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I.

MORFOLOGIA (THE MORPHOLOGY)

(gr. morphe - form, logos - studiu) Morfologia este partea gramaticii care cuprinde regulile de modificare a cuvintelor n procesul comunicrii. Ea studiaz prile de vorbire sub aspect formal, semantic i funcional.

Prile de vorbire sunt: 1. Articolul (The Article) 2. Substantivul (The Noun) 3. Adjectivul (The Adjective) 4. Pronumele (The Pronoun) 5. Numeralul (The Numeral) 6. Verbul (The Verb) 7. Adverbul (The Adverb) 8. Prepoziia (The Preposition) 9. Conjuncia (The Conjunction) 10. Interjecia (The interjection)

1. ARTICOLUL (THE ARTICLE)


Este un instrument gramatical care individualizeaz sau determin un substantiv. Prezena lui dovedete c substantivul pe care-l nsoete este deja cunoscut de interlocutor. Clasificare: 1. Articolul Hotrt (The Definite Article) 2. Articolul Nehotrt (The Indefinite Article) 3. Articolul Zero (The Zero Article)

1. este the

ARTICOLUL HOTRT (THE DEFINITE ARTICLE)

- pronunat [z] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu o consoan sau semi-consoan the ball [ z bO-l] the window [z `wind\u ] - pronunat [zi] - n faa cuvintelor care ncep cu o vocal the eye [zi ai] the apple [zi `Epl] singular: the girl [z g|l] - fata the boy [z Boi] - biatul the tree [z trI] - copacul the cat [z kEt] - pisica plural: the girls [z g|lz] - fetele the boys [z Boiz] - bieii the trees [z trIz] - copacii the cats [z kEts] - pisicile

Articolul hotrt apare ntr-un mare numr de expresii: on the one side/hand - pe de o parte on the other side/hand - pe de alt parte at the same time - n acelai timp etc Articolul hotrt plasat n faa unor adjective d acestora sensul unor substantive la numrul plural: adj. rich - bogat-bogat, bogai-bogate the rich - cei bogai - cele bogate adj. poor - srac-srac, sraci-srace the poor - cei sraci - cele srace Articolul hotrt apare la gradul superlativ relativ al adjectivelor: the best - cel mai bun, cea mai bun, cei mai buni, cele mai bune the least - cel mai puin, cea mai puin, cei mai puini, cele mai puine the biggest - cel mai mare, cea mai mare, cei mai mari, cele mai mari the most interesting - cel mai interesant, cea mai interesant, cei mai interesani, cele mai interesante etc Articolul hotrt apare i n structura the..., the... - cu ct..., cu att... (dou comparative juxtapuse) The earlier you come, the better it is. - Cu ct vii/venii mai devreme cu att e mai bine. The more we are, the easier it is.- Cu ct suntem mai muli, cu att este mai uor. The more interesting the book is, the more I like it. - Cu ct cartea este mai interesant, cu att mi place mai mult. Articolul hotrt se intercaleaz de regul ntre un substantiv precedat de o prepoziie i prepoziia respectiv. a house in the forest - o cas n pdure a boat on the lake - o barc pe lac across the road - peste drum at the end - la sfrit

at the door - la u in the end - n final in the morning - dimineaa in the village - n sat in the shade - la umbr Articolul hotrt poate fi ntlnit n unele denumiri geografice: The Black Sea, The Danube, The Carpathians, The Alps, The Himalaya Mountains, The Thames, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The Commonwealth of Australia States and Territories, The United States of America, The Sahara Desert, The Atlantic Ocean, The Indian Ocean, The Pacific Ocean etc. Articolul hotrt nsoete, de obicei, substantivele cnd acestea sunt acompaniate/precedate de adjective. in the first/second/third/etc. sentence - n prima/a doua/a treia/etc. propoziie in the course of time - n decursul timpului, de-a lungul timpului in the second half - n a doua jumtate in the days/months that followed - n zilele/lunile care au urmat Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. - Muntele Everest este cel mai nalt munte din lume. Articolul hotrt the se mai traduce n limba romn prin articolele adjectivale cel, cea, cei, cele sau articolele posesive al, a, ai, ale. Alfred the Great - Alfred cel Mare Stephen the Great - tefan cel Mare The Second World War - Cel de al doilea rzboi mondial.

2.

ARTICOLUL

NEHOTRT

(THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE)

este : - a pronunat [] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu consoan sau semiconsoan: a dog [ `dog]- un cine a wall [ `wOl]- un zid/perete a flower [ `flau\]- o floare a year [\ `ji\] - un an - an pronunat [n] - naintea cuvintelor care ncep cu vocal: an apple [n `Epl]- un mr an eye [n `ai] - un ochi an ear [n `i\]- o ureche an idea [n ai`dia]- o idee Articolul nehotrt introduce de obicei un element nou. El poate fi ntlnit : - n faa substantivelor nsoite/precedate de adjective : a good teacher - un profesor bun a big house - o cas mare a book of proverbs - o carte de proverbe a house on fire - o cas n flcri a little tea - puin/destul ceai - n unele structuri : a tobacconist's - o tutungerie a baker's - o brutrie a greengrocer's - un aprozar a blue - eyed girl - o fat cu ochi albatri a confectioner's - o cofetrie a jeweller's - un magazin de bijuterii Articolul nehotrt are n unele cazuri funcie numeric: a hundred - o sut a thousand - o mie two saucers and an ash-tray - dou farfurioare i o scrumier a chemist 's - o farmacie a stationer's - o papetrie once upon a time - a fost odat a grocer' s - o bcnie two/three at a time - cte doi/trei o dat

3.

ARTICOLUL

ZERO

(THE ZERO ARTICLE)

Articolul zero apare: a) n nume de continente, ri, persoane, zilele sptmnii etc. Exemple: Africa, Asia, America, Europe, England, France, Italy, Romania, Sunday, Alice, Bob, George, John, Mary, Peter, Richard, William etc. b) n faa subsantivelor folosite n sens general: Children like sweets. - Copiilor le plac dulciurile. Knowledge is power. - tiina nseamn putere. Oil is lighter than water. - Uleiul este mai uor dect apa. Boys like toys and lots of noise.- Bieilor le plac jucriile i mult zgomot. c) n faa subsantivelor nenumrabile (uncountables): Gold is yellow.- Aurul este galben. This house is made of wood.- Aceast cas este fcut din lemn. d) naintea substantivelor abstracte sau nume de materie: care, death, hatred, honesty, hunger, love, sand, salt, tea, water etc. Salt seasons all things. (prov.) - Sarea d gust tuturor lucrurilor. Multe substantive abstracte apar n proverbe. Hunger is the best sauce. - Foamea este cel mai bun buctar. e) nume de: culori (white, black, yellow, red, green, brown, pink, violet, orange, blue, black), sporturi i jocuri sportive (football, volleyball, basketball, hockey, tennis etc.), limbi (English, Romanian, German, French etc.), mese (breakfast, snack, lunch, tea, dinner, supper). f) n unele expresii / structuri fixe, care trebuie memorate pentru evitarea greelilor. after dark - dup lsarea ntunericului after three o'clock - dup ora trei after dinner - dup cin day by day - zi de zi drop by drop - strop cu strop day after day - zi dup zi, zi de zi from end to end - de la cap la cap from first to last - de la primul la ultimul from place to place - din loc n loc from time to time - din cnd n cnd good for food - comestibil goods on sale - mrfuri/bunuri de vnzare in general - n general to learn by heart - a nva pe de rost piece by piece - bucat cu bucat Just in time - chiar la timp/moment to leave for school - a pleca la coal to keep in mind - a ine minte to be on duty - a fi de serviciu to go on foot - a merge pe jos to put in order - a pune n ordine to be in parliament - a fi n parlament to go to bed - a merge la culcare from London - de la Londra to look for help/aid - a cuta ajutor to pay on demand - a plti la cerere from morning to night - de dimineaa pn seara from beginning to end - de la nceput la sfrit on certain conditions - cu anumite condiii

2. SUBSTANTIVUL (THE NOUN)


Substantivul (lat.: substantivus; substans - substan; sub - sub/dedesubt, stans - aezat) este partea de vorbire care denumete fiine, obiecte, stri, noiuni, nsuiri etc. Clasificare: - comune (Common Nouns) dog (cine), cat (pisic), bird (pasre), house (cas), apple (mr), girl (fat), boy (biat), water (ap). - proprii (Proper Nouns) John, Alice, Romania, London, Europe, Asia, July, Sunday, Great Britain etc. - abstracte (Abstract Nouns) friendship (prietenie), joy (bucurie), wisdom (nelepciune), safety ( siguran), theory (teorie), gratitude (recunotin) etc. - inidividuale (Individual Nouns) man (brbat), house (cas), stone (piatr), tree (copac) etc. - colective (Collective Nouns) team (echip), army (armat), family (familie), fleet (flot), crowd (mulime), flock (stol), swarm (roi), group (grup) etc. - nume de materie (Names of Matter) water (ap), air (aer), fire (foc), beer (bere), milk (lapte), steel (oel), silver (argint), gold (aur), snow (zpad), wine (vin), tea (ceai), salt (sare) etc. - masculin - feminine - neutru

- Gen Substantivul are : - Numar

- singular - plural

- Caz - Nominstiv - Genitiv - Dativ - Acuzativ - Vocativ

GENUL SUBSTANTIVELOR (THE GENDER OF THE NOUNS)


masculin (masculine) (he - el) actor - actor bachelor - celibatar barman - barman boy - biat bridegroom - ginere brother - frate dad/daddy - tati/tticu feminin (feminine) (she - ea) actress - actri spinster - celibatar barmaid - barmani girl - fat bride - mireas sister - sor mam/mammy - mami

earl - conte father - tat gentleman - domn god - zeu grandfather - grandpa - bunic hero - erou husband - so king - rege lad - flcu landlord - proprietar man - brbat master - stpn monk - clugr nephew - nepot papa/daddy - tata policeman - poliist prince - prin salesman - vnztor sir - domn son - fiu tutor - tutore uncle - unchi neutru (neuter) (it - el/ea) air - aer ball - minge book - carte box - cutie bread - pine building - cldire bus - autobuz crocodile - crocodil error - greeal fish - pete flag - drapel flute - flaut fork - furculi glory - glorie helicopter - elicopter honour - onoare house - cas impression - impresie indifference - indiferen kangaroo - cangur land - pmnt legend - legend light - lumin march - mar medal - medalie microbe - microb minaret - minaret monkey - maimu mouse - oarece mushroom - ciuperc

countess - contes mother - mam gentlewoman - doamn goddess - zei grandmother - grandma - bunic heroine - eroin wife - soie queen - regin lass - fat landlady - proprietreas woman - femeie mistress - stpn nun - clugri niece - nepoat mamma/mammy - mama policewoman - poliist princess - prines saleswoman - vnztoare madam - doamn daughter - fiic governess - guvernant aunt - mtu comun (common) (he/she - el/ea) associate - asociat/asociat architect - arhitect/arhitect artist - artist/artist beginner - nceptor/nceptoare author - autor/autoare child - copil/copil buyer - cumprtor/cumprtoare client - client/client companion - nsoitor/nsoitoare cook - buctar/buctreas cousin - verior/verioar customer - client/client customs officer - vame/vame dancer - dansator/dansatoare doctor - doctor/doctori dreamer - vistor/vistoare driver - ofer/oferi dyer - vopsitor/vopsitoare economist - economist/economist engineer - inginer/inginer examiner-examinator/examinatoare fighter - lupttor/lupttoare friend - prieten/prieten guest - musafir/musafir interpreter - interpret/interpret journalist - jurnalist/jurnalist owner - posesor/posesoare painter - pictor/pictori parent - printe

masculin (masculine) (he - el) boy friend - prieten

feminin (feminine) (she - ea) girl friend - prieten

brother - in - law - cumnat bull - taur cock - coco dog - cine drake - roi father - in - law - socru fisherman - pescar fox - vulpoi gipsy/gypsy - igan grandson - nepot horse - cal host - gazd lion - leu lord - domn man-servant - servitor Mr. - domnul negro - negru ox - bou peasant - ran pirate - pirat postman - pota schoolboy - colar soldier - soldat son - in - law - ginere steward - stevard tom cat - pisoi turkey cock - curcan usher - plasator waiter - chelner neutru (neuter) (it - el/ea) net - plas novel - roman number - numr occupation - ocupaie ocean - ocean oil - ulei page - pagin panic - panic part - parte pear - par petal - petal piano - pian pig - porc pot - oal root - rdcin scorpion - scorpion shark - rechin sparrow - vrabie sphere - sfer stage - scen stick - b sun - soare tea - ceai telephone - telefon etc.

sister - in - law - cumnat cow - vac hen - gin bitch - cea duck - ra mother - in - law - soacr vixen - vulpe gipsy/gypsy woman - iganc granddaughter - nepoat mare - iap hostess - gazd lioness - leoaic lady - doamn maid - servant - servitoare Miss/Mrs. - domnioara/doamna negress - negres cow - vac peasant woman - ranc
-

schoolgirl - colri
-

daughter - in - law - nor stewardess - stevardes pussy cat - pisic turkey hen - curc usherette - plasatoare waitress - chelneri comun (common) (he/she - el/ea) photographer - fotograf/fotograf physician - doctor/doctori physicist - fizician/fizician passenger - pasager/pasager manager - manager/manager, director/directoare philosopher - filozof physiologist - fiziolog pilot - pilot player - juctor/juctoare playwright - dramaturg printer - tipograf/tipograf prisoner - prizonier/prizonier purchaser - cumprtor/ cumprtoare supporter - suporter/suporter reader - cititor/cititoare reporter - reporter/reporter rival - rival/rival scholar - nvat/nvat scientist - savant/savant smoker - fumtor/fumtoare spectator - spectator/spectatoare spouse - so/soie successor - succesor/succesoare superintendent - supraveghetor/ supraveghetoare theorist - teoretician/teoretician weaver - estor/estoare welder - sudor/sudori

worker - muncitor/muncitoare writer - scriitor/scriitoare

PLURALUL SUBSTANTIVELOR
Clasificare: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Pluralul regulat al substantivelor Pluralul neregulat al substantivelor Plurale straine Plurale asimilate in Limba Englez Pluralul substantivelor compuse Pluralul fraciilor zecimale Pluralul unor abrevieri Substantive numai cu forma de Plural Substantive numai cu forma de Singular Substantive cu aceeai forma pentru Singular i Plural

1. Pluralul regulat al substantivelor


Se formeaz prin adugarea literei s. book - books - carte - cri Litera s semn al pluralului substantivelor , al persoanei a III-a singular a verbelor i al genitivului saxon/sintetic al substantivelor, se citete: [ s ] - cnd este precedat de consoane nesonore/surde book - books - carte - cri to speak - he speaks - a vorbi - el vorbete the economist's pen] - stiloul economistului [ z ] - cnd este precedat de o consoan sonor chair - chairs - scaun - scaune to receive - he receives - a primi - el primete the girl's flowers -florile fetei ; [ iz ] - cnd este precedat de s, z, ch, sh sau consoane uiertoare/sibilante; bench - benches - banc - bnci bus - buses - autobuz - autobuze fox - foxes - vulpoi - vulpoi George' s books - crile lui George to teach - he teaches - a preda/explica - el pred/explic to wash - he washes - a (se) spla - el se spal Unele substantive terminate n y, precedat de consoan primesc s la plural, dar pe y l transform n ie. baby - babies - copila - copilai beauty - beauties - frumusee - frumusei city - cities - ora - orae etc. Substantivele terminate n y formeaz pluralul prin simpla adugare la sfritul lor a literei s dac n faa lui y se afl o vocal : boy - boys - biat biei toy - toys - jucrie - jucrii etc day - days - zi - zile play - plays - pies - piese Substantivele care se termin n f sau ff formeaz pluralul prin adugarea lui s : chief - chiefs - ef - efi cliff - cliffs - stnc - stnci grief - griefs - suprare/mhnire - suprri/mhniri

Dar iat i excepii: calf - calves - viel - viei half - halves - jumtate - jumti knife - knives - cuit - cuite leaf - leaves - frunz - frunze life - lives - via - viei Substantivele terminate n o formeaz pluralul astfel: a) - unele adaug terminaia es : hero - heroes - erou - eroi mosquito - mosquitoes - nar - nari negro - negroes - negru - negri potato - potatoes - cartof - cartofi b) - altele adaug doar litera s : casino - casinos - cazino - cazinouri cuckoo - cuckoos - cuc - cuci embryo - embryos - embrion- embrioni kangaroo - kangaroos - cangur - canguri piano - pianos - pian - piane tomato - tomatoes - tomat - tomate volcano - volcanoes - vulcan - vulcani loaf - loaves - franzel - franzele shelf - shelves - raft - rafturi thief - thieves - ho - hoi wife - wives - soie - soii wolf - wolves - lup - lupi

radio - radios - radio - radiouri photo - photos - fotografie - fotografii studio - studios - studio - studiouri

2. Pluralul neregulat al substantivelor


businessman - businessmen - om / oameni de afaceri child - children - copil - copii die - dice - zar - zaruri Englishman - Englishmen - englez - englezi fireman - firemen - pompier - pompieri fisherman - fishermen - pescar - pescari foot - feet - lab - labe gentleman - gentlemen - domn - domni gentlewoman - gentlewomen - doamn - doamne goose - geese - gsc - gte louse - lice - pduche - pduchi man - men - brbat - brbai mouse - mice - oarece - oareci postman - postmen - posta - postai sportsman - sportsmen - sportiv - sportivi tooth - teeth - dinte/msea - dini/msele woman - women - femeie - femei

3. Plurale strine
Greceti: analysis - analyses - analiz - analize axis - axes - ax - axe basis - bases - baz - baze crisis - crises - criz - crize Latineti: agendum - agenda - agend - agende alga - algae - alg - alge aquarium / aquariums - acvariu - acvarii bacillus - bacilli - bacil - bacili candelabrum - candelabra - candelabru - candelabre erratum - errata - erat - erate diagnosis - diagnoses - diagnostic - diagnostice metropolis - metropolises - metropol - metropole sphinx - sphinxes - sfinx - sfinci octopus - octopuses/octopi - caracati - caracatie

gymnasium - gymnasiums - gimnaziu- gimnazii mausoleum - mausoleums - mausoleu - mausolee stimulus - stimuli - stimul - stimuli stratum - strata - strat - straturi

4. Plurale asimilate n limba englez


arena - arenas - aren - arene circus - circuses - circ - circuri dilemma - dilemmas - dilem - dileme diploma - diplomas - diplom - diplome drama - dramas - dram - drame genius - geniuses - geniu - genii idea - ideas - idee - idei minus - minuses - minus - minusuri opera - operas - oper - opere umbrella - umbrellas - umbrel - umbrele

5. Pluralul substantivelor compuse


blackboard - blackboards - tabl - table motel - motels - motel - moteluri mother - in - law - mothers - in - law - soacr - soacre passer - by - passers - by - pieton - pietoni son - in - law - sons - in - law - ginere - gineri

6. Pluralul fraciilor zecimale


one quarter - three quarters - un sfert - trei sferturi one third - two thirds - o treime - dou treimi one fifth - two fifths - o cincime - dou cincimi one seventh - two sevenths - o eptime - dou eptimi

7. Pluralul unor abrevieri


Member of Parliament (M.P.) - Members of Parliament (M.P.s) - membru al parlamentului, membri ai parlamentului Mountain (Mt. ) - Mountains (Mts) - munte - muni Post - Office (P.O.) - Post - Offices (P.O.s) - oficiu potal - oficii potale.

8. Substantive numai cu form de plural


spectacles - glasses - ochelari, trousers - pantaloni, clothes - haine, scissors - foarfeci

9. Substantive numai cu form de singular


advice - sfat, equipment - echipament/utilaj, furniture - mobil, information - informaie/informaii, knowledge cunotine, news - tiri, money - bani

10.Substantive cu aceeai form pentru singular i plural


sheep - oaie - oi, fish - pete - peti, deer - cprioar - cprioare, Portughese - portughez - portughezi, Chinese - chinez chinezi

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CAZURILE SUBSTANTIVELOR (THE CASES OF THE NOUNS)


Cazul este categoria gramatical prin care se exprim raporturi sintactice ntre cuvinte prin modificarea formelor acestora. Clasificare: 1.Nominstiv 2.Genitiv a) saxon/sintetic b) prepoziional/analitic c) dublu d) implicit/aglutinant 3.Dativ 4.Acuzativ 5.Vocativ

1. Cazul Nominativ (The Nominative Case)


Este cazul subiectului i rspunde la ntrebrile: who ? - cine ? , what ? - - ce?

The boy is playing in the garden. - Biatul se joac n grdin. Who is playing in the garden? - Cine se joac n grdin ? I saw John. - Who saw John? - I did. - Eu l-am vzut pe John. - Cine l-a vzut pe John? - Eu. The book is on the table. - What is on the table? - The book is. - Cartea este pe mas. - Ce este pe mas ? - Cartea. Alice and Gabi are in the street. - Who is/are in the street ? - Alice and Gabi are. - Alice i Gabi sunt pe strad. - Cine este pe strad? - Alice i Gabi.

2. Cazul Genitiv (The Genitive Case)


Este cazul atributului i rspunde la ntrebrile: of ?- care dintre ?, what ?- ce/care ? Cazul genitiv este de patru feluri: a) saxon/sintetic b) prepoziional/analitic c) dublu d) implicit/agglutinant whose ? - al cui ?, a cui ?, ai cui?, ale cui ?, which ?- care ?, which

a)Genitivul saxon/sintetic (The Saxon Genitive or the Possesive Case


Se formeaz la singular cu ' (apostrof) plus litera s i se ntrebuineaz cu substantive masculine i feminine. all Shakespeare's plays - toate piesele lui Shakespeare John Major's diplomacy - diplomaia lui John Major the boy's friend - prietenul biatului this man's gift - talentul acestui om La plural sau dac posesorul se termin n s se adaug doar apostroful. the boys' friend - prietenul bieilor the children's ball - mingea copiilor the boys' ball - mingea bieilor Dickens' novels - romanele lui Dickens Genitivul saxon se mai folosete i n unele structuri cum ar fi:

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A Midsummer Night's Dream - Visul unei nopi de var at a stone's throw - la o distan de o aruncare de piatr at Shakespeare's - la Shakespeare acas the night's coolness - rcoarea nopii the house of my sister's husband - casa soului sorei mele the sun's heat - cldura soarelui the sea's roar - vuietul mrii to go to the barber's - a merge la frizerie to his heart's content - pe pofta inimii lui today's news - tirile de azi without a moment's rest - fr o clip de odihn a talk of ten minutes - a ten minutes' talk - o discuie de zece minute a two miles' walk - a walk of two miles - o plimbare de dou mile England's football team - echipa de fotbal a Angliei I must go to Mr. Brown's house. - Trebuie s merg la domnul Brown acas to be at one's wit's/ wits' end - a fi n ncurctur, a fi la captul puterilor

b) Genitivul prepoziional/analitic (The Prepositional/Analitical Genitive)


Se formeaz cu prepoziia of i se folosete cu substantive de toate genurile. the smell of the flower/flowers - mirosul florii/florilor the friend of the boy - the boy's friend - prietenul biatului the friends of the boys - the boys' friends - prietenii bieilor the friend of the boys - the boys' friend - prietenul bieilor the friends of the boy - the boy's friends - prietenii biatului some books of my friend - nite cri ale prietenului meu a friend of mine/yours/his/hers - un prieten al meu/tu/lui/ei a friend of ours/yours/theirs - un prieten al nostru/vostru/lor a brother of my friend - un frate al prietenului meu a book of my sister - o carte a sorei mele one of my good friends - unul din bunii mei prieteni one of my best friends - unul din cei mai buni prieteni ai mei this interesting book of Helen's - aceast carte interesant a Elenei a dancing couple - a couple that/which is dancing - un cuplu care danseaz a burning house - a house that is burning - o cas care arde a sleeping dog - a dog that/which is sleeping - un cine care doarme the boy between John and Nick - the boy who is between John and Nick - biatul dintre John i Nick - biatul care este ntre John i Nick. the man in the street - omul de pe strad, omul de rnd, omul obinuit a boy of eleven (years) - un biat de unsprezece ani a man with grey hair - un om cu pr crunt the girl with glasses - fata cu ochelari the girl wearing glasses - fata care poart ochelari my friend's friend - prietenul prietenului meu my friends' friend - prietenul prietenilor mei my friend's friends - prietenii prietenului meu my friends' friends - prietenii prietenilor mei a walk of ten minutes - a ten minute walk - o plimbare de zece minute our walk of ten minutes - our ten minute walk - plimbarea noastr de zece minute a drive of ten miles - a ten mile drive - o plimbare de zece mile cu maina a journey of two days - a two day journey - o cltorie de dou zile my holiday of two weeks - my two week holiday - vacana mea de dou sptmni

c) Genitivul dublu (Group Possesive)


my friend's birthday/ the birthday of my friend - ziua de natere a prietenului meu her sister, Alice's blue eyes - ochii albatri ai sorei sale, Alice

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his son-in-law's birthday - ziua de natere a ginerelui su/lui my friend, Tom's birthday - ziua de natere a prietenului meu, Tom someone else's birthday - ziua de natere a altcuiva that boy's friend's book - cartea prietenului biatului aceluia - cartea prietenului acelui biat.

d) Genitivul implicit/aglutinant (The Implicit Genitive)


The United Nations Organisation - Organizaia Naiunilor Unite Students Organisation - Organizaia studenilor ignition timing - reglarea aprinderii a heart disease - o boal de inim

3.Cazul Dativ (The Dative Case)


Cazul dativ este cazul complementului indirect i rspunde la ntrebrile: to whom ?-who(m)... to? - cui? for whom ?-who(m)... for ? - pentru cine ?, to what ...?- what ... to ? - la ce ? etc. I give Alice two books. - I give two books to Alice. - Eu i dau lui Alice dou cri. - Eu i dau dou cri lui Alice. To whom do I give two books ? - Who(m) do I give two books to ? - Cui dau eu dou cri ? Everybody is working for him. - Toi lucreaz pentru el. For whom is everybody working ? - Pentru cine lucreaz toi ? Who(m) is everybody working for ? - Pentru cine lucreaz toi ? I am referring to John. - Eu m refer la John. Who(m) am I referring to ? - To whom am I referring ? - La cine m refer eu? dativ acuzativ acuzativ dativ I have brought John a book. - I have brought a book to John. I-am adus lui John o carte. - I-am adus o carte lui John. Din exemplul de mai sus se observ c, atunci cnd n propoziie acuzativul (compl. direct) st naintea dativului (compl. indirect), se folosete obligatoriu particula to . Alte exemple: I offered my wife some flowers. - I offered some flowers to my wife - I-am oferit soiei mele nite flori. - I-am oferit nite flori soiei mele. The book belongs to me. - Cartea mi aparine mie. The book does not belong to me .- Cartea nu-mi aparine mie. Does the book belong to me ? - mi aparine mie cartea ? To whom does the book belong ? - Who(m) does the book belong to ? - Cui i aparine cartea ? He forgives us our mistake. - El ne iart nou greeala noastr. His coming is a mystery to me. - Venirea lui este un mister pentru mine. The advantage is obvious to them. - Avantajul le este evident. What relation are you to this boy ? - Ce rud eti tu cu acest biat ? This computer is superior to other computers. - Acest calculator este superior altor calculatoare. The matter is open to discussion.- Chestiunea este deschis discuiei. Give my friend that book, please ! - Give that book to my friend, please ! - D-i prietenului meu cartea aceea, te rog ! I am going to write to my friend. - Am de gnd s-i scriu prietenului meu. Do not be cruel to animals ! - Nu fi crud fa de animale ! You must not be blind to his mistakes. - Nu trebuie s fii orb fa de greelile lui. His uncle gave him a present. - Unchiul su / lui i-a dat un cadou.

4. Cazul Acuzativ (The Accusative Case)


Este cazul complementului direct i rspunde la ntrebrile: whom ? - pe cine ?, what ? - ce ? I see the boy every day. - l vd pe biat n fiecare zi. Whom do I see every day ? - Pe cine vd eu n fiecare zi ? You see the book on the table. - Tu vezi cartea pe mas. What do you see on the table ? - Ce vezi tu pe mas ? My sister is looking for a book. - Sora mea caut o carte. What is my sister looking for ? - Ce caut sora mea ?

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5. Cazul Vocativ (The Vocative Case)


Este cazul adresrii sau al chemrii. George, will you help me ? - George, vrei s m ajui ? Come here, my boy ! - Vino aici, fiule !

DECLINAREA SUBSTANTIVELOR (THE DECLENSION OF THE NOUNS)


Trecerea unui substantiv (sau pronume) prin toate cazurile la numrul singular i la numrul plural poart numele de declinare.

