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DRUG ORDER (Generic name, brand name, classification, dosage, route, frequency) Generic name:

Zinc Sulfate

MECHANISM OF ACTION Participate in synthesis and stabilization of protein and nucleic acids in subcellular and membrane transport system

INDICATIONS

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ADVERSE EFFECT OF THE DRUG


Abdominal pain Dyspepsia Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Gastric irritation Gastritis Prolonged use may cause copper deficiency (e.g. sideroblasticanae mia, neutropenia)

NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES/ PRECAUTIONS Explain need for zinc administration to family Report signs of hyper sensitivity

To prevent individual trace element deficiencies in patient receiving long term total parenteral nutrition

increased risk of developing a severe and potentially lifethreatening allergic reaction

Brand name: E-zinc Classifications: Vitamins and minerals Dosage: 1 ml Route: PO Frequency: OD

Improper use of zinc supplements with normal zinc levels may result in zinc toxicity

DRUG ORDER (Generic name, brand name, classification, dosage, route, frequency) Generic name:
Ampicillin

MECHANISM OF ACTION

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NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES/ PRECAUTIONS

Brand name: Classifications: Abtibiotic (penicillin) Dosage: 250 mg Route: IVTT Frequency: q6h

Inhibits bacterial cell Used for wall synthesis treating bacterial by binding to one infection. or more of the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs); which in turn inhibits the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls, thus inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis. Bacteria eventually lyse due to ongoing activity of cell wall autolytic enzymes (autolysins and murein hydro lases) while cell wall assembly is arrested.

Hypersensitivity to Ampicillin, any component of the formulation, or other penicillins.

Nausea Vomiting Loss of appetite Diarrhea Abdominal pain Rash Itching Headache Confusion Dizziness

Drug may cause GI disturbances. Because food may interfere with absorption, give 1 to 2 hours before meals or 2 to 3 hours after. If the patient develops rash, notify the doctor and expect to discontinue the drug.

DRUG ORDER (Generic name, brand name, classification, dosage, route, frequency) Generic name:
Probiotics

MECHANISM OF ACTION

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ADVERSE EFFECT OF THE DRUG

NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES/ PRECAUTIONS Those given to infants, however, should be specially formulated for children and should not be given to anyone whose immune system is compromised. Always consult a physician before giving probiotics as a health supplement.

Brand name: Hexbio Classifications: antidiarrheal microorganisms Dosage: 1 sachet. Route: PO Frequency: OD

block pathogenic bacteria effects by producing bactericidal substances and competing with pathogens and toxins for adherence to the intestinal epithelium regulate immune responses by enhancing the innate immunity and modulating pathogen-induced inflammation regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis by promoting intestinal epithelial cell survival, enhancing barrier function, and stimulating protective responses.

Dietary supplement

Patients at risk of opportunistic infections and in those with badly damaged GI tracts.

Loose stools flatulence bloating abdominal pain

DRUG ORDER (Generic name, brand name, classification, dosage, route, frequency) Generic name: Oresol Brand name: Classifications: Dosage: Route: PO Frequency:

MECHANISM OF ACTION

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ADVERSE EFFECT OF THE DRUG

NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES/ PRECAUTIONS

is an expectorant which increases the output of phlegm (sputum) and bronchial secretions by reducing adhesiveness and surface tension.

Prevention and treatment of water and electrolytes lost during diarrhea with mild to moderate levels.

Television urinary or lower urinary. Deaths with symptoms of severe shock. Severe diarrhea (diarrhea when excess body weight 30ml/kg per hour). Vomiting and prolonged. Code intestine, listed intestine, intestinal perforation. Patients sensitive to components of the drug.

