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Asociatia Catinca MariaCercetare a Centrului pentru studiul Autismului si al Afectiunilor Asociate arata ca terapia hiperbarica cu oxygen este ineficienta

in cazul copiilor cu autism O noua cercetare a CARD (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.) pune intr-o lumina inedita efectele terapiei hiperbarice cu oxigen (HBOT) aplicata copiilor cu autism si afectiuni asociate. Studiul demonstreaza ca HBOT, constand in aplicarea unei concentratii de 24% oxygen la o presiune de 1,3 atmosfere, nu are efecte semnificative asupra simptomelor autismului. Studiul, publicat in numarul curent al Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, a fost condus de catre Doreen Granpeesheh, PhD, BCBA-D; Jonathan Tarbox, PhD, BCBA-D; Dennis R. Dixon, PhD; Arthur E. Wilke; Michael S. Allen, PsyD; James Jeffrey Bradstreet, MD, MD (H), FAAFP. HBOT este o terapie a simptomelor autistice recent popularizata iar scopul acestui studiu, un test dublu-orb placebo-controlat, a constat in testarea ipotezei ca terapia HBOT are efecte benefice asupra simptomelor ASD. Prin acest test randomizat s-a comparat HBOT prin aplicarea oxigenului 24% la presiune de 1,3 atmosfere, in 18 cazuri de copii cu autism, fata de placebo la 16 copii cu autism. Pentru evaluarea efectelor tratamentului s-au facut masuratori prin observatii directe a comportamentelor autistice si deasemenea teste psihologice standardizate de evaluare. Cercetatorii nu au observat nici o diferenta intre cele doua grupuri, HBOT si placebo), dupa masuratorile efectuate, ceea ce demonstreaza ca HBOT prin aplicarea a 24% oxygen la o presiune de 1,3 atmosfere nu duce la imbunatatirea semnificativa a niciunui symptom al autismului. CARD are reputatia uneia dintre cele mai mari si mai experimentate organizatii din lume care se ocupa eficient de terapia autismului, a sindromului Asperger, PDD-NOS si a afectiunilor asociate. CARD urmeaza principiile analizei comportamentale aplicate si dezvolta planuri individualizate de tratament pentru copii din toata lumea. Sursa: Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc, Medical News Today Like this: 2 Rspunsuri la Cercetare a Centrului pentru studiul Autismului si al Afectiunilor Asociate arata ca terapia hiperbarica cu oxygen este ineficienta in cazul copiilor cu autism r r

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Dr. Ion Bogdan Cristian spune: mai 10, 2010 la 9:29 pm | Rspunde Oxigenarea hiperbara este o terapie recunoscuta stiintific care foloseste oxigenul pur, 100%, la presiuni ridicate de regula peste 2,4 bari. 1,3 bari inseamna ca o scufundare intr-un bazin de 3 metrii adincime (apa), 2,4 sau mai mult inseamna adincimi de peste 14 metri (apa). 24% oxigen este un amestec asemanator aerului (20,7%) iar folosirea acestui amestec, chiar si in conditiile unei presiuni crescute NU REPREZINTA OXIGENARE HIPERBARA, care necesita folosirea oxigenului pur. Este ca si cum ati incerca sa comparati un tratament efectuat cu 1 milion de unitati de penicilina cu unul efectuat cu 10 unitati de penicilina, apoi sa concluzionati ca penicilina n-are nici un efect! Studiul prezentat este echivalent cu o scufundare recreationala intr-un bazin de 3 metri adincime, faptul ca nu are efecte terapeutice este oarecum de inteles, altfel ar insemna ca scafandreria recreationala ar fi una dintre cele mai interesante metode terapeutice.

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mmarialj spune: mai 11, 2010 la 4:41 am | Rspunde Domnule doctor, va multumesc pentru comentariu, este interesant ceea ce scrieti, voi incerca sa aflu care sunt conditiile in care se aplica aceasta terapie copiilor cu autism in centrele accesibile noua (din Romania, Bulgaria etc)

Terapia medicamentoasa de chelare-terapie sigura si eficienta in cazul copiilor cu autism

Doua studii publicate de Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine in numarul din octombrie al revistei BMC Clinical Pharmacology au analizat efectele administrarii orale a acidului dimercaptosuccinic (DMSA), un compus aprobat de FDA pentru tratarea intoxicatiei cu plumb si utilizat in aceste studii pentru inlaturarea efectelor toxice ale metalelor grele in cazul copiilor cu autism. In aceste studii DMSA a fost administrat unui numar de 65 de copii cu autism cu varstele cuprinse intre 3 si 8 ani pentru a i se studia efectele. S-a observat ca DMSA a crescut semnificativ excretia unor metale grele, inclusiv a plumbului a carui excretie a crescut de 10 ori. Din punct de vedere al sigurantei administrarii DMSA, concluzia a aratat absenta oricarui efect advers si deasemenea absenta oricarui efect asupra functiei hepatice si renale. De mare interes a fost descoperirea neasteptata ca terapia cu DMSA are un efect important asupra nivelurilor de glutation. Glutationul este o peptida cu rol principal in mecanismul de aparare a organismului impotriva acumularii de metale grele iar nivelurile sale erau anormale la inceputul studiilor. Administrarea de DMSA doar pentru 3 zile a normalizat valorile glutationului pentru minim 1-2 luni in aproape toate cazurile. Terapia cu DMSA a aratat posibile efecte promitatoare si in reducerea unor simptome ale autismului, dezvoltarea abilitatilor cognitive, sociale si de limbaj. Totusi, pentru confirmarea acestor observatii, este nevoie de un studiu randomizat, dublu-orb, placebo controlat. Cercetarea a fost condusa de Matthew Baral, N.D., seful departamentului de pediatrie si profesor asociat de pediatrie la Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine (SCNM) si James B. Adams, Ph.D., profesor adjunct in Divizia de Stiinte Clinice a SCNM si Science Director al Autism Research Institute. Dr. Matthew Baral spune ca metalele toxice reprezinta o problema comuna in cazul autismului iar eu, personal, am observat beneficiile tratamentului cu DMSA in multe dintre cazurile mele. Sper ca rezultatele acestui studiu sa raspunda intrebarii multor medici si anume daca chelarea este sigura si eficienta, raspunsul fiind categoric da. Prof. James Adams completeaza:Acest studiu demonstreaza ca terapia cu DMSA este sigura si eficienta si ca aceasta terapie trebuie luata in considerare in cazul copiilor cu autism care prezinta niveluri ridicate de metale toxice. Sursa: traducere de pe Medical News Today, Autism Research Institute ATEC-test de evaluare a eficientei terapiilor aplicate in autism ATEC (Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist) este un test scurt si simplu de completat de catre parinti si/sau specialisti din cand in cand (de exemplu lunar) si al carui rezultat ne indica in comparatie cu cel obtinut anterior daca terapia sau terapiile aplicate dau rezultate. Cu cat scorul obtinut este mai mic cu atat afectarea copilului este mai usoara. Testul consta in 4 subteste: Comunicare verbala/Limbaj (14 intrebari), Sociabilitate (20 intrebari), Dezvoltare senzoriala si cognitiva (18 intrebari) si Sanatate generala/Dezvoltare fizica/Comportament (25 intrebari). Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) was designed to assist parents, physicians and researchers to evaluate virtually any treatment for autism. The Autism Research Institute (ARI) has developed this convenient no-cost Internet scoring procedure that will calculate four subscale scores and a total score from the ATEC. The scores are weighted according to the response and the corresponding subscale. The higher the subscale and total scores, the more impaired the subject. *** Please Read ==> The only way to determine whether or not a specific treatment is effective is to introduce only one treatment at a time and keep other treatments constant. The amount of time needed to decide if an intervention is beneficial varies. In the case of a few interventions, improvements may become apparent within only a few hours, but in other cases it may take several months before benefits appear. Completing 6 to 10 ATECs over a 2- to 3-month assessment period is sufficient to evaluate most interventions. Some interventions, such as the gf/cf diet and the antifungals for yeast infections, often cause a worsening of symptoms for a few weeks, due to peptide withdrawal or yeast die-off reactions. These are encouraging signs, which indicate the intervention will be effective. Download and print a clean copy of the ATEC using Adobe Acrobat (pdf file). The four ATEC subscale scores and the total score will be displayed immediately after you input each checklist. A copy of the data will also be sent to the ARI's database to help us develop norms. Information regarding the identity of each person will be kept confidential. If you wish, you may input an identification number for each person rather than entering his/her name, and/or use a code name, rather than entering the name of the intervention being evaluated. View a statistical analysis of the ATEC.