Declinarea Substantivelor cu Articol Hotrt


N.
G.

D. A. V.

singular the boy - biatul the girl - fata of the boy - the boy's - al, a, ai, ale biatului of the girl - the girl's - al, a, ai, ale fetei (to) the boy - biatului (to) the girl - fetei the boy - biatul the girl - fata -

plural the boys - bieii the girls - fetele of the boys - the boys' - al, a, ai, ale bieilor of the girls - the girls' - al, a, ai, ale fetelor (to) the boys - bieilor (to) the girls - fetelor the boys - bieii the girls - fetele -

Declinarea Substantivelor cu cu Articol Nehotrt


sin gul ar N. a boy - un bi at a girl - o fat plu ral

boy s -

bi ei

girl s -

fete

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G.

of a boy - a boy 's al, a , ai, ale unu i bi at

of boy s boy s' al, a, ai, ale, uno r bi ei, de bi ei of girl s girl s' al, a , ai, ale, uno r fete , de fete (to) boy s uno r bi ei

of a girl - a girl 's al, a, ai, ale une i fete

D.

(to) a boy unu i bi at (to) a girl une i fete

(to) girl s uno r fete

A.

a boy - un bi at a girl - o fat

boy s bi ei

girl s fete

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V.

boy ! bi ete !, bi atul e! girl ! fat !

boy s!bi ei! girl s!fete lor !

Declinarea Substantivelor Neutre


N. G. D. A. V. singular a table - o mas the table - masa of a table - al, a, ai, ale unei mese of the table - al, a, ai, ale mesei to a table - unei mese to the table - mesei a table - o mas the table - masa plural tables - mese the tables - mesele of tables - de mese of the tables - al, a, ai, ale meselor to tables - la/unor mese to the tables - meselor tables - mese the tables - mesele -

3. ADJECTIVUL (THE ADJECTIVE)


Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care calific/determin un substantiv sau un echivalent al unui substantiv. n limba englez adjectivele stau naintea substantivelor sau dup verbul to be i nu se acord n gen, numr i caz cu substantivele pe care le determin. The interesting book is on the table. - Cartea interesant este pe mas. Clasificarea Adjectivelor :

1. Calitative (of Quality / Descriptive) 2. Pposesive (Possessive) 3. Interogativ - Relative (Interrogative-Relative) 4. Demonstrative (Demonstrative) 5. Cantitativ/Nnehotrte (Quantitative-Indefinite)

1.Adjective Calitative (Adjectives of Quality)


clever - detept, deteapt, detepi, detepte a clever boy - un biat detept a clever girl - o fat deteapt clever boys - biei detepi clever girls - fete detepte interesting - interesant, interesant, interesani, interesante good - bun, bun, buni, bune etc.

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2. Adjective Posesive (Possessive Adjectives)


my - meu, mea, mei, mele your - tu, ta, ti, tale his - lui, su, sa, si, sale, dnsului her - ei, su, sa, si, sale, dnsei its - lui/ei, su/sa, si/sale our - nostru, noastr, notri, noastre your - vostru, voastr, votri, voastre, dumneavoastr their - lor, dnilor, dnselor, dumnealor

my friend - prietenul meu your friend - prietenul tu his friend - prietenul lui/dnsului her friend - prietenul ei/dnsei its friend - prietenul lui/ei our friend - prietenul nostru your friend - prietenul vostru/dv. their friend - prietenul lor/dnilor

my friends - prietenii mei your friends - prietenii ti his friends - prietenii lui/dnsului her friends - prietenii ei/dnsei its friends - prietenii lui/ei our friends - prietenii notri your friends - prietenii votri/dv. their friends - prietenii lor/dnilor

3. Adjective Interogativ - Relative (Interrogative - Relative Adjectives) Interogative


which - care ?, pe care ? which boy ? - care (al ctelea) biat ? (which boys ? - care (ai ctelea) biei?) which girl ? - care (a cta) fat? (which girls ? - care (ale ctelea) fete ?) which house ? - care (a cta) cas ? (which houses ? - care (ale ctelea) case?) which tree ?- care (al ctelea) copac? (which trees? - care (ai ctelea) copaci ?) which of ? - care dintre ? (selectiv) which of the boys?- care dintre biei? which of the girls ? - care dintre fete ? which of the houses ? - care dintre case ? which of the trees ? - care dintre copaci ? what ? - ce ?, care ? what boy ? - ce/care biat ? what boys ? - ce/care biei ? what girl ? - ce/care fat ?what girls ? - ce/care fete ? what house ? - ce/care cas ? what houses ? - ce/care case ? what tree ? - ce/care copac ? what trees ? - ce/care copaci ? what kind/sort of ? - ce fel de ? what kind of boy ? - ce fel de biat ? (what kind of boys ? - ce fel de biei?) what kind of girl ? - ce fel de fat ? (what kind of girls ? - ce fel de fete ?) what kind of house? - ce fel de cas? (what kind of houses? - ce fel de case ?) what kind of tree? - ce fel de copac? (what kind of trees ? - ce fel de copaci ? whose ? - al, a, ai, ale cui ? whose boy ? - al cui biat ? whose boys ? - ai cui biei ? whose girl ? - a cui fat ? whose girls ? - ale cui fete ? whose house ? - a cui cas ? whose houses ? - ale cui case ? whose tree ? - al cui copac ? whose trees ? - ai cui copaci ?

Relative
who - care ; the boy who knows you - biatul care te cunoate whose - al , a, ai, ale crui/crei/cror the boy whose father ... - biatul al crui tat ... the boy whose mother ... - biatul a crui mam ... the boy whose parents ... - biatul ai crui prini ... the girl whose parents ... - fata ai crei prini

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the boys whose father ... - bieii al cror tat ... the boys whose mother ... - bieii a cror mam ... the boys whose fathers ... - bieii ai cror tai the boys whose parents ... - bieii ai cror prini the girl whose mother ... - fata a crei mam ... the girl whose father ... - fata al crei tat ... the girls whose mother ... - fetele a cror mam the girls whose father ... - fetele al cror tat the girls whose parents ... - fetele ai cror prini the girls whose mothers ... - fetele ale cror mame the girls whose fathers ... - fetele ai cror tai the house whose colour ... - casa a crei culoare the house whose roof ... - casa al crei acoperi the houses whose colour ... - casele a cror culoare the houses whose roof ... - casele al cror acoperi the houses whose colours ... - casele ale cror culori the houses whose roofs ... - casele ale cror acoperiuri the tree whose leaf ... - copacul a crui frunz the tree whose leaves ... - copacul ale crui frunze the trees whose leaves ... - copacii ale cror frunze The boy, whose book is on the table, is my brother. - Biatul, a crui carte este pe mas, este fratele meu. The playwright, whose play is Hamlet, is Shakespeare. - Dramaturgul, a crui pies este Hamlet, este Shakespeare. to whom - cruia, creia, crora the boy to whom you recommend the book - biatul cruia i recomanzi cartea the girl to whom you recommend a book - fata creia i recomanzi o carte the boys to whom you recommend a book - bieii crora le recomanzi o carte the girls to whom you recommend a book - fetele crora le recomanzi o carte whom - pe care the boy whom you see - biatul pe care l vezi the girl whom you see - fata pe care o vezi the boys whom you see - bieii pe care i vezi the girls whom you see - fetele pe care le vezi that/which - care, pe care the colour that/which you like - culoarea care i place which of [wit~ ov] - care dintre , cui dintre He knows which of us lives here. - El tie care dintre noi locuiete aici. what [wot] - ce/ct/care Tell him what answer to give. - Spune-i ce rspuns s dea. Tell me what time it is. - Spune-mi ct e ceasul . I know what book you like. - tiu ce/care carte i place. what kind/sort of - ce fel de I know what kind/sort of man he is. - tiu ce fel de om este el.

4. Adjective Demonstrative (Demonstrative Adjectives)


this - acest, acesta ; aceast, aceasta this boy - acest biat, biatul acesta this girl - aceast fat, fata aceasta this tree - acest copac, copacul acesta this book - aceast carte, cartea aceasta these - aceti, acetia ; aceste, acestea these boys - aceti biei, bieii acetia these girls - aceste fete, fetele acestea these trees - aceti copaci, copacii acetia these books - aceste cri, crile acestea

that - acel, acela ; acea, aceea that boy - acel biat, biatul acela

that girl - acea fat, fata aceea that tree - acel copac, copacul acela

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that book - acea carte, cartea aceea those - acei, aceia; acele, acelea those boys - acei biei, bieii aceia

those girls - acele fete, fetele acelea those books - acele cri, crile acelea those trees - acei copaci, copacii aceia

the one - acel/acela care, cel ce/care; cea/aceea care The one, who knows us, is here. - Cel/cea care ne cunoate este aici. it - acela, aceea Was it you ? - Tu ai fost acela/aceea ? the former - primul (din doi), cel dinti (din doi), prima (din dou), cea dinti (din dou) the latter - (cel de-) al doilea, ultimul (din doi), (cea de-) a doua, ultima (din dou) John and William are friends. The former is a farmer, the latter is an engineer. - John i William sunt prieteni. Primul este fermier, al doilea este inginer. the first - cel, cea, cei, cele dinti, primul, prima, primii, primele He is my first friend. - El este primul meu prieten. - El este cel dinti prieten al meu. the first boy - primul biat the first boys - primii biei the first girl - prima fat the first girls - primele fete the first book - prima carte the first books - primele cri the first tree - primul copac the first trees - primii copaci the last - cel, cea, cei, cele din urm, ultimul, ultima, ultimii,ultimele Is this your last decision ? - Este aceasta ultima ta hotrre ? the last boy - ultimul biat the last boys - ultimii biei the last girl - ultima fat the last girls - ultimele fete the last book - ultima carte the last books - ultimele cri the last tree - ultimul copac the last trees - ultimii copaci the other - cellalt, cealalt, ceilali, celelalte the other boy - cellalt biat the other girl - cealalt fat the other house - cealalt cas the other boys - ceilali biei the other girls - celelalte fete the other houses - celelalte case another - alt, alt, o alt, alte another boy - alt biat another girl - alt fat another tree - alt copac another house - alt cas another news - alte tiri another good news - alte tiri bune He will be staying in England for another year . - El va sta n Anglia nc un an. such - astfel de, asemenea, aa such a boy - un astfel de biat, un asemenea biat such a girl - o astfel de fat, o asemenea fat such boys - aa biei, astfel de biei, asemenea biei such girls - aa fete, astfel de fete, asemenea fete such people - aa oameni, astfel de oameni people such as - oameni cum ar fi, oameni ca de exemplu We hope never to have another such experience. - Sperm s nu mai avem niciodat o astfel de experien. the same - acelai, aceeai, aceiai, aceleai the same boy - acelai biat the same girl - aceeai fat the same book - aceeai carte the same tree - acelai copac the same boys - aceiai biei the same girls - aceleai fete the same books - aceleai cri the same trees - aceiai copaci one and the same - unul i acelai; una i aceeai. one and the same boy - unul i acelai biat; one and the same girl - una i aceeai fat one and the same book - una i aceeai carte; one and the same tree - unul i acelai copac

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the very - chiar, tocmai , nsui , nsi the very boy who/that - chiar/ nsui / tocmai biatul care; he very girl who/that - chiar/nsi/tocmai fata care the very book which/that - chiar /tocmai cartea care; the very boys who/that - chiar/tocmai bieii care the very girls who/that - chiar/tocmai fetele care the very books which/that - chiar/tocmai crile care This is the very book I needed. - Aceasta este chiar cartea de care aveam nevoie.

5. Adjective Cantitative/Nnehotrte (The Quantitative/Indefinite Adjectives)


some - unii, unele, nite, vreun, vreo Se folosete n propoziiile afirmative. Cnd apare n propoziiile interogative se sper s se obin un rspuns afirmativ. I see some people in the street. - Vd nite oameni pe strad. Come to see us some Sunday ! - Vino/venii pe la noi ntr-o (zi de) duminic ! Do you see some people in the street ? - Vezi nite oameni pe strad ? I should drink some water, not some wine. - A bea nite ap, nu nite vin. I know him to some degree. - l cunosc ntr-o oarecare msur. Some agree with me and some don't. - Unii sunt de acord cu mine, iar alii nu. They will find out the truth some day. - Ei vor afla adevrul ntr-o bun zi. This matter has some importance. - Chestiunea aceasta are oarecare importan. You will meet some person or other. - Vei ntlni o persoan sau alta. any- n propoziiile afirmative - orice, fiece He can come at any hour of the day. - El poate veni la orice or din zi. You may like any book. - i poate plcea orice carte. You can/may come any time. - Poi veni oricnd. any ? - n propoziiile interogative - orice ?, fiece ?, vreun ?, vreo ? Do you like any book ? - i place orice carte ? Have you got any friends ? - Ai vreun prieten ?, Ai ceva prieteni ? Can you lend me any of those books ? - mi poi mprumuta vreuna dintre crile acelea? any - n propoziiile negative - nici un, nici o I cannot find any excuse. - Nu pot gsi nici o scuz. We do not see any house. - Noi nu vedem nici o cas. He does not see any boy. - El nu vede nici un biat. no - numai n propoziiile negative - nici un, nici o n limba englez se folosete o singur negaie n propoziie. I see no boy, no girl and no house. - Nu vd nici un biat, nici o fat i nici o cas. No man could do it. - Nici un om n-o putea face. He will spare no pains. - El nu va crua nici un efort. no admittance - intrarea interzis no smoking - fumatul interzis I can find no other solution. - Nu pot gsi nici o alt soluie. few - puini, puine I see few boys, few girls and few houses. - Eu vd puini biei, puine fete i puine case. few of us/you/them - puini/puine dintre noi/voi/ei/ele a few - puini/destui, puine/destule I have a few books. - Am puine/suficiente cri. He has a few friends. - Are puini/destui/ceva prieteni. quite a few - a good few - some few - many, a large number - muli/multe He has got quite a few friends. - Are destui/muli prieteni.

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little - puin, puin; mic, mic, mici I drink little tea and little coffee. - Eu beau puin ceai i puin cafea. He has little time for reading. - El are puin timp pentru citit. The little boy drinks little lemonade. - Bieelul bea puin limonad. the little ones - cei mici a little - puin/destul, puin/destul, (cte) ceva A little is better than none. (prov.) - Mai bine puin dect deloc. - Mai bine ceva dect nimic. We have a little beer and a little wine. - Avem ceva bere i ceva vin. to know a little of everything - a ti cte ceva din toate The little girl is a little better now. - Fetia face ceva mai bine acum. much - mult, mult There is much tea in the teapot. - Este mult ceai n ceainic. many - muli, multe There are many people in the park. - Sunt muli oameni n parc. many of us/you/them - muli/multe dintre noi/voi/ei/ele . plenty of - mult, mult, muli, multe. We have plenty of time . - Avem timp din belug. - Avem timp berechet. a lot of - o mulime de. We have a lot of books. - Noi avem o mulime de cri. each - fiecare (luat n parte) Each man knows their story. - Fiecare om tie povestea lor. each of us/you/them - fiecare dintre noi/voi/ei/ele every - fiecare, toi/ toate Every man knows their story. - Fiecare om tie povestea lor. We can go to the library every day. - Putem merge la bibliotec n fiecare zi. several - civa, cteva, mai muli/multe We shall spend several days and nights in the mountains. - Vom petrece cteva zile i nopi la munte. He has several friends. - El are civa prieteni. several of us/you/them - civa dintre noi/voi/ei/ele Several of us went home on foot. - Mai muli dintre noi au mers acas pe jos. enough - destul, destul, suficient, suficient There is enough bread on the table. - Este suficient pine pe mas. certain - anumii, anumite, unii, unele certain boys - unii/anumii biei certain girls - unele/anumite fete certain books - unele/anumite cri a certain - un anumit, o anumit, un anume/oarecare, o anume/oare- care a certain boy - un anume/anumit/oarecare biat a certain girl - o anume/anumit/oarecare fat a certain Mr. Jones - un anumit/oarecare domn Jones a certain Mrs. Jones - o anumit/oarecare doamn Jones a certain Miss. Jones - o anumit/oarecare domnioar Jones

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COMPARATIA ADJECTIVELOR I ADVERBELOR (THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS)


Comparaia adjectivelor i adverbelor este:

1. Regulat/Sintetic (cele scurte) 2. Analitic (cele lungi) 3. Mixt (sintetic i analitic) 4. Neregulat Comparaia adjectivelor se realizeaz la urmtoarele grade: 1) pozitiv, cnd nsuirea unui obiect/substantiv nu se raporteaz la nici un alt termen. Pozitivul este asemuit cu nominativul substantivelor i cu infinitivul verbelor. 2) comparativ, prin care se exprim superioritatea (comparativ de superioritate), egalitatea (comparativ de egalitate) sau inferioritatea (comparativ de inferioritate) unui obiect/substantiv fa de altul. 3) superlativ (lat.: superlativus; super - deasupra, latus - dus/ridicat) prin care se arat c nsuirea obiectului / substantivului se afl fie n cea mai mare msur/ intensitate (superlativul relativ), fie n foarte mare msur/ intensitate (superlativul absolut). Adjectivele monosilabice dubleaz consoana final cnd aceasta este precedat de vocal scurt.

1. Comparaia Sintetic/Regulat
gradul pozitiv big mare dry uscat easy uor fat gras great mare, mre happy fericit hard tare, dur hot fierbinte kind amabil long lung nice plcut/drgu short scurt/scund small mic/modest strong tare tall nalt comparativ de superioritate bigger mai mare drier mai uscat easier mai uor fatter mai gras greater mai mare happier mai fericit harder mai tare hotter mai fierbinte kinder mai amabil longer mai lung nicer mai plcut shorter mai scurt smaller mai mic stronger mai tare taller mai nalt superlativ relativ the biggest cel mai mare the driest cel mai uscat the easiest cel mai uor the fattest cel mai gras the greatest cel mai mare the happiest cel mai fericit the hardest cel mai tare the hottest cel mai fierbinte the kindest cel mai amabil the longest cel mai lung the nicest cel mai plcut the shortest cel mai scurt the smallest cel mai mic the strongest cel mai tare the tallest cel mai nalt superlativ absolut very big foarte mare very dry foarte uscat very easy foarte uor very fat foarte gras very great foarte mare very happy foarte fericit very hard foarte tare very hot foarte fierbinte very kind foarte amabil very long foarte lung very nice foarte plcut very short foarte scurt very small foarte mic very strong foarte tare very tall foarte nalt

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thick gros thin subire/slab

thicker mai gros thinner mai subire

the thickest cel mai gros the thinnest cel mai subire

very thick foarte gros very thin foarte subire, etc.

2. Comparaia Analitic a adjectivelor i adverbelor


pozitiv abject abject/josnic abrupt abrupt active activ amiable prietenos attractive atrgtor beautiful frumoas curious curios foolish prost(esc) huge uria/imens severe sever/aspru sincere sincer skilled priceput sociable sociabil unfit nepotrivit unjust injust/nejust urbane manierat untidy dezordonat comparativ de superioritate more abject Mai josnic more abrupt Mai abrupt more active mai activ More amiable mai prietenos more attractive mai atrgtor more beautiful mai frumoas More curious Mai curios more foolish mai prost(esc) more huge mai imens more severe mai sever More sincere Mai sincer More skilled mai priceput More sociable mai sociabil more unfit mai nepotrivit more unjust mai injust More urbane mai manierat more untidy mai dezordonat superlativ relativ the most abject cel mai josnic the most abrupt cel mai abrupt the most active cel mai activ the most amiable cel mai prietenos the most attractive cel mai atrgtor the most beautiful cea mai frumoas the most curious cel mai curios the most foolish cel mai prost(esc) the most huge cel mai imens the most severe cel mai sever the most sincere cel mai sincer the most skilled cel mai priceput the most sociable cel mai sociabil the most unfit cel mai nepotrivit the most unjust cel mai injust the most urbane cel mai manierat the most untidy cel mai dezordonat superlativ absolut very abject foarte josnic very abrupt foarte abrupt very active foarte activ very amiable foarte prietenos very attractive foarte atrgtor very beautiful foarte frumoas very curious foarte curios very foolish foarte prost(esc) very huge foarte imens very severe foarte sever very sincere foarte sincer very skilled foarte priceput very sociable foarte sociabil very unfit foarte nepotrivit very unjust foarte injust very urbane foarte manierat very untidy foarte dezordonat

Din analiza exemplelor de mai sus rezult c la gradul comparativ de superioritate adjectivele cu comparaie analitic se ajut de adverbul more, la superlativul relativ de adverbul most, iar la superlativul absolut de adverbele very, extremely, awfully, quite etc.

3. Adjective cu comparaie mixt (sintetic i analitic) 23

pozitiv able capabil ample amplu empty gol strange ciudat stupid stupid etc.

comparativ de superioritate more able abler mai capabil more ample ampler Mai amplu more empty emptier mai gol More strange stranger Mai ciudat more stupid stupider Mai stupid

superlativ relativ the most able the ablest cel mai capabil the most ample the amplest cel mai amplu the most empty the emptiest cel mai gol the most strange the strangest cel mai ciudat the most stupid the stupidest cel mai stupid

superlativ absolut very able foarte capabil very ample foarte amplu very empty foarte gol very strange foarte ciudat very stupid foarte stupid

4. Comparaia Neregulat a adjectivelor i adverbelor


comparativ de superioritate better mai bun/bine worse mai ru less mai puin/mic more mai mult/muli older/elder mai btrn/ vechi nearer mai aproape later Mai trziu latter - ultimul din doi farther/further mai departe inner mai n interior superlativ relativ the best cel mai bun/bine the worst cel mai ru the least cel mai puin/mic the most cel mai mult/cei mai muli the oldest/eldest cel mai btrn/ vechi the nearest cel mai aproape the latest cel mai trziu the last - ultimul the farthest/ furthest cel mai departe the inmost cel mai n interior/ luntric the innermost luntric la maximum the outermost cel mai n exterior the utmost, uttermost - n exterior la maximum the upmost cel mai (de) sus superlativ absolut very good/well foarte bun/bine very bad/ill foarte ru very little foarte puin/mic very much/many foarte mult/muli very old foarte btrn/vechi very near foarte aproape very late foarte trziu

good/well bun/bine bad/ill ru little puin/mic much/many mult/muli old btrn/vechi near aproape late trziu

far departe in n interior

very far foarte departe

out n exterior

outer/utter mai n exterior

up sus

upper mai sus

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beneath dedesubt hind din spate

nether mai dedesubt hinder mai din spate

fore n fa

former Mai n fa

the uppermost - sus la maximum the nethermost cel mai de dedesubt the hindmost cel mai din spate the hindermost ultimul din spate the foremost cel mai din fa/dinainte the first - primul

5. Comparativul de egalitate
Se realizeaz cu ajutorul conjunciilor corelative: as... as... - tot aa de .... ca ..../la fel de... ca .... as interesting as ... - la fel de interesant ca ... as beautiful as ... - la fel de frumos ca as beautifully as ... - la fel de frumos ca as near as ... - la fel de aproape ca ... as old as ... - la fel de btrn/vechi ca as strange as ... - la fel de ciudat/straniu ca ...

Unele astfel de comparative de egalitate au devenit idiomuri: as quick as thought - iute ca gndul as sweet as honey - dulce ca mierea as swift as an arrow - iute ca sgeata as white as snow - alb ca zpada etc.

6. Comparativul de inferioritate
not so ... as ... - nu aa de ... ca ... sau less ... than ... - mai puin ... dect/ca This film is not so interesting as that one. - Filmul acesta nu este aa de interesant ca acela. This man is not so old as that man. - Omul acesta nu este aa de vrstnic/btrn ca omul acela. That house is not so big as this house. - Casa aceea nu este aa (de) mare cum este casa aceasta. Mary is less beautiful than Alice. - Mary este mai puin frumoas ca Alice. Se realizeaz cu ajutorul conjunciilor corelative:

7. Comparativul de intensitate
Const din dou comparative de superioritate legate ntre ele prin conjuncia and i se traduc prin structura din ce n ce mai . better and better - din ce n ce mai bine fewer and fewer - din ce n ce mai puini/puine worse and worse - din ce n ce mai ru bigger and bigger - din ce n ce mai mare/mari etc. more and more - din ce n ce mai mult less and less - din ce n ce mai puin()/mic() more and more interesting - din ce n ce mai interesant/interesant/ interesani/ interesante more and more important - din ce n ce mai important/ important/ importani/ importante more and more beautifully - din ce n ce mai frumos more and more carefully - din ce n ce mai atent/grijuliu etc.

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8. Pozitivul cu comparativul de superioritate

much better (than) ...- mult mai bine/bun (ca/dect)... much older (than)...- mult mai n vrst (ca/dect)... much worse (than)...- mult mai ru (ca/dect)... much easier (than) ...- mult mai uor (ca/dect) ... much more (than)...- mult mai mult (ca/dect) ... much less (than) ...- mult mai puin (ca/dect) ... much more difficult (than) ...- mult mai dificil/greu (ca/dect) ... much more beautiful (than) ...- mult mai frumoas (ca/dect) ... much more interesting (than) ...- mult mai interesant (ca/dect) ... much more important (than) ...- mult mai important (ca/dect) ... much more beutifully (than) ...- mult mai frumos (ca/dect) ... much more carefully (than) ...- mult mai atent (ca/dect) ... a little better (than) ...- puin mai bine/bun (ca/dect) ... a little earlier (than) ... - puin mai devreme a little worse (than) ...- puin mai ru (ca/dect) ... (ca/dect)... a little more (than) ...- puin mai mult (ca/dect) ... a little later (than) ...- puin mai trziu (ca/dect) ... a little less (than) ...- puin mai puin (ca/dect) ... a little easier (than) ...- puin mai uor (ca/dect) ... a little older (than) ...- puin mai btrn/vechi (ca/dect)... a little more difficult (than) ...- puin mai dificil/greu (ca/dect) ... a little more beautiful (than) ...- puin mai frumoas (ca/dect) .... a little more interesting (than) ...- puin mai interesant (ca/dect) .... a little more important (than) ...- puin mai important (ca/dect) ... a little more beautifully (than) ...- puin mai frumos (ca/dect) ... a little more carefully (than) ...- puin mai atent/grijuliu (ca/dect)...

9. By far + comparativul de superioritate - cu mult mai ...

by far better (than) ...- cu mult mai bun/bine (ca/dect)... by far worse (than) ...- cu mult mai ru (ca/dect)... by far more (than) ...- cu mult mai mult (ca/dect)... by far less (than) ...- cu mult mai puin (ca/dect)...

by far older (than) ...- cu mult mai btrn/vechi (ca/dect)... by far earlier (than) ...- cu mult mai devreme (ca/dect) ... by far later (than) ...- cu mult mai trziu (ca/dect)...

by far easier (than) ...- cu mult mai uor (ca/dect)... by far more difficult (than) ...- cu mult mai dificil (ca/dect)... by far more beautiful (than) ...- cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect)... by far more interesting (than) ...- cu mult mai interesant (ca/dect)... by far more important (than) ...- cu mult mai important (ca/dect) ... by far more beautifully (than) ...- cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect) ... by far more carefully (than) ...- cu mult mai atent/prudent (ca/dect)... a good/great deal better (than) ...- cu mult mai bine (ca/dect)... a good/great deal worse (than) ...- cu mult mai ru (ca/dect)... a good/great deal more (than) ...- cu mult mai mult (ca/dect)... a good/great deal less (than) ...- cu mult mai puin (ca/dect)... a good/great deal older (than) ...- cu mult mai btrn/vechi (ca/dect) ... a good/great deal earlier (than) ...- cu mult mai devreme (ca/dect)... a good/great deal later (than) ...- cu mult mai trziu (ca/dect)... a good/great deal easier (than) ...- cu mult mai uor (ca/dect)... a good/great deal more difficult (than) ... - cu mult mai dificil (ca/dect)... a good/great deal more beautiful (than) ...- cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect)...

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a good/great deal more interesting (than) ...- cu mult mai interesant (ca/dect)... a good/great deal more important (than) ...- cu mult mai important (ca/dect)... a good/great deal more beautifully (than) ...- cu mult mai frumos (ca/dect)... a good/great deal more carefully (than) ...- cu mult mai atent/prudent (ca/dect)...

10. Structuri constnd din dou comparative de superioritate (cu ct... cu att...)
the earlier, the better - cu ct mai devreme, cu att mai bine The earlier you come, the better it is. - Cu ct vii/venii mai devreme, cu att mai bine. The more you learn, the more you forget. - Cu ct nvei mai mult, cu att uii mai mult. the later, the worse - cu ct mai trziu, cu att mai ru The later you arrive, the worse it is. - Cu ct ajungi mai trziu, cu att este mai ru. The more beautifully Alice will sing, the more money she will get. - Cu ct Alice va cnta mai frumos, cu att mai muli bani va ctiga. His flat is a little cheaper than yours. - Apartamentul lui este puin mai ieftin dect al tu. Your flat is a lot cheaper than mine. - Apartamentul tu este mult mai ieftin dect al meu. Our flat is somewhat cheaper than theirs. - Apartamentul nostru este ntructva/puin mai ieftin dect al lor.

