uz general conform STAS 6564 i ST AS 8164.

The metric threads diameters and pitches for the threaded assembling parts are in accordance with STAS 6564. Depending on the type of assembly we want to carry out, we can select threaded assemblings with normal or fine thread pitches. Table 2.2 shows the nominal diameters and pitches of theJSO threads with limit dimensions for fasteners of general use, according to STAS 6564 and STAS 8164.

Tabelul/ Table 2.2


Filet/Thread size, d M 1,6 M 1,8 M 2,0 M 2,2 M 2,5 M 3,0 M 3,5 M 4,0 M 4,5 M 5,0 M 6,0 M 7,0 M 8,0 M10.0 P D=d 0.35 0,35 0,4 0,45 0,45 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,75 0,8 1 (0,75) 1 1,25 1 1.5 1,25 (D M 12,0 1,75 (1,5) 1.25 (1) M14.0 M16.0 2 1,5 2 1,5 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 6,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 8,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 12,000 12_,000 12,000 12,000 14,000 14,000 16,000 1 6,000 Dimensiuni nominale D2 = d2 1,373 1,573 1,740 1,908 2,208 2,675 3,110 3,545 __ 4,013 4,480 5,350 5,513 6,350 7,188 7,350 9,026 9,188 9,350 10,863 11,026 11,1881 11,350 12,701 13,026 14.701 15,026 Dl=di 1,221 1,421 1,567 1,713 2,013 2,459 2,850 3,242 3,688 4,134 4,917 5,188 5,917
|

Filet/Thread size, d | M18.0

P D=d 2,5 (2) 1,5

Dimensiuni nominale D2 = d2 16,376 16,701 17,026 18,376 18,701 19,026 20,376 20,701 22,051 22,701 23,026 25,051 25,701 ^26,026 27.727 28,701 29,026 30,727 31,701 32,026 33,402 34,051 34,701 35,026 36,402 37,051 Di=di 15,294 15,835 16,376 17,294 17,835 18,376 19,294 19,835 20,752 21,835 22,376 23,752 24,835 25,376 26,211 27,835 28,376 29,211 30,835 31,376 31,670 32,752 33,835 34,376 34,670 35,752 18,000 18,000 18,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 22,000 22,000 24,000 24,000 24,000 27,000 27,000 27.000 30,000 30,000 30,000 33,000 33,000 33,000 36,000 36,000 36,000 36,000 39,000 39,000

M20.0

2,5 (2) 1,5

M22.0 M24.0

2,5 1,5 3 2 (1,5)

M27.0

3 2 (1,5)

_6S647 M30.0

6,917 8,376 9,647 8,917 10,106 10,376 10,647 10,917 1 1 ,825 12,376 13,835 14,376

3,5 2 (1,5)

M 33,0

3,5 2 (1.5)

M36.0

4 3 (2) (1,5)

M39.0

4 3

Din geometria profilului rezult: H = 0,86603 P H 1= 5/8 H = 0,54127 P D = d

From the geometry of the profile. the following formulas result: H = 0,86603 P
H!

= 5/8 H = 0,54127 P

D=d

D1 d1 D 1,08254 P
D 2 = d 2 = D-0,64952 P Filetul Whitworth are profilul de forma unui triunghi isoscel cu unghiul la vrf de 55. Filetul n inci cu unghiul ntre flancuri de 60 este filetul specific organelor de asamblare americane.

D1 d1 D 1,08254 P
D 2 = d 2 = D - 0,64952 P

The profile of the Withworth thread is an isosceles triangle. The angle formed by the two equal sides measures 55i. The 60 flank angle inch thread is the specific thread on the assembling parts manufactured in the U.S.A.

Filetul pentru uruburi pentru tabl are unghiul ntre flancuri de 60. Dimensiunile filetului pentru uruburi pentru tabl sunt date n tabelul 2.3.
Simbolul filetului/ Thread symbol P
d 1m ax d1min d2max d2min Cmax Ymax ST2.2

The thread for tapping screw nas an flank angle of 60 Dimensions for tapping screw thread are in table 2.3. Tabelul/ Table 2.3

ST2.6

ST2.9

ST3.3

ST3.5

ST3.9

ST4.2

ST4.8

ST5.5

ST6.3

ST8

0,8

2,24
2,1

1,63 1,52
0,1 2

0,9 2,57 2,43 1,90 1,80 0,1 2,3

1,1 2,9 2,76 2,18 2,08 0,1 2,6

1,3 3,3 3,12 2,39 2,29 0,1 3

1,3 3,53 3,35 2,64 2,51 0,1 3,2

1,3 3,91 3,73 2,92 2,77 0,1 3,5

1,4 4,22 4,04 3,10 2,95 0,1 3,7

1,6 4,8 4,62 3,58 3,43 0,15 4,3

1,8 5,46 5,28 4,17 3,99 0,15 5

1,8 6,25 6,03 4,88 4,70 0,15 6

2,1 8 7,78 6,20 5,99 0,15 7,5

Fileturile metrice ISO pentru organe de asamblare dau: - ajustaje cu joc; - ajustaje intermediare; - ajustaje cu strngere. Ajustajele cu joc sunt cele mai des ntlnite, asigurnd o nurubare suficient i o asamblare uoar, n urmtoarea combinaie; H/g, H/h, G/h. n STAS 2700/2 pentru executarea fileturilor metrice ISO ale organelor de asamblare de uz general se stabilesc cmpurile de toleran: 6H/6g, pentru-execuiile de grad A, i B, i 7H/8g, pentru execuiile de grad C. STAS 8164 stabilete dimensiunile limit ale fileturilor metrice ISO pentru organe de asamblare de uz general, cu diametre cuprinse ntre 1,6 i 39 mm i, cu pai normali sau fini i care formeaz un ajustaj 6H/6g. n cazul fileturilor protejate cu acoperiri de protecie, toleranele i abaterile limit se aplic produsului nainte de acoperire. Dup acoperire, limitele la maximum de material nu trebuie s depeasc.n nici un punct, limitele corespunztoare poziiilor cmpurilor de toleran H sau h. Poziiile cmpului de toleran n situaia ajustajelor cu joc, n combinaia 6H/6g, sunt prezentate n fig. 2.3.