Although the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments for autistic individuals, it may also prove useful for other purposes. One such possible purpose is diagnosis. Since the ATEC is a simple one-page form that can be copied freely (it is not copyrighted) and can be scored immediately at no cost at our web site, it might be very useful as a diagnostic tool--IF it turns out that ATEC scores differentiate autistic children from their normal, non-autistic siblings; other normal, non-autistic children; and non-autistic children diagnosed with AD/HD, dyslexia, ADD, mental retardation, etc. Read our letter to practitioners and researchers. This site is for educational purposes only. Because this information may be used to assess a persons health condition, please consult with a licensed health care practitioner before making any decisions regarding treatment. Top of Form A. Information About ATEC User and Project ATEC User: Parent Researcher Practitioner Message to Practitioners Other:

First Name

Last Name

Name of person entering data (if different from above)

Address1:

Address2:

City:

State:

Zipcode:

Country [if outside U.S.]

Telephone:

Fax:

E-mail:

Intervention Being Evaluated Following is a list of some of the more frequently used interventions. We recommend that you assess one treatment at a time; otherwise, it will be difficult to determine which treatment was responsible for any observable changes. Please indicate the intervention you are evaluating: Biomedical / Non-Drug Vit. B6 & Mag. Chelation

DMG TMG Digestive Enzymes Methyl B12 Hyperbaric Oxygen Education/Training Applied Behavior. Analysis (ABA) Speech therapy Sensory Integration Drugs Benedryl Risperidal Secretin OTHER: Not Evaluating a Specific Treatment

Specific Carbohydrate Diet IVIG Gluten-free diet Casein-free diet GF/CF diet

Auditory Int. Training (AIT) Neurofeedback Occupational Therapy

Prozac Ritalin Nystatin

B. Information Specific to Each ATEC/Person (Research Subject) Assessment Period We suggest that at least one baseline ATEC be completed prior to introducing an intervention. Additional ATECs should be completed every 2 to 4 weeks to assess how well the child is responding to the treatment. Which ATEC are you completing today? Please indicate if you are completing the baseline assessment today or how many weeks (or months) has it been since you began the intervention. Baseline (starting)** 1 week 2 weeks 3 weeks 3 months 4 months 5 months

1 month 5 weeks 1 1/2 months 2 months 2 1/2 months

6 months 9 months 1 year 1 1/2 years Other:

Diagnosis: You may check more than one diagnosis. Autism PDD-NOS Fragile X Syndrome Not yet diagnosed Asperger Syndrome Landau-Kleffner Syndrome Retts Syndrome Other (please specify)

Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) Child Information First Name Last Name [or identification code]:

Gender Male Female

Age: Years: Months:

Date of Birth [format: mm/dd/yy]:

Form Completed By:

Relationship:

I. Speech/Language/Communication N = Not true, S = Somewhat true, V = Very true 1. Knows own name 2. Responds to No or Stop 3. Can follow some commands 4. Can use one word at a time N N N N S S S S V V V V

5. Can use 2 words at a time 6. Can use 3 words at a time 7. Knows 10 or more words 8. Can use sentences with 4 or more words 9. Explains what he/she wants 10. Asks meaningful questions 11. Speech tends to be meaningful/relevant 12. Often uses several successive sentences 13. Carries on fairly good conversation 14. Has normal ability to commmunicate for his/her age II. Sociability N = Not true, S = Somewhat true, V = Very true 1. Seems to be in a shell - you cannot reach him/her 2. Ignores other people 3. Pays little or no attention when addressed 4. Uncooperative and resistant 5. No eye contact 6. Prefers to be left alone 7. Shows no affection 8. Fails to greet parents 9. Avoids contact with others 10. Does not imitate 11. Dislikes being held/cuddled 12. Does not share or show N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N

S S S S S S S S S S

V V V V V V V V V V

S S S S S S S S S S S S

V V V V V V V V V V V V

13. Does not wave bye bye 14. Disagreeable/not compliant 15. Temper tantrums 16. Lacks friends/companions 17. Rarely smiles 18. Insensitive to other's feelings 19. Indifferent to being liked 20. Indifferent if parent(s) leave

N N N N N N N N

S S S S S S S S

V V V V V V V V

III. Sensory/Cognitive Awareness N = Not descriptive, S=Somewhat descriptive, V=Very descriptive 1. Responds to own name 2. Responds to praise 3. Looks at people and animals 4. Looks at pictures (and T.V.) 5. Does drawing, coloring, art 6. Plays with toys appropriately 7. Appropriate facial expression 8. Understands stories on T.V. 9. Understands explanations 10. Aware of environment 11. Aware of danger 12. Shows imagination 13. Initiates activities 14. Dresses self N N N N N N N N N N N N N N S S S S S S S S S S S S S S V V V V V V V V V V V V V V

15. Curious, interested 16. Venturesome - explores 17. Tuned in - Not spacey 18. Looks where others are looking

N N N N

S S S S

V V V V

IV. Health/Physical/Behavior N = Not a Problem MI=Minor Problem MO=Moderate Problem S=Serious Problem 1. Bed-wetting 2. Wets pants/diapers 3. Soils pants/diapers 4. Diarrhea 5. Constipation 6. Sleep problems 7. Eats too much/too little 8. Extremely limited diet 9. Hyperactive 10. Lethargic 11. Hits or injures self 12. Hits or injures others 13. Destructive 14. Sound-sensitive 15. Anxious/fearful 16. Unhappy/crying 17. Seizures 18. Obsessive speech N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S

19. Rigid routines 20. Shouts or screams 21. Demands sameness 22. Often agitated 23. Not sensitive to pain 24. Hooked or fixated on certain objects/topics 25. Repetitive movements

N N N N N N N

MI MI MI MI MI MI MI

MO MO MO MO MO MO MO

S S S S S S S

You can have these results emailed to as many as three people and/or organizations, such as your child's clinician using a evidence-based medical approach, ABA therapist, speech therapist, etc. Simply type in their email address below. However, please read the privacy note below. Message to Parents regarding patient privacy issues. Because of recent governmental regulations intended to protect the privacy of patients, some clinicians/therapists may not permit information identifying your son/daughter on their email server in filling out the ATEC online. In such cases, you may want to use a code or nickname to identify your child. This code can be placed in the child's first/last name field of the ATEC form. In addition, you may want to avoid including any other identifying information (e.g., telephone number), if you are concerned about privacy. However, we do need your email address. Your email address will not be sent to the clinician/therapist. Only the ATEC scores and responses to ATEC questionnaire items will be forwarded. Check the box if you would like to have the summary and subscale scores as well as your responses to each question emailed to you? We suggest that you contact the clinician/therapist in advance to determine the best way to send your childs ATEC results. Clinician/therapist E-mail 1: Clinician/therapist E-mail 2: Clinician/therapist E-mail 3:

Teorie interesanta despre autism O stire despre autism de la Medical News Today spune despre noua teorie a unor cercetatori americani care sustin ca simptomele autismului sunt cauzate de o reglare defectuoasa la nivelul formatiunii cerebrale numite locus coeruleus si nu de structura cerebrala, care ar fi normala. De aici ar rezulta reversibilitatea simptomelor autismului. Suna optimist! http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/144689.php Centrul Romn de Intervenie Social i Psihoterapeutic este creatorul n Romnia a:

Activitati practice in cadrul cursului - Lector Psih. Tudor Mitasov Mediului academic de nsuire de ctre specialiti a metodelor de intervenie practic n autism; Primei coli de perfecionare n autism ce utilizeaz metode i tehnici consacrate n Olanda, Suedia (Teacch, Give me five), Australia (Small steps) ETC.; Cadrului de nvare n care cursurile sunt destinate doar persoanelor care vor s-i nsueasc tehnici practice de intervenie n autism nu i celor care vizeaz doar obinerea unei diplome n plus; Unicului cadru de instruire n care se elibereaz diplome cu recunoatere internaional ce sunt acreditate de de Ministerul Educaiei, Cercetrii i Inovrii; Unicului model de formare n cadrul cruia se realizeaz demonstraii practice cu copii cu autism la curs. Autismul, legat de erorile genetice Un nou studiu a relevat faptul ca erorile genetice sunt legate de autism, o descoperire care ar putea duce la strategii pentru a trata una dintre cele mai misterioase maladii. O echipa internationala de cercetatori, coordonata de un om de stiinta de la Stanford, a anuntat in aceasta saptamana ca a identificat zeci de erori genetice legate de 5 - 10% dintre cazurile de autism. Aceste erori cauzate de bucati lipsa sau duplicate de ADN - interfereaza cu sistemul de mesaje al creierului, potrivit MercuryNews.com. "Speranta este ca, daca stim care gene si care carari genetice sunt implicate in autism, atunci putem sa ne concentram mai bine pe tratarea lor", a declarat dr. Joachim Hallmayer, de la Centrul pentru Cercetarea Autismului de la Stanford. Hallmayer a organizat proiectul Genome pentru studierea autismului, ce a analizat datele de la 1.000 de persoane autiste din 11 tari. Cazurile de gemeni autisti sau de autism in familie au demonstrat faptul ca autismul este genetic, dar nu se descoperisera inca genele care erau de vina. Se stie acum insa ca autismul nu are legatura cu vaccinurile sau cu felul in care parintii si-au crescut copilul. Oamenii de stiinta care au lucrat la acest poiect au analizat indivizi cu o forma de autism care se caracterizeaza prin izolare sociala, probleme de vorbire si miscari ciudate si repetitive. Rezultatele au fost comparate cu genele persoanelor sanatoase. Rezultatul a fost ca indivizii cu autism au de 1,7 ori mai multe erori miscroscopice inscrise in genom. Unele dintre erori erau mostenite de la parinti, altele erau complet noi. Genele afectate de erori sunt cunoscute pentru legatura lor cu dizabilitatile mentale.

"Problema este mult mai complexa decat credeam", a declarat Hallmayer. Chiar daca motivele sunt variate, toate ar putea afecta doar cateva carari biochimice si psihologice, iar acele carari, ce afecteaza vorbirea, comportamentul sau cunoasterea, pot fi tratate prin terapie. O intelegere completa a autismului va necesita o analiza si mai completa a indivizilor afectati, a adaugat Hallmayer.

biologie12D luni, 17 ianuarie 2011 Mostenire genetica la oameni (studii)-Aostacioae Mirel Autismul, legat de erorile genetice

Un nou studiu a relevat faptul ca erorile genetice sunt legate de autism, o descoperire care ar putea duce la strategii pentru a trata una dintre cele mai misterioase maladii. O echipa internationala de cercetatori, coordonata de un om de stiinta de la Stanford, a anuntat in aceasta saptamana ca a identificat zeci de erori genetice legate de 5 - 10% dintre cazurile de autism. Aceste erori cauzate de bucati lipsa sau duplicate de ADN - interfereaza cu sistemul de mesaje al creierului, potrivit MercuryNews.com. "Speranta este ca, daca stim care gene si care carari genetice sunt implicate in autism, atunci putem sa ne concentram mai bine pe tratarea lor", a declarat dr. Joachim Hallmayer, de la Centrul pentru Cercetarea Autismului de la Stanford. Hallmayer a organizat proiectul Genome pentru studierea autismului, ce a analizat datele de la 1.000 de persoane autiste din 11 tari. Cazurile de gemeni autisti sau de autism in familie au demonstrat faptul ca autismul este genetic, dar nu se descoperisera inca genele care erau de vina. Se stie acum insa ca autismul nu are legatura cu vaccinurile sau cu felul in care parintii si-au crescut copilul. Oamenii de stiinta care au lucrat la acest poiect au analizat indivizi cu o forma de autism care se caracterizeaza prin izolare sociala, probleme de vorbire si miscari ciudate si repetitive. Rezultatele au fost comparate cu genele persoanelor sanatoase. Rezultatul a fost ca indivizii cu autism au de 1,7 ori mai multe erori miscroscopice inscrise in genom. Unele dintre erori erau mostenite de la parinti, altele erau complet noi. Genele afectate de erori sunt cunoscute pentru legatura lor cu dizabilitatile mentale. "Problema este mult mai complexa decat credeam", a declarat Hallmayer. Chiar daca motivele sunt variate, toate ar putea afecta doar cateva carari biochimice si psihologice, iar acele carari, ce afecteaza vorbirea, comportamentul sau cunoasterea, pot fi tratate prin terapie. O intelegere completa a autismului va necesita o analiza si mai completa a indivizilor afectati, a adaugat Hallmayer. Gene de fumator Fumatorii care intampina greutati daca vor sa micsoreze numarul tigarilor sau cand vor sa se lase de viciu sunt la mila propriilor gene, arata un studiu recent. Oamenii de stiinta au descoperit ca anumite mutatii ale genelor fac ca renuntarea la tigari sa fie extrem de

dificila, relateaza jurnalul Nature Genetics, citat de The Telegraph. Mai precis, 3 mutatii sunt raspunzatoare de numarul tigarilor fumate zilnic, altele raspund de adoptarea acestui viciu, in timp ce o alta este raspunzatoare de renuntarea sau imposibilitatea de a renunta la fumat. Asa se explica si de ce unele persoane par sa gaseasca renuntarea la fumat mai dificila sau chiar imposibila. Aceleasi gene dicteaza si numarul de tigari fumat zilnic de cineva, care difera de la o persoana la alta. Toate aceste gene maresc si riscul de cancer pulmonar cu 10%, dupa cum au socotit oamenii de stiinta islandezi, care au luat parte la studiu. Pe baza noilor descoperiri, cercetatorii islandezi vor sa inglobeze in testele ADN si riscul de cancer pulmonar, dictat de prezenta sau absenta genelor raspunzatoare de acest viciu. Risc de 4 ori mai mare de atac cerebral daca ai antecedente in familie

Daca unul dintre parinti a avut un atac cerebral pana la varsta de 65 de ani, riscul ca si copiii sa se confrunte cu acest episod creste de 4 ori, arata un nou studiu. Exista o multitudine de factori de risc pentru atacul cerebral, cum ar fi presiunea arteriala mare, obezitatea si fumatul. Din fericire, toate aceste probleme pot fi rezolvate. Nu si istoricul medical al familiei, remarca cercetatorii americani, citati de HealthDay. Oamenii de stiinta de la Scoala Universitara de Medicina din Boston sunt de parere, dupa ce au realizat un studiu pe 3.443 de persoane, ca in cazul in care unul dintre parinti a facut atac cerebral pana la 65 de ani, riscul de atac cerebral la orice varsta al urmasilor este de dublu si de 4 ori mai mare pana la implinirea varstei de 65 de ani. Cele mai vulnerabile sunt femeile ale caror mame au trecut printr-un atac cerebral. In cazul in care tatal a facut atac cerebral, riscul ca urmasii sai sa pateasca acelasi lucru este mai slab, insa este prezent atat in cazul fiicelor, cat si fiilor, mai ales daca acestia au hipertensiune. Vestea buna este ca o viata sanatoasa poate micsora cu 80% acest risc.

De ce au oamenii obiceiuri proaste? In comparatie cu alte specii, oamenii sunt fara doar si poate cele mai distructive creaturi ce au calcat vreodata pe suprafata Pamantului. Ne place sa mintim, sa inselam si sa furam, ne tragem vietile la sorti, dupa care, violenti si stresati, ne sinucidem sau facem rau cuiva. Incercand sa explice cum o specie inteligenta poate fi atat de distructiva, oamenii de stiinta au facut o descoperire socanta: suntem facuti pentru asta.