11. Superlativul absolut


Se formeaz cu adverbele: very (foarte), extremely (extrem de), quite (total, complet, cu totul), perfectly (perfect), extraordinary (extraordinar de), inconceivably (incredibil de), exceedingly (excesiv/nemaipomenit de), fantastically (fantastic de), enormously/ immensely (enorm/imens de), tremendously/ awfully (ngrozitor/teribil de), infinitely (infinit de), terribly (teribil de), terrifically (nfiortor de) etc. awfully hot - ngrozitor/cumplit de cald They have changed enormously. - Ei s-au schimbat enorm. quite well - foarte bine very well - foarte bine infinitely small - infinit/nemsurat de mic exceedingly difficult - excesiv de greu, din cale afar de dificil perfectly well - perfect de bine terribly boring - teribil/nfiortor de plictisitor a matchless playwright - un dramaturg fr pereche We are awfully sorry. - Ne pare nespus de ru

extremely well - extrem de bine exceedingly good - excesiv de bun

quite right - perfect adevrat/just

enough - adjectiv enough food - food enough - hran suficient/destul to have money enough - to have enough money - a avea destui bani enough - adverb de comparaie I am warm enough. - mi este destul de cald. The exercise is difficult enough. - Exerciiul este destul de greu. What is good for you is good enough for me. - Ce este valabil pentru tine este perfect valabil i pentru mine. Enough este singurul adverb de comparaie care st dup adjectivul pe care l determin. This beer is good enough. - Berea aceasta este destul de bun.

12. Comparaia adjectivelor compuse 27

POZITIV

COMPARATIV DE SUPERIORITATE

SUPERLATIV RELATIV

SUPERLATIV ABSOLUT

well-paid bine pltit good-looking artos sweet-natured bun la suflet short-sighted miop

better-paid mai bine pltit better-looking mai artos More sweet - natured mai bun la suflet more short - sighted mai miop

the best-paid cel mai bine pltit the best-looking cel mai artos the most sweet -natured cel mai bun la suflet the most short -sighted cel mai miop

very well-paid foarte bine pltit very good-looking foarte artos very sweet- natured foarte bun la suflet very short-sighted foarte miop

John is a good/great deal more careful than Bill. - John este mult mai atent/prudent dect Bill. Bill is a good/great deal less careful than John. - Bill este mult mai puin prudent dect John. He is a little less careful than his brother. - El este puin mai puin prudent dect fratele lui. He loves her more than I (do). - El o iubete pe ea mai mult dect o iubesc eu. He loves her more than me. - El o iubete pe ea mai mult dect pe mine. They know her better than I (do). - Ei o cunosc pe ea mai bine dect/ca mine. They know her better than me. - Ei o cunosc pe ea mai bine dect pe mine.

4. PRONUMELE (THE PRONOUN)


Pronumele este partea de vorbire care nlocuiete un substantiv (o fiin, un obiect etc.). Clasificare: 1. Personale (the Personal Pronouns) 2. Interogative (the Interrogative Pronouns) 3. Relative (the Relative Pronouns) 4. Posesive (the Possessive Pronouns) 5. Demonstrative (the Demonstrative Pronouns) 6. Impersonale/Generale (the Impersonal/General Pronouns) 7. Reflexive (the Reflexive Pronouns)

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8. Emfatice (the Emphatic Pronouns) 9. Nehotrte (the Indefinite Pronouns) 10. Reciproce (the Reciprocal Pronouns

1. Pronumele personale (The Personal Pronouns)


I - eu we - noi you - tu you - voi, dumneavoastr (dv.) he - el, dnsul, dumnealui they - ei, ele, dnii, dnsele, dumnealor she - ea, dnsa, dumneaei it - el, ea

2. Pronumele interogative (The Interrogative Pronouns)


N . who ? - cine ? ( N. - nominativ ) Who knows him ? - Cine l cunoate pe el ? G . whose ? - al, a, ai, ale cui ? ( G. - genitiv ) Whose is this house, his or hers ? - A cui este aceast cas, a lui sau a ei ? Whose is this little boy ? - Al cui este acest bieel ? Whose is this little girl ? - A cui este acest feti ? Whose are these books ? - Ale cui sunt aceste cri ? Whose are these children ? - Ai cui sunt aceti copii ? D . to whom ? - who (m)... to ? - cui ?, la cine ? ( D. - dativ) To whom do you give this book ? - Who(m) do you give this book to? - Cui i dai aceast carte? To whom are you referring ? - Who(m) are you referring to ? - La cine te referi? To whom does the book belong ? - Who(m) does the book belong to ? - Cui i aparine cartea? (to) me - mie (to) us - nou (to) you - ie (to) you - vou (to) him - lui (to) them - lor, dnilor, dnilor/dnselor (to) her - ei (to) it - lui/ei (to) my friend - prietenului meu (to) our friend - prietenului nostru (to) your friend - prietenului tu (to) your friend - prietenului vostru (to) his friend - prietenului lui (to) their friend - prietenului lor (to) her friend - prietenului ei (to) my friends - prietenilor mei I write my friends a letter-I write a letter to my friends-Eu scriu prietenilor mei o scrisoare-Scriu o scrisoare prietenilor mei. for whom ? - who(m) ... for ? - pentru cine ? For whom must you buy the book? - Who(m) must you buy the book for? - Pentru cine trebuie s cumperi cartea ? about whom ? - who(m) ... about ? - despre cine ? They are talking about Jim. - Ei vorbesc/discut despre Jim. Who(m) are they talking about ? - About whom are they talking ? - Despre cine vorbesc ei? about me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them - despre mine/tine/el/ea/noi/voi/ei/ele) after whom ? - who(m) ... after ? - dup cine ? Jim is running after them. - Jim alearg dup ei. After whom is Jim running ? - Who(m) is Jim running after ? - Dup cine alearg Jim ? (after me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them - dup mine/tine/el/ea/noi/voi/ei/ele) before whom? - who(m) ... before ? - n faa cui ? - naintea cui ? He was sitting before us. - El edea n faa noastr. Before whom was he sitting ? - n faa cui edea el ? (before me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them - naintea mea/ta/lui/ei/noastr/voastr/ lor

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before my/your/his/her/our/your/their eyes - naintea ochilor mei/ ti/ lui/ ei/ notri/ votri/ lor) behind whom? - who(m) ... behind ? - n spatele cui ? He was sitting behind me. - El edea n spatele meu. Behind whom was he sitting ? -Who(m) was he sitting behind ? - n spatele cui sttea el ? beside whom? - who(m) ... beside ? - alturi de cine ? Beside whom was he sitting? - Alturi de cine edea el ? He was sitting beside me. - El edea alturi de mine. (beside whose friend ? - alturi de prietenul cui ? beside my friend - alturi de prietenul meu) between whom? - who(m) ... between ? - ntre cine ? between his (two) friends - ntre cei (doi) prieteni ai lui between John and Nick - ntre John i Nick beyond whom? - who(m) ... beyond ? - dincolo de cine ? (beyond me - dincolo de mine beyond us - dincolo de noi beyond you - dincolo de tine beyond you - dincolo de voi beyond him/her/it - dincolo de el/ea beyond them - dincolo de ei/ele) by whom ? - who(m) ... by ? - de (ctre) cine ? (by me - de mine by us - de noi by you - de tine by you - de voi/dv. by him/her/it - de el/ea by them - de ei/ele) by whose friend ? - de prietenul cui ? (by my friend -de prietenul meu by our friend - de prietenul nostru by your friend - de prietenul tu by your friend - de prietenul vostru by his friend - de prietenul lui/su by their friend - de prietenul lor by her friend - de prietenul ei/su by this boy's friend/by the friend of this boy - de prietenul acestui biat by this girl's friend/by the friend of this girl - de prietenul acestei fete by these boys' friend/by the friend of these boys - de prietenul acestor biei by these girls' friend/by the friend of these girls - de prietenul acestor fete by this boy's friends/by the friends of this boy - de prietenii acestui biat by this girl's friends/by the friends of this girl - de prietenii acestei fete by this boys' friends/by the friends of these boys - de prietenii acestor biei by this girls' friends/by the friends of these girls - de prietenii acestor fete) for whom? - who(m) for ? - pentru cine ? For whom are you buying the book ? - Who(m) are you buying the book for? - Pentru cine cumperi (tu) cartea ? (for me - pentru mine for us - pentru noi for you - pentru tine for you - pentru voi for him/her/it - pentru el/ea for them - pentru ei/ele for whose friend ? - pentru prietenul cui ? For whose friend is John working ? - Pentru prietenul cui lucreaz John? for my friend - pentru prietenul meu ) from whom ? - who(m) from ? - de la cine ? from me - de la mine from us - de la noi from you - de la tine from you - de la voi from him/her/it - de la el/ea from them - de la ei/ele from whose friend ? - de la prietenul cui ? - de la al cui prieten? (from my friend - de la prietenul meu) near whom? - who(m) ...near ? - lng cine? (near me - lng mine near us - lng noi near you - lng tine near you - lng voi near him/her/it - lng el/ea near them - lng ei/ele) John was sitting near this man's friend. - John edea lng prietenul acestui om. Near whom was John sitting? - Who(m) was John sitting near ? - Lng cine edea John? of whom ? - who(m) ...of ? - de cine ?; despre cine? to get rid of somebody - a se descotorosi/scpa de cineva I must get rid of that drunk man. - Trebuie s m descotorosesc de omul acela but/beat. Who(m) must I get rid of ? - Of whom must I get rid ? - De cine trebuie s scap eu ? on/upon whom? - who(m) ... on/upon ? - de cine ? to depend on/upon - a depinde de Our going on the trip depends on John. - Plecarea noastr n excursie depinde de John. On/upon whom does our going on the trip depend ? - Who(m) does our going on the trip depend on/upon ? - De cine depinde plecarea noastr n excursie ?

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(on/upon me - de mine) On/upon whose friend does our going on the trip depend ? - Whose friend does our going on the trip depend on/upon ? - De prietenul cui depinde plecarea noastr n excursie ? with whom? - who(m) ...with ? - cu cine ? I am playing tennis with John. - Eu joc tenis cu John. Who(m) am I playing tennis with ? - With whom am I playing tennis? - Cu cine joc eu tenis? (with me - cu mine with us - cu noi with you - cu tine with you - cu voi with him/her/it - cu el/ea with them - cu ei/ele) with whose friend ? - cu prietenul cui ? They are going on the trip with my friend. - Ei merg n excursie cu prietenul meu. With whom are they going on the trip ? - Who(m) are they going on the trip with ? - Cu cine merg ei n excursie ? with my friend - cu prietenul meu without whom ? - fr cine ? (without me - fr mine without us - fr noi without you - fr tine without you - fr voi without him/her/it - fr el/ea without them - fr ei/ele) without whose friend ? - fr prietenul cui ? without my friend - fr prietenul meu Whose friend were you there without ? - Fr prietenul cui ai fost acolo ?) A . whom? - pe cine ? ( A. - acuzativ ) This is the boy whom I saw. - Acesta este biatul pe care l-am vzut eu. I see John in the street. - l vd pe John pe strad. Whom do I see in the street? - Pe cine vd eu pe strad ? John sees me in the street. - John m vede pe mine pe strad. Whom does John see in the street ? - Pe cine vede John pe strad ? (me - pe mine her - pe ea/dnsa us - pe noi you - pe tine it - pe el/ea you - pe voi him - pe el/dnsul them - pe ei/ele/) John sees my friend in the street. - John l vede pe prietenul meu pe strad. John sees my friend's brother in the street. - John l vede pe fratele prietenului meu pe strad. what? - ce ? What is this ? - Ce este acesta/aceasta ? What are these ? - Ce sunt acetia/acestea ? What is there on the table ? - Ce este pe mas ? - Ce se afl/gsete pe mas ? What is your name ? - Cum te cheam ? What time is it ? - Ct este ceasul ? what kind/sort of ? - ce fel de ? What kind/sort of man is he ? - Ce fel de om este el ? What kind/sort of films do you like? - Ce fel de filme i plac?

3. Pronumele relative (The Relative Pronouns)


who - cine, care. He does not know who must come to see us.- El nu tie cine trebuie s vin pe la noi. I know the boy who can play tennis well. - Eu l tiu/cunosc pe biatul care tie s joace tenis bine. whose - al cui, a cui, ai cui, ale cui. We are playing with John's ball but we don't know whose they are playing with. - Noi ne jucm cu mingea lui John dar nu tim cu a cui se joac ei. to whom - who(m) ...to - cui I don't know who(m) I shall give this book to. - Nu tiu cui s-i dau cartea aceasta. Do you know who(m) he is referring to ? - tii la cine se refer el ? whom - pe cine, pe care

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I know whom you appreciate very much. - Eu tiu pe cine apreciezi tu foarte mult. He could not guess whom he might see there. - Nu putea bnui pe cine va putea vedea acolo. which - care, pe care She has many books, but she doesn't know which she must read for the examination. - Ea are multe cri, dar nu tie pe care trebuie s-o citeasc pentru examen. Her house, of which roof is of tiles, was built five years ago. - Casa, al crei acoperi este de igl, a fost construit acum cinci ani.

4. Pronumele posesive (The Possessive Pronouns)


mine - al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele. John's friend is in Bucharest and mine is in Berlin. - Prietenul lui John este n Bucureti, iar al meu este n Berlin. John's sister is in Bucharest and mine is in Berlin. - Sora lui John este n Bucureti, iar a mea este n Berlin. John's friends are in Bucharest and mine are in Berlin. - Prietenii lui John sunt n Bucureti, iar ai mei sunt n Berlin. John's sisters are in Bucharest and mine are in Berlin. - Surorile lui John sunt n Bucureti, iar ale mele sunt n Berlin. yours - al tu, a ta, ai ti, ale tale. My car is white and yours is blue. - Automobilul meu este alb, iar al tu este albastru. My house is in the country and yours is in the town. - Casa mea este la ar, iar a ta este la ora. My children are in the mountains and yours are at the seaside. - Copiii mei sunt la munte, iar ai ti sunt la mare. Our daugthers are at school and yours are at the university. - Fiicele noastre sunt la coal, iar ale voastre sunt la universitate. his - al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui My friend is an engineer and his is an economist. - Prietenul meu este inginer, iar al lui este economist. Our daughter is a school-girl and his is a student. - Fiica noastr este elev, iar a lui este student. Her books are in English and his are in Romanian.- Crile ei sunt n englez, iar ale lui sunt n romn. hers - al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei My friend speaks French but hers doesn't. - Prietenul meu vorbete franuzete, dar al ei nu. My sister works on a farm but hers doesn't. - Sora mea lucreaz la o ferm, dar a ei nu. Our children are noisy but hers aren't. - Copiii notri sunt glgioi, iar ai ei nu (sunt). Our books are old but hers aren't. - Crile noastre sunt vechi, dar ale ei nu (sunt). ours - al nostru, a noastr, ai notri, ale noastre. Your sister is Mary and ours is Beverly. - Sora voastr este Mary iar a noastr este Beverly. Your boys play tennis but ours don't. - Bieii votri joac tenis, dar ai notri nu joac. Your daughters read many books but ours don't. - Fiicele voastre citesc multe cri, ns/ dar ale noastre nu (citesc). yours [yOz] - al tu, a ta , ai ti , ale tale My friends live here , yours don't. - Prietenii mei locuiesc aici , ai ti nu. theirs - al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor. Our son is here but theirs isn't . - Fiul nostru este aici, dar al lor nu (este). Our daughter is not here but theirs is. - Fiica noastr nu este aici, dar a lor este. Our sons don't study German but theirs do. - Fiii notri nu studiaz germana, dar ai lor studiaz.

5. Pronumele demonstrative (The Demonstrative Pronouns)


this - acesta, aceasta That book is yours and this (one) is mine. - Cartea aceea este a ta, iar aceasta este a mea. that - acela, aceea This book is mine and that (one) is yours. - Cartea aceasta este a mea, iar aceea este a ta. these - acetia, acestea Those books are mine and these (ones) are yours. - Crile acelea sunt ale mele, iar acestea sunt ale tale .

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Those players are good but these (ones) are better. - Juctorii aceia sunt buni, dar acetia sunt mai buni. those - aceia, acelea These players are very good but those (ones) aren't. - Juctorii acetia sunt foarte buni, dar aceia nu sunt.

6. Pronumele impersonale (The Impersonal Pronouns)


one, you One could work there. - S-ar putea lucra acolo. - Se putea lucra acolo. You should always be careful when crossing the road. - S fii totdeauna atent la traversarea drumului. One can learn a lot of things here. - Se pot nva o mulime de lucruri aici. You should always behave decently. - Trebuie s te pori totdeauna decent.

7. Pronumele reflexive (The Reflexive Pronouns)


myself - m ourselves - ne yourself - te yourselves - v himself - se themselves - se herself -se oneself - se itself - se Cu ajutorul pronumelorreflexive se formeaz diateza reflexiv a verbelor. to enjoy oneself - a se distra I enjoy myself - eu m distrez De reinut c verbelor reflexive din limba romn nu le corespund totdeauna verbe reflexive n limba englez. eu m mir/ntreb - I wonder ; verbul to wonder n limba englez nu este reflexiv.

8. Pronumele emfatice/ de ntrire (The Emphatic Pronouns)

myself - eu nsumi, personal, chiar eu yourself - tu nsui, personal, chiar tu himself - el nsui, personal, chiar el herself - ea nsi, personal, chiar ea itself - el nsui, ea nsi, personal, chiar el/ea

ourselves - noi nine, nsene, chiar noi yourselves - voi niv, nsev, chiar voi themselves - ei nii, ele nsele, chiar ei/ele I must do it myself - trebuie s-o fac eu nsumi

9. Pronumele nehotrte (The Indefinite Pronouns)


another - alt, alt; One man says yes, another says no. - Un om zice da, altul zice nu. each - fiecare We received two books each. - Am primit cte dou cri fiecare. each of us/you/them - fiecare dintre noi/voi/ei/ele the other - cellalt, cealalt, ceilali, celelalte John likes this book but I like the other (one). - Lui John i place cartea aceasta, ns mie mi place cealalt. John likes this book but I prefer the other (one). - Lui John i place cartea aceasta, dar eu o prefer pe cealalt. others - alii, altele Others know better than you. - Alii tiu mai bine ca/dect tine. the others - ceilali, celelalte The others did not come by bus. - Ceilali n-au venit cu autobuzul.

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I do not see the others. - Eu nu-i vd pe ceilali. - Eu nu le vd pe celelalte. one - unul, una, un, o; se You do not have any book but I have one. - Tu nu ai nici o carte, dar eu am una. Can you tell one from the other ? - l poi deosebi pe unul de cellalt ? My neighbours have two sons whom everybody admires ; I admire one's common sense and the other's diligence. Vecinii mei au doi fii pe care i admir toat lumea; eu admir bunul sim al unuia i hrnicia celuilalt. He is considered as one of the family. - El este considerat drept unul de-al familiei/casei. one of us/you/them - unul/una dintre noi/voi/ei/ele. all - tot, toat, toi, toate; totul He must tell you all or nothing. - El trebuie s-i spun tot sau nimic. I cannot buy it all. - Nu pot s-l/s-o cumpr tot/toat. All he wants is money. - Tot ce vrea el sunt banii. all of us/you/them - we/you/they all - noi/voi/ei toi/ele toate . either - oricare din doi/dou You may buy either. - l /O poi cumpra pe oricare. either of us - oricare din /dintre noi doi/dou either of you - oricare din /dintre voi doi/dou either of them - oricare din /dintre ei/ele doi/dou). Neither - nici unul, nici una, nici un, nici o (din doi/dou) One can see neither. - Nu se poate vedea nici unul/una. neither of us/you/them - nici unul/una din(tre) noi/voi/ei/ele. both - ambii, ambele, amndoi, amndou You may read either of them - both are interesting. - Le poi citi pe oricare din ele - ambele sunt interesante. both of us/you/them - noi/voi/ei doi/amndoi, noi/voi/ele dou/amndou. several - mai muli/multe, civa, cteva You can see many books on the table, but several are mine. - Poi vedea multe cri pe mas, dar cteva sunt ale mele. several of us/you/them - civa/cteva dintre noi/voi/ei/ele. few - puini, puine I only found few. - Am gsit doar puini/puine . few of us/you/them - puini/puine dintre noi/voi/ei/ele. a few - puini/destui, puine/destule I have found a few. - Am gsit destui/destule. quite a few - a good few - foarte muli/multe I have found quite a few. - Am gsit un mare numr. - Am gsit foarte muli/multe. little - puin, puin, mic, mic. I have done little for them. - Am fcut puin pentru ei/ele. The little of what I've done, matters a lot. - Puinul din ct/ce am fcut eu, conteaz mult. Your house is big, but mine is a little one. - Casa ta este mare, ns a mea este mic. How are your little ones? - Ce fac cei mici ai ti? a little [\ `litl] - puin /destul/ceva, puin/destul/ceva You only have little tea but I have a little. - Tu ai doar/numai puin ceai, ns eu am ceva/ctva. much [m{t~] - mult, mult You have got little tea but I have got much. - Tu ai puin ceai, ns eu am mult. many [meni] - muli, multe many of us/you/them - muli dintre noi/voi/ei, multe dintre ele You have only got few books but I've got many. - Tu ai doar puine cri, ns eu am multe. some - nite, unii, unele, ceva, puin, puin, civa, cteva. Some are good and some are bad. - Unele sunt bune, iar altele sunt rele. Unii sunt buni, iar alii sunt ri. any - orice, fiece, oricare, ; nici unul, nici una. He doesn't like any. - Lui nu-i place oricare. - Lui nu-i place nici unul/una. You've got much money, but I haven't got any. - Tu ai bani muli, dar eu n-am nici sfan. - Tu ai bani muli, dar eu nu am deloc. somebody - cineva ; cineva ? I can see somebody at the gate. - Pot s vd pe cineva la poart . Do you see somebody ? - Vezi pe cineva ? anybody A. - oricine - I can ask anybody. - Pot ntreba pe oricine. I. - cineva - Do you see anybody ? - Vezi pe cineva ? N. - nimeni - I cannot ask anybody. - Nu pot ntreba pe nimeni. nobody - nimeni I see nobody. - Nu vd pe nimeni. something - ceva ; ceva?

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I see something. - Vd ceva. Do you see something ? - Vezi ceva ? (Cnd rspunsul este afirmativ). anything - orice - I buy anything.- Cumpr orice. - orice?; ceva? - Are you going to buy anything? - Ai de gnd s cumperi ceva/orice? - orice ; nimic - I'm not going to buy anything. - N-am de gnd s cumpr nimic. nothing - nimic I bought nothing. - Nu am cumprat nimic. someone [`s{mw{n] - careva, cineva You must ask someone. - Trebuie s ntrebi pe careva. anyone - oricare - You may/can ask anyone. - Poi ntreba pe careva/ oricine. - oricare? - Can I ask anyone? - Pot ntreba pe oricare/careva? - oricare - I cannot ask anyone. - Nu pot ntreba pe oricare/ nimeni. no one - nobody - nimeni; none- not one/any - nici unul/una You can ask no one. - Nu poi ntreba pe nimeni. everybody - toi, toat lumea, fiecare I saw everybody laughing. - I-am vzut pe toi rznd. everything - totul, tot He can understand everything. - Poate nelege tot. somebody else - altcineva I see somebody else. - Vd pe altcineva. anybody else - oricine altcineva - Give it to anybody else! - D-i-o oricui altcuiva ! - oricine altcineva ? - Could you play with anybody else? - Puteai juca cu oricine altcineva ? - nimeni altcineva - I was not seen by anybody else. - N-am fost vzut de nimeni altcineva. nobody else - nimeni altcineva Nobody else can do it. - Nimeni altcineva n-o poate face. something else - altceva We must buy something else. - Trebuie s cumprm altceva. anything else - orice altceva: They may do anything else. - Ei pot face orice altceva. nothing else - nimic altceva I saw nothing else. - N-am vzut nimic altceva.

10. Pronumele reciproce (Reciprocal Pronoun)


each other - unul pe cellalt (dou persoane) The two neighbours help each other. - Cei doi vecini se ajut unul pe cellalt. one another - unul pe cellalt (minimum trei persoane) The three brothers help one another. - Cei trei frai se ajut unul pe cellalt.

DECLINAREA PRONUMELUI PERSONAL


n schema care urmeaz este inclus i cazul genitiv dei pronumele personal n cazul genitiv este pronume posesiv, nu personal. numrul singular N. G. D. A. I - eu my - meu mine - al meu (to) me - mie me - pe mine you - tu your - tu yours - al tu (to) you - tie you - pe tine he - el his - lui his - al lui (to) him - lui him - pe el she - ea her - ei hers - al ei (to) her - ei her - pe ea it - el/ea its - lui/ei its - al lui/ei (to) it - lui/ei it - pe el/ea

numrul plural

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N. G. D. A.

we - noi you - voi/dv. they - ei/ele, dnii/dnsele our - nostru your - vostru/dv. their - lor, dnilor/dnselor ours - al nostruyours - al vostru/dv. theirs - al lor, al dnilor/dnselor (to) us - nou (to) you - vou/dv. (to) them - lor, dnilor/dnselor us - pe noi you - pe voi/dv. them - pe ei/ele, pe dnii/ dnsele

5. NUMERALUL (THE NUMERAL)


Este partea de vorbire prin care se exprim un numr de obiecte/fiine etc. sau ordinea acestora. Clasificare:

1. Cardinale (Cardinal Numerals) 2. Colective (Collective Numerals) 3. Ordinale (Ordinal Numerals) 4. Distributive (Distributive Numerals) 5. Fracionare (Fractional Numerals) 6. Adverbiale (Adverbial Numerals) 7. Multiplicative (Multiplicative Numerals) 8. Nehotrte (Indefinite Numerals) 9. Exprimarea orei 10.Uniti de msur (Measures)

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1. Numeralul Cardinal (The Cardinal Numeral)


Exprim un numr exact/ntreg de obiecte sau fiine ncepnd de la zero ctre plus sau minus infinit. La telefon zero/0 se pronun ca litera O [\u], la tenis se spune love (all), n tiine se folosete cuvntul zero. Cnd ne referim la ani exprimm: 1907 - nineteen oh seven. Exprimarea temperaturii se realizeaz astfel: 0 se pronun zero -10 - ten degrees below zero. Cnd se exprim scorul la jocurile de fotbal 0 se pronun nil [nil] sau nothing. La tenis: Nstase leads by two sets to love. (2 - 0) - Nstase conduce cu dou seturi la zero. Numerele de telefon (Telephone Numbers) se scriu cu spaii ntre grupele de cifre. e.g. 04 662 5142 0 n numerele telefonice se pronun [\u]. Numerele se rostesc separat, iar cifrele duble se rostesc folosindu-se cuvntul double 01 223 456 - oh one double two three four five six . - zero unu doi doi trei patru cinci ase. Cifre triple (Triple/Treble Figures) : 7 555 - seven five double five - apte cinci cinci cinci. Un numr ca 5555 se rostete : double five double five 1 one [w{n] - unu, una 11 eleven [i`levn] - unsprezece 2 two [tU] - doi, dou 12 twelve [twelv] - doisprezece 3 three [SrI] - trei 13 thirteen [`S|`tIn] - treisprezece 4 four [fO] - patru 14 fourteen [`fO`tIn]- paisprezece 5 five [faiv] - cinci 15 fifteen[`fif`tIn] - cincisprezece 6 six [siks] - ase 16 sixteen [`siks`tIn] - aisprezece 7 seven [`sevn] - apte 17seventeen [`sevn`tIn] - aptesprezece 8 eight [eit] - opt 18 eighteen [`ei`tIn] - optsprezece 9 nine [nain] - nou 19 nineteen [`nain`tIn] - nousprezece 10 ten [ten] - zece 20 twenty [`twenti] - douzeci 21 twenty-one - douzeci i unu/una 40 forty [`fOti] - patruzeci 22 twenty-two - douzeci i doi/dou 50 fifty [`fifti] - cincizeci 23 twenty-three-douzeci i trei 60 sixty [`siksti] - aizeci 24 twenty-four - douzeci i patru 70 seventy [`sevnti] - aptezeci 25 twenty-five - douzeci i cinci 80 eighty[`eiti] - optzeci 26 twenty-six - douzeci i ase 90 ninety [`nainti] - nouzeci 27 twenty-seven - douzeci i apte 100 one hundred [h{ndr\d] - o sut 28 twenty-eight - douzeci i opt 101 one hundred and one - o sut unu 29 twenty-nine - douzeci i nou 102 one hundred and two - o sut doi 30 thirty [`S|ti] - treizeci 125 one hundred and twenty five - o sut douzeci i cinci 200 two hundred - dou sute 257 two hundred and fifty seven - dou sute cincizeci i apte 1,000 one thousand - o mie 1,066 ten sixty six - one thousand and sixty six - o mie aizeci i ase 2,567 two thousand five hundred and sixty seven -dou mii cinci sute aizeci i apte 10,000 ten thousand - zece mii 100,000 one hundred thousand - o sut de mii 123,547 one hundred and twenty three thousand five hundred and forty seven - o sut douzeci i trei de mii cinci sute patruzeci i apte 1,000,000 one million - un milion - 1.000.000 2,000,000 two million - dou milioane - 2.000.000 1,000,000,000 one milliard/billion - un miliard - 1.000.000.000 3,000,000,000 three milliard/billion - trei miliarde - 3.000.000.000 1,000,000,000,000 one trillion - un trilion - 1.000.000.000.000 1,000,000,000,000,000 one quadrillion - un catralion 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 one quintillion - un chintilion

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2. Numeralul Ordinal ( The Ordinal Numeral)


1st the first [f|st] - primul, prima 2nd the second [`sek\nd] - al doilea, a doua 3rd the third [S|d] - al treilea, a treia 4th the fourth [fOS] - al patrulea, a patra 5th the fifth [fifS] - al cincilea, a cincea 6th the sixth [siksS] - al aselea, a asea 7th the seventh [`sevnS] - al aptelea, a aptea 8th the eighth [eitS] - al optulea, a opta 9th the ninth [nainS] - al noulea, a noua 10th the tenth [tenS] - al zecelea, a zecea 11th the eleventh [i`levnS] - al unsprezecelea, a unsprezecea 12th the twelfth [`twelfS] - al doisprezecelea, a dousprezecea 13th the thirteenth [`S|`tInS]- al treisprezecelea, a treisprezecea 14th the fourteenth [`fO`tInS]- al paisprezecelea, a paisprezecea 15th the fifteenth [`fif`tInS] - al cincisprezecelea, a cincisprezecea 16th the sixteenth [`siks`tInS] - al aisprezecelea, a aisprezecea 17th the seventeenth [`sevn`tInS] - al aptesprezecelea, a aptesprezecea 18th the eighteenth [`ei`tInS] - al optsprezecelea, a optsprezecea 19th the nineteenth [`nain`tInS] - al nousprezecelea, a nousprezecea 20th the twentieth [`twenti\S]- al douzecilea, a douzecea 21st the twenty first - al douzeci i unulea, a douzeci i una 22nd the twenty second - al douzeci i doilea, a douzeci i doua 23rd the twenty third - al douzeci i treilea, a douzeci i treia 24th the twenty fourth - al douzeci i patrulea, a douzeci i patra 25th the twenty fifth - al douzeci i cincilea, a douzeci i cincea 26th the twenty sixth - al douzeci i aselea, a douzeci i asea 27th the twenty seventh - al douzeci i aptelea, a douzeci i aptea 28th the twenty eighth - al douzeci i optulea, a douzeci i opta 29th the twenty ninth - al douzeci i noulea, a douzeci i noua 30th the thirtieth [`S|tiiS/`S|ti\S] - al treizecilea, a treizecea 40th the fortieth [`fOtiiS `fOti\S] - al patruzecilea, a patruzecea 50th the fiftieth [`fiftiiS `fifti\S] - al cincizecilea, a cincizecea 60th the sixtieth [`sikstiiS `siksti\S] - al aizecilea, a aizecea 70th the seventieth [`sevntiiS `sevnti\S] - al aptezecilea, a aptezecea 80th the eightieth [`eitiiS `eiti\S] - al optzecilea, a optzecea 90th the ninetieth [`naintiiS `nainti\S]- al nouzecilea, a nouzecea 100th the one hundredth [`h{ndr\dS `h{ndridS] - al o sutlea, a o suta 101st the one hundred and first - al o sut unulea , a o sut una 102nd the one hundred and second - al o sut doilea, a o sut doua

which? - al ctelea, a cta, ai ctelea, ale ctelea? Which boy is John ? - Al ctelea biat este John ? Which girl is Jane ? - A cta fat este Jane ? Which boat is theirs ? - A cta barc este a lor ? I know which he is. - Eu tiu al ctelea este el. Do you know which she is ? - tii tu a cta este ea ? quarter - a fourth (and twenty three - nou supra cinci sute douzeci i trei; 4.53 - four point five three - 4,53 - patru virgul cincizeci i trei .3.

