Sunteți pe pagina 1din 28

Chapter 3: Amino acids and the primary structure of proteins. What do proteins do?

They are the tools of the cell. Tools must have the correct shape or they will not function. Functions: 1. Enzymes (biological catalysts) 2. Bind molecules for storage & transport O2 binds to Hemoglobin. 3. Support and shape of cells: Tubulin, collagen and actin. 4. Mechanical work: flagella, muscle movement, movement of chromosomes. 5. Transcription and translation. 6. Regulation: hormones and hormone receptors.

1. General properties of amino acids. 2. Chirality 3. The 20 amino acids. 4. Ionization of amino acids.

1. General properties of amino acids. E R | NH3+ C COO| H R = H; glycine H | NH3+ C COO| H


Fischer projection.

Chirality Alanine F R = CH3; alanine CH3 | NH3+ C COO| H


From Campbell and Farrell


From Campbell & Farrell Cysteine

3. The 20 amino acids. Know these. Amino acids

Nonpolar side chains

Polar side chains






Nonpolar - aromatic

Nonpolar aliphatic - hydrocarbons

Aliphatic - S containing.

Disulfide bonds.

The odd one.

Polar: positively-charged

Polar: negatively-charged

Polar: uncharged


Amino acid derivatives

Ionization of the amino acids

-soionic point

- Isoelectric point.