Ne place sa barfim Oamenii sunt obisnuiti sa judece si sa vorbeasca despre altii, chiar daca acest obicei poate fi de multe ori dureros pentru cei in cauza, arata Live Science. Cercetatorii sustin ca acest obicei s-a nascut pe parcursul evolutiei umane, cu rolul de a stabili legaturi sociale si de a ne mari respectul de sine. Cand doi oameni barfesc o a treia persoana, scopul lor nu este acela de a descoperi adevarul sau de a prezenta cu acuratete niste fapte reale, ci doar de a se simti mai bine si a avea impresia ca sunt pe aceeasi lungime de unda cu interlocutorii. Atractia jocurilor de noroc

Senzatia ca suntem pe punctul de a castiga ceva, pe care o avem in momentul in care pariem sau jucam jocuri de noroc, este perceputa de creierul uman ca o victorie reala, desi practic este vorba de un esec. Aceasta tendinta irationala de a continua un joc de noroc, chiar si atunci cand toata logica din lume spune ca ar trebui sa ne oprim, a fost observata chiar si in cazul maimutelor, dispuse sa renunte la un premiu mai mic, dar real, pentru un castig mai mare, dar improbabil. Suntem prea stresati Stim foarte bine ca ne putem alege cu boli grave si chiar mortale din cauza stresului, insa asta nu ne impiedica sa devenim pe zi ce trece tot mai stresati, cu buna stiinta. Slujba si viata personala, sau mai bine zis modul in care reusim sa le gestionam pe amandoua, reprezinta principale surse de stres. Specialistii sustin ca persoanele in varsta, a caror activitate pe ambele planuri este mult diminuata, reusesc sa fie cu mult mai relaxate decat tinerii. Pana iesim la pensie, cercetatorii spun ca un somnul si exercitiile fizice sunt cele mai bune arme impotriva stresului. De mii de ani ne modificam corpurile Metodele de modificare si decorare a corpului uman sunt folosite din cele mai vechi timpuri, insa abia in mileniul trei acesta moda s-a intors mai in forta ca niciodata, prin intermediul chirurgiei estetice. Aceasta atractie veche de mii de ani a oamenilor de a-si modifica cumva corpul, pentru a arata mai bine, a se integra intr-un grup sau pentru a dovedi ceva, are in clipa de fata la dispozitie cel mai complex arsenal de mijloace din toate timpurile. Chiar daca metodele s-au diversificat si perfectionat de-a lungul anilor, faptul ca aceste modificari sunt de obicei ireversibile si prezinta riscuri ramane de actualitate, la fel ca dorinta oamenilor de a schimba ceva la ei. Suntem agresivi Studii recente arata ca mai mult de jumatate din copii de scoala primara sunt intimidati si hartuiti de colegi cu un comportament agresiv. Sociologii sustin ca acest tip de comportament este cel mai probabil invatatat sau experimentat acasa. Mai mult, cercetatorii spun ca cei care au deprins de mici un asemenea comportament agresiv, vor continua sa-l dezvolte pe tot parcursul vietii, pentru a obtine in continuare senzatia de putere si control. Acest tip de comportament a fost observat si in cazul maimutelor, iar oamenii de stiinta cred ca pentu a depista originea lui vom fi nevoiti sa coboram mult pe scara evolutiei umane. Mintim intr-una Nimeni nu a reusit pana acum sa-si dea seama de ce mintim atat de mult, insa cert este ca toti oamenii mint, mai mult sau mai putin, fiecare in felul sau. Studiile realizate de psihologii americani arata ca 60% din oameni mint cel putin o data, in timpul unei banale conversatii de numai 10 minute. De asemenea, cercetatorii sustin ca spunerea unei minciuni consuma cu 30% mai multe resurse decat spunerea adevarului, insa oamenii continua sa o faca, de obicei atunci cand simt ca le este amenintat respectul de sine. Ne place sa furam Desi furtul este motivat de necesitate, in majoritatea cazurilor, exista destul de multi oameni care fura doar din placere. Un studiu realizat in Stetele Unite, pe 43.000 de persoane, arata ca 11% din cei chestionati au recunoscut ca au furat din magazin cel putin odata. Cei mai multi dintre ei nu ar fi avut cu adevarat nevoie sa fure, insa pur si simplu nu au putut rezista

tentatiei. La fel ca si alte obiceiuri proste, furtul face parte din mostenirea noastra genetica, avand in vedere ca cei mai mari hoti ai planetei, dupa oameni, sunt maimutele. Iubim violenta Violenta a insotit civilizatia umana de-a lungul intregii sale istorii, iar oamenii de stiinta sustin ca suntem dependenti de ea. Un studiu realizat in 2008, in Statele Unite, arata ca oamenilor le place violenta cam tot atat de mult pe cat le plac sexul, mancarea si drogurile. Mai mult, cercetatorii sustin ca violenta primeste un raspuns similar cu cel obtinut de hrana si de sex din partea sistemului de recompense al creierului, semna ca acest a fost considerata, la un moment dat, extrem de importanta pentru supravietuire. Nu ne putem abtine Poate cel mai distructiv comportament al omenirii, ca specie, este insa acela ca deprindem foarte usor toate obiceiurile proaste si nu mai putem renunta la ele, chiar daca stim ca ne fac rau. Cei mai multi oameni tind sa fie interesati numai de prezent si ignora viitoarele consecinte negative ale copmortamentelor adopate, chiar si atunci cand stiu foarte bine la ce riscuri se supun. Tocmai pentru ca isi dau seama ca nu e bine ce fac, oamenii tind sa-si caute scuze de genul "N-a murit nimeni din asta!", chiar si atunci cand afirmatia in cauza e, din pacate, falsa. N-ai noroc in dragoste?Parintii sunt de vina... Motivul pentru care unele femei par sa nu aiba noroc in dragoste tine de gene, mai precis de mostenirea genetica, spun cercetatorii australieni. Oamenii de stiinta de la Universitatea Western Australia sunt de parere ca secretele atractiei sunt ascunse in anumite gene ale sistemului imunitar mostenite de la parinti, relateaza The Telegraph. Se pare ca infatisarea femeilor si transpiratia lor contine informatii despre genele raspunzatoare de felul in care le functioneaza sistemul lor imunitar. Oamenii de stiinta au studiat ADN-ul a 150 de studente, afland ca o mai mare varietate a acestor gene, care facea ca sistemul lor imunitar sa fie mai puternic, atragea mai multi barbati. Cu alte cuvinte, dupa cum se mentioneaza in jurnalul Animal Behavior, de sistemul imunitar depinde daca pe termen lung vei ramane sau nu singura. Inca nu se stie insa daca barbatii gasesc irezistibile aceste gene sau daca femeii ii par irezistibili barbatii in cauza. In cazul barbatilor, variatia genelor care raspund de sistemul imunitar nu pare sa aiba relevanta in numarul partenerelor, a mai aratat studiul.

Lucruri pe care nu le stiai despre greutatea ta

Poate ca esti scund, grasut si chel. Dar poate ca alergi 40 de kilometri pe saptamana, mananci 6 pana la 8 portii de legume si fructe zilnic, evitand totodata mancarea procesata sau pe cea grasa. Crezi ca asa ceva nu e posibil? Din pacate, viata nu e dreapta. Iar persoana descrisa mai sus chiar exista. Are si un nume, Steven Blair. E profesor universitar in Carolina de Sud si studiaza chiar rolul exercitiului fizic in viata de zi cu zi. E cel mai bun exemplu ca poti face tot ce trebuie si tot nu vei arata ca o persoana in forma. Insa vestea buna e ca poti arata asa, dar sa fii mult mai sanatos decat cineva inalt, atletic si cu zambetul sau pectoralii lui Brad Pitt. Conform Reader's Digest, genele, dezechilibrul hormonal si chiar anumite virusuri joaca un rol important in instalarea obezitatii. A manca mai putin si a face mai multa miscare pot sa nu aiba ca efect scaderea in greutate. E simplu sa privesti o persoana si sa o judeci la suprafata. "E gras, probabil si lenes din moment ce nici nu