Numeralul fracionar (The Fractional Numeral)

Fracia (The Fraction) - Ordinar (Vulgar) - Zecimal (Decimal) 38

- a/one half (o doime); - a/one third (o treime); - a/one quarter - a fourth (un sfert); - three fourths - three quarters (trei ptrimi, apte; - nine over five hundred and twenty three - nou supra cinci sute douzeci i trei; 4.53 - four point five three - 4,53 - patru virgul cincizeci i trei

Semnele Matematice
+ plus - and - plus; empty set- mulime vid; minus - minus; pi [ pai ] - 3,14; multiplied - nmulit; angle - unghi : divided by - mprit la; ' - minute - minut; " - second - secund; - equal to - egal cu; - not equal to - neegal cu, diferit de; log - logarithm - logaritm; < less than - mai mic dect/ca; integral (of) - integral; > more than - mai mare dect/ca; triangle - triunghi; less than or equal to - mai mic sau egal cu; infinity - infinit; more than or equal to - mai mare sau egal cu; square root - rdcin ptrat; ll - parallel to - paralel cu; perpendicular to - perpendicular pe; % - Percentage Sign - la sut (procent); 5 % - five per cent - cinci la sut - 5 la sut; 5.5 % - five point five per cent - cinci virgul cinci la sut. % - five and a half per cent - cinci i jumtate la sut

Operaiunile Aritmetice (Arithmetical Operations)


2 + 2 - 4 two plus/and two makes/equals/is/are four - doi plus doi fac patru 10 - 2 - 8 ten minus two makes/equals eight - zece minus/fr doi fac opt 5 x 5 - 25 Five times five makes/is twenty-five. - Five multiplied by five equals (25) twenty-five. - Five fives is twenty-five. - Cinci ori cinci fac dou- zeci i cinci. 4 x 3 - 12 se citete: Four threes are twelve . - Three fours are twelve. - Patru ori trei fac doisprezece. 25 : 5 - 5 Five into twenty five makes/equals five. - Twenty-five divided by five is five. - Douzeci i cinci mprit la cinci fac cinci.

Exprimarea datei (Dates)


Se realizeaz cu ajutorul numeralelor ordinale i cardinale. February 14th, 1989 - 14th February 1989 - the fourteenth of February 1989 -14.2.1989 - 14 februarie 1989 -14-II1989 In limba englez american data apare astfel: February 14, 1989, deci numele lunii se scrie naintea numrului zilei. What date is it today? - n ct este astzi? What day is it today? - Ce zi este astzi? Today is Sunday. - Astzi este duminic. On Monday I'll go to Cetate. - Luni voi merge la Cetate. 44 B.C. (Before Christ) - 44 nainte de Cristos, 44 naintea erei noastre A.D. 105 - A.D. one hundred oh five . (A.D. - Anno Domini - in the year of Lord) - 105 era noastr - 105 dup Cristos.

Lunile anului (The Months of the Year)


January (Jan.) - ianuarie; February (Feb.) - februarie; March (Mar.) - martie; April (Apr.) - aprilie; May - mai; June iunie; July - iulie; August - august; September (Sept.) - septembrie; October (Oct.) - octombrie; November (Nov.) noiembrie; December (Dec.) - decembrie

Zilele sptmnii (The days of the Week)


Sunday (Sun.) - duminic; Monday (Mon.) - luni; Tuesday (Tue.) - mari; Wednesday (Wed.) - miercuri; Thursday (Thurs.) - joi; Friday (Fri.) - vineri; Saturday (Sat.) - smbt n limba englez, zilele i lunile anului se scriu numai cu majuscul.

4. Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral)


Conine o mulime exprimat printr-un singular. couple - cuplu ; team - echip; pair - pereche; dozen - duzin; score - douzeci; polgross - 12 duzini; a couple of cherries - dou ciree; to walk in pairs - a se plimba perechi; a pair of shoes - o pereche de pantofi; half a score - zece; a pair of trousers - o pereche de pantaloni; two score years - patruzeci de ani; I've met many happy pairs. - Am ntlnit multe perechi fericite.

5. Numeralul multiplicativ (The Multiplicative Numerals) 39

double - twofold - dublu - ndoit a hundredfold - nsutit triple - threefold - triplu a thousandfold - nmiit fourfold - mptrit tenfold - nzecit once - o dat ten times - de zece ori twice - de dou ori fifty times - de cincizeci de ori thrice - de trei ori a hundred times - de o sut de ori four times - de patru ori a thousand times - de o mie de ori five times - de cinci ori He has a suitcase with a double bottom. - El are un geamantan cu fund dublu.

6. Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral)


one at a time - cte unul o dat two at a time - cte doi o dat three at a time - cte trei o dat four at a time - cte patru o dat five at a time - cte cinci o dat by the dozen - la duzin ten at a time - zece o dat, cte zece one by one - unul cte unul two by two, by twos - doi cte doi three by three, by threes - trei cte trei four by four, by fours - patru cte patru five by five, by fives - cinci cte cinci one hundred at a time - o sut o dat, cte o sut every other minute - din dou n dou minute

every other hour - hourly - din dou n dou ore - la fiecare dou ore every three hours - din trei n trei ore - la trei ore o dat every five hours - din cinci n cinci ore, la interval de cinci ore I see groups of five children. - Vd grupuri de cte cinci copii.

7. Numeralul adverbial (The Adverbial Numeral)


once - o dat firstly - n primul rnd twice - de dou ori ten times - de zece ori secondly - n al doilea rnd four times - de patru ori three times - de trei ori thirdly - n al treilea rnd They would go swimming three times a week. - Mergeau s noate de trei ori pe sptmn.

8. Numeralul nehotrt (The Indefinite Numeral)


a number of - un numr de tens of - zeci de a lot of - o mulime/grmad de hundreds of - sute de lots of - many - muli, multe thousands of - mii de Lots of people are walking in the park. - Muli oameni se plimb prin parc. Tens of people are swimming in the lake. - Zeci de oameni noat n lac.

9. Exprimarea orei
Ct este ceasul/ora? (What time is it?, What's the time?) minute - minut half - jumtate past - i to - fr long hand - orar short hand - minutar quarter - sfert watch - ceas de mn clock - ceas de perete face - cadran alarm clock - ceas detepttor second hand - secundar

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It is five (minutes) past twelve. - Este doisprezece i cinci (minute). It is ten (minutes) past twelve. - Este doisprezece i zece (minute). It is a quarter past twelve. - Este doisprezece i un sfert. It is half past twelve. - Este doisprezece i jumtate. It is a quarter to one. - Este unu fr un sfert. It is ten (minutes) to one. - Este unu fr zece (min.). It is two o'clock. - Este ora dou. it is fast - grbete, o ia nainte, merge nainte it is slow - ntrzie, rmne/merge n urm My watch is five minutes slow. - Ceasul meu merge/rmne cu cinci minute n urm. Your watch is five minutes fast. -Ceasul tu o ia nainte cu cinci minute. My watch keeps a good time. - Ceasul meu merge bine. His watch goes wrong. - Ceasul lui merge greit/prost.

10. Uniti de msur (Measures)

1 inch (in.) - 2,54 cm - 1/36 yard - 1/12 foot 1 furlong- 10 chains - 200,11 m 12 inches - 1 foot - 30,48 cm - 0,3048 m 1 rod - 5,029 m 3 feet (ft.) - 1 yard - 91 cm - 0,91 m - 1 yd 1 league - 3 miles 1 mile - 1,760 yards - 1609,35 m 1 fanthom- 6 feet - 1,82 m 1 mile - 80 chains 1 cable - 608 feet - 185,31 m 1 link - 7.92 inches - 20,1168 cm 1 sea mile - 6,080 feet - 1851,85 m 1 chain - 100 links - 20,1168 m 1 gallon (gal) - 4 quarts - 8 pints - England - 4,544 litres ; United States - 3,784 litres

6. VERBUL (THE VERB)


Este partea de vorbire care exprim o aciune, o activitate sau un proces i are urmtoarele categorii gramaticale: 1. Timp 2. Aspect 3. Numr 4. Persoan 5. Diatez 6. Mod

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Timpul
Este categoria gramatical prin care se precizeaz momentul desfurrii aciunii. Exist trei timpuri de baz: 1. Prezent , 2. Trecut , 3. Viitor.

Aspectul
Exprim gradul de ndeplinire a aciunii. n limba englez exist dou aspecte: 1. Aspectul Comun, prin care se exprim o aciune general , o aciune terminat sau o aciune de scurt durat. I play tennis. - Eu joc tenis (n general sau de obicei). 2. Aspectul Continuu, care exprim o aciune n desfurare - deci o aciune neterminat. I am playing tennis. - Joc tenis (acum).

Diateza
Realizeaz relaia dintre subiect i complementul direct. Exist trei diateze: 1. Activ 2. Pasiv 3. Reflexiv.

Diateza Activ
Aciunea subiectului se ndreapt asupra complementului direct.; The boy is reading the lesson. - Biatul citete lecia.

Diateza Pasiv
Aciunea svrit de subiectul logic se rsfrnge asupra subiectului gramatical. The lesson is read by the boy. - Lecia este citit de biat. Din exemplul de mai sus se observ c n limba englez Diateza Pasiv se formeaz cu verbul auxiliar to be + participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat (adic a III-a form de baz a verbului de conjugat). Verbul to be se conjug, iar verbul de conjugat la participiul trecut nu-i modific forma.

Diateza Reflexiv
Aciunea se rsfrnge asupra autorului ei, adic asupra subiectului. The cat washes itself. - Pisica se spal.

Modul
Este categoria gramatical a verbului prin care se precizeaz felul aciunii i anume dac aciunea este real, sigur, ireal, probabil, posibil, imposibil.
n limba englez exist patru moduri personale (Finite Forms) i trei moduri nepersonale (Non - Finite Forms).

PERSONALE

1. Indicative - are toate timpurile 2. Subjunctive - prezent, past i past perfect 3. Conditional - prezent i perfect

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MODURI

4. Imperative - prezent 1. Infinitive - prezent i perfect NEPERSONALE 2. Participle - prezent, past i perfect 3. Gerund - prezent i perfect

CLASIFICAREA VERBELOR

1. Auxiliare

2.

Modale

Regulate 3. Principale Neregulate

PARTICIPIU TRECUT to be been - a fi to have had - a avea to do done - a face shall - trebuie s will - a vrea to let let - a lsa can (to be able to) - a putea, a ti may (to be permitted / allowed to) - a avea voie s (a-i fi permis s) must (to have to) (to be obliged to) (must) - trebuie, (a trebui s) (a fi obligat s) shall should - a trebui s, a se cuveni s will would - a dori, a vrea ought to (ought to) - ar trebui s dare - a ndrzni need need - obinuia s to be to was, were to been to - a urma s used to - obinuia s to ask asked asked - a ntreba to like liked liked - a-i plcea to answer answered answered - a rspunde to use used used - a ntrebuina etc. to go - went - gone - a merge to see etc. shall will can - saw should would could etc. - seen - a vedea

INFINITIV PREZENT

TRECUT SIMPLU was / were had did should would let could might

4. Auxiliar - Modale

1. Verbele Auxiliare
Ajut celelalte verbe s-i formeze aspectul continuu, diateza pasiv, timpurile compuse, unele moduri. Ele devin instrumente gramaticale pierzndu-i sensul lexical. Eu am o carte - Eu posed o carte. n exemplul de mai sus verbul am (a avea) n limba romn este verb principal, dar n exemplul: Eu am citit o carte, verbul am este auxiliar, cci ajut verbul citit s-i formeze timpul perfect compus. Este clar c nu putem spune: Eu posed citit o carte, n care verbul a poseda s fie sinonim cu verbul a avea.

2. Verbele Modale
Dau verbelor principale mpreun cu care se folosesc nuane lexicale speciale. I must go. - Eu trebuie s merg

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n exemplul I must go. - Eu trebuie s merg, verbul must exprim obligaia efecturii aciunii. Verbul can implic nuana capabilitii i permisiunii, iar verbul may ideea de permisiune i posibilitate. He can speak English. - El tie/poate vorbi englezete; He may come. - El poate veni. - Lui i este permis s vin.

Verbele modale se mai numesc defective cci nu au forme proprii fie pentru infinitiv prezent, fie pentru trecut, fie pentru participiul trecut, situaie n care se nlocuiesc cu sinonimele lor. Ele nu au particula infinitival to i nu folosesc aceast particul dup ele (excepii: used to, ought to) . Ca i verbele auxiliare ele formeaz interogativul schimbndu-i locul cu subiectul propoziiei. Verbele auxiliare i modale din limba englez au i forme prescurtate/contrase. Unii gramaticieni includ verbele auxiliare i modale ntr-o singur categorie - aceea de verbe speciale. Ele formeaz negativul prin simpla adugare a negaiei not dup ele i interogativul i schimb locul cu subiectul n propoziie. Verbele can, may, must, ought to, dare, need i used to sunt auxiliare n ntrebrile disjunctive. I am not at home. - Eu nu sunt acas. I cannot go. - Eu nu pot merge. Verbele auxiliare i modale contribuie la formarea ntrebrilor disjunctive (Tag/Tail Questions), cele care se traduc n limba romn prin: nu-i aa ?, aa-i ? You are at home, aren't you ? - Eti acas, nu-i aa ? You are not at home, are you ? - Nu eti acas, nu-i aa ? He learns English, doesn't he ? - nva englezete, nu-i aa ? Tot ele particip la formularea rspunsurilor scurte ale ntrebrilor generale. ntrebrile generale sunt cele care pot primi rspunsuri scurte: da, nu. "Are they at home " ? "Yes"; "Yes, they are". - Sunt ei acas ? Da. ; Da, sunt. Particip la completarea structurii and so... "They are in the park"."And so are we". - Ei sunt n parc. i noi. "Paul can speak English"."And so can Alice". "And so can we". - Paul tie s vorbeasc englezete. i Alice (tie). i noi (tim). "Paul cannot ski". "Neither can we". - "We can't either". - Paul nu tie s schieze. Nici noi (nu tim). "They saw the house". "But I didn't". - Ei au vzut casa. Dar/ns eu nu. Dar eu n-am vzut-o. Verbele auxiliare i cele modale, mult folosite n vorbire, se ntlnesc i n limbajul care exprim o surpriz (mai ales neplcut). "He won't come with us". - El nu va veni cu noi. "Oh, he won't, won't he" ? - Zu (dom'le) ? - Chiar aa ? "John can't give you the money today". "Oh, he can't, can't he" ?- John nu-i poate da banii astzi. - Nu mai spune !; Cum aa ?; Zu dom'le ? Verbele modale, ca i verbele auxiliare, nu primesc terminaia s la persoana a III-a singular i nu au aspectul continuu.

MODURILE PERSONALE ALE VERBELOR


Sunt : A. Indicativ B. Subjonctiv C. Condiional D. Imperativ

A. MODUL INDICATIV
Este modul aciunilor reale i cuprinde toate timpurile. Acestea sunt : 1.Prezentul (The Present Simple) 2.Prezentul Perfect (The Present Perfect) 3.Trecutul (The Past Tense) 4.Mai Mult Ca Perfect (The Past Perfect) 5.Viitorul Simplu (The Future Simple) 6.Viitorul Anterior (The Future Perfect)

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7.Viitorul n Trecut (The Future In The Past) 8.Viitorul Apropiat (The Near Future / The Future Of Intention) 1. PREZENTUL (THE PRESENT TENSE) Este forma I de baz a verbelor. Exprim aciuni generale repetate, stri, un obicei prezent etc. Se folosete i n propoziiile condiionale de tipul I. Normal timpul prezent coincide cu momentul vorbirii. Se folosete pentru a exprima : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Aciuni obinuite, repetate. I watch TV every day. Aciuni permanente. I do my homework every day. Profesia. You are a military. Aciuni viitoare care fac parte dintr-un program oficial (mersul trenurilor; ntalniri oficiale; nceperea cursurilor) The train leaves tomorrow at 6 oclock. Adevaruri general valabile. Water boils at 100 degrees celsius. It snow in the winter. Uneori, prezentul simplu se poate referi la viitor: Tommorow is Ann's birthday. Mine este ziua de natere a Anei. USUALY/FREQUENTLY - de obicei ALWAYS - ntotdeauna NEVER - niciodat OFTEN - adesea , mai mereu SELDOM - uneori SOMETIMES - din cand n cnd

Se folosesc Adverbele: /DAY /THUESDAY ONCE A /WEEK TWICE A /MONTH EVERY

Se pun n Propoziie ntre Subiect i Predicat. A || S + V1 + s + es (III sg) I usualy make up at 6 oclock. She doesnt cook everyday. We dont got o work,on weekends. Do you watch TV every morning? - Yes,I do.

N || I ||

( dont/doesnt ) S + do + not + V1 does (III sg) Do + S + V1 Does(III sg)

I - N ||

Do (dont) + S + V1 (Dont you) Does (doesnt) (III sg) Do you not

sleep in this afternon?

- No,I dont

CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA INDICATIV PREZENT TO BE - a fi ( A - afirmativ, N - negativ, I - interogativ ) A || I am - I'm- eu sunt - eu s you are - you're - tu eti he/she/it is - he's/she's/it's - el/ea este - el/ea e we are - we're - noi suntem you are- you're - voi suntei they are - they're - ei/ele sunt I || am I ? - eu sunt ? suntem ? are you ? - tu eti ? suntei ? are are we? you? noi -voi N || I am not - I aren't - eu nu sunt you are not - you aren't - tu nu eti he/she/it is not- he/she/it isn't - el/ea nu este we are not - we aren't - noi nu suntem you are not - you aren't - voi nu suntei they are not - they aren't - ei /ele nu sunt is he/she/it? - el/ea este ? sunt ? are they? -ei/ele

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I-N am I not ? - aren't I ? - nu sunt eu ?- eu nu-s ? are you not ? - aren't you ? - nu eti tu ?

is he/she/it not ? - isn't he/she/it ? - nu este el/ea ? are we not ? - aren't we ? - nu suntem noi ? are you not ? - aren't you ? - nu suntei voi ? are they not ? - aren't they ? - nu sunt ei/ele ?

Funciile verbului TO BE 1. a) verb auxiliar pentru formarea aspectului continuu : I am reading. - Eu citesc (acum). b) verb auxiliar pentru formarea diatezei pasive I am seen. - Eu sunt vzut. 2. verb modal: to be to - a urma/trebui s - a fi s; I am to read. - Trebuie/urmeaz s citesc. 3. verb principal - atunci cnd este urmat de un adverb de loc; We are at home. - Noi suntem acas. They are in the park. - Ei/Ele sunt n parc. TO HAVE - a avea I have - I've - I have got [got] - I've got - eu am you have - you've - you have got - you've got - tu ai he/she/it has - he's/she's/it's - he/she/it has got - he's/she's/it's got - el/ea are we have - we've - we have got - we've got - noi avem you have - you've - you have got - you've got - voi avei they have - they've - they have got - they've got - ei/ele au N || I have not (I haven't) - I have not (haven't) got - eu nu am you have not (you haven't) - you have not (haven't) got - tu nu ai he/she/it has not (he/she/it hasn't) - he/she/it has not (hasn't) got - el/ea nu are we have not (we haven't) - we have not (haven't) got - noi nu avem you have not (you haven't) - you have not (haven't) got - voi nu avei they have not (they haven't) - they have not (haven't) got - ei/ele nu au sau I do not have - I don't have - eu nu am you do not have - you don't have - tu nu ai he/she/it does not have - he/she/it doesn't have - el/ea nu are we do not have - we don't have - noi nu avem you do not have - you don't have - voi nu avei they do not have - they don't have - ei/ele nu au I || have I? - have I got? - do I have? - eu am ? - am e ? have you? - have you got? - do you have ? - tu ai ? - ai tu? has he/she/it? - has he/she/it got? - does he/she/it have? - el/ea are? have we? - have we got? - do we have? - noi avem? - avem noi? have you? - have you got? - do you have? - voi avei? - avei voi? have they? - have they got? - do they have? - ei/ele au? - au ei/ele? I - N || have I not? - haven't I? - have I not (haven't I) got? - do I not (don't I) have? - eu nu am? - eu n-am ? - nu am eu ? have you not? -haven't you? -have you not (haven't you) got? - do you not (don't you) have? - tu nu ai - tu n-ai? - nu ai tu ? has he/she/it not ? - hasn't he/she/it? - has he/she/it not (hasn't he/she/it) got? - does he/she/it not (doesn't he/she/it) have ? - el/ea nu are ? - nu are el/ea ? have we not? - haven't we? - have we not (haven't we) got? - do we not (don't we) have ? - noi nu avem ? - noi navem ? - nu avem noi ? have you not ? - haven't you ? - have you not (haven't you) got ? - do you not (don't you) have ?- voi nu avei ?- voi n-avei ?- nu avei voi ? have they not ? - haven't they ? - have they not (haven't they) got ? - do they not (don't they) have ? - ei/ele nu au ? nu au ei/ele ? A || Funciile verbului TO HAVE 1. verb auxiliar pentru formarea timpurilor The Present Perfect i The Past Perfect I have come for two hours. - Am venit de dou ore. I had come for two hours. -Venisem de dou ore. 2. verb modal: to have to - must - trebuie I must sing. - I have to sing. - Eu trebuie s cnt. - Eu am de cntat. He had to learn every day. - El trebuia s nvee n fiecare zi. 3. verb principal: a) to have - to possess - a avea/poseda We have a house. - We possess a house. - Avem o cas. - Posedm o cas. They have had that house for ten years. - Ei au casa aceea de zece ani.

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b) to have - a mnca, a bea, a servi, a se distra etc. We have breakfast at eight o'clock. - Servim micul dejun la ora opt. TO DO - a face A || I do- eu fac we do - noi facem you do - tu faci you do - voi facei he/she/it does - el/ea face they do - ei/ele fac I do not do (I don't do) - eu nu fac you do not do (you don't do) - tu nu faci he/she/it does not do (doesn't do) - el/ea nu face

N ||

we do not do (we don't do) - noi nu facem you do not do (you don't do) - voi nu facei they do not do (they don't do) - ei/ele nu fac

I ||

I N ||

do I do ? - eu fac ? do we do? - noi facem ? do you do ? - tu faci ? do you do ? - voi facei ? does he/she/it do? -el/ea face ? do they do? - ei/ele do I not do ? - don't I do ? - eu nu fac ? - nu fac eu ? do you not do ? - don't you do ? - tu nu faci ? - nu faci tu ? does he/she/it not do? - doesn't he/she/it do? - ea/el nu face? - nu face el/ea?

Ca verb auxiliar, verbul to do nu se traduce. Traducerea lui ns, ca i traducerea verbelor to be i to have s-a fcut totui pentru motive practice. Funciile verbului TO DO 1. verb auxiliar Do you understand ? - nelegi ? He does not understand. - El nu nelege. 2. verb de ntrire (emfatic) I do like grammar. - mi place gramatica foarte mult. 3. verb principal We did an exercise. - Noi am fcut un exerciiu. Well begun is half done. (prov.) - Lucrul bine nceput jumtate e fcut. B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA TIMPUL PREZENT La prezent, verbele modale au aceeai form pentru toate persoanele. CAN - to be able to- a putea, a ti, a fi n stare s A|| I can (swim) - I am able to (swim) - eu pot/tiu/sunt n stare s (not) etc. N || I cannot (swim) - I can't (swim) - I am not able to (swim) - I aren't able to (swim) - eu nu pot/tiu/sunt n stare s (not) etc. I || Can I (swim) ? - Am I able to (swim) ? - pot/tiu eu s (not) ? - sunt eu n stare s (not) ? etc. I - N || Can I not (swim) ? - Can't I (swim) ? - Am I not able to (swim) ? - Aren't I able to (swim) ? - eu nu tiu/pot s (not) ? - eu nu sunt n stare s (not) ? etc. Verbul CAN exprim: a) abilitatea sau capacitatea: can - to be able to - to know how to - to have the ability/power/skill to - a putea/ti - a fi n stare s - a ti cum s I can speak five languages. - tiu s vorbesc cinci limbi. He cannot speak French. - El nu tie s vorbeasc franuzete. b) - posibilitatea - la afirmativ i interogativ They can be in the park. - Ei pot fi n parc. They can have been in the park. - Se poate/Este posibil ca ei s fi fost n parc. - imposibilitatea - la negativ: They can't be in the park. - Ei nu pot fi n parc. This story cannot be true. - Povestea aceasta nu poate fi adevrat. She can't be under thirty. - Nu poate avea sub treizeci de ani. He can't have said that. - El nu poate s fi spus asta. - Nu se poate ca el s fi spus asta. c) o invitaie sau o rugminte: Can you shut the window, please? - Poi, te rog, s nchizi fereastra ?