The ISO metric screw threads for assembling parts can be mounted in the following types of fit: - clearance fit; - intermediate fit; - interference fit. The most frequently used are the clearance fits, which ensure an adequate tightening and an easy mating in the following combinations: H/g, H/h, G/h. The ISO metric threads of general use can be manufactured to the following tolerance classes estatHished by STAS 2700/2: 6H/6g - for product grades A and B and 7H/8g for product grade C.The limit dimensions of the ISO metric threads are in accordance with STAS 8164 for fasteners of general use with diameters of 1.6 to 39 mm, normal or fine pitch, which mates in the 6H/6g fit. In case of coated threads, the product shouid be manufactured within the tolerance class and limit deviations before coating. After coating, the limits of size shouid not exceed at any point the corresponding limits of the position of tolerance classes H or h. The positions of tolerance classes in case of clearance tolerances, in 6H/6g combination, are shown in fig.2.3.

Profil nominal/ Nominal profile

Fig. 2.3

Forma fundului filetului. Profilul real al fundului filetului interior i exterior nu trebuie s depeasc, n nici un punct, profilul nominal al filetului. n mod deosebit, pentru filetul exterior se impun condiii suplimentare, i anume, raza minim a fundului filetului exterior se calculeaz n funcie de P, astfel:
Rmin = 0,1 25 P

Thread root form. The actual profile of the internai and externai screw thread should not exceed at any point the nominal thread profile. Especially for the externai thread, additional condiiona should be imposed, i.e. the minimum root radius is to be computed as function of P as follows:
Rmin = 0,125 P

n fig. 2.4 sunt definite trunchierile maxime TM i minime Tm, conform STAS 8165, n condiiile cmpului de toleran 6g, cu abateri limit es:

Fig 2.4 shows the maximum TM and minimum Tm truncations according to STAS 8165, for the tolerance class 6g with limit deviations es:

Sistemul de fore n asamblrile filetate


Strngerea piuliei unei asamblri filetate sub aciunea unei fore F se poate echivala cu deplasarea pe un plan nclinat cu un unghi /J m a unei greuti concentrate de aceeai mrime F. n aceste condiii momentul necesar pentru strngerea piuliei, lund n considerare frecarea piuliei pe suprafaa de reazem, se poate calcula cu urmtoarea relaie:

Load systems in threaded assemblies


Tightening a nut in a threaded assembly under the action of a load A can be assumed to the displacement on a pm angle inclined plane of a compressed weight of the same magnitude F. In these conditions and considering the friction of the nut on the bearing surface, the moment necessary to tighten the nut can be calculated using the following equation:

dg - diametrul gurii de trecere, Dw - diametrul de aezare al piuliei, 2 - coeficientul de frecare dintre piuli i suprafaa de reazem. Pentru dimensionri uzuale ale filetului metric se poate calcula momentul necesar la cheie, utiliznd formula: Mt = 0,08 F d Condiia de autofrnare a piuliei este ndeplinit dac aceasta nu se desface sub sarcin, micarea piuliei producndu-se numai dac se aplic o for tangenial pozitiv Ft, orientat n sensul de micare. Condiia de autofrnare este, deci pentru mbinrile solicitate static, urmtoarea:

dg - passing hole diameter Dw - nut bearing diameter fi2 - coefficient of friction between nut and bearing surface For usual dimensioning of metric thread, the tightening moment can be calculated with the equation: M t = 0,08 F d Nut prevailing lorque condition is accomplished if the nut doesn't release under load, its motion occurring only if a positive tangenial load Ft with the same direction as the motion is applied. Therefore, the prevailing torque condition for the statically strained assemblies is the following:

Pm<<p'

>m<>p'

Caracteristici mecanice orientative, recomandate organelor de asamblare filetate se dau in tabelul 2.5.

The mechanical characteristics recommended to the threaded assembling parts are given in table 2.5.
Tabelul/ Table 2.5

Simbolul clasei de calitate/ | Designation of the property class umb/Screw Piuli/Nut

r
MPa

0, 2 MPa

Grad/ Grade

Exemple de materiale standardizate/ Examples of standardized materials OL34, OL37

3.6 4.6

300
400

180 240 320 300 400

4.8 5.6 5.8 6.8 6 600

A, B, C

OL37, OL42, OL44, OLC10, AUT20, AUT20M OLC35, OLC25, OLC15, AUT30

500

A, B

OLC35 normalizat OL52, OLC45, OLC60 18MoCrNi06, 15MoCrNi12, 20O8 41VMoCr 17, 34MoCrNi15, 40MnCrNi15, 25CrNiW10 9CrNi35 35CrNiS13

480

8.8 9.8

800 900

640 720 900

10.9 12.9 14.9

9 10
12 14

1000 1200 1400

1080 1260