incearca sa slabeasca". Din pacate, nu e intotdeauna adevarat. Inspirati de cele mai recente studii de specialitate, redactorii Reader's Digest au intocmit o lista cu lucrurile mai putin stiute, dar care isi pun pecetea asupra greutatii corporale. 1. Obezitatea chiar este genetica Exista aproximativ 100 de gene ale obezitatii, explica Claude Bouchard, director executiv la Pennington Biomedical Research Center, in cadrul Louisiana State University System. Unii dintre noi le avem, altii nu. Totusi, daca aceasta informatie genetica este inscrisa in codurile organismului, nu inseamna ca tocmai ti-ai primit condamnarea. Exercitiile regulate pot micsora riscul ca obezitatea sa se instaleze. 2. Unii au mai multe celule grase Iar diversitatea este extrem de mare, unele persoane avand chiar de doua ori mai multe celule grase decat altele, dupa cum explica Kirsty Spalding, de la Institutul Karolinska din Stockhaolm. Mai rau e ca poti slabi oricat, iar numarul celulor grase va ramane acelasi. Acest gen de celule incep sa se formeze, in unele cazuri, chiar de la varsta de doi ani, procesul oprindu-se in adolescenta. 3. Stresul chiar ingrasa Situatiile stresante (legate de contul din banca care se goleste ori de seful care nu-ti lasa nicio clipa de liniste) nasc nevoia de gustari care abunda in carbohidrati. Acest tip de alimente nu fac decat sa calmeze hormonii stresului. Iar acesti hormoni ai stresului favorizeaza depunerile de grasime. Chiar si stramosii nostri, oamenii cavernelor, erau stresati. Stresul lor consta in apropierea vreunei salbaticiuni. In acel moment, depozitarea rapida a grasimilor avea sens. Nu se stia cat timp trebuia sa ramana ascuns. Era nevoie de un exces de energie care sa ii ajute sa supravietuiasca fara mancare o vreme indelungata sau sa se lupte cu animalul. Azi, ne luptam cu stresul de pe un scaun comod, iar caloriile neutilizate tind sa se acumuleze in zona mijlocului. Pentru a elibera stresul, du-te la ore de yoga sau petrece timp cu familia. 4. Sarcina mamei tale si-a pus amprenta pe destinul tau Daca tigarile fumate de mama au ca rezultat un fat mic, iar alcoolul poate avea urmari asupra dezvoltarii creierului acestuia, de ce mancarea nu ar avea? Mai ales cea mai putin sanatoasa. Zaharul si mancarurile grase, consumate de mama si, respectiv, fat, isi pun amprenta asupra dezvoltarii ulterioare a acestuia. Un studiu realizat in Pennington a aratat ca femelele cobai gestante care erau supraponderale aveau un nivel al glucozei foarte ridicat, la fel ca si al acizilor grasi. Aceste molecule atrag dupa sine eliberarea proteinelor care pot afecta, in creierul fatului, controlul apetitului si sistemul metabolic al fatului. Iar ceea ce este adevarat in cazul soarecilor tinde sa fie adeavarat si in cazul oamenilor. Medicii de la Universitatea de Stat din New York au comparat copiii nascuti de mame inainte si dupa ce au suferit un o operatie de bypass gastric. S-a observat ca, desi mamele suferisera operatia, si evident erau mult mai slabe decat la prima nastere, si cel de-al doilea copil avea 50% sanse de a deveni obez, probabilitate transmisa prin gene. Insa o alimentatie corecta a viitoarei mamici poate influenta pozitiv viitorul copilului. 5. Somnul conteaza Multi medici ar face bine sa prescrie celor care au probleme cu greutatea, in loc de pastile, mai mult somn. Mai multe ore de somn dau o senzatie de satietate, iar kilogramele vor fi pierdute in mod spontan, explica specialistul american Louis Aronne. Daca se doarme mai putin de 7 - 8 ore pe noapte, apare un dezechilibru hormonal. Acesta consta, conform cercetatorilor de la Universitatea Chicago, in descresterea nivelului de leptina (cel care da senzatia de satietate) si cresterea nivelului unui alt hormon, grelina (vinovat pentru aparitia senzatiei de foame).

Rezultatul este ca ne simtim flamanzi chiar si atunci cand nu suntem. Asta, chiar daca, in realitate, avem nevoie doar de somn. 6. Greutatea partenerului de viata e importanta Si asta pentru ca cei doi ajung sa aiba obiceiuri alimentare apropiate, traind impreuna. Insa daca unul dintre ei va slabi, sansele ca si celalalt sa il urmeze sunt destul de mari, daca acesta va deveni gelos. In plus, un studiu publicat in England Journal of Medicine arata ca obezitatea este contagioasa. Cu alte cuvinte, daca unul dintre soti este obez, sansele ca si celalalt sa ia proportii asemanatoare sunt de 37%. Iar "molima" se poate raspandi si in cercul de prieteni. 7. Dulciurile, si nu doar ele, chiar creeaza dependenta In timp ce mancarea nu creeaza dependenta la modul in care alcoolul sau drogurile o fac, exista studii care au demonstrat ca exista, totusi, unele similaritati. Cand subiectii din Philadelphia au fost supusi unui test, fiindu-le aratate cartonase cu numele mancarurilor preferate, in creierele lor s-au activat aceiasi centri care se activeaza in cazul depdendentilor de droguri. De vina ar putea fi dopamina, care se afla in stransa legatura cu motivatia si placerea, dupa cum au eplicat cercetatorii americani. Daca oamenii obezi ar avea mai putini receptori ai dopaminei, n-ar mai avea probabil nevoie de atata mancare pentru a fi satisfacuti. 8. Infectiile la ureche pot avea ca rezultat obezitatea Timp de mai multi ani s-a suspectat ca ar putea exista o legatura intre unele probleme ale urechii si greutate. In final, un studiu a certificat acest lucru, concluzionand ca infectiile repetate ale urechii, care pot denatura si gustul mancarii, pot avea ca rezultat aparitia obezitatii, mai ales in cazul persoanelor de peste 35 de ani. S-a descoperit ca cei care avusesera probleme cu urechile mancau cu o placere mai mare dulciurile si mancarurile grase, uenori exagerand. Si asta pentru ca unii nervi erau distrusi, iar ei simteau doar o parte din gustul mancarii. Chiar si doar cateva calorii in plus, vreme indelungata, isi arata urmarile la un moment dat. In cazul copiilor, infectiile la urechi sunt la fel de greu de evitat ca si racelile. Totusi, daca adultii evita sa fumeze langa ei, riscul de a avea probleme cu urechile scade semnificativ. Fericirea este contagioasa

Fericirea se transmite de la parinti la copii si este contagioasa. Nu are efecte adverse si depinde in mare masura de trasaturile personalitatii fiecarei persoane. Un om fericit, potrivit psihologilor, este lipsit de griji excesive, sociabil si constiincios. Aceste trasaturi se transmit pe cale ereditara si se raspandesc la fel de rapid precum gripa, au mai spus specialistii pentru livescience.com. "Fericirea depinde si de multi factori externi, dar anumite componente pot fi explicate prin intermediul arhitecturii genetice", a spus psihologul Alexander Weiss. Persoanele optimiste au si capacitatea de a inmagazina resursele pozitive pe care le folosesc in momente de stres. Acesta este si motivul pentru care oamenii fericiti reprezinta un real sprijin pentru cei din jur, iar prieteniile lor sunt durabile. Starea buna, moralul ridicat si gandirea pozitiva se raspandesc cu rapiditate in orice mediu social. Potrivit cercetatorilor, oamenii care petrec mult timp in preajma celor fericiti au resurse de a trece peste momentele grele pentru 12 luni. In acest timp si ei sunt purtatorii "virusului fericirii", care se transmite in cascada. Tristetea si stresul nu sunt contagioase, sunt de parere specialistii, iar persoanele deprimate au o influenta redusa asupra celor din jur. "Atunci cand suntem fericiti zambim. Care este scopul zambetului daca nu raspandirea unei stari pozitive,