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Can you possibly come to my birthday party ? - Poi cumva veni la petrecerea de ziua mea de natere ? How can you possibly ask such a thing ? - Cum poi ntreba aa ceva ? d) permisiunea (n limbajul colocvial) i devine sinonim cu may, dar pentru politee se prefer may. can - may - to be free to - to have permission to - to be allowed/permitted to - a putea, a fi liber s, a avea permisiunea s You can/may use my umbrella. - Poi folosi umbrela mea. I can swim in that lake. - I am free to swim in that lake. - Pot nota n lacul acela. - Sunt liber s not n lacul acela. - la negativ can exprim interdicia sau imposibilitatea - (can't - be forbidden/ prohibited to) cannot - to be incapable/unable to - a fi incapabil s You can't go on the trip. - Nu poi merge n excursie. It can't be six o'clock. - Nu poate fi ora ase. MAY - to be permitted/allowed to- a avea voie s, a-i fi permis/ ngduit s A || I may (go) - I am permitted/allowed to (go) - eu am voie/pot s (merg) - mie mi este permis/ngduit s (merg) etc N|| I may not (go) - I am not permitted/allowed to (go) - eu nu am voie s (merg) - mie nu-mi este permis/ngduit s (merg) etc. Forma mayn't este considerat desuet i, n consecin, practic nefolosit. I || May I (go)? - am I permitted/allowed to (go)?-eu am voie/pot s (merg)? - mie mi este permis/ngduit s (merg) etc. I-N || May I not (go) ? - am I not permitted/allowed to (go) ? - eu nu am voie/nu pot s (merg) ? - mie nu-mi este permis/ ngduit s (merg)? etc. Verbul MAY exprim: a) - permisiunea n prezent "May I come in" ? - Pot intra , Pot s intru ?; "Yes, you may." - Da, poi; "Yes, of course" -Da, desigur -Da, bineneles. "You may leave if you like," John said. - Poi pleca dac doreti, zise el. devine n vorbire indirect: John said that I might leave if I liked. - John said that I was allowed to leave if I liked. - John a zis c pot pleca dac doresc. - John a zis c-mi este ngduit s plec dac doresc. - interdicia se exprim prin may not: You may not use my umbrella. - Nu poi folosi umbrela mea. b) posibilitatea: He may come late if the traffic's heavy. - El poate veni trziu dac circulaia este intens. He may have come yesterday. - Este posibil ca el s fi venit ieri. She may be learning her lessons. - Ea poate i nva leciile. He may not be able to pay his rent. - Poate c el nu este n stare s-i plteasc chiria. c) probabilitatea / incertitudinea sau curiozitatea: What may he be ? - Ce poate fi el ? I may have left my umbrella on the train. - Probabil/Poate mi-am uitat umbrela n tren. He may come . - Probably he comes. - El poate veni. - Probabil el vine. ntrebrile referitoare la posibilitate se formuleaz cu ajutorul verbului can nu al lui may. Can he have lost his way ? - Se poate ca el s se fi ratcit ?- Este posibil ca el s se fi rtcit ? d) o urare: May you live long ! - S trieti ! May your dreams come true ! - S i se mplineasc visurile/dorinele ! MUST- to have to - trebuie A || I must (speak) - eu trebuie s (vorbesc) etc N || I must not (speak) - I mustn't (speak) - eu nu trebuie s (vorbesc) etc. I || Must I (speak) ? - trebuie eu s (vorbesc) ? etc. I - N || Must I not (speak) ? - mustn't I (speak) ? - eu nu trebuie s (vorbesc) ? etc. Verbul MUST exprim: a) obligaia / necesitatea: You must learn permanently. - Tu trebuie s nvei permanent. You must learn. - You have to learn. - You have (you've) got to learn. ntre must i have to exist ns urmtoarea deosebire: must exprim o obligaie/necesitate pornit din partea subiectului (I must go to bed because I am very sleepy. - Trebuie s merg la culcare pentru c mi este foarte somn.) Have to exprim o obligaie impus subiectului din afar, deci o obligaie extern (You have to be there at eight o'clock. - Tu trebuie s fii acolo la ora opt.)

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You must not cross now. - You are not allowed / permitted to cross now .- Tu nu trebuie s traversezi acum - N-ai voie s traversezi acum. Must he go now? - Has he to go now?- Does he have to go now? - Trebuie el s plece / mearg acum ? - must not exprim interdicia: "You must not interrupt me", he said. - Nu trebuie s m ntrerupi, a zis el. devine n vorbirea indirect: He said that I mustn't interrupt him. - El a zis c nu trebuie s-l ntrerup. sau : He said that I didn't have to interrupt him. - El a zis c nu trebuie s-l ntrerup. b) probabilitatea: He must know me. - Probabil / poate (c ) m cunoate. - Trebuie s m tie. Being late they must be at home. - Fiind trziu probabil c sunt acas. You must have paid a lot of money for this car.- Probabil c ai pltit muli bani pentru maina aceasta. - Trebuie s fi pltit muli bani pentru maina aceasta. SHALL - se cade/cuvine/merit s, trebuie s I shall (intervene) - eu se cade/cuvine s (intervin) You shall (intervene) - tu se cade/cuvine s (intervii) He/she shall (intervene) - el/ea se cade/cuvine s (intervin) We shall (intervene) - noi se cade/cuvine s (intervenim) You shall (intervene) - voi se cade/cuvine s (intervenii) They shall (intervene) - ei/ele se cade/cuvine s (intervin) N || I shall not (intervene) - I shan't (intervene) - eu nu se cade s (intervin) - eu nu trebuie s (intervin) etc. I || Shall I (intervene) ? - se cade/trebuie s (intervin) eu ? - s (intervin) eu ? etc. I - N || Shall I not (intervene) ? - Shan't I (intervene) ? - eu s nu (intervin) ? - eu nu trebuie s (intervin)? etc. A ||

Prin SHALL se exprim: a) permisiunea/invitaia: You shall stay here as long as you like. - S stai aici ct i place. - Poi s stai aici ct i place. b) promisiunea: You shall have a holiday in the mountains if you work hard. - O s ai o vacan la munte dac o s munceti cum trebuie. c) obligaia: You shall do as he tells you. - S faci cum i spune el. You shall always be punctual. - S fii totdeauna punctual. He shall never break his promise ! - S nu-i calce niciodat promisiunea ! What shall I do now ? - Ce s fac acum ? WILL - a vrea, a dori I will (learn) - eu vreau s (nv); You will (learn) - tu vrei s (nvei) He/she will (learn) - el/ea vrea s (nvee), etc. N || I will not (learn) - I won't (learn) - eu nu vreau s (nv) etc. I || Will I (learn) ? - eu vreau s (nv) ? - vreau eu s (nv) ? etc. I - N || Will I not (learn) ? - Won't I (learn) ? - eu nu vreau s (nv) ? etc. Prin verbul modal will se adreseaz o invitaie sau o dorin. Will you have a cup of tea ? - Doreti/Vrei o ceac de ceai ? You may come to see us if you will. - Poi veni pe la noi dac vrei. A || OUGHT TO - ar trebui s, s-ar cuveni s (obligaie moral) I ought to go - eu trebuie s merg - eu se cuvine s merg; You ought to go - tu ar trebui s mergi - tu s-ar cuveni s mergi; He/she ought to go - el/ea ar trebui s mearg - el/ea se cuvine s mearg etc. N || I ought not to go - I oughtn't to go - eu nu ar trebui s merg - eu n-ar trebui s merg etc. I || Ought I to go ? - ar trebui eu s merg ? - s-ar cuveni eu s merg ? etc. I - N|| Ought I not (oughtn't I) to go ? - eu nu ar trebui s merg ? - n-ar trebui eu s merg ? etc. A || You ought to tell her the truth. - Se cuvine s-i spui adevrul. You ought to have told her the truth. - S-ar fi cuvenit s-i spui adevrul. - ought to este sinonim cu should i exprim recomandarea, necesitatea sau obligaia moral.

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You ought to help your parents if they are very old. - Se cuvine s-i ajui prinii dac sunt foarte btrni. You oughtn't to take his umbrella without asking for permission. - Tu nu trebuie s-i iei umbrela fr s ceri voie. He knew he ought to help us. - tia c trebuie s ne ajute. DARE - a ndrzni, a se ncumeta (exist ns i verbul principal to dare - dared/durst - dared - a ndrzni) A || La afirmativ verbul dare se conjug n maniera verbelor principale: I dare - eu ndrznesc; you dare - tu ndrzneti he/she/it dares - el/ea ndrznete etc. N || I dare not go - I daren't go - I don't dare (to) go - eu nu ndrznesc s merg etc. I || Dare I go ? - do I dare (to) go? - ndrznesc eu s merg ? - eu ndrznesc s merg ? etc I-N || Dare I not go ? - don't I dare (to) go? - nu ndrznesc eu s merg ? - eu nu ndrznesc s merg? etc . - dare (to) - to be brave enough to - a ndrzni - a fi suficient de curajos pentru a I dare go there alone. - ndrznesc s merg acolo singur. - dare - to take the risk of - a ndrzni, a risca s, a nfrunta They dare all the dangers. - Ei nfrunt toate pericolele. - dare - to provoke somebody into a demonstration of courage Dare you jump over that fence ? - ndrzneti s sari peste gardul acela ? - dare + say - ndrznesc s spun I dare say you can't swim across that lake. - ndrznesc s spun c nu poi traversa lacul acela not. NEED - a fi nevoie/necesar s, a trebui s N || I need not go - I needn't go - eu nu este nevoie s merg etc. I || Need I go ? - este nevoie s merg eu? etc. I-N || Need I not (needn't I) go ? - nu este nevoie s merg eu ?- eu nu este nevoie s merg ? etc. - necesitate/nevoie La afirmativ need se folosete cu adverbele hardly, scarcely, only: I need hardly tell you something. - Simt o mare nevoie s-i spun ceva. You need only be present. - Este nevoie s fii doar prezent. Verbul need la negativ presupune lipsa obligaiei sau necesitii. I needn't tell you everything. - Nu este nevoie s-i povestesc totul. I needn't go yet. - nc nu este nevoie s plec. - NEEDN'T - n vorbirea indirect: "You needn't come until I tell you", he said. - - Nu este nevoie s vii pn nu-i spun eu, a zis el. devine n vorbire indirect: He said that I needn't come until he told me. - El a zis c nu este nevoie s vin pn nu-mi spune el. TO BE TO - a fi/trebui/urma s You are to be there at six o'clock. - S fii acolo la ora ase. - Trebuie/Urmeaz s fii acolo la ora ase. What am I to do now ? - Ce urmeaz/trebuie s fac eu acum ? What is to be done now ? - Ce este de fcut acum ? I should have told you if we had been to go there. - i-a fi spus dac noi ar fi fost s mergem acolo. TO HAVE GOT TO - trebuie (folosit mult n limbajul colocvial american) I have got to go now. - Acum trebuie s plec. n exemplul I will learn the lesson (Vreau s nv lecia) verbul will se pronun accentuat, punndu-se astfel n eviden valoarea sa semantic. n exemplul You will learn the lesson (Tu vei nva lecia) verbul will este auxiliar i se pronun fr accent. n schimb verbul learn care urmeaz dup el se pronun accentuat. n exemplul He may never come (El poate s nu vin niciodat) verbul may exprim o nuan de posibilitate/ndoial: El poate veni, dar suntem lsai s credem c mai degrab nu va veni. He may never come. - It is possible that he will never come. Concluzie:Verbele can, may, must, shall, will, need, ought to se ntlnesc urmate fie de infinitiv scurt prezent, fie de infinitiv scurt perfect. He may have come. - E posibil ca el s fi venit.

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He must have been rich. - El trebuie s fi fost bogat. She can have gone on the trip. - Ea poate s fi mers n excursie.

C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA PREZENT - ASPECTUL COMUN /

DIATEZA ACTIV

TO SEE - a vedea (dup acest model se conjug toate verbele principale) A || I see - eu vd we see - noi vedem you see - tu vezi you see - voi vedei he /she/it sees - el/ea vede they see - ei/ele vd N || I do not see - I don't see - eu nu vd you do not see - you don't see - tu nu vezi he/she/it does not see - he/she/it doesn't see - el/ea nu vede we do not see - we don't see - noi nu vedem you do not see - you don't see - voi nu vedei they do not see - they don't see -ei/ele nu vd, dnii/dnsele nu vd I || do I see? - eu vd ? do we see? - noi vedem ? do you see? - tu vezi ? do you see? - voi vedei ? does he/she/it see? - el/ea vede ? do they see? - ei/ele vd ? I - N || do I not see ? - don't I see ? - eu nu vd ? - nu vd eu ? do you not see ? - don't you see ? - tu nu vezi ? - nu vezi tu ? does he/she/it not see ? - doesn't he/she/it see ? - el/ea nu vede ? etc. TO DARE - a ndrzni, a provoca A || I dare - eu ndrznesc etc. N || I do not (don't) dare - eu nu ndrznesc etc. I || Do I dare? - ndrznesc eu? etc. I - N || Do I not (don't I) dare ? - eu nu ndrznesc ? - nu ndrznesc eu ? etc. He dares many perils. - El nfrunt multe pericole. They dare me to do it but I don't dare - Ei m provoac s-o fac, dar eu nu ndrznesc. I do not dare to break my promise - Eu nu ndrznesc s-mi calc promisiunea. John does not dare to go there, does he ? - John nu ndrznete s mearg/plece acolo, nu-i aa? - John nu are curaj s mearg acolo, aa-i? TO NEED - a fi necesar/nevoie s, a necesita/cere/presupune, a avea nevoie de etc. This work needs much skill. - Aceast treab cere/presupune mult ndemnare/ pricepere. A || I need - eu am nevoie we need - noi avem nevoie you need - tu ai nevoie you need - voi avei nevoie he/she/it needs - el/ea are nevoie they need - ei/ele au nevoie N || I do not (I don't) need - eu nu am nevoie - mie nu mi trebuie etc. I || Do I need ? - eu am nevoie ? - am eu nevoie ? - mie mi trebuie ? - mi trebuie mie ? etc. I - N || Do I not need ? - don't I need ? - eu nu am nevoie ? - nu am eu nevoie ? - mie nu mi trebuie ? - nu mi trebuie mie ? etc. They don't need our help, do they ? - Ei nu au nevoie de ajutorul nostru, nu-i aa? Do they need any help ? - Au ei nevoie de vreun ajutor ? Plants need rain. - Plantele au nevoie de ploaie. I need much time. - Am nevoie de mult timp. - mi trebuie mult vreme. You needed such a book. - Tu ai avut nevoie de o astfel de carte. I need to do something. - Trebuie s fac ceva. - Simt nevoia s fac ceva. He does not need to work. - El nu este nevoit s lucreze/munceasc. Did they need anything ? - Le trebuia lor ceva ? - Aveau ei nevoie de ceva ? PREZENTUL (THE PRESENT TENSE) - ASPECTUL CONTINUU Aspectul continuu al verbului exprim aciuni de durat sau n desfurare, deci aciuni neterminate. Aspect continuu au numai verbele principale iar la prezent aceste aciuni neterminate se efectueaz de regul n momentul vorbirii. Uneori momentul desfurrii lor este imaginat coinciznd cu prezentul. I am writing a letter. - Scriu o scrisoare (acum). I am leaving tomorrow. - Plec mine. Se folosete pentru a exprima : 1. Aciuni n desfaurare care au loc n momentul vorbirii

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2.

Aciuni temporare. NOW - acum RIGHT NOW - chiar acum AT PRESENT - n prezent AT THE MOMENT - la acest mo.. IN THIS MOMENT - n acest mo..

Se folosesc Adverbele :

A || S + be

+ V1 _ing la Prez.

She is cleaning her room now. We are studying English in this moment

(Im not / arent) She is not cleaning her room now. N || S + be + not + V1 _ing We arent studing English now la Prez. I || Be + S + V1 _ing Are you listening to music now? - Yes.I am la Prez. Is he watching TV now? - Yes.He is. (arent I../ Isnt He) Be + S + not + V1 _ing Are you not listening to me now? - Yes. Im - No,Im not. Isnt he working at the moment? - Yes. He is. - No. He isnt.

I - N ||

D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR LA PREZENT - ASPECTUL CONTINUU / DIATEZA ACTIV TO SPEAK - a vorbi I am speaking - eu vorbesc we are speaking - noi vorbim you are speaking - tu vorbeti you are speaking - voi vorbii he/she is speaking - el/ea vorbete they are speaking - ei/ele vorbesc N || I am not speaking - I aren't speaking - eu nu vorbesc you are not speaking - you aren't speaking - tu nu vorbeti he /she is not speaking - he/she/it isn't speaking - el/ea nu vorbete we are not speaking - we aren't speaking - noi nu vorbim you are not speaking - you aren't speaking - voi nu vorbii they are not speaking - they aren't speaking - ei/ele nu vorbesc I || am I speaking ? - eu vorbesc ? are we speaking ? - noi vorbim ? are you speaking ? - tu vorbeti? are you speaking ? - voi vorbii ? is he/she/it speaking ? - el/ea vorbete? are they speaking? - ei/ele vorbesc? I - N || am I not speaking ? - aren't I speaking ? - eu nu vorbesc ? are you not speaking ? - aren't you speaking ? - tu nu vorbeti ? is he/she not speaking ? - isn't he/she speaking ? - el/ea nu vorbete ? are we not speaking ? - aren't we speaking ? - noi nu vorbim ? are you not speaking ? - aren't you speaking ? - voi nu vorbii ? are they not speaking ? - aren't they speaking ? - ei/ele nu vorbesc ? TO WILL A || I am willing to (read) - eu vreau s (citesc) etc. N || I am not (I aren't) willing to (read) - eu nu vreau s (citesc) etc. I || Am I willing to (read)? - eu vreau s (citesc)? - vreau eu s (citesc) ? etc. I - N || Am I not willing to (read)? - aren't I willing to (read)? - eu nu vreau s (citesc)? - nu vreau eu s (citesc) ? etc. A ||

E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR LA PREZENT - DIATEZA PASIV /

ASPECTUL COMUN

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TO BE SEEN - a fi vzut A || I am seen - eu sunt vzut() you are seen - tu eti vzut() he/she/it is seen - el/ea este vzut() N || we are seen - noi suntem vzui/vzute you are seen - voi suntei vzui/vzute they are seen - ei/ele sunt vzui/vzute

I ||

I - N ||

I am not seen - I aren't seen - eu nu sunt vzut() You are not seen - you aren't seen - tu nu eti vzut() He/she/it is not seen - he/she/it isn't seen - el/ea nu este vzut() We are not seen - we aren't seen - noi nu suntem vzui/vzute You are not seen - you aren't seen - voi nu suntei vzui/vzute They are not seen - they aren't seen - ei/ele nu sunt vzui/vzute Am I seen ? - eu sunt vzut() ? - sunt eu vzut() ? Are you seen ? - tu eti vzut() ? - eti tu vzut() ? Is he/she/it seen ? - el/ea este vzut() ? - este el/ea vzut() ? Are we seen ? - noi suntem vzui/vzute ? - suntem noi vzui/vzute ? Are you seen ? - voi suntei vzui/vzute ? - suntei voi vzui/vzute ? Are they seen ? - ei/ele sunt vzui/vzute ? - sunt ei/ele vzui/vzute ? Am I not seen ? - aren't I seen ? - eu nu sunt vzut/() ? - nu-s eu vzut/() ? Are you not seen ? - aren't you seen ? - tu nu eti vzut/() ? - nu eti tu vzut/()? Is he/she/it not seen ? - isn't he/she/it seen ? - el /ea nu este vzut() ? - nu-i el/ea vzut() ? Are we not seen ? - aren't we seen ? - noi nu suntem vzui/vzute ? - nu suntem noi vzui/vzute? Are you not seen ? - aren't you seen ? - voi nu suntei vzui/ ? - nu suntei voi vzui/vzute? Are they not seen ? - aren't they seen ? - ei/ele nu sunt vzui/vzute ? - nu-s ei/ele vzui/vzute? F. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR LA PREZENT - ASPECTUL CONTINUU / DIATEZA PASIV

TO BE BEING LOOKED AT - a fi privit() I am being looked at - eu sunt privit() You are being looked at - tu eti privit() He/she/it is being looked at - el/ea este privit() We are being looked at - noi suntem privii/privite You are being looked at - voi suntei privii/privite They are being looked at - ei/ele sunt privii/privite N || I am not being looked at - I aren't being looked at - eu nu sunt privit() You are not being looked at - you aren't being looked at - tu nu eti privit() He/she/it is not being looked at - he/she/it isn't being looked at - el/ea nu este privit() etc. I || Am I being looked at ? - sunt eu privit() ? etc I-N || Am I not being looked at ?- aren't I being looked at ? - eu nu sunt privit() ? etc. Today he is being a good boy. - Astzi/azi el este biat cuminte. A || G. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE LA TIMPUL PREZENT - ASPECTUL COMUN TO ENJOY ONESELF - a se distra/amuza I enjoy myself - eu m distrez we enjoy ourselves - noi ne distrm You enjoy yourself - tu te distrezi you enjoy yourselves - voi v distrai He enjoys himself - el se distreaz they enjoy themselves - ei/ele se distreaz She enjoys herself - ea se distreaz It enjoys itself - el/ea se distreaz N || I do not enjoy myself - I don't enjoy myself - eu nu m distrez etc. I || Do I enjoy myself ? - eu m distrez ? - m distrez eu ? etc. I - N || Do I not enjoy myself ? - don't I enjoy myself ? - eu nu m distrez ? etc. A ||

H. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE LA TIMPUL PREZENT - ASPECTUL CONTINU A || TO BE ENJOYING ONESELF - a se distra/amuza I am enjoying myself - eu m distrez/amuz (n acest moment, acum) etc.

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N || I am not enjoying myself - eu nu m distrez/amuz etc. I || Am I enjoying myself ? - eu m distrez/amuz ? - m distrez/amuz eu ? etc. I - N || Am I not enjoying myself ? - aren't I enjoying myself ? - eu nu m distrez/amuz ? - nu m distrez/amuz eu ? etc.

RECAPITULARE: SCHEMA CONJUGRII VERBELOR LA AFIRMATIV (A)


VERBE AUXILIARE VERBE MODALE VERBE PRINCIPALE

MODUL INDICATIV, TIMPUL PREZENT, ASPECTUL COMUN.

NEGATIV (N)

INTEROGATIV (I)
Am I ? - eu sunt ? Can I (go) ? - pot eu s (merg) ?etc. Do I go ? - eu merg ? - etc.

INTEROGATIVNEGATIV (I-N)
Am I not ? - eu nu sunt ? Can I not (go)? - Can't I (go)? - eu nu pot s (merg)? etc. Do I not go ? - Don't I go ? eu nu merg ? etc.

I am - eu sunt etc. I am not - eu nu sunt I can (go) - eu pot s I cannot (go) - I can't (merg) etc. (go) - eu nu pot s (merg) etc. I go - eu merg etc I do not go - I don't go eu nu merg etc.

VERBELE PRINCIPALE/NOIONALE SE CONJUG LA NEGATIV, INTEROGATIV, RESPECTIV INTEROGATIV-NEGATIV, CU AJUTORUL VERBULUI TO DO.

1. PREZENTUL PERFECT (THE PRESENT PERFECT) Se traduce n limba romn prin prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus. Se folosete pentru a exprima : 1. 2. Aciuni care au loc n Trecut (intr-o perioada nedeterminat din trecut) i ale cror consecine sunt resimite i n Prezent Este numit Timpul Vieii Tense of life

Se folosesc Adverbele: (3 categorii de adverbe) I. SINCE / 1999 Exprim nceputul unei aciuni.

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- din, de la / MARCH de cnd / PAST SIMPLE Dup SINCE folosim PAST SIMPLE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exemplu : Present Perfect Simple Since Past simple I have known him since I was a child. FOR - timp de / TWO DAYS / THREE MONTHS Exprim durata unei aciuni. / TWO WEEKS I have known him for 25 years. / SEVEN YEARS Folosit n prop. Aff. st numai ntre have i V3 I have just finished my homework. Folosit.n prop. Aff./ Int. st ntre have i V3 I have already done that exercise.

JUST - tocmai ALREADY - tocmai YET - nc

Folosit n prop. Aff. / Neg. st numai ntre have i V3 Folosit la toate formele st la sfrit Have you visited your parents recently? No, I havent visited my parents lately. Yes, I have visited my parents recently.

RECENTLY - recent

LATELY - n ultima vreme

II. cu adverbe nespecifice 1. de timp

( Sunt specifice Prezentului ) It has rained today. A plouat astzi. It has been sunny this week. A fost nsorit n aceast sptmn.

TODAY - astzi / WEEK THIS / WEEK END - acest / YEAR

2.frecventative EVER - vreodat NEVER - niciodat ALWAYS - ntotdeauna III. cu : HOW LONG ? - ct timp ? HOW MUCH ? - ct de mult ? HOW MANY ? - ct de muli ? A || How long have you stayed in London? I have stayed there for four years. How much informaion have you achieved in English? How many books have you read this week ? I have read five books this week.

S + have + V3 I have know him since 1982. has (III sg) Vb. Reg. + d + ed ( havent/hasnt ) N || S + have + not + V3 I have not done this exercise. has (III sg) I || Have Has (III sg) + S + V3 Have you done that exercise yet ? Yes,I have already done that exercise. No, I havent done that exercise yet. Havent you met him today ? No,I havent meet him today. Yes,I have met him today.

I - N ||

Havent + S + V3 Hasnt (III sg) Have + S + not + V3 Has (III sg)

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La forma Aff. cnd Subiectul este exprimat prin Pronume Personal se folosete adesea forma contras : I ve met him today. You ve met him today. He s (has) met him today. / She s (has)met him today. / We ve met him today You ve met him today They ve met him today n Romn Present Perfect Simple se traduce prin Perfect Compus sau Trecut (am fcut/ am rezolvat) A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR THE PRESENT PERFECT Nu se folosete forma contras pt. a nu-l confunda cu TO BE

AUXILIARE LA TIMPUL

Verbele auxiliare nu se conjug la Present Perfect . Verbele to be, to have i to do se pot conjuga la acest timp atunci cnd ele sunt verbe principale, aa cum se vede mai jos: TO BE - a fi A || I have been - I've been - eu sunt - eu s you have been - you've been - tu eti he/she/it has been- he's/she's/it's been - el/ea este - el/ea i/e we have been - we've been - noi suntem you have been - you've been - voi suntei they have been - they've been - ei/ele sunt N || I have not been - I haven't been - eu nu sunt - eu nu-s you have not been - you haven't been - tu nu eti he /she/it has not been - he/she/it hasn't been - el/ea nu este - el/ea nu-i - el/ea nu e we have not been - we haven't been - noi nu suntem you have not been - you haven't been - voi nu suntei they have not been - they haven't been - ei/ele nu sunt - ei/ele nu-s I || have I been? - eu sunt? - sunt eu? have we been?- noi suntem? - suntem noi? have you been? - tu eti? - eti tu ? have you been? - voi suntei? - suntei voi? has he/she/it been? - el/ea este/e/i? have they been? - ei/ele sunt? - sunt ei/ele? I - N || have I not been? - haven't I been? - eu nu sunt? - nu sunt eu? - eu nu-s? have you not been? - haven't you been? - tu nu eti? - nu eti tu? has he/she/it not been? - hasn't he/she/it been? - el/ea nu este? - nu este el/ea? have we not been ? - haven't we been? - noi nu suntem? - nu suntem noi? have you not been ? - haven't you been? - voi nu suntei? - nu suntei voi? have they not been? - haven't they been? - ei/ele nu sunt? - nu sunt ei/ele? I have had - eu am ; eu am avut etc. I have done - am fcut etc. B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA TIMPUL THE PRESENT PERFECT CAN - COULD - O - O - to be able to A || I have been able to ...... - pot s ...... - sunt n stare s ....etc. N || I have not been able to .... - nu pot s .... - nu sunt n stare s ..... etc. I || Have I been able to ....? - pot eu s ....? - sunt eu n stare s ...? etc. I - N || Have I not been able to ... ? - nu pot eu s ... ? - nu sunt eu n stare s ...? etc. How long have you been able to speak English? - De cnd tii/poi tu s vorbeti englezete ? How long have you been allowed to drive a car? - De ct timp po / ai voie tu s conduci maina ? C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL COMUN A || TO COME - A VENI I have come - eu am venit you have come - tu ai venit he/she/it has come - el/ea a venit etc.

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N || I || I-N ||

I have not come - I haven't come - eu nu am venit etc. have I come ? - am venit eu ? - eu am venit ? etc. have I not come ? - haven't I come ? - eu nu am venit ? etc.