No side effects/ adverse effect observed

Give the child more fluids than usual Give the child plenty of food to prevent under nutrition Take the child to the health worker if the child does not get better in 3 days

DRUG ORDER (Generic name, brand name, classification, dosage, route, frequency) Generic name: Paracetamol Brand name: Classifications: antipyretics Dosage: Route: PO Frequency: q 4 hours

MECHANISM OF ACTION

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NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES/ PRECAUTIONS

Reduces fever and relieves the muscular pain characteristic of influenza. This is a nontoxic drug that has excellent gastric tolerance and is increasingly accepted and used. Phenylephrine reduces congestion, edema and secretions that cause nasal obstruction, and provides a broncho dilatory effect without increasing cardiac rate. Carbetapentane fights against cough, and vitamins B1 and C aid in strengthening organic defense mechanisms.

Diseases manifesting Hypersensitivity to the with pain and fever: preparation and in headache, toothache, severe liver diseases. mild and moderate postoperative and injury pain, high temperature, infectious diseases and chills (acute catarrhal inflammations of the upper respiratory tract, flu, small-pox, parotitis, etc.).

In rare cases hypersensitivity reactions, predominantly skin allergy (itching and rash), may appear. Long-term treatment with high doses may cause a toxic hepatitis with following initial symptoms: nausea, vomiting, sweating, and discomfort. Occasionally a gastrointestinal discomfort may be seen.

In children, dont exceed five doses in24 hours Give drug with food if GI upset occurs. Discontinue drug if hypersensitivity reactions occur. Treatment of overdose: Monitor serum levels regularly, Acetyl cysteine should be available as a specific antidote; basic life support measures may be necessary

DRUG ORDER (Generic name, brand name, classification, dosage, route, frequency) Generic name: Metronidazole Brand name: Flagyl Classifications: Dosage: 4 ml Route: PO Frequency: TID

MECHANISM OF ACTION

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Direct-acting trichomonacide and amebicide that works inside and outside the intestine. Its thought to enter the cells microorganisms that contain nitro reductase, forming unstable compounds that bind to DNA and inhibit synthesis, causing cell death.

For Intestinal amoebiasis, Bacterial infections caused by anaerobic microorganisms, Clostridium difficcileassociated with diarrhea and colitis. Reduce post operative anaerobic infection following surgery.

Metronidazole is contraindicated in blood dyscrasias, hypersensitivity, certain serious neurological diseases, alcohol, severe hepatic failure, pregnancy especially during the first trimester and lactation.

CNS: headache, seizure, ataxia, dizziness, syncope, in coordination, confusion, Irritability, depression, weakness, insomnia C.V: flattened Twave, edema, flushing, hrombophlebitis, after I.V infusion EENT: rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis G.I: nausea, abdominal cramping or pain, stomatitis, epigastric distress

Do not give by IV bolus. Monitor liver function test results carefully in elderly pt. Observe pt. for edema, especially if hes receiving orticosteroid; Flagyl IV RTU may cause sodium retention record number of stools and character when drug is used to treat amoebiasis

DRUG ORDER (Generic name, brand name, classification, dosage, route, frequency) Generic name: Potassium Chloride Brand name: Kalium durule Classifications: Electrolyte, Pregnancy Category C Dosage: Route: Frequency:

MECHANISM OF ACTION

INDICATION S

CONTRAINDICATIONS

ADVERSE EFFECT OF THE DRUG

NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES/ PRECAUTIONS

Supplemental potassium in the form of high potassium food or potassium chloride may be able to restore normal potassium levels.

Prevention and correction of potassium deficiency; when associated with alkalosis, use potassium chloride; when associated with acidosis, use potassium acetate, bicarbona te, citrate, or gluconate IV: Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias due to cardiac glycosides

Contraindicated with allergy to tartrazine, aspirin (tartrazine is found in some preparations marketed as Kaon-Cl, Klor-Con); severe renal impairment with oliguria, anuria, azotemia; untreated Addisons disease; hyperkalemia; adynamia episodica hereditaria; acute dehydration; heat cramps; GI disorders that delay passage in the GI tract. Use cautiously with cardiac disorders, especially if treated with digitalis, pregnancy, lactation.