pe care sa o transmitem celorlalti. Chiar si cele mai mici lucruri ne pot aduce fericire, iar modul rapid in care se raspandeste ea joaca un important rol in crearea unei societati sanatoase", a mai spus Weiss. Bottom of Form Simon Baron-Cohen From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Simon Baron-Cohen 17 remedii naturiste Mini reci Dac suferii de tulburri ale circulaiei periferice (mini i picioare reci), facei o baie folosind urmtoarele plante: 150 g coada-oricelului, 125 g ment, 50 g fierea pmntului, 125 g suntoare, 50 g flori de arnic. Punei amestecul de plante ntr-un scule de tifon i fierbei-l timp de 5 minute n 3 litri de ap. Lsai s stea 10 minute. Turnai apoi fiertura n cada cu ap cald i mai adugai 300 g sare grunjoas. Putei face doar bi de picioare folosind o infuzie realizat din cinci linguri din amestecul de plante la doi litri de ap. C. C. Acupunctura, mai bun dect aspirina Acupunctura are rezultate mult mai bune dect medicamentele de genul aspirinei n tratamentul durerilor cronice de cap, raporteaz cercettorii de la Universitatea Duke din SUA n revista medical Anestezie i analgezie. Studiul a inclus aproape 4 000 de persoane suferind de migrene, cefalee de tensiune i alte forme de dureri cronice de cap. La 62% dintre acetia, tratamentul prin acupunctur a dus la diminuarea

durerilor i rrirea crizelor dureroase, comparativ cu 45% din cei care i-au tratat cefaleea cu medicamente. Acupunctura devine o opiune favorabil pentru o gam larg de indicaii, ncepnd cu stimularea fertilitii i pn la reducerea durerilor postoperatorii, este de prere Dr. Tong Joo Gan, conductorul studiului. Studiul nostru ntrete faptul c acupunctura este, de asemenea, o modalitate eficient de tratament a cefaleei cronice. Una din oprelitile tratamentului prin acupunctur este sentimentul de team a oamenilor inspirat de folosirea acelor. Ei trebuie s tie c, dei se folosesc ace, procedura nu este dureroas, fiind de fapt o modalitate de eliberare a propriilor substane analgezice (mpotriva durerii) produse de organism. C. C. Pentru a-i ajuta pe copiii autiti s neleag emoiile umane, cercettorii britanici au lansat un DVD cu desene animate numit The Transporters ale crui personaje sunt vehicule pe ine (trenuri, tramvaie) dotate cu fee umane expresive, purtnd nume precum Barney, Jennie, Nigel. Proiectul a fost coordonat de Simon Baron-Cohen, directorul Centrului de Cercetare a Autismului de Barney i emoiile la Universitatea Cambridge (de altfel, acesta este vrul lui Sascha Baron-Cohen, comicul care a lansat personajul Borat), care se ocup de copiii autiti de la nceputul anilor 1980. El s-a ntrebat de ce oare este att de dificil interaciunea social pentru aceti copii care au abiliti att de bune n alte domenii, precum memoria i atenia la detalii. n urm cu un deceniu, el a sugerat c autismul - care afecteaz mai rar fetiele dect bieii - ar putea fi o versiune extrem a creierului masculin tipic. Brbaii neleg lumea prin intermediul modelelor i structurilor, n timp ce femeile sunt mai nclinate s neleag emoiile i s simpatizeze cu cei din jur. n viziunea lui BaronCohen, autismul este o maladie n care oamenii percep sisteme i modele, n timp ce rmn aproape indifereni la semenii lor i la sentimentele

acestora. Copiii autiti sunt atrai de vehicule previzibile care merg pe ine; acestora le-au fost ataate fee umane, care s-i fac pe copiii autiti s neleag sentimentele umane. Desigur, asta nu nseamn c ei i schimb automat i comportamentul fa de cei din jur, ns este un pas important n dezvoltarea interaciunilor sociale. C. C. Alimentaia. Este timpul s te preocupi de un aport suficient de vitamine. Printre legumele de sezon merg foarte bine andivele: gustul lor uor amrui fac salatele srace mai rafinate. Se pot combina cu fructe, cum sunt strugurii, mandarinele, merele i portocalele. n acest fel, se ofer organismului vitaminele A, B i acidul folic. Un sfat: se mai pot consuma i sub form de sucuri. Se pot trece prin centrifug, obinnduse combinaii gustoase: important este s fie realizate n cas din fructe i legume proaspete. Fitness. Toi dorim s fim acum n form, dar nu este ntotdeauna uor s ne atingem obiectivul. Activitatea fizic este plcut, iar efectele ei sunt benefice pentru linia armonioas a corpului. Desigur, petrecerea timpului ntre o canapea i pat este mai comod, dar eterna lips de micare, cu trecerea anilor, se va rzbuna asupra strii de sntate. Un sfat: nu i place nici un gen de sport? Exist o posibilitate mai distractiv: dansul. Cu micrie dansului articulaiile nu sufer, iar inima nu are probleme de ritm. Sntatea. n prezena frigului i a umiditii este foarte uor s rceti, s contactezi o grip. Inhalaiile pot fi de ajutor, deoarece vaporii calzi dizolv mucusul. Iat o reet: decojete o ceap, o tai apoi n buci mai

mari pe care le fierbi n jumtate de litru de ap. Pentru inhalaii, umple cu lichidul obinut un vas mai mare, apleac-te deasupra, acoperind capul i vasul cu un prosop mai mare. Respir profund vaporii. Un sfat: copiii mici nu-i vor face niciodat singuri inhalaii, pentru a evita riscul de a se arde. D. M. Calendarul sntii Februarie 15 August 1958 (1958-08-15) (age 53) London, England England British and Canadian British Psychologist University of Cambridge New College, Oxford King's College London University College London Uta Frith Autism research

Born

Residence Citizenship Nationality Fields Institutions

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Doctoral advisor Known for

Simon Baron-Cohen FBA[1] (born 15 August 1958) is professor of Developmental Psychopathology in the Departments of Psychiatry and Experimental Psychology at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. He is the Director of the University's Autism Research Centre[2], and a Fellow of Trinity College.[3] He is best known for his work on autism, including his early theory that autism involves degrees of "mindblindness" (or delays in the development of theory of mind); and his later theory that autism is an extreme form of the "male brain", which involved a re-conceptualisation of typical psychological sex differences in terms of empathizingsystemizing theory. Contents [hide] 1 Education 2 Research areas 3 Media 4 Personal life and