I have come for two hours. - Am venit de dou ore. How long have I come ? - De ct timp am venit eu ? I have come since one o'clock. - Am venit de la ora unu. Since when have I come ? - De cnd am venit eu ? He has known her since 1970. - El o cunoate din 1970. Since when has he known her ? - De cnd o cunoate el? D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV, ASPECTUL COMUN I have been seen. - Eu sunt vzut. etc. E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE - ASPECT CONTINUU I have been enjoying myself - eu m distrez, etc. Where have you been ? - Unde ai fost tu (pn acum) ? I have just come. - Eu tocmai am venit. I haven't had dinner yet. - nc n-am servit cina. I have seen them today. - Azi i-am vzut. - Eu i-am vzut azi. He has been busy lately. - El a fost ocupat n ultimul timp. We have learned English for one year. - Noi nvm englezete de un an. He has known her for a long time. - El o cunoate de mult timp. He has been avaricious all his life. - El a fost zgrcit toat viaa lui. We have been living in this city for twenty years. - Locuim/trim n acest ora de douzeci de ani. We have been living here ever since then. -Locuim/trim aici chiar de atunci. Have you bought a car yet ? - Ai cumprat deja o main ? How long have you been waiting for me ? - De ct timp m atepi ? I have been waiting for you for five minutes. - Te atept de cinci minute. I have been waited for for five minutes. - Sunt ateptat de cinci minute. Since when have you been waiting for me ?- De cnd m atepi ? I have been waiting for you since ten o'clock. - Te atept de la ora zece. I have never seen a live dinosaur, have you ? - N-am vzut niciodat un dinozaur viu, dar tu ? Acest timp, The Present Perfect se folosete mult n conversaii, scrisori, ziare i la radio deoarece faptele relatate au o legtur important cu prezentul. El apare n propoziiile n care se ntlnesc adverbe de timp ca: just - tocmai/doar/ abia, yet - deja/nc, recently - de curnd/recent, today - azi/astzi, lately - n ultimul timp, this week/month sptmna/ luna aceasta, this year - anul acesta, since/from that hour - de la ora aceea, since /from that day - din ziua aceea, since/from that moment - din momentul acela, for a long time - de mult timp, de mult vreme, for long - de mult, for a few moments - de cteva clipe, for a few minutes - de cteva minute, since/from Sunday - de duminic, since/from 1989 - din 1989 etc. They have been friends since recently. - Ei sunt prieteni de curnd. I have lived in this town till now/today. - Am locuit n acest ora pn acum/azi. F. PREZENTUL PERFECT- ASPECTUL
CONTINUU

Exprim o aciune trecut neterminat care se poate termina sau nu n prezent. We have been playing tennis for ten minutes. - Jucm tenis de zece minute. How long have we been playing tennis ? - De ct timp jucm noi tenis ? I have been living in Craiova since 1970. - Eu locuiesc/triesc n Craiova din 1970. We have been playing tennis since five o'clock. -Jucm tenis de la ora cinci. Since when have we been playing tennis ? - De cnd jucm noi tenis ? The book has been being read for two hours. - Cartea este citit de dou ore. The match has been being watched for thirty minutes. - Meciul este privit de treizeci de minute. The matter has been being discussed for fifteen minutes. - Problema se discut de cincisprezece minute. Se folosete pentru a exprima :

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1.

O aciune care ncepe n Trecut, continu n Prezent i poate i n Viitor. Se folosescAdverbele: SINCE - din, de la, de cnd FOR - timp de HOW LONG ? - ct timp ?

(n Rom. Se traduce prin Prezent)

I have been working in the Army since 1992. Lucrez n Armat din 1992. (Am lucrat, lucrez acum, i lucrez pn m d afar.) 2. O aciune care a nceput n Trecut si s-a terminat recent sau doar s-a terminat. Trecut) Se folosete cu adverbe nsoite de: ALL /DAY/ / MORNING / /AFTERNOON/ LONG (n Rom. Se traduce prin

HOW LONG ? - ct timp ? I have been waiting for you all day long. (Aciunea s-a ncheiat , am rezultatul aciunii) Te-am ateptat toat ziua. A || S + have + been + V1 _ing I has (III sg) ( havent/hasnt ) N || S + have + not + V1 _ing has (III sg) I || Have + S + been + V1_ing? Has(III sg) have been studying English for almost 4 months. Studiez Engleza de aproape 4 luni. He hasnt been working all day long. El nu a muncit toat ziua. How long have you been reading this book? De cnd citeti cartea asta?

I - N || Havent + S + been + V1_ing? Hasnt (III sg) Havent you been cooking all week-end long? - No, I havent been cooking all week-end long. TO PLAY - a se juca A || I have been playing [pleiiN] - eu (m) joc You have been playing - tu (te) joci He/she/it has been playing - el/ea (se) joac etc. N || I have not been playing - I haven't been playing - eu nu (m) joc etc. I || Have I been playing? - eu (m) joc? etc. I - N || Have I not been playing ? - haven't I been playing ? - eu nu (m) joc ? etc. How long have you been reading the letter ? - De ct timp citeti scrisoarea ? I know what he has been doing today. - Eu tiu ce a fcut el azi/astzi. 3. TRECUTUL ( THE PAST TENSE) Se traduce prin imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus i exprim o aciune trecut terminat. I saw her yesterday. - Am vzut-o ieri. Este a doua form de baz a verbului (vezi lista de baz a verbelor!). Verbele principale sunt : 1) regulate 2) neregulate. 1. regulate - la forma a II-a i a III-a de baz primesc terminaia -ed. Terminaia -ed se citete: - [ t ] cnd este precedat de o consoan nesonor/surd; asked [`Askt], looked [lukt] - [ d ] cnd este precedat de o consoan sonor; received [ri`sIvd] , proved [`prUvd] - [ id ] cnd este precedat de literele t sau d ; added [`Edid], wanted [`wontid] 2. neregulate (vezi lista la sfritul crii)

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Se folosete pentru a exprima : 1. O aciune svrit i ncheiat ntr-un moment trecut. YESTERDAY : THE DAY BEFORE / AFTER.. LAST (WEEK,MONTH etc) Se folosesc Adverbele: AGO IN 1980 ON MONDAY 2. O aciune obinuita, repetat n trecut USUALY/FREQUENTLY - de obicei ALWAYS - ntotdeauna Se folosesc Adverbele: NEVER - niciodat OFTEN - adesea , mai mereu SELDOM - uneori SOMETIMES - din cand n cnd

A || S + Vinf + d sau V 2nd The English class started at 8 a.m. + ed He saw his clasmate yesterday. . N || S + did/does + not + V1 He didnt do his homework. didnt/doesnt I || Did + S + V1 Did you spend your holiday abroad ? Did it rain yesterday? -Yes,it did. / Yes,it rained yesterday. -No,it didnt / No,it didnt rain yesterday.

I N ||

Did + S + not + V1 Didnt watch TV yesterday evning? Didnt + S + Vinf - Yes,I did / Yes, I watched TV - No,I didnt / No,I didnt watch TV A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA PAST TENSE

TO BE - WAS/WERE - BEEN A || I was - eu am fost, eu eram we were - noi am fost, noi eram you were - tu ai fost, tu erai you were - voi/dv. ai fost, voi/dv. erai he/she/it was - el/ea era/a fost they were - ei/ele au fost, ei/ele erau N || I was not - I wasn't - eu nu am fost - eu nu eram you were not - you weren't - tu nu ai fost - tu nu erai he/she/it was not - he/she/it wasn't - el/ea nu a fost - el/ea nu era etc. I || was I ? - eu am fost? - eu eram ? were you ? - tu ai fost? - tu erai ? was he/she/it ? - el/ea a fost ? - el/ea era ? etc. I N || was I not ? - wasn't I ? - eu nu am fost ? - eu nu eram ? were you not ? - weren't you ? - tu nu ai fost ? - tu nu erai ? was he/she/it not ? - wasn't he/she/it ? - el/ea nu a fost ? - el/ea nu era? etc. TO HAVE - HAD - HAD I had - eu am avut, eu aveam we had - noi am avut, noi aveam you had - tu ai avut, tu aveai you had - voi/dv. ai avut, voi/dv. aveai he /she/it had - el/ea a avut, el/ea avea they had - ei/ele au avut, ei/ele aveau N || I had not - I hadn't - eu nu am avut - eu n-am avut - eu nu aveam etc I || had I? - eu am avut?, eu aveam? etc. I N || had I not ? - hadn't I ? - eu nu am avut ? - eu nu aveam ? etc. A || A || TO DO - DID - DONE I did - eu am fcut, eu fceam you did - tu ai fcut, tu fceai he/she/it did - el / ea a fcut, el/ea fcea we did - noi am fcut, noi fceam you did - voi/dv. ai fcut, voi / dv. fceai they did - ei/ele au fcut, ei / ele fceau

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N || I || I N ||

I did not do - I didn't do - eu nu am fcut, eu nu fceam etc. Did I do? - eu am fcut ?, eu fceam ? etc. Did I not do? - didn't I do? - eu nu am fcut ?, eu nu fceam ? etc.

SHOULD este auxiliar pentru The Future in the Past, persoana I singular i plural, precum i pentru formarea modului condiional (prezent i perfect) WOULD este auxiliar pentru The Future in the Past pers. II - III i condiional. El l poate nlocui pe should la pers. I sg. i pl. att la timpul The Future in the Past ct i la modul condiional. B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA PAST TENSE COULD A || N || I || I N || I could (go) - I was able to (go) - eu puteam/eram n stare s (merg) You could (go) - you were able to (go) - tu puteai/erai n stare s (mergi) He/she/it could (go) - he/she/it was able to (go) - el/ea putea/era n stare s (mearg) etc. I could not (go) - I couldn't (go) - I was not able to (go) - I wasn't able to (go) - eu nu puteam (merge) - eu nu eram n stare s (merg) etc. could I (go) ? - was I able to (go) ? - eu puteam s (merg)? - puteam eu s (merg)? - eu eram n stare s (merg)? - eram eu n stare s (merg)? etc. could I not (go)? - couldn't I (go)? - was I not able to (go)? - wasn't I able to (go)? - eu nu puteam (merge)? - eu nu eram n stare s (merg)? etc.

Verbul COULD exprim: 1. abilitatea n trecut; I could speak German last year - I was able to speak German last year - tiam s vorbesc germana anul trecut. b) o invitaie sau o rugminte (condiional prezent) Could you (possibly) come to my birthday party? - Ai putea ( puteai ) veni la petrecerea de ziua mea de natere? Could you lend me your umbrella? - Ai putea s-mi mprumui umbrela ta ? c) permisiunea / posibilitatea n trecut They could go on a trip. - Ei puteau merge n excursie. MIGHT Verbul might, adic a II a form de baz a verbului may care la timpul prezent printre altele exprim i permisiunea, poate exprima permisiunea la trecut atunci cnd may devine might transformat din vorbire direct n vorbire indirect. "May I go on the trip", asked Mary. - - Pot merge n excursie, ntreb Mary. devine n vorbirea indirect: Mary asked if she might go on the trip. - Mary asked if she was allowed to go on the trip. - Mary a ntrebat dac poate s mearg n excursie. - Mary a ntrebat dac i este ngduit s mearg n excursie. Verbul MIGHT exprim: a) posibilitatea n prezent (might fiind auxiliar modal la condiional prezent): He might be there. - Ar putea fi acolo. Might he still be there ? - Ar putea fi acolo nc ? - Ar putea fi tot acolo ? b) posibilitatea n trecut : You might have succeeded if you had tried. - Tu ai fi putut reui dac ai fi ncercat. S-ar fi putut s reueti dac ai fi ncercat. I knew he might be late. - tiam c este posibil s ntrzie. c) interdicia n trecut: She said that we might not go on that trip. - She said that we were not allowed to go on that trip. - Ea a zis c noi nu putem merge n excursia aceea. - Ea a zis c nou nu ne este ngduit / permis s mergem n excursia aceea. d) o manier politicoas de a cere permisiunea : (folosit la condiional prezent) Might I ask you something ? - A putea s te/v ntreb ceva ? Might I use your phone ? - A putea folosi telefonul tu ? HAD TO - A TREBUI SA I had to (go) - eu trebuia s (merg) you had to (go) - tu trebuia s (mergi) he/she/it had to (go) - el/ea trebuia s (mearg) etc N || I had not to (go) - I hadn't to (go) - I did not (didn't) have to (go) - eu nu trebuia s (merg) - eu nu a (n-a) trebuit s (merg) etc. I || had I to (go) ? - did I have to (go) ? - eu trebuia s (merg) ? etc I-N || had I not to (go) ? - did I not have to (go) ? - eu nu trebuia s (merg) ? etc. A || SHOULD - trebuia, se cuvenea s

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Should este a doua form de baz (adic Past Tense) a verbului shall i exprim o obligaie, sau o recomandare n trecut. We should learn. - Trebuia s nvm. - Se cuvenea s nvm. n aceast situaie should este sinonim cu ought to. A || I should (go) - eu trebuia s (merg) (se cuvenea s merg) you should (go) - tu trebuia s (mergi) he /she/it should (go) - el/ea trebuia s (mearg) etc N || I should not (go) - I shouldn't (go) - eu nu trebuia s (merg) etc. I || should I (go) ? - trebuia eu s (merg) ? etc. I-N || should I not (go) ? - shouldn't I (go) ? - nu trebuia eu s (merg) ? etc. Should + infinitiv perfect - obligaie n trecut You should have told us the truth. - You ought to have told us the truth. - Ar fi trebuit s ne spui adevrul. You shouldn't have refused their help. - N-ar fi trebuit s le fi refuzat ajutorul. WOULD - a voi I would (see) - eu voiam s (vd) ; eu vedeam, obinuiam s (vd) you would (see) - tu voiai s (vezi) ; tu vedeai, obinuiai s (vezi) he/she/it would (see) - el/ea voia s (vad) ; el/ea vedea, obinuia s (vad) etc N || I would not (see) - I wouldn't (see) - eu nu voiam s (vd); eu nu vedeam etc. I || would I (see) ? - voiam eu s (vd) ? ; obinuiam eu s (vd) ?, vedeam eu ? eu vedeam? etc. I - N || would I not (see) ? - wouldn't I (see) ? - eu nu voiam s (vd) ? - nu voiam eu s (vd)?; eu nu obinuiam s (vd)? etc. Would este a II-a form de baz a verbului will. I understood he would not see them. - Am neles c nu voia s-i vad . A || Verbul WOULD exprim: a) - aciune repetat n trecut (would - used to) He would go swimming with other boys. - He used to go swimming with other boys . - El obinuia s noate cu ali biei. b) - dorin n trecut He would go on the trip. - El dorea s mearg n excursie. NEED Se folosete la negativ i interogativ urmat de infinitiv fr particula to. Needn't urmat de infinitiv perfect exprim c s-a petrecut ceva nenecesar. You needn't have gone there. - Nu era necesar/nevoie s fi mers acolo. I knew I need not repeat the question. - tiam c nu e nevoie s repet ntrebarea. You needn't have cooked our dinner because we are going to dine out with friends tonight. - Nu era necesar s fi pregtit cina pentru c vom cina cu prietenii n ora disear. He didn't need to get up so early. - It was not necessary for him to get up so early. - Nu era necesar/nevoie ca el s se scoale aa devreme. N || I need not (go) - I needn't (go) - eu nu era nevoie s (merg) etc. I || Need I (go) ? - eu era nevoie/necesar s merg ? - era necesar s (merg)? etc. I - N || Need I not (go)? -needn't I (go)? - eu nu era necesar/nevoie s (merg)? - n-aveam eu nevoie s (merg) ? USED TO - WOULD A nu se confunda acest verb cu verbul principal regulat to use - used - used - a ntrebuina, a folosi. Se traduce n limba romn prin timpul imperfect, iar sensul i este dat de verbul principal pe lng care funcioneaz n propoziie. A || I used to (play) - I would (play) - eu jucam - eu obinuiam s (joc) You used to (play) - you would (play) - tu jucai - tu obinuiai s (joci) He/she used to (play) - he/she would (play) - el/ea juca - el/ea obinuia s (joace) etc N || I use(d)n't to (play) - I wouldn't (play) - eu nu obinuiam s (joc) etc I || Use(d) I to (play) ? - would I (play) ? - obinuiam eu s (joc) ? etc I-N || Use(d)n't I to (play) ? - wouldn't I (play) ? - eu nu obinuiam s (joc) ? etc - to be used to - a fi obinuit/nvat cu/s He was used to their dogs. - El era obinuit/nvat cu cinii lor. He was used to catch fish. - El era nvat/obinuit s prind pete. - to get used to - a se nva/obinui cu We got used to these working conditions. - Trebuia s ne obinuim cu aceste condiii de munc.

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There used to be some tents on this ground last summer, use(d)n't there ? - Erau nite corturi pe terenul acesta vara trecut, nu-i aa ? - didn't use to - este form colocvial; use(d)n't to este forma literar Alte structuri modale: had better - mai bine s We had better arrived there earlier than later. - Mai bine s ajungem acolo mai devreme dect mai trziu. would rather ... than...- a prefera s ... dect s ... I would rather walk than take a taxi. - A prefera s merg pe jos dect s iau un taxi. C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - ASPECTUL COMUN, DIATEZA ACTIV TO SEE - SAW - SEEN (verb principal neregulat) A || I saw- eu am vzut, eu vedeam you saw - tu ai vzut, tu vedeai he/she/it saw - el/ea a vzut, el/ea vedea N || I || I - N || we saw - noi am vzut, noi vedeam I did not see - I didn't see - eu nu am vzut you did not see - you didn't see - tu nu ai vzut he/she/it did not see - he/she/it didn't see - el/ea nu a vzut etc. did I see ? - eu am vzut ? - am vzut eu ? etc. did I not see ? - didn't I see ? - eu nu am (n-am) vzut ? etc. you saw - voi ai vzut, voi vedeai they saw - ei/ele au vzut, ei/ele vedeau

TO ANSWER - ANSWERED - ANSWERED - a rspunde (verb regulat) A || I answered - eu am rspuns we answered - noi am rspuns you answered - tu ai rspuns you answered - voi ai rspuns he/she/it answered - el/ea a rspuns they answered - ei/ele au rspuns N || I did not answer - I didn't answer - eu nu am rspuns you did not answer - you didn't answer - tu nu ai rspuns he/she/it did not answer - he/she/it didn't answer - el/ea nu a rspuns etc. I || did I answer ? - eu am rspuns ? - am rspuns eu ? etc. I - N || did I not answer ? - didn't I answer ? - eu nu am rspuns ? etc. TO DARE - DARED - DARED - a indrazni,a provoca I dared - eu am ndrznit we dared - noi am ndrznit you dared - tu ai ndrznit you dared - voi ai ndrznit he/she/it dared - el/ea a ndrznit they dared - ei/ele au ndrznit N || I did not dare - I didn't dare - eu nu am (n-am) ndrznit etc. I || did I dare ? - eu am ndrznit ? - am ndrznit eu ? etc. I - N || did I not dare ? - didn't I dare ? - eu nu am ndrznit ? - n-am ndrznit eu ? etc. They dared me to do it but I didn't dare. - Ei m-au provocat s-o fac, dar eu n-am avut curajul. I did not dare to break my promise/word. - Nu am ndrznit s-mi calc promisiunea/cuvntul. John did not dare to go there, did he ? - John n-a ndrznit s mearg/plece acolo, nu-i aa ? - John nu a avut curaj s plece acolo, aa-i ? A || TO NEED - NEEDED - NEEDED- a necesita, a solicita This work needed much skill. - Treaba aceasta a necesitat/ solicitat/ presupus mult ndemnare/ pricepere. A || I needed - eu am avut nevoie - mie mi-a trebuit you needed - tu ai avut nevoie - ie i-a trebuit he/she/it needed - el/ea a avut nevoie - lui/ei i-a trebuit we needed - noi am avut nevoie - nou ne-a trebuit you needed - voi ai avut nevoie - vou v-a trebuit they needed - ei/ele au avut nevoie - lor le-a trebuit N || I did not need - I didn't need - eu nu am avut nevoie - mie nu mi-a trebuit etc. I || did I need ? - eu am avut nevoie ? - am avut eu nevoie ? - mi-a trebuit mie ? - mie mi-a trebuit? etc. I - N || did I not need ? - didn't I need ? - eu nu am avut nevoie ? - n-am avut eu nevoie? - mie nu mi-a trebuit ?nu mi-a trebuit mie ? etc. They didnt need our help,did they? Ei nu au avut nevoie de ajutorul nostru,nu-i aa? Lor nu le-a trebuit ajutorul nostru,aa-i?

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Did they need any help ? - Au avut ei nevoie de vreun ajutor ? - Le-a trebuit lor vreun ajutor ? Plants and animals needed rain. - Plantele i animalele aveau nevoie de ploaie. We neded a lot of time - Am avut nevoie de mult timp. - Ne-a trebuit mult vreme.

TRECUTUL - ASPECTUL Se folosete pentru a exprima : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. O aciune n curs de desfaurare n trecut. I was writing a letter Eu scriam o scrisoare.

CONTINUU

O ac. Lunga ntrerupta de O ac. Scurt He was eating when the phone rang El mnca cnd telefonul a sunat Un proces gradual n trecut. Her English was improving. Engleza ei se mbuntea Pentru a descrie anumite Situaii i Evenimente. A girl was playing the piano O fat cnta la pian Vorbirea Indirect (Reported Speech ) He said he was living in London El a spus c a locuit n Londra.

6. Aciuni repetate n trecut care ne deranjau. She was always ringing me up late at night. Ea ntotdeauna m suna trziu n noapte 7. Relatarea Programului Cuiva From 4 to 6 Ted was jogging in the park. De la 4 la 6 Ted alerga n parc. WHILE - n timp ce AS ca, la fel ca, la fel de / YESTERDAY AT THIS TIME / LAST MONTH / LAST YEAR He was teaching at 9 a.m. yesterday. We were waiting for him when he arrived.

Se folosesc Adverbele:

A || N || I || I - N ||

S+

(was / were) be (past) + V1_ing

(wasnt/ werent ) He wasnt teaching at 9 a.m. yesterday. S + be (past) + not + V1_ing We werent reading, when he arrived. (Was / Were) Was he teaching at 9 a.m. yesterday ? Be (past) + S + V1 _ing Were you waiting for him when he arrived ? Be (past) + S + not + V1_ing Wasnt + S + V1_ing Was I not (wasn't I ) speaking ?

D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL CONTINUU TO SPEAK - SPOKE - SPOKEN - a vorbi A || I was speaking - eu vorbeam you were speaking - tu vorbeai he/she was speaking - el/ea vorbea N || I || I-N || we were speaking - noi vorbeam you were speaking - voi vorbeai they were speaking - ei/ele vorbeau

I was not (wasn't) speaking - eu nu vorbeam etc. was I speaking ? - vorbeam/am vorbit eu ? etc. was I not (wasn't I ) speaking ? - nu vorbeam eu ? etc. E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV, ASPECTUL COMUN

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TO SEE - SAW- SEEN A || I was seen - eu am fost vzut() you were seen - tu ai fost vzut() he/she/it was seen - el/ea a fost vzut() N || I || I - N || we were seen - noi am fost vzui/vzute you were seen - voi ai fost vzui/vzute they were seen - ei/ele au fost vzui/vzute I was not seen - I wasn't seen - eu nu am fost vzut() etc. was I seen? - eu am fost vzut? - am fost eu vzut()? etc. was I not seen? - wasn't I seen? - eu nu am fost vzut()? etc.

F. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV, ASPECTUL CONTINUU TO BE BEING LOOKED AT (by smb.) - a fi privit (de cineva) A || I was being looked at - eu eram privit() you were being looked at - tu erai rivit() he/she/it was being looked at - el/ea era privit() N || I || I-N || we were being looked at - noi eram privii/privite you were being looked at - voi erai privii/privite they were being looked at - ei erau privii/privite I was not being looked at - I wasn't being looked at - eu nu eram privit() etc. was I being looked at ? - eram eu privit()? etc. was I not being looked at ? - wasn't I being looked at ? - eu nu eram privit()? etc. G. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE - ASPECTUL COMUN TO ENJOY - ENJOYED - ENJOYED ONESELF - a se distra I enjoyed myself - eu m-am distrat/amuzat you enjoyed yourself - tu te-ai distrat/amuzat he/she/it enjoyed himself/herself/itself - el/ea s-a distrat/amuzat we enjoyed ourselves - noi ne-am distrat/amuzat you enjoyed yourselves - voi v-ai distrat/amuzat they enjoyed themselves - ei/ele s-au distrat/amuzat N || I did not enjoy myself - I didn't enjoy myself - eu nu m-am distrat etc. I || did I enjoy myself ? - eu m-am distrat ? - m-am distrat eu ? etc. I - N || did I not enjoy myself ? - didn't I enjoy myself ? - eu nu m-am distrat ? etc. A || H. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE - ASPECTUL CONTINUU TO ENJOY ONESELF - a se distra I was enjoying myself - eu m distram/amuzam you were enjoying yourself - tu te distrai/amuzai he was enjoying himself - el se distra/amuza she was enjoying herself - ea se distra/amuza it was enjoying itself - el/ea se distra/amuza we were enjoying ourselves - noi ne distram/amuzam you were enjoying yourselves - voi v distrai/amuzai they were enjoying themselves - ei/ele se distrau/amuzau N || I was not (wasn't) enjoying myself - eu nu m distram etc. I || was I enjoying myself ? - eu m distram? - m distram eu ? etc. I - N || was I not (wasn't I) enjoying myself ? - eu nu m distram ? etc. I saw him a moment ago. - L-am vzut acum o clip. - L-am vzut mai nainte. The boys always played tennis in the afternoon. - Bieii jucau totdeauna tenis dup amiaza/masa. I met them on Sunday afternoon. - I-am ntlnit duminic dup amiaz/mas. I entered the house as soon as it began to rain. - Am intrat n cas de ndat ce a nceput s plou. They ate lunch together every day. - Ei au servit prnzul mpreun n fiecare zi. The Past Tense apare n propoziiile n care se ntlnesc adverbe de timp ca: yesterday - ieri, the day before yesterday - alaltieri, two days/weeks/months/ ago - acum dou zile/ sptmni/ luni, last time - ultima dat/oar, last week/ month - sptmna/luna trecut, last year - anul trecut etc. Did you see John earlier this week? - L-ai vzut pe John mai pe la nceputul sptmnii acesteia? De reinut urmtoarele perechi de exemple corecte : I saw John today. - I have seen John today. - L-am vzut pe John azi. A ||

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I saw John this week/month. - I have seen John this week/month. - L-am vzut pe John sptmna/luna aceasta. I saw John recently. - I have seen John recently. - L-am vzut pe John recent. MAI MULT CA PERFECT (THE PAST PERFECT) Exprim o aciune trecut terminat anterioar altei aciuni trecute terminate. It had begun to rain (1)/when I entered the house (2). - ncepuse s plou cnd am intrat n cas. Se folosete pentru a descrie : 1. O aciune care s-a petrecut naintea altei aciuni trecute exprimata prin verb la Trecutul Simplu Everybody had left when the bomb exploded. Toata lume aplecase cand bomba explodase. 2. Pentru evenimente deja petrecute n momentul vorbirii. Se folosete n Vorbirea Indirecta dupa Verbele : TOLD ; SAID ; ASKED ; THOUGHT He told me that he had never seen her before. Mi-a spus c nu o vzuse nici o data pna atunci. 3. O aciune care a nceput i a continuat n trecut. Folosit cu : FOR - timp de ( Imperfectul Rom SINCE- din, de la, de cnd - eu umblasem ) They had known each other for several years when they got married. Ei se cunoteau de ctiva ani cnd s-au casatorit 4. Se folosete n construcii care ncep cu : IT WAS A LONG TIME It was a long time since I have seen you. Era mult timp de cnd nu ne vazusem. 5. Se folosete cu referire la o aciune care nu a avut loc i este repetat., dup : I WISH ; IF ; IF ONLY If I had known. Daca a fi tiut. I wish I had meet him. A fi vrut sa-l cunosc. A || S + had + V 3 (ed) I had been able to play. . N || S + hadnt + V 3 (ed) I hadn't done. I || Had + S + V 3 (ed) Had I done ? Hadn't I done ?

I N || Hadnt + S + V 3 (ed)

A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA THE PAST PERFECT TO BE - WAS/WERE - BEEN I had been - eu fusesem we had been - noi fusesem you had been - tu fusesei you had been - voi fusesei he/she/it had been - el/ea fusese they had been - ei/ele fuseser N || I had not been - I hadn't been - eu nu fusesem etc. I || had I been? - eu fusesem? - fusesem eu? etc. I - N || had I not been? - hadn't I been? - eu nu fusesem? - nu fusesem eu? etc. A || A || TO HAVE - HAD - HAD I had had - eu avusesem you had had - tu avusesei he/she/it had had - el/ea avusese we had had - noi avusesem you had had - voi avusesei they had had - ei/ele avuseser

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N || I || I - N || A ||

I had not had - I hadn't had - eu nu avusesem etc. had I had ? - eu avusesem ? - avusesem eu ? etc. had I not had ? - hadn't I had ? - eu nu avusesem ? - nu avusesem eu ? etc.