Dermatologic: Rash GI: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, GI obstruction, GI bleeding, GI ulceration or perforation Hematologic: Hyper kalemiaincreased serum K+, ECG changes (peaking of T waves, loss of P waves, depression of ST segment, prolongation of QTc interval) Local: Tissue sloughing, local necrosis, local phlebitis, and venospasm with injection

Monitor pulse, BP during therapy. Assess for signs polyuria, and symptoms of fatigue, and polydipsia) hypokalemia arrhythmia, hyperkalemia. (weakness,

This medicine must be completely dissolved in at least one-half glass (4 ounces) of cold water or juice to reduce its possible stomach-irritating or laxative effect.

Do not use salt substitutes, eat low-sodium foods, especially some breads and canned foods, or drink low-sodium milk unless you are told to do so by your doctor, since these products may contain potassium. It is important to read the labels carefully on all low-sodium food products .

Check with your doctor before starting any physical exercise program, especially if you are out of condition and are taking any other medicine. Exercise and certain medicines may increase the amount of potassium in the blood.

Check with your doctor at once if you notice blackish stools or other signs of stomach or intestinal bleeding. This medicine may cause such a condition to become worse, especially when taken in tablet form.

DRUG ORDER (Generic name, brand name, classification, dosage, route, frequency) Generic name: Ranitidine Brand name: Zantac Classifications: Gastrointestinal agent; Antisecretoy (H2Receptor antagonist) Dosage: 10mg Route: PO Frequency: q 8h

MECHANISM OF ACTION Potent anti-ulcer drug that competitively and reversibly inhibits histamine action at H2-receptor sites on parietal cells, thus blocking gastric acid secretion. Indirectly reduces pepsin secretion but appears to have minimal effect on fasting and postprandial serum gastrin concentrations or secretion of gastric intrinsic factor or mucus

INDICATIONS

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ADVERSE EFFECT OF THE DRUG

NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES/ PRECAUTIONS


Assess patient for epigastric or abdominal pain and frank or occult blood in the stool, emesis, or gastric aspirate. Nurse should know that it may cause false-positive results for urine protein; test with sulfosalicylic acid. Inform patient that it may cause drowsiness or dizziness. Inform patient that increased fluid and fiber intake may minimize constipation. Advise patient to report onset of black, tarry stools; fever, sore throat; diarrhea; dizziness; rash; confusion; or hallucinations to health care professional promptly. Inform patient that medication may temporarily cause stools and tongue to appear gray black.

Prophylaxis of stress ulceration and recurrent hemorrhage from peptic ulcer. Short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer; maintenance therapy for duodenal ulcer patient after healing of acute ulcer; treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease; short-term treatment of active, benign gastric ulcer; treatment of pathologic GI hypersecretory conditions (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, systemic mastocytosis, and postoperative hypersecretion); heartburn.

Potent anti-ulcer drug that Competitively and reversibly inhibits histamine action at H2-receptor site son parietal cells, thus blocking gastric acid secretion. Safe use during pregnancy or lactation is note established Headache, malaise, dizziness, mental confusion, agitation, depression, hallucinations in older adult. Constipation ,nausea, abdominal pain Potential toxicity results from decreased clearance(elimination)and therefore prolonged action; greatest in the older adult patients or those with hepatic or renal dysfunction. Be alert for early signs of hepato toxicity; jaundice (dark urine, pruritus, yellow slera.)

CNS: Confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, hallucinations, headache

CV: Arrhythmias GI: Altered taste, black tongue, constipation, dark stools, diarrhea, drug-induced hepatitis, nausea

GU: Decreased sperm count, impotence ENDO: Gynecomastia HEMATO: Agranulocytosis, Aplastic Anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia

LOCAL: Pain at IM site MISC: Hypersensitivity reactions, vasculitis