awards 5 Selected publications 5.1 Books 5.2 Papers

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

[edit] Education Baron-Cohen completed an MA in Human Sciences at New College, Oxford, and an MPhil in Clinical Psychology at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London. He did his PhD in Psychology at University College London under the supervision of Uta Frith. [edit] Research areas Baron-Cohen was a co-author of the first study to show that children with autism have delays in the development of a theory of mind (ToM) (Cognition, 1985).[4] Baron-Cohens research over the subsequent 10 years provided much of the evidence for the ToM deficit, culminating in two edited anthologies (Understanding Other Minds, 1993, and 2000). His research group have linked the origins of the ToM deficit to joint attention (Brit J. Dev Psychol, 1987) and showed that absence of joint attention at 18 months is a predictor of later autism (British Journal of Psychiatry, 1992, 1996).[5] Based on these and other findings, he proposed a model of the development of mindreading in his widely cited monograph (Mindblindness, 1995 MIT Press). Baron-Cohen has also conducted brain imaging work examining the autistic brain. These studies highlighted differences between the typical and autistic brain in the orbito-frontal cortex (Brit. J. Psychiatry, 1994) PMID 7866679 and the amygdala (Euro. J. Neuroscience, 1999), the latter leading him to propose the amygdala theory of autism (Neurosci. Behav. Rev. 2000). In 2010, with his former doctoral student Michael Lombardo, they showed that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex does not differentiate self from other in autism and accounts for variation in social deficits. [6] In 2011, with Lombardo, they also showed that the right temporoparietal junction was hypoactive in autism during ToM tasks and also accounted for variation in social deficits.[7] In the late 1990s Baron-Cohen developed the hypothesis that typical sex differences may provide a neurobiological and psychological understanding of autism (the empathizingsystemizing theory). The theory proposes that autism is an extreme of the male brain (J. Cog. Neurosci, 1997; TICS, 2002). This led to him situating ToM within the broader domain of empathy, and to the development of a new construct (systemizing). The extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism sees autism as being on a continuum with individual differences in the general population (sex differences). Baron-Cohen proposes that the cause of autism at a biological level may be hyper-masculinization. This hypothesis posits that certain features of autism (obsessions and repetitive behaviour, previously regarded as purposeless) as being highly purposive, intelligent (hyper-systemizing), and a sign of a different way of thinking. He wrote a popular book on the topic of sex differences and its relationship to autism (The Essential Difference, 2003). Baron-Cohen launched the Cambridge Longitudinal Foetal Testosterone (FT) Project in the late 1990s, a research program following children of mothers who had amniocentesis. This aimed to study the effects of individual differences in FT on later child development. This is summarised in a technical monograph (Prenatal Testosterone in Mind, 2004 MIT Press). This study revealed that FT is negatively correlated with social and language development, and is positively correlated with attention to detail and a number of autistic traits (Brit. J. Psychology, 2009). His work studying FT led him to test the hyper-masculinization of autism at the psychometric level and in regard to developmental neurobiology (Science, 2005; PLOS Biology, 2011). The role of foetal testosterone in autism remains to be assessed in clinical cases, but gains some support from the recent discovery from Baron-Cohen's lab of androgen-related genes being associated with autistic traits, empathy, and Asperger Syndrome (Autism Research, 2009), and from the finding that a precursor to testosterone (androstenedione) is elevated in autism (Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2011). He is currently collaborating with the Danish Biobank to test if FT is elevated in people who go on to develop autism. Baron-Cohen has developed software for special education (Mindreading)[8] and an animation series to teach children with autism to recognise and understand emotions (The Transporters)[9] both of which were BAFTA nominated and have been scientifically evaluated to show that they have benefit to emotional and social learning in autism. Baron-Cohen's work was applied to intervention in the book "Teaching Children With Autism To Mindread" (Wiley, 1997).

Baron-Cohen has worked in another research area: synaesthesia, a neurological condition in which a sensation in one modality (e.g., hearing) triggers a perception in another modality (e.g., colour). He and his colleagues were the first to develop the Test of Genuineness (Perception, 1987) and suggest that synaesthesia is the result of a breakdown in modularity (Perception, 1993). They were also the first to confirm the existence of synaesthesia using neuroimaging (Brain, 1995 and Nature Neuroscience, 1999) and to demonstrate that it is a heritable condition, conducting the first genetic study of synaesthesia (Perception, 1996; American Journal of Human Genetics, 2009). Baron-Cohen is co-editor in chief of the journal Molecular Autism.[10] and is Chair of the NICE Guideline Development Group for adults with autism. [edit] Media Baron-Cohen appeared on Private Passions, on 13 April 2008, the biographical music discussion programme hosted by Michael Berkeley on BBC Radio 3.[11] He was featured on the BBC news page calling for an ethical debate on the issue of a prenatal test for autism, arguing it is important to debate this in advance of such a test existing, given the pace of biomedical research in autism.[12] In an article in 2000 (Development and Psychopathology) Baron-Cohen argued that high-functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome need not just lead to disability, but can also lead to talent.[13] He has found over 25 years that the media largely report his work accurately but in March 2009, he wrote a piece in New Scientist on the misrepresentation over his group's research into foetal testosterone in typically developing children.[14] He has appeared in many television science documentaries, one example being Brainman in which he diagnosed Daniel Tammet (who has extreme memory) with both synaesthesia and Asperger Syndrome. In 2008 Baron-Cohen assessed Gary McKinnon, the British computer hacker who had been accused of breaking into 97 United States military and NASA computer networks in 2001 and 2002, and diagnosed him as having Asperger Syndrome. McKinnon's lawyers used this diagnosis in their appeal against his extradition to the U.S., but the British High Court nonetheless ruled that McKinnon should be extradited to the U.S. to face trial. He recently appeared in TIME magazine (August 29th 2011), featuring his 'assortative mating' theory of autism. [edit] Personal life and awards Baron-Cohen was awarded the Spearman Medal from the British Psychological Society (BPS), the McAndless Award from the American Psychological Association, the May Davison Award for Clinical Psychology from the BPS, and the Presidents Award from the BPS. He was President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Section for Psychology in 2007, and was Vice President of the International Society for Autism Research (INSAR) for 2009-11. He is also a Vice President of the National Autistic Society (UK). He is a Fellow of the BPS, the BA, and the Association of Psychological Science. Baron-Cohen is the son of Judith and Vivian Baron-Cohen. He is married to Bridget Lindley[15] and together they have three children, including independent film maker Sam Baron and songwriter Kate Baron.[16] His brothers are film director Ash Baron Cohen and Dan Baron Cohen (International Drama and Education Association). His sisters include acupuncturist Aliza Baron Cohen. His cousins include computer scientist Amnon Baron Cohen, composer and musician Erran Baron Cohen, comic actor Sacha Baron Cohen,[17] composer Lewis Furey, film producer Daniel Louis, playwright Richard Greenblatt, University of Washington chemistry professor Seymour Rabinovitch, University of Montana Japanese professor Judith Rabinovitch, and film-director Mark Robson. [edit] Selected publications [edit] Books Baron-Cohen's single authored books: Baron-Cohen, S (1995) Mindblindness: an essay on autism and theory of mind. MIT Press/Bradford Books. Baron-Cohen, S (2003) The Essential Difference: men, women and the extreme male brain. Penguin/Basic Books. ISBN 978-0713996715 Baron-Cohen, S (2008) Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Facts. OUP. Baron-Cohen, S (2011) Zero Degrees of Empathy: A new theory of human cruelty. Penguin/Allen Lane. This appears under a different title in the US: Baron-Cohen, S (2011) The Science of Evil: On empathy and the origins of human cruelty. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465023530

His multi-authored and edited books include: Baron-Cohen, S, and Bolton, P, (1993) Autism: the facts. Oxford University Press. Baron-Cohen, S, Tager-Flusberg, H, and Cohen, D.J. (eds,) (1993) Understanding other minds: perspectives from autism. Oxford University Press. Baron-Cohen, S, & Harrison, J, (eds: 1997) Synaesthesia: classic and contemporary readings. Blackwells. Baron-Cohen S, ed (1997). The maladapted mind: classic readings in evolutionary psychopathology. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press/Taylor Francis Group. ISBN 0-86377-460-1. http://books.google.com/? id=Rdz8voFlsZAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=maladapted+mind#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 21 January 2011 </ref> Howlin, P, Baron-Cohen, S, Hadwin, J, & Swettenham, J, (1999). Teaching children with autism to mind-read. Wiley. Robertson, M, & Baron-Cohen, S, (1998) Tourette Syndrome: The facts. Oxford University Press. Baron-Cohen, S, Tager-Flusberg, H, & Cohen, D, (eds. 2000). Understanding other minds: perspectives from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Oxford University Press. Baron-Cohen, S & Wheelwright, S, (2004) An exact mind. Jessica Kingsley Ltd. Artwork by Peter Myers. Baron-Cohen, S, Lutchmaya, S, & Knickmeyer, R, (2005) Prenatal testosterone in mind: Studies of amniotic fluid. MIT Press/Bradford Books. Baron-Cohen, S, Tager-Flusberg, H, and Cohen, D.J. (eds,) (2007) Understanding other minds: perspectives from developmental cognitive neuroscience 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press. Hadwin, J, Howlin, P, & Baron-Cohen, S, (2008) Teaching children with autism to mindread: a handbook. Wiley.