TO DO - DID - DONE I had done - eu fcusem we had done - noi fcusem you had done - tu fcusei you had done - voi fcusei he/she/it had done - el/ea fcuse they had done - ei/ele fcuser N || I had not done - I hadn't done - eu nu fcusem etc. I || had I done ? - eu fcusem ? - fcusem eu ? etc. I - N || had I not done ? - hadn't I done ? - eu nu fcusem ? - nu fcusem eu ? etc. B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR A ||
MODALE LA TIMPUL

THE PAST PERFECT

CAN - COULD - 0 - TO BE ABLE TO I had been able to (play) - eu putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare s (joc) you had been able to (play) - tu putusei/tiusei/fusesei n stare s (joci) he/she/it had been able to (play) - el/ea putuse/tiuse/fusese n stare s (joace) we had been able to (play) - noi putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare s (jucm) you had been able to (play) - voi putusei/tiusei/fusesei n stare s (jucai) they had been able to (play) - ei/ele putuser/tiuser/fuseser n stare s (joace) N || I hadn't been able to (play) - eu nu putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare s (joc) etc. I || had I been able to (play) ? - eu putusem/tiusem/fusesem n stare s (joc) ? etc. I - N || had I not been able to (play) ? - hadn't I been able to (play) ? - eu nu putusem/ tiusem s (joc) ? - eu nu fusesem n stare s (joc) ? etc. MAY - MIGHT - 0 - TO BE PERMITED/ALLOWED TO I had been permitted/allowed to (play) - eu avusesem voie/ putusem s (joc) - mie mi fusese permis ngduit s (joc) you had been permitted/allowed to (play) - tu avusesei voie/ putusei s (joci) - ie i fusese permis/ngduit s (joci) he/she/it had been permitted/allowed to (play) - el/ea avusese voie s (joace) - el/ea putuse s (joace) lui/ei i fusese permis/ngduit s (joace) we had been permitted/allowed to (play) - noi avusesem voie s (jucm) - noi putusem s (jucm) nou ne fusese permis/ngduit s (jucm) you had been permitted/allowed to (play) - voi avusesei voie s (jucai) - voi putusei s (jucai) vou v fusese permis/ngduit s (jucai) they had been permitted/allowed to (play) - ei/ele avuseser voie s (joace) - ei/ele putuser s (joace) - lor le fusese permis/ngduit s (joace) N || I had not been permitted/allowed to (play) - I hadn't been permitted/allowed to (play) - eu nu avusesem voie s (joc) - nu putusem s (joc) - mie nu-mi fusese permis/ngduit s (joc) etc. I || Had I been permitted/allowed to (play) ? - avusesem eu voie s (joc) ? - putusem eu s (joc)? - mi fusese mie permis/ngduit s (joc) ? etc. I - N || had I not been permitted/allowed to (play) ? - hadn't I been permitted/ allowed to (play) ? - eu nu avusesem voie s (joc) ? - eu nu putusem s (joc) ? - nu-mi fusese mie permis/ngduit s (joc) ? etc. A || MUST - 0 - 0 - TO HAVE TO A || I had had to (play) - eu trebuise s (joc) you had had to (play) - tu trebuise s (joci) he/she/it had had to (play) - el/ea trebuise s (joace) we had had to (play) - noi trebuise s (jucm) you had had to (play) - voi trebuise s (jucai) they had had to (play) - ei/ele trebuise s (joace) N || I had not had to (play) - I hadn't had to (play) - eu nu trebuise s (joc) etc. I || had I had to (play) ? - trebuise eu s (joc) ? etc. I - N || had I not had to (play) ? - hadn't I had to (play) ? - eu nu trebuise s (joc) ? - nu trebuise eu s (joc) ? etc.

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C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - ASPECTUL COMUN, DIATEZA ACTIV TO SPEAK - SPOKE - SPOKEN I had spoken - eu vorbisem we had spoken - noi vorbisem you had spoken - tu vorbisei you had spoken - voi vorbisei he/she had spoken - el/ea vorbise they had spoken - ei/ele vorbiser N || I had not spoken - I hadn't spoken - eu nu vorbisem etc. I || had I spoken ? - eu vorbisem ? - vorbisem eu ? etc. I - N || had I not spoken? - hadn't I spoken? - eu nu vorbisem? - nu vorbisem eu? etc. A || THE PAST PERFECT - ASPECTUL Se folosete pentru a exprima : 1. O aciune nceput n Trecut care a continuat pna la un moment dat, cnd a intervenit ceva care a ntrerupt-o sau a avut un anumit efect asupra ei. Everyone had been sleeping for hours when the bomb exploded. Toat lumea dormea de cteva ore cnd bomba a explodat.

CONTINUU

2. Se folosete n Vorbirea Indirecta dupa Verbele : TOLD ; SAID ; ASKED He said he had been living in London for 2 years. El a spus ca locuia la londra de 2 ani.

A || S + had + been + V _ing . N || S + hadnt + been + V _ing I || Had + S + been + V _ing I N || Hadnt + S + been + V _ing

I had been speaking - eu vorbisem I hadn't been speaking - eu nu vorbisem Had I been speaking ? - vorbisem eu ?, eu vorbisem ? Hadn't I been speaking ? - nu vorbisem eu ?, eu nu vorbisem ? , DIATEZA ACTIV

D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE TO SPEAK - SPOKE-SPOKEN A ||

ASPECTUL CONTINUU

N || I || I - N ||

I had been speaking - eu vorbisem we had been speaking - noi vorbisem you had been speaking - tu vorbisei you had been speaking - voi vorbisei he/she had been speaking - el/ea vorbise they had been speaking - ei/ele vorbiser I had not been speaking - I hadn't been speaking - eu nu vorbisem etc. had I been speaking ? - eu vorbisem ? - vorbisem eu ? etc. had I not been speaking ? - hadn't I been speaking ? - eu nu vorbisem ? - nu vorbisem eu ? etc. E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV, ASPECTUL COMUN

TO BE ASKED - a fi ntrebat I had been asked - eu fusesem ntrebat you had been asked - tu fusesei ntrebat he/she had been asked - el/ea fusese ntrebat() we had been asked - noi fusesem ntrebai you had been asked - voi fusesei ntrebai they had been asked - ei/ele fuseser ntrebai/ntrebate N || I had not been asked - I hadn't been asked - eu nu fusesem ntrebat etc. I || had I been asked ? - eu fusesem ntrebat ? - fusesem eu ntrebat ? etc. I - N || had I not been asked ? - hadn't I been asked ? - eu nu fusesem ntrebat ? - nu fusesem eu ntrebat ? etc. Exist cazuri cnd The Past Perfect se traduce prin The Past Tense. A ||

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I was at home when he had come to see me. - Eram acas cnd a venit el pe la mine. n exemplul : El a zis c ne ateapt de cinci minute. - verbul ateapt din limba romn, care este la prezent se traduce n limba englez prin Past Perfect: He said that he had been waiting for us for five minutes.

VIITORUL SIMPLU (THE SIMPLE FUTURE) Se folosete pentru a exprima : 1. 2. 3. 4. O aciune care are loc intr-un moment Viitor O aciune Probabil (nu tim cu certitudine ca va avea loc)

O Intenie : O Promisiune ; O Ofert : O ameninare O Sugestie (l folosim cand facem Sugestii) TOMORRO - mine THE DAY AFTER TOMORRO poimine MINUTES NEXT / HOURS - urmtoarele DAYS IN A FEW / WEEKS - n cteva MONTHS YEARS

Se folosesc Adverbele:

A ||

( ll ) S + will /shall + Vinf

I will go to the mountains in Friday.

(wont/shant) We wont come back tomorrow. N || S + will/shall + not + Vinf We shant be there when he arrives. I || Will/Shall + S + Vinf Will we want to go tommorrow Shall I find practicing for an hour? She wont come back tomorrow. We shant be there when he arrives.

I N ||

(Will not/ Shall not) Wont/ Shant + S + Vinf

A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA VIITOR SIMPLU TO BE - a fi I shall/will be - I'll be - eu voi fi - eu o s fiu you will be - you'll be - tu vei fi - tu o s fii he/she/it will be - he'll/she'll/it'll be - el/ea o s fie we shall/will be - we'll be - noi vom fi - o s fim you will be - you'll be - voi vei fi - voi o s fii they will be - they'll be - ei/ele vor fi - ei/ele o s fie N || I shall/will not be - I shan't be - eu nu voi fi - eu n-o s fiu you will not be - you won't be - tu nu vei fi - tu n-o s fii he/she/it will not be - he/she/it won't be - el/ea nu va fi - el/ea n-o s fie etc. I || shall/will I be ? - eu voi fi ? - eu o s fiu ? - voi fi eu ? - o s fiu eu ? etc. I - N || shall/will I not be ? - shan't/won't I be ? - eu nu voi fi ? - nu voi fi eu ? - eu n-o s fiu ? etc. A ||

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TO HAVE I shall/will have - I'll have - eu voi avea - eu o s am you will have - you'll have - tu vei avea - tu o s ai he/she/it will have - he'll/she'll/it'll have - el/ea va avea - el/ea o s aib we shall/will have - we'll have - noi vom avea - noi o s avem you will have - you'll have - voi vei avea - voi o s avei they will have - they'll have - ei/ele vor avea - ei/ele o s aib N || I shall/will not have - I shan't/won't have - eu nu voi avea - n-o s am you will not have - you won't have - tu nu vei avea - tu n-o s ai he/she/it will not have - he/she/it won't have - el/ea nu va avea - n-o s aib etc. I || shall/will I have ? - eu voi avea ? - voi avea eu ? - eu o s am ? etc. I - N || shall/will I not have ? - shan't/won't I have ? - eu nu voi avea ? - nu voi avea eu ? - eu n-o s am ? - no s am eu ? etc. A || TO DO A || I shall/will do - I'll do - eu voi face - eu o s fac you will do- you'll do - tu vei face - tu o s faci he/she/it will do - he'll/she'll/it'll do - el/ea o s fac we shall/will do- we'll do]-noi vom face-o s facem they will do - they'll do - ei/ele vor face-ei/ele o s fac I shall/will not do - I shan't/won't do - eu nu voi face - eu n-o s fac you will not do - you won't do - tu nu vei face - tu n-o s faci he/she/it will not do - he/she/it won't do - el/ea nu va face - el/ea n-o s fac etc. shall/will I do ? - eu voi face ? - voi face eu ? - eu o s fac ? - o s fac eu ? etc. shall/will I not do ? - shan't/ won't I do ? - eu nu voi face ? - nu voi face eu ? - eu n-o s fac ? - n-o s eu ? etc. B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA TIMPUL VIITOR SIMPLU CAN - COULD - 0 - TO BE ABLE TO A || I shall/will be able to (swim) - I'll be able to (swim) - eu voi putea/ti s (not) - eu fi voi n stare s (not) you will be able to (swim) - you'll be able to (swim) - tu vei putea/ti s (noi) - tu vei fi n stare s (noi) he/she/it will be able to (swim) - he'll/she'll/it'll be able to (swim) - el/ea va putea/ti s (noate) - el/ea va fi n stare s (noate) we shall/will be able to (swim) - we'll be able to (swim) - noi vom putea/ti s (notm) - noi vom fi n stare s (notm) you will be able to (swim) - you'll be able to (swim) - voi vei putea/ti s (notai) - voi vei fi n stare s (notai) they will be able to (swim) - they'll be able to (swim) - ei/ele vor putea/ti s (noate) - ei/ele vor fi n stare s (noate) N || I shall/will not be able to (swim) - I shan't/won't be able to (swim) - eu nu voi putea/ti s (not) - eu nu voi fi n stare s (not) you will not be able to (swim) - you won't be able to (swim) - tu nu vei putea/ti s (noi) - tu nu vei fi n stare s (noi) he/she/it will not be able to (swim) - he/she/it won't be able to (swim) - el/ea nu va putea/ti s (noate) - el/ea nu va fi n stare s (noate) etc. I || shall/will I be able to (swim) ? - eu voi putea/ti s (not) ? - eu voi fi n stare s (not) ? etc. I-N || shall/will I not be able to (swim) ? - shan't/won't I be able to (swim) ? - eu nu voi putea/ti s (not) ? - eu nu voi fi n stare s (not) ? - eu n-o s fiu n stare s (not) ? etc. MAY-MIGHT - 0 - TO BE PERMITTED/ALLOWED TO A || I shall/will be permitted/allowed to (go) - eu voi avea voie s (merg) - eu voi putea s (merg) - mie mi va fi permis/ngduit s (merg) - eu o s pot s (merg) you will be permitted/allowed to (go) - tu vei avea voie s (mergi) - tu vei putea s (mergi) - ie i va fi permis/ngduit s (mergi) - tu o s poi s (mergi) he/she/it will be permitted/allowed to (go) - el/ea va avea voie s (mearg) - el/ea va putea s (mearg) - lui/ei i va fi permis/ngduit s (mearg) - el/ea o s poat s (mearg) we shall/will be permitted/allowed to (go) - noi vom avea voie s (mergem) - noi vom putea s (mergem) - nou ne va fi permis/ngdui s (mergem) - noi o s putem s (mergem)

N || I || I - N || fac

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you will be permitted/allowed to (go) - voi vei avea voie s (mergei) - voi vei putea s (mergei) - vou v va fi permis/ngduit s (mergei) - voi o s putei s (mergei) they will be permitted/allowed to (go) - ei/ele vor avea voie s (mearg) - ei/ele vor putea s (mearg) - lor le va fi permis/ngduit s (mearg) - ei/ele o s poat s (mearg) N || I shall/will not be permitted/allowed to (go) - I shan't/won't be permitted/ allowed to (go) - eu nu voi avea voie s (merg) - eu nu voi putea s (merg) - mie nu-mi va fi permis/ngduit s (merg) - eu n-o s am voie s (merg) you will not be permitted/allowed to (go) - you won't be permitted/allowed to (go) - tu nu vei avea voie s (mergi) - tu nu vei putea s (mergi) - ie nu-i va fi permis/ngduit s (mergi) - tu n-o s ai voie s (mergi) he/she/it will not be permitted/allowed to (go) - he/she/it won't be permitted/ allowed to (go) - el/ea nu va avea voie s (mearg) - el/ea nu va putea s (mearg) - lui/ei nu-i va fi permis/ngduit s (mearg) - el/ea n-o s aib voie s (mearg) etc. I || shall/will I be permitted/allowed to (go) ? - eu voi avea voie s (merg) ? - voi avea eu voie s (merg) ? - mi va fi mie permis/ngduit s (merg) ? -eu o s pot (merge) ? etc. I-N || shall/will I not be permitted/allowed to (go) ? - shan't/won't I be permitted/ allowed to (go) ? - eu nu voi avea voie s (merg) ? - eu nu voi putea s (merg) ? - eu nu voi putea (merge) ? - mie nu-mi va fi permis/ngduit s (merg) ? etc. MUST - MUST - 0 - TO HAVE TO A || I shall/will have to (go) - I'll have to (go) - eu va trebui s (merg) - eu o s trebuiasc s (merg) you will have to (go) - you'll have to (go) - tu va trebui s (mergi) - tu o s trebuiasc s (mergi) he/she/it will have to (go) - he'll/she'll/it'll have to (go) - el/ea va trebui s (mearg) - el/ea o s trebuiasc s (mearg) we shall/will have to (go) - we'll have to (go) - noi va trebui s (mergem) - noi o s trebuiasc s (mergem) you will have to (go) - you'll have to (go) - voi va trebui s (mergei) - voi o s trebuiasc s (mergei) they will have to (go) - they'll have to (go) - ei/ele va trebui s (mearg) - ei/ele o s trebuiasc s (mearg) N || I shall/will not have to (go) - I shan't/won't have to (go) - eu nu va trebui s (merg) - eu n-o s trebuiasc s (merg) you will not have to (go) - you won't have to (go) - tu nu va trebui s (mergi) - tu n-o s trebuiasc s (mergi) he/she/it will not have to (go) - he/she/it won't have to (go) - el/ea nu va trebui s (mearg) - el/ea n-o s trebuiasc s (mearg) etc. I || shall/will I have to (go) ? - eu va trebui s (merg) ? - va trebui eu s (merg) ? etc. I - N || shall/will I not have to (go) ? - shan't/won't I have to (go) ? - eu nu va trebui s (merg) ? - nu va trebui eu s (merg) ? eu n-o s trebuiasc s (merg) ? etc. C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL COMUN TO SPEAK I shall/will speak - I'll speak - eu voi vorbi - eu o s vorbesc you will speak - you'll speak - tu vei vorbi - tu o s vorbeti he/she will speak - he'll/she'll speak - el/ea va vorbi - el/ea o s vorbeasc we shall/will speak - we'll speak - noi vom vorbi - noi o s vorbim you will speak - you'll speak - voi vei vorbi - voi o s vorbii they will speak - they'll speak - ei/ele vor vorbi - ei/ele o s vorbeasc N || I shall/will not speak - I shan't/won't speak - eu nu voi vorbi - eu n-o s vorbesc you will not speak - you won't speak - tu nu vei vorbi - tu n-o s vorbeti he/she will not speak - he/she won't speak - el/ea nu va vorbi - el/ea n-o s vorbeasc etc. I || shall/will I speak ? - eu voi vorbi ? - voi vorbi eu ? - eu o s vorbesc ? etc. I-N || shall/will I not speak ? - shan't/won't I speak ? - eu nu voi vorbi ? - nu voi vorbi eu ? - eu n-o s vorbesc ? - n-o s vorbesc eu ? etc. A || A || TO DARE - DARED - DARED I shall/will dare - I'll dare - eu voi ndrzni - eu o s ndrznesc you will dare - you'll dare - tu vei ndrzni - tu o s ndrzneti he/she/it will dare - he'll/she'll/it'll dare- el/ea va ndrzni - el/ea o s ndrz- neasc we shall/will dare - we'll dare - noi vom ndrzni - noi o s ndrznim

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you will dare - you'll dare - voi vei ndrzni - voi o s ndrznii they will dare - they'll dare - ei/ele vor ndrzni - ei/ele o s ndrzneasc N || I shall/will not dare - I shan't/won't dare - eu nu voi ndrzni - eu n-o s ndrznesc etc. I || shall/will I dare ? - eu voi ndrzni ? - voi ndrzni eu? - o s ndrznesc eu? etc. I-N || shall/will/will I not dare ? - shan't/won't I dare ? - eu nu voi ndrzni ? - nu voi ndrzni eu ? - eu n-o s ndrznesc ? - n-o s ndrznesc eu ? etc. They will not dare to break their word. - Ei nu vor ndrzni s-i calce cuvntul. I shall/will not dare to go there alone. - Eu nu voi ndrzni s merg acolo singur(). - Eu nu voi avea curaj s plec/merg acolo singur(). TO NEED - NEEDED - NEEDED A || I shall/will need - I'll need - eu voi avea nevoie - mie mi va trebui - eu o s am nevoie - mie o s-mi trebuiasc you will need - you'll need - tu vei avea nevoie - ie i va trebui - tu o s ai nevoie - ie o s-i trebuiasc he/she/it will need - he'll/she'll/it'll need - el/ea va avea nevoie - lui/ei i va trebui - el/ea o s aib nevoie - lui/ei o s-i trebuiasc we shall/will need - we'll need - noi vom avea nevoie - nou ne va trebui - noi o s avem nevoie - nou o s ne trebuiasc you will need - you'll need - voi vei avea nevoie - vou v va trebui - voi o s avei nevoie - vou o s v trebuiasc they will need - they'll need - ei/ele vor avea nevoie - lor le va trebui - ei/ele o s aib nevoie - lor o s le trebuiasc N || I shall/will not need - I shan't/won't need - eu nu voi avea nevoie - mie nu-mi va trebui - eu n-o s am nevoie - mie n-o s-mi trebuiasc etc. I || shall/will I need ? - eu voi avea nevoie ? - voi avea eu nevoie ? - eu o s am nevoie ? - o s am eu nevoie ? - mie mi va trebui ? - mi va trebui mie ? - mie o s-mi trebuiasc ? - o s-mi trebuiasc mie ? etc. I-N || shall/will I not need ? - shan't/won't I need ? - eu nu voi avea nevoie ? - nu voi avea eu nevoie ? - eu n-o s am nevoie ? - n-o s am eu nevoie ? - mie nu-mi va trebui ? - nu-mi va trebui mie ? - mie n-o s-mi trebuiasc ? - n-o s-mi trebu-iasc mie ? etc. Plants and animals will always need rain. - Plantele i animalele vor avea totdeauna nevoie de ploaie. Will you need any help ? - Vei avea tu nevoie de vreun ajutor ? What will you need ? - De ce vei avea nevoie ? - Ce v va trebui ?

VIITORUL (THE FUTURE) - ASPECTUL Se folosete pentru a exprima : 1. 2.

CONTINUU

O aciune ce se desfaoar ntr-un moment precis din Viitor. We will be graduating at the end of March. Noi vom absolvi la sfrsitul lui Martie. O aciune sigur din Viitor planificat din timp. Se folosesc Adverbe de timp. Ill be staying in my new house this time next month. Voi sta n noua mea casa pe timpul acesta luna viitoare.

A ||

( ll ) S + will /shall + V _ing

I'll be speaking - Eu voi vorbi ; eu o s vorbesc

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(wont/shant) N || S + will/shall + not + V _ing I || Will/Shall + S + V _ing

I shan't/won't be speaking - Eu nu voi vorbi ; eu n-o s vorbesc Shall/will I be speaking ? - Eu voi vorbi ? ; voi vorbi eu ? ; eu o s vorbesc? Shan't/won't I be speaking ? - Eu nu voi vorbi ?

(Will not/ Shall not) I N || Wont/ Shant + S + V _ing

D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL CONTINUU TO SPEAK I shall/will be speaking - I'll be speaking - eu voi vorbi - eu o s vorbesc you will be speaking - you'll be speaking - tu vei vorbi - tu o s vorbeti he/she will be speaking - he'll/she'll be speaking - el/ea va vorbi - el/ea o s vorbeasc we shall/will be speaking - we'll be speaking - noi vom vorbi - noi o s vorbim you will be speaking - you'll be speaking - voi vei vorbi - voi o s vorbii they will be speaking - they'll be speaking - ei/ele vor vorbi - ei/ele o s vorbeasc N || I shall/will not be speaking - I shan't/won't be speaking - eu nu voi vorbi - eu n-o s vorbesc etc. I || shall/will I be speaking ? - eu voi vorbi ? - voi vorbi eu ? - eu o s vorbesc? etc. I-N || shall/will I not be speaking ? - shan't/won't I be speaking ? - eu nu voi vorbi ? etc. A || E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV TO BE ADMIRED I shall/will be admired - I'll be admired - eu voi fi admirat - eu o s fiu admirat you will be admired - you'll be admired - tu vei fi admirat - tu o s fii admirat he/she/it will be admired - he'll/she'll/it'll be admired - el/ea va fi admirat() - el/ea o s fie admirat() we shall/will be admired - we'll be admired - noi vom fi admirai - noi o s fim admirai you will be admired - you'll be admired - voi vei fi admirai - voi o s fii admirai they will be admired - they'll be admired - ei/ele vor fi admirai/admirate - ei/ele o s fie admirai/admirate N || I shall/will not be admired - I shan't/won't be admired - eu nu voi fi admirat - eu n-o s fiu admirat etc. I || shall/will I be admired? - eu voi fi admirat? - voi fi eu admirat? - eu o s fiu admirat? - o s fiu eu admirat? I-N || shall/will I not be admired ? - shan't/won't I be admired ? - eu nu voi fi admirat ? - nu voi fi eu admirat ? - eu n-o s fiu admirat ? - n-o s fiu eu admirat ? etc. A ||

VIITORUL ANTERIOR (THE FUTURE PERFECT) Exprim o aciune viitoare care se petrece naintea altei aciuni viitoare. Se traduce cu timpul Viitor Anterior ( ViitorII) n Romn (eu voi fi umblat/baut/scris/dormit/fost etc) By five o'clock,when you come, I shall have written the letter. - Pn la (cel trziu) ora cinci, cnd vei veni tu, eu voi fi scris By three oclock tomorrow, I will have reached Predeal. - Mine pna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. / scrisoarea. I shall/will have had to - Eu va fi trebuit s etc. A || S + shall/ will + have + V 3 I shall/will have been - Eu voi fi fost.

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N || I ||

(shant /wont) S + shall/ will Shall/ Will + S

I shan't/won't have been - Eu nu voi fi fost. + not + have + V 3 I shall/will not have been - Eu nu voi fi fost. + have + V 3 Shall/Will I have been ? - Voi fi fost eu ? ; Eu voi fi fost ?

(Shant /Wont) Shan't/Won't I have been ? - Eu nu voi fi fost ? ; Nu voi fi fost eu ? I N || Shall/ Will + S + not + have + V 3 Shall/Will I not have been ? - Eu nu voi fi fost ? ; Nu voi fi fost eu ? CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA VIITOR ANTERIOR TO COME - a veni A || I shall/will have come - eu voi fi venit we shall/will have come - noi vom fi venit you will have come - tu vei fi venit you will have come - voi vei fi venit he/she/it will have come - el/ea va fi venit they will have come - ei/ele vor fi venit I shall/will not have come - I shan't/won't have come - eu nu voi fi venit etc. shall/will I have come ? - eu voi fi venit ? - voi fi venit eu ? etc. shall/will I not have come ? - shan't/won't I have come ? - eu nu voi fi venit ? etc. VIITORUL ANTERIOR (THE FUTURE PERFECT) - ASPECTUL

N || I || I-N ||

CONTINUU

Exprim o actiune n plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare . Este un timp rar folosit. (Se traduce cu Viitorul Simplu sau cu Viitorul Anterior n Romn) When you come home,I will have been studying for three hours.- Cnd vei veni tu acasa,voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore Future Perfect Continuous are dou forme diferite: "will have been doing " i "be going to have been doing." You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arives. You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives. ( ll ) A | S + will /shall + have been + V_ing You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arives. (wont/shant) N || S + will/shall + not + have been + V_ing You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plan finally arr ives. I ||Will/Shall + S + have been + V_ing Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?

VIITOR N TRECUT (THE FUTURE IN THE PAST) Se traduce n Romn prin timpul Viitor Simplu. (Se formeaz cu auxiliarele should/would la pers. I sing. i pl. i would la celelalte persoane + infinitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat.) Se folosete pentru a exprima : 1. O aciune viitoare comunicat ntr-un moment trecut i se folosete n fraze.

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You told me (1) that you would come (2). - Mi-ai spus c vei veni. Did I tell you that I should/would come ? - i-am spus eu c voi veni ? 2.O aciune posterioara unui momentsau unei aciuni din trecut. He said he would late. El a spus c va ntrzia. ntruct nu poate fi ntlnit dect n propoziii secundare (dup un verb la timpul trecut n propoziia principal), nu se poate pune problema folosirii lui la interogativ dect n ntrebari disjunctive. A || S + should/would + V 1 (shouldnt / wouldnt) S + should/ would Should/Would + S I should/would come - Eu voi veni I should/would go - Eu m voi duce.

N || I ||

I shouldn't/wouldn't come - Eu nu voi veni + not have + V 3 I should/would not come - Eu nu voi veni Should/Would I come ? - Eu voi veni ? etc

+V1

I N ||

(Shouldnt / Wouldnt) Shouldn't/Wouldn't I come ? - Eu nu voi veni ? etc. Should/Would + S + not + V 1 Should/Would I not come ? - Eu nu voi veni ? etc.

TO COME - a veni I should/would come - eu voi veni we should/would come - noi vom veni you would come - tu vei veni you would come - voi vei veni he/she/it would come - el/ea va veni they would come - ei/ele vor veni N || I should/would not come - I shouldn't/wouldn't come - eu nu voi veni you would not come - you wouldn't come - tu nu vei veni - tu n-o s vii he/she/it would not come - he/she/it wouldn't come - el/ea nu va veni - el/ea n-o s vin etc. I || should/would I come ? - eu voi veni ? etc. I-N || should/would I not come ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I come ? - eu nu voi veni ? etc. A ||

VIITOR N TRECUT (THE FUTURE IN THE PAST) - ASPECTUL

CONTINUU

Este un timp destul de rar folosit. Preia funciile lui Future Tense Continuous ntr-o propoziie secundar, atunci cnd n principal se afl un verb la trecut. England. A || He said that at 3 oclock, the next day, he would be travelling to El a spus c n ziua urmtoare, la ora 3, va cltori spre Anglia S + should/would + be + V _ing I should/would be going - Eu voi merge. I shouldn't/wouldn't be going - Eu nu voi merge. I should/would be not going - Eu nu voi merge. Should/Would I be going ? - Voi merge eui ? etc

(shouldnt / wouldnt) N || S + should/ would + be + not + V _ing I || Should/Would + S + be + V _ing

I N || etc.

(Shouldnt / Wouldnt) Shouldn't/Wouldn't I be going? - Eu nu voi merge ? etc. Should/Would + S + not + be + V _ing Should/Would I be not going? - Eu nu voi merge ? VIITORUL APROPIAT (THE NEAR FUTURE - THE FUTURE OF INTENTION)

Exprim o aciune ce urmeaz s aib loc la scurt timp dup ce a fost anunat. Se traduce i prin viitor. Se formeaz cu construcia to be going to (a avea de gnd s - a inteniona s) din care verbul to be se conjug la Prezent, Past Tense i Past Perfect, mpreun cu infinitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat.