[edit] Papers Baron-Cohen has authored over 250 peer-reviewed papers, including: Baron-Cohen, S, Leslie, A.M., & Frith, U, (1985) Does the autistic child have a theory of mind? Cognition, 21, 37-46. Baron-Cohen, S, Wyke, M, & Binnie, C, (1987) Hearing words and seeing colours: an experimental investigation of a case of synaesthesia. Perception, 16, 761-67. Baron-Cohen, S, Allen, J, & Gillberg, C, (1992) Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 839-843. Baron-Cohen, S, (1994) How to build a baby that can read minds: Cognitive mechanisms in mindreading. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/ Current Psychology of Cognition, 13, 513-552. Baron-Cohen, S, Ring, H, Moriarty, J, Shmitz, P, Costa, D, & Ell, P, (1994) Recognition of mental state terms: a clinical study of autism, and a functional neuroimaging study of normal adults. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 640-649. Baron-Cohen, S, Cox, A, Baird, G, Swettenham, J, Drew, A, Nightingale, N, Morgan, K, & Charman, T, (1996) Psychological markers of autism at 18 months of age in a large population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 158-163. Baron-Cohen, S, Jolliffe, T, Mortimore, C, & Robertson, M (1997) Another advanced test of theory of mind: evidence from very high functioning adults with autism or Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 813-822. Baron-Cohen, S, Wheelwright, S, Stott, C, Bolton, P, & Goodyer, I, (1997) Is there a link between engineering and autism? Autism, 1, 101-108. Baron-Cohen, S, Ring, H, Wheelwright, S, Bullmore, E, Brammer, M, Simmons, A, & Williams, S, (1999) Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: an fMRI study. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 1891-1898. Baron-Cohen, S, Ring, H, Bullmore, E, Wheelwright, S, Ashwin, C, & Williams, S, (2000) The amygdala theory of autism. Neuroscience and Behavioural Reviews, 24, 355-364. Connellan, J, Baron-Cohen, S, Wheelwright, S, Batki, A, & Ahluwalia, J, (2000) Sex differences in human neonatal social perception. Infant Behavior and Development, 23, 113-118.

Baron-Cohen, S, & Wheelwright, S, Skinner, R, Martin, J, & Clubley, E, (2001) The Autism-Spectrum Quotient: Evidence from Asperger Syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists, and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5-17. Baron-Cohen, S, (2002) The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 248-254. Lutchmaya, S, Baron-Cohen, S, & Raggatt, P, (2002) Foetal testosterone and eye contact in 12-monthold infants. Infant Behaviour and Development, 25, 327-335. Nunn, J, Gregory, L, Morris, R, Brammer, M, Bullmore, E, Harrison, J, Williams, S, Baron-Cohen, S, and Gray, J, (2002) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of synaesthesia: activation of colour vision area V4/V8 by spoken words. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 371-375. Baron-Cohen, S, & Wheelwright, S, (2004) The Empathy Quotient (EQ). An investigation of adults with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175. Baron-Cohen, S, Knickmeyer, R, & Belmonte, M (2005) Sex differences in the brain: implications for explaining autism. Science, 310, 819-823. Chapman, E, Baron-Cohen, S, Auyeung, B, Knickmeyer, R, Taylor, K & Hackett, G (2006) Foetal testosterone and empathy: evidence from the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Social Neuroscience, 1, 135-148. Auyeung, B, Baron-Cohen, S, Chapman, E, Knickmeyer, R, Taylor, K & Hackett, G, (2009) Foetal testosterone and autistic traits. British Journal of Psychology, 100, 1-22. Baron-Cohen, S, Scott, F, J, Allison, C, Williams, J, Bolton, P, Matthews, F, E, & Brayne, C, (2009) Autism Spectrum Prevalence: a school-based U.K. population study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194, 500-509. Chakrabarti, B, Dudridge, F, Kent, L, Wheelwright, S, Hill-Cawthorne, G, Allison, C, Banerjee-Basu, S, & Baron-Cohen, S, (2009) Genes related to sex-steroids, neural growth and social-emotional behaviour are associated with autistic traits, empathy and Asperger Syndrome. Autism Research, 2, 157-177. Asher, J, Lamb, J, A, Brocklebank, D, Cazier, J-B, Maestrini, E, Addis, L, Sen, M, Baron-Cohen, S, & Monaco, A, P, (2009) A whole-genome scan and fine-mapping linkage study of autidory-visual synthethesia reveals evidence of linkage to chromosomes 2q24, 5q33, 6p12 and 12p12. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 84, 279-285. Baron-Cohen, S, Golan, O, & Ashwin, E, (2009) Can emotion recognition be taught to children with autism spectrum conditions? Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, Special Issue, 364, 35673574. Auyeung, B, Taylor, K, Hackett, G, & Baron-Cohen, S, (2010) Fetal testosterone and autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children, Molecular Autism, 1:11. Chura, L, Lombardo, M, Ashwin, E, Auyeung, B, Chakrabarti, B, Bullmore, E, T, & Baron-Cohen, S, (2010) Organizational effects of fetal testosterone on human corpus callosum size and asymmetry. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 122-132. Golan, O, Baron-Cohen, S, Ashwin, E, Granader, Y, McClintock, S, Day, K, & Leggett, V, (2010) Enhancing emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum conditions: an intervention using animated vehicles with real emotional faces. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 269279. Lombardo, M, Chakrabarti, B, Bullmore, E, Sadek, S, Pasco, G, Wheelwright, S, Suckling, J, MRC AIMS Consortium & Baron-Cohen, S, (2010) Atypical neural self-representation in autism. Brain, 133, 611-624. Lombardo, M, Chakrabarti, B, Bullmore, E, & Wheelwright, S, Sadek, S, Suckling, J, MRC AIMS Consortium & Baron-Cohen, S, (2010) Shared neural circuits for mentalizing about the self and others. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 277, 1623-1635. Wheelwright, S, Auyeung, B, Allison, C, & Baron-Cohen, S, (2010) Defining the broader, medium and narrow autism phenotype among parents using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Molecular Autism,1, 10. Lombardo, M, Chakrabarti; B, Bullmore, E, MRC AIMS Consortium and Baron-Cohen, S, (2011). Specialization of right temporo-parietal junction for mentalizing and its relation to social impairments in autism. NeuroImage 2011 Feb 26 [Epub ahead of print].

Ruta, L, Ingudomnukul, E, Taylor, E, Chakrabarti, B, & Baron-Cohen, S, (2011) Increased serum androstenedione in adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Mar 11 [Epub ahead of print]. Autism Spectrum Quotient Empathizing-systemizing theory Sally-Anne test Empathy Gender differences Sacha Baron-Cohen 1. ^ "Seven Cambridge academics elected as Fellows of The British Academy". Cambridge University. 2009-07-17. http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/dp/2009071602. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 2. ^ Autismresearchcentre.com 3. ^ ARC people: Professor Simon Baron-Cohen, Director Autism Research Centre. Retrieved on 2008-02-16 4. ^ Baron-Cohen S, Leslie AM, Frith U (1985). "Does the autistic child have a 'theory of mind'?" (PDF). Cognition 21 (1): 3746. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(85)90022-8. PMID 2934210. http://ruccs.rutgers.edu/~aleslie/Baron-Cohen%20Leslie%20&%20Frith%201985.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 5. ^ CHAT - The Checklist for Autism In Toddlers. University of Washington. Retrieved on 2008-02-16. 6. ^ Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Bullmore ET, Sadek SA, Pasco G, Wheelwright SJ, Suckling J, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S. Atypical neural self-representation in autism. Brain. 2010;133(2):611624. doi:10.1093/brain/awp306. PMID 20008375. 7. ^ Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Bullmore ET, MRC AIMS Consortium, Baron-Cohen S. Specialization of right temporo-parietal junction for mentalizing and its relation to social impairments in autism. Neuroimage. 2011;56(3):18321838. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.02.067. PMID 21356316. 8. ^ Mind Reading. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Retrieved on 2008-02-16. 9. ^ Home page. The Transporters. Retrieved on 2008-02-16. 10.^ Molecular Autism 11.^ Radio 3: "Private Passions". 12.^ "Autism test 'could hit maths skills'". BBC News. 2009-01-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7736196.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 13.^ Boseley, Sarah (2009-01-12). "Is autism screening close to reality?". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/jan/12/autism-screening-health. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 14.^ "Media distortion damages both science and journalism". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20127011.300-media-distortion-damages-both-science-andjournalism.html. 15.^ Biography for Simon Baron-Cohen at the Internet Movie Database 16.^ [1] 17.^ "Time Out with Nick Cohen". New Statesman. 26 February 2007. http://www.newstatesman.com/life-and-society/2007/02/baron-cohen-autism-children. Retrieved 2010-11-01.

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