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1) I am going to play tennis. - Am de gnd s joc tenis ; voi juca tenis. 2) I was going to play tennis. - Aveam de gnd s joc tenis. 3) I had been going to play tennis. - Avusesem de gnd s joc tenis. ALTE MODALITII DE EXPRIMARE A VIITORULUI a)

prin intermediul adverbelor de timp care conin ideea de viitor

They are coming tomorrow, not tonight. - Ei vin (vor veni) mine, nu disear. b) cu ajutorul verbului to be to - a urma s

When are they to be married ? - Cnd urmeaz ei s se cstoreasc ? They are to be married in August. - Ei urmeaz s se cstoreasc n august. What are you to do after that ? - Ce vei face dup aceea ? What was I to do ? - Ce era s fac ? - Ce aveam de fcut ? - Ce trebuia s fac ? I did not know what they were to do. - Eu nu am tiut ce urma s fac ei. We are to pay the cost of the ticket. - Urmeaz s pltim costul biletului. c) cu construcia/structura to be about to - a fi pe punctul de a, a fi gata s They are about to leave. - Ei sunt gata s plece. - Sunt gata de plecare. - Sunt pe punctul de plecare. - Ei stau s plece. d) cu ajutorul structurii to be going to - a avea de gnd s, a inteniona s : He is going to be 25 years old next year. - El va avea 25 de ani anul urmtor. Do you think it is going to rain ? - Crezi c va ploua ? I suppose this house is going to be expensive. - Presupun c aceast cas va fi scump. Se folosete pentru : 1. A exprima o intenie care a fost deja planificat nainte de momentul vorbirii. - Intenia de a cumpra ceva. We are saving up because we are going to buy a house. Noi economisim deoarece avem de gnd sa cumprm o cas. ( n trecut ne-am hotrt, acum economisim, vom cumpra n viitor. ) A prezice un Eveniment viitor pentru care avem nite semne evidente in Prezent. - Cum ar fi ploaia. There are many clouds in the sky. Its going to rain. Sunt muli nori pe cer. E posibil s plou. ( n trecut norii s-au adunat,acum i vedem, va ploua n viitor ) (Vinf) (Vinf)

2.

A || N ||

S + be + going to + V1

S + be + not + going to + V1 (Vinf)

I || Be + S + going to + V1

B. MODUL SUBJONCTIV (THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD)


Se folosete n propoziii cu sensuri negative. Exprim : a) o condiie ireal, care se poate realiza sau nu If I were there, I should help you. - Dac a fi acolo, te-a ajuta.

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b) c)

o concesie probabil: He wouldn't find me even if he came earlier. - Nu m-ar gsi chiar dac ar veni mai devreme. o dorin: He wished he had more friends. - Ar dori s aib mai muli prieteni. I wish I were there. - A dori s fiu acolo.

Se ntrebuineaz: - Dup conjuncii ca : if - dac, if only - numai dac, even if - chiar dac, as if - ca i cnd/cum, de parc, as though - ca i cum, lest - ca s nu, however - orict de, however (little) - orict de (puin), however (much) - orict de (mult), however (few) - orict de (puini), however (many) - orict de (muli), however (late) - orict de (trziu), whatever orice, indiferent care, oricare, if need be - dac e nevoie/necesar etc. Dup verbul wish sau expresiile it's time (or it's high time) - este timpul s, it is necessary - este necesar, it is probable/likely - este probabil, it is possible - este posibil, it is right - este drept/corect, it is wrong - este greit/nedrept etc. It was ordered that computers be used. - S-a ordonat s se foloseasc /ntrebuineze calculatoarele. "Come what may", he said.- S se ntmple ce s-o ntmpla, a zis el. Fie ce-o fi, a zis el. "So be it", Mary repeated. - Aa s fie, a repetat Mary. "If need be, we send you a coach", he said. - Dac este necesar, v trimitem un autocar, a zis el. Iat o subdiviziune a subjonctivului din punct de vedere formal: 1) Subjonctiv prezent (The Present Subjunctive or Subjunctive I) Se traduce prin conjunctiv prezent sau condiional-optativ prezent. Ca form coincide cu infinitiv scurt prezent toate persoanele avnd aceeai form. It is vital that you go there now. - Este vital ca tu s mergi acolo acum. So be it. - Aa s fie. if need be - Dac este nevoie 2) Subjonctiv trecut (The Simple Past Subjunctive or Subjunctive II) It's time we went home. - E timpul s mergem acas. I wish I were there .- A vrea s fiu acolo. 3) Subjonctiv perfect ( The Past Perfect Subjunctive or Subjunctive III) If I had bought the book I should have read it. - Dac a fi cumprat cartea a fi citit-o. Comparai cele dou moduri : subjonctiv indicativ if I were here - dac a fi aici if I was here - dac eu eram aici f you were here - dac tu ai fi aici if you were here - dac tu erai aici if he/she/it were here-dac el/ea ar fi aici if he/she/it was here - dac el/ea era aici if we were here - dac noi am fi aici if we were here - dac noi eram aici if you were here - dac voi ai fi aici if you were here - dac voi erai aici if they were here - dac ei/ele ar fi aici if they were here - dac ei/ele erau aici He does not remember if/whether I was there. - El nu-i amintete dac eu eram acolo. If I were there I should/would play tennis. - Dac a fi acolo a juca tenis. If need be I would come earlier. - If it were necesary I would come earlier. - Dac ar fi necesar a veni mai devreme.

SUBJONCTIVUL II (THE SUBJUNCTIVE II) n limba romn se traduce prin condiional optativ prezent i exprim un fapt ireal. (ex. If I had money I would buy a car. - Dac a avea bani a cumpra o main. Se nelege din acest exemplu c nu pot cumpra main pentru c nu am bani.) A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA SUBJUNCTIVE II TO BE - a fi

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A || I || N || I-N || A || I ||

if I were - dac eu a fi if we were - dac noi am fi if you were - dac tu ai fi if you were - dac voi ai fi if he/she/it were - dac el/ea ar fi if they were - dac ei/ele ar fi were I ... - s fiu eu, de-a fi eu ... were we ... - s fim noi, de-am fi noi ... were you ... - s fii voi, de-ai fi voi ... were you ... - s fii tu, de-ai fi tu ... were they ... - s fie ei/ele, de-ar fi ei/ele ... were he/she/it ... - s fie el/ea, de-ar fi el/ea ... if I were not - if I weren't - dac eu nu a fi - dac eu n-a fi etc. were I not - weren't I - s nu fiu eu - de n-a fi eu etc. TO HAVE - a avea if I had - dac eu a avea if you had - dac tu ai avea if he/she/it had - dac el/ea ar avea if we had - dac noi am avea if you had - dac voi ai avea if they had - dac ei/ele ar avea

had I - s am eu - de-a avea eu had you - s ai tu - de-ai avea tu had he/she/it - s aib el/ea, de-ar avea el/ea N || I-N || A ||

had we - s avem noi - de-am avea noi had you - s avei voi - de-ai avea voi had they - s aib ei/ele - de-ar avea ei/ele

if I had not - if I hadn't - dac eu nu a avea - dac eu n-a avea etc. had I not - hadn't I - s n-am eu - de n-a avea eu etc.

TO DO - A FACE if I did - dac eu a face if we did - dac noi am face if you did - dac tu ai face if you did - dac voi ai face if he/she/it did - dac el/ea ar face if they did - dac ei/ele ar face I || did I do - s fac eu - de-a face eu etc. N || if I did not do - if I didn't do - dac eu nu a face - dac eu n-a face etc. I-N || did I not do - didn't I do - s nu fac eu - de n-a face eu etc. B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE II CAN - COULD - 0 - TO BE ABLE TO A || if I could (go) - if I were able to (go) - dac eu a putea (merge) - dac eu a fi n stare s (merg) you could (go) - if you were able to (go) - dac tu ai putea (merge) - dac tu ai fi n stare s (mergi) he/she/it could (go) - if he/she/it were able to (go) - dac el/ea ar putea (merge) - dac el/ea ar fi n stare s if we could (go) - if we were able to (go) - dac noi am putea (merge) - dac noi am fi n stare s (mergem) if you could (go) - if you were able to (go) - dac voi ai putea (merge) - dac voi ai fi n stare s (mergei) if they could (go) - if they were able to (go) - dac ei/ele ar putea (merge) - dac ei/ele ar fi n stare s I || could I (go) - were I able to (go) - s pot eu (merge) - s pot eu s (merg) - de-a putea eu (merge) could you (go) - were you able to (go) - s poi tu (merge) could he/she/it (go) - were he/she/it able to (go) - s poat el/ea (merge) could we (go) - were we able to (go) - s putem noi (merge) could you (go) - were you able to (go) - s putei voi (merge) could they (go) - were they able to (go) - s poat ei/ele (merge) N || if I could not (go) - if I couldn't (go) - if I were not able to go - if I weren't able to (go) - dac eu n-a putea s (merg) - dac n-a fi n stare s (merg) etc. I-N || could I not (go) - couldn't I (go) - were I not able to (go) - weren't I able to (go) - s nu pot eu s (merg) - de n-a putea eu s (merg) etc. MAY - MIGHT - 0 - TO BE PERMITTED/ALLOWED TO if I might (go) - if I were permitted/allowed to (go) - dac eu a avea voie s (merg) - dac mie mi-ar permis/ngduit s if you might (go) - if you were permitted/allowed to (go) - dac tu ai avea voie s (mergi) - dac ie iar fi permis/ngduit s if he/she/it might (go) - if he/she/it were permitted/allowed to (go) - dac el/ea ar avea voie s (mearg) dac lui/ei i-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mearg) A || fi

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if we might (go) - if we were permitted/allowed to (go) - dac noi am avea voie s (mergem) - dac ne-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mergem) if you might (go) - if you were permitted/allowed to (go) - dac voi ai avea voie s (mergei) - dac vou var fi permis/ngduit s (mergei) if they might (go) - if they were permitted/allowed to (go) - dac ei/ele ar avea voie s (mearg) dac lor le-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mearg) I || might I (go) - were I permitted/allowed to (go) - s am eu voie s (merg) - de mi-ar fi mie permis/ngduit s (merg) might you (go) - were you permitted/allowed to (go) - s ai tu voie s (mergi) - de i-ar fi ie permis/ngduit s (mergi) might he/she/it (go) - were he/she/it permitted/allowed to (go)-s aib el/ea voie s (mearg)-de i-ar fi lui/ei permis / ngduit s (mearg) might we (go) - were we permitted/allowed to (go) - s avem noi voie s (mergem) - de ne-ar fi nou ngduit s might you (go) - were you permitted/allowed to (go) - s avei voi voie s (mergei) - de v-ar fi vou is/ngduit s might they (go) - were they permitted/allowed to (go) - s aib ei/ele voie s (mearg) - de le-ar fi lor permis/ngduit s N || if I might not (go) - if I mightn't (go) - if I were not permitted/allowed to (go) - if I weren't permitted/allowed to (go) - dac eu n-a avea voie s (merg) - dac mie nu mi-ar fi permis/ngduit s (merg) I-N || might I not (go) - mightn't I (go) - were I not permitted/allowed to (go) - weren't I permitted/allowed to (go) - s nu am eu voie s (merg) - s nu-mi fie mie permis/ngduit s (merg) - de n-a avea eu voie s (merg) - de nu mi-ar fi mie permis/ngduit s (merg ) etc. nou A || MUST - 0 - 0 - TO HAVE TO if I had to (go) - dac eu ar trebui s (merg) if you had to (go) - dac tu ar trebui s (mergi) if he/she/it had to (go) - dac el/ea ar trebui s (mearg) if we had to (go) - dac noi ar trebui s (mergem) if you had to (go) - dac voi ar trebui s (mergei) if they had to (go) - dac ei/ele ar trebui s (mearg) had I to (go) - s trebuiasc eu s (merg) - de-ar trebui eu s (merg) had you to (go) - s trebuiasc tu s (mergi) - de-ar trebui tu s (mergi) had he/she/it to (go) - s trebuiasc el/ea s (mearg) - de-ar trebui el/ea s (mearg) had we to (go) - s trebuiasc noi s (mergem) - de-ar trebui noi s (mergem) had you to (go) - s trebuiasc voi s (mergei) - de-ar trebui voi s (mergei) had they to (go) - s trebuiasc ei/ele s (mearg) - de-ar trebui ei/ele s (mearg) if I had not to (go) - if I hadn't to (go) - dac eu nu ar trebui s (merg) - dac eu n-ar trebui s (merg) had I not to (go) - hadn't I to (go) - s nu trebuiasc eu s (merg) - de n-ar trebui eu s (merg) etc.

I ||

N || etc. I-N || A ||

SHALL - SHOULD - 0 if I should (go) - dac eu ar trebui s (merg) ; dac s-ar ntmpla s (merg) eu if you should (go) - dac tu ar trebui s (mergi) ; dac s-ar ntmpla s (mergi) tu if he/she/it should (go) - dac el/ea ar trebui s (mearg) ; dac s-ar ntmpla s (mearg) el/ea etc. I || should I (go) - s trebuiasc eu s (merg) - de-ar trebui eu s (merg) should you (go) - s trebuiasc tu s (mergi) - de-ar trebui tu s (mergi) should he/she/it (go) - s trebuiasc el/ea s (mearg) - de-ar trebui el/ea s (mearg) etc. N || if I should not (go) - if I shouldn't (go) - dac eu n-ar trebui s (merg) etc. I-N || should I not (go) - shouldn't I (go) - s nu trebuiasc eu s (merg) - de n-ar trebui eu s (merg) etc. WILL - WOULD - 0 A || if I would (go) - dac eu a vrea s (merg) if you would (go) - dac tu ai vrea s (mergi) if he/she/it would (go) - dac el/ea ar vrea s I || would I (go) - s vreau eu s (merg) - de-a vrea eu s (merg) would you (go) - s vrei tu s (mergi) - de-ai vrea tu s (mergi) if we would (go) - dac noi am vrea s (mergem) if you would (go) - dac voi ai vrea s (mergei) if they would (go) - dac ei/ele ar vrea s (mearg)

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N || I-N ||

would he/she/it (go) - s vrea el/ea s (mearg) - de-ar vrea el/ea s (mearg) would we (go) - s vrem noi s (mergem) - de-am vrea noi s (mergem) would you (go) - s vrei voi s (mergei) - de-ai vrea voi s (mergei) would they (go) - s vrea ei/ele s (mearg) - de-ar vrea ei/ele s (mearg) if I would not (go) - if I wouldn't (go) - dac eu nu a vrea s (merg) - dac eu n-a vrea s (merg) etc. would I not (go) - wouldn't I (go) - s nu vreau eu s (merg) etc.

TO BE - WAS /WERE - BEEN TO A || if I were to (go) - dac eu ar fi/urma s (merg) if you were to (go) - dac tu ar fi/urma s (mergi) if he/she/it were to (go) - dac el/ea ar fi/urma s (mearg) if we were to (go) - dac noi ar fi/urma s (mergem) if you were to (go) - dac voi ar fi/urma s (mergei) if they were to (go) - dac ei/ele ar fi/urma s (mearg) I || were I to (go) - s fie eu s (merg) - de-ar fi s (merg) eu were you to (go) - s fie tu s (mergi) - de-ar fi s (mergi) tu were he/she/it to (go) - s fie el/ea s (mearg) - de-ar fi s (mearg) el/ea were we to (go) - s fie noi s (mergem) - de-ar fi s (mergem) noi were you to (go) - s fie voi s (mergei) - de-ar fi s (mergei) voi were they to (go) - s fie ei/ele s (mearg) - de-ar fi s (mearg) ei/ele N || if I were not to (go) - if I weren't to (go) - dac eu nu ar fi s (merg) - dac eu n-ar fi s (merg) etc. I-N || were I not to (go) - weren't I to (go) - s nu fie eu s (merg/plec) - de n-ar fi s (merg/plec) eu etc. C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE II - ASPECTUL COMUN, DIATEZA ACTIV TO SEE - SAW - SEEN if I saw - dac eu a vedea if we saw - dac noi am vedea if you saw - dac tu ai vedea if you saw - dac voi ai vedea if he/she/it saw - dac el/ea ar vedea if they saw - dac ei/ele ar vedea if I did not see - if I didn't see - dac eu nu a vedea - dac eu n-a vedea etc. D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE II- ASPECTUL CONTINUU, DIATEZA ACTIV TO SING A || if I were singing - dac eu a cnta if you were singing - dac tu ai cnta if he/she/it were singing - dac el/ea ar cnta I || if we were singing - dac noi am cnta if you were singing - dac voi ai cnta if they were singing - dac ei/ele ar cnta

A || N ||

N || I-N ||

were I singing - de-a cnta eu - s cnt eu were you singing - de-ai cnta tu - s cni tu were he/she/it singing - de-ar cnta el/ea - s cnte el/ea were we singing - de-am cnta noi - s cntm noi were you singing - de-ai cnta voi - s cntai voi were they singing - de-ar cnta ei/ele - s cnte ei/ele if I were not singing - if I weren't singing - dac eu nu a cnta - dac eu n-a cnta etc. were I not singing - weren't I singing - de n-a cnta eu - s nu cnt eu etc. SUBJONCTIVUL PERFECT (THE PAST PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE OR SUBJUNCTIVE III)

Se traduce prin conjunctiv /condiional perfect. If I had gone home. - Dac eu a fi mers acas. Had I gone home. - S fi mers eu acas. - De-a fi mers eu acas. Subjonctivul perfect exprim o presupunere sau un fapt care nu concord cu realitatea. Se folosete n subordonata condiional de tipul III. A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA SUBJUNCTIVE III TO BE - WAS/WERE - BEEN if I had been - dac eu a fi fost if we had been - dac noi am fi fost if you had been - dac tu ai fi fost if you had been - dac voi ai fi fost if he/she/it had been- dac el/ea ar fi fost if they had been - dac ei/ele ar fi fost

A ||

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I || fost noi fost voi

had I been - s fi fost eu - de-a fi fost eu had you been - s fi fost tu - de-ai fi fost tu had he/she/it been - s fi fost el/ea - de-ar fi fost el/ea

had we been - s fi fost noi - de-am fi had you been - s fi fost voi - de-ai fi had they been - s fi fost ei/ele - de-ar fi

fost e N || I-N || A ||

if I had not been - if I hadn't been - dac eu nu a fi fost - dac eu n-a fi fost etc. had I not been - hadn't I been - s nu fi fost eu - de n-a fi fost eu etc. TO HAVE - HAD - HAD if I had had - dac eu a fi avut if you had had - dac tu ai fi avut if he/she/it had had - dac el/ea ar fi avut had I had - s fi avut eu - de-a fi avut eu had you had - s fi avut tu - de-ai fi avut tu had he/she/ had - s fi avut el/ea - de-ar fi avut el/ea if we had had - dac noi am fi avut if you had had - dac voi ai fi avut if they had had - dac ei/ele ar fi avut had we had - s fi avut noi - de-am fi avut noi had you had - s fi avut voi - de-ai fi avut voi had they had - s fi avut ei/ele - de-ar fi avut

I ||

ei/ele N || I-N || A ||

if I had not had - if I hadn't had - dac eu nu a fi avut - dac eu n-a fi avut etc. had I not had - hadn't I had - s nu fi avut eu - de n-a fi avut eu etc. TO DO - DID - DONE if I had done - dac eu a fi fcut if we had done - dac noi am fi fcut if you had done - dac tu ai fi fcut if you had done - dac voi ai fi fcut if he/she/it had done - dac el/ea ar fi fcut if they had done - dac ei/ele ar fi fcut had I done - s fi fcut eu - de-a fi fcut eu had we done - s fi fcut noi - de-am fi fcut noi had you done - s fi fcut tu - de-ai fi fcut tu had you done - s fi fcut voi - de-ai fi fcut voi had he done - s fi fcut el/ea - de-ar fi fcut el/ea had they done - s fi fcut ei/ele - de-ar fi fcut if I had not done - if I hadn't done - dac eu nu a fi fcut - dac eu n-a fi fcut etc. had I not done - hadn't I done - s nu fi fcut eu - de n-a fi fcut eu etc.

I ||

ei/ele N || I-N ||

B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE III CAN - COULD - 0 - TO BE ABLE TO A || if I had been able to (go) - dac eu a fi putut s (merg) - dac eu a fi fost n stare s (merg) if you had been able to (go) - dac tu ai fi putut s (mergi) - dac tu ai fi fost n stare s (mergi) if he/she/it had been able to (go) - dac el/ea ar fi putut s (mearg) - dac el/ea ar fi fost n stare s (mearg) if we had been able to (go) - dac noi am fi putut s (mergem) - dac noi am fi fost n stare s (mergem) if you had been able to (go) - dac voi ai fi putut s (mergei) - dac voi ai fi fost n stare s (mergei) if they had been able to (go) - dac ei/ele ar fi putut s (mearg) - dac ei/ele ar fi fost n stare s (mearg) I || had I been able to (go) - s fi fost eu n stare s (merg) - de-a fi putut eu s (merg) - s fi putut eu s (merg) - de-a fi fost eu n stare s (merg) had you been able to (go) - s fi fost tu n stare s (mergi) - de-ai fi putut tu s (mergi) - s fi putut tu s (mergi) - de-ai fi fost tu n stare s (mergi) had he/she/it been able to (go) - s fi fost el/ea n stare s (mearg) - de-ar fi putut el/ea s (mearg) s fi putut el/ea s (mearg) - de-ar fi fost el/ea n stare s (mearg) had we been able to (go) - s fi fost noi n stare s (mergem) - de-am fi putut noi s (mergem) - s fi putut noi s (mergem) - de-am fi fost noi n stare s (mergem) had you been able to (go) - s fi fost voi n stare s (mergei) - de-ai fi putut voi s (mergei) - s fi putut voi s (mergei) - de-ai fi fost voi n stare s (mergei) had they been able to (go) - s fi fost ei/ele n stare s (mearg) - de-ar fi putut ei/ele s (mearg) - s fi putut ei/ele s (mearg) - de-ar fi fost ei/ele n stare s (mearg) N || if I had not been able to (go) - if I hadn't been able to (go) - dac eu nu a (n-a) fi putut s (merg) dac eu nu a (n-a) fi fost n stare s (merg) etc. I-N || had I not been able to (go) - hadn't I been able to (go) - s nu fi fost eu n stare s (merg) - de n-a fi putut eu s (merg) - s nu fi putut eu s (merg) - de n-a fi fost eu n stare s (merg) etc.

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MAY - MIGHT - TO BE PERMITTED/ALLOWED TO A || if I had been permitted/allowed to (go) - dac eu a fi avut voie s (merg) - dac eu a fi putut s (merg) dac mie mi-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (merg) if you had been permitted/allowed to (go) - dac tu ai fi avut voie s (mergi) - dac tu ai fi putut s (mergi) dac ie i-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mergi) if he/she/it had been permitted/allowed to (go) - dac el/ea ar fi avut voie s (mearg ) - dac el/ea ar fi putut s (mearg) - dac lui/ei i-ar fi fost permis/ ngduit s (mearg) if we had been permitted/allowed to (go) - dac noi am fi avut voie s (mergem) - dac noi am fi putut s (mergem) - dac nou ne-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mergem) if you had been permitted/allowed to (go) - dac voi ai fi avut voie s (mergei) - dac voi ai fi putut s (mergei) - dac vou v-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mergei) if they had been permitted/allowed to (go) - dac ei/ele ar fi avut voie s (mearg) - dac ei/ele ar fi putut s (mearg) - dac lor le-ar fi fost permis/ng- duit s (mearg) I || had I been permitted/allowed to (go) - s fi avut eu voie s (merg) - s fi putut eu s (merg) - s-mi fi fost mie permis/ngduit s (merg) - de-a fi avut eu voie s (merg) - de-a fi putut eu s merg - de mi-ar fi fost mie permis/ngduit s (merg) had you been permitted/allowed to (go) - s fi avut tu voie s (mergi) - s fi putut tu s (mergi) - s-i fi fost ie permis/ngduit s (mergi) - de-ai fi avut tu voie s (mergi) - de-ai fi putut tu s (mergi) - de i-ar fi fost ie permis/ngduit s (mergi) had he/she/it been permitted/allowed to (go) - s fi avut el/ea voie s (mearg) - s fi putut el/ea s (mearg) - s-i fi fost lui/ei permis/ngduit s (mearg) - de-ar fi avut el/ea voie s (mearg) de-ar fi putut el/ea s (mearg) - de i-ar fi fost lui/ei permis/ngduit s (mearg) had we been permitted/allowed to (go) - s fi avut noi voie s (mergem) - s fi putut noi s (mergem) s ne fi fost nou permis/ngduit s (mergem) - de-am fi avut noi voie s (mergem) - de-am fi putut noi s (mergem) - de ne-ar fi fost nou permis/ngduit s (mergem) had you been permitted/allowed to (go) - s fi avut voi voie s (mergei) - s fi putut voi s (mergei) s v fi fost vou permis/ngduit s (mergei) - de-ai fi avut voi voie s (mergei) - de-ai fi putut voi s mergeide v-ar fi fost vou permis/ngduit s (mergei) had they been permitted/allowed to (go) - s fi avut ei/ele voie s (mearg) - s fi putut ei/ele s (mearg) s le fi fost lor permis/ngduit s (mearg) - de-ar fi avut ei/ele voie s (mearg) - dear fi putut ei/ele s mearg - de le-ar fi fost lor permis/ngduit s (mearg) N || if I had not been permitted/allowed to (go) - if I hadn't been permitted/ allowed to (go) - dac eu nu a (n-a) fi avut voie s merg - dac eu nu a (n-a) fi putut s (merg) - dac mie nu mi-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (merg) etc. I-N || had I not been permitted/allowed to (go) - hadn't I been permitted/allowed to (go) - s nu fi avut eu voie s (merg) - s nu fi putut eu s (merg) - s nu-mi fi fost mie permis/ngduit s (merg) - de n-a fi avut eu voie s (merg) - de n-a fi putut eu s (merg) - de nu mi-ar fi fost mie permis/ngduit s (merg) etc. MUST - 0 - 0 - TO HAVE TO if I had had to (go) - dac eu ar fi trebuit s (merg) if you had had to (go) - dac tu ar fi trebuit s (mergi) if he/she/it had had to (go) - dac el/ea ar fi trebuit s (mearg) if we had had to (go) - dac noi ar fi trebuit s (mergem) if you had had to (go) - dac voi ar fi trebuit s (mergei) if they had had to (go) - dac ei/ele ar fi trebuit s (mearg) I || had I had to (go) - s fi trebuit eu s (merg) - de-ar fi trebuit eu s (merg) had you had to (go) - s fi trebuit tu s (mergi) - de-ar fi trebuit tu s (mergi) had he/she/it had to (go) - s fi trebuit el/ea s (mearg) - de-ar fi trebuit el/ea s (mearg) had we had to (go) - s fi trebuit noi s (mergem) - de-ar fi trebuit noi s (mergem) had you had to (go) - s fi trebuit voi s (mergei) - de-ar fi trebuit voi s (mergei) had they had to (go) - s fi trebuit ei/ele s (mearg) - de-ar fi trebuit ei/ele s (mearg) N || if I had not had to (go) - if I hadn't had to (go) - dac eu nu ar (n-ar) fi trebuit s (merg) etc. I-N || had I not had to (go) - hadn't I had to (go) - s nu fi trebuit eu s (merg) - de n-ar fi trebuit eu s (merg) etc. A || C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE III - ASPECTUL
COMUN, DIATEZA ACTIV

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TO SEE - SAW - SEEN A || if I had seen - dac eu a fi vzut if we had seen - dac noi am fi vzut if you had seen - dac tu ai fi vzut if you had seen - dac voi ai fi vzut if he/she/it had seen - dac el/ea ar fi vzut if they had seen - dac ei/ele ar fi vzut I || had I seen - s fi vzut eu - de-a fi vzut eu had you seen - s fi vzut tu - de-ai fi vzut tu had he/she/it seen - s fi vzut el/ea - de-ar fi vzut el/ea had we seen - s fi vzut noi - de-am fi vzut noi had you seen - s fi vzut voi - de-ai fi vzut voi had they seen - s fi vzut ei/ele - de-ar fi vzut ei/ele N || if I had not seen - if I hadn't seen - dac eu nu a (n-a) fi vzut etc. I-N || had I not seen - hadn't I seen - s nu fi vzut eu - de n-a fi vzut eu etc. D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA SUBJUNCTIVE III - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL CONTINUU TO SING - a cnta A || if I had been singing - dac eu a fi cntat if you had been singing - dac tu ai fi cntat if he/she/it had been singing - dac el/ea ar fi cntat if we had been singing - dac noi am fi cntat if you had been singing - dac voi ai fi cntat if they had been singing - dac ei/ele ar fi cntat I || had I been singing - s fi cntat eu - de-a fi cntat eu had you been singing - s fi cntat tu - de-ai fi cntat tu had he/she/it been singing - s fi cntat el/ea - de-ar fi cntat el/ea had we been singing - s fi cntat noi - de-am fi cntat noi had you been singing - s fi cntat voi - de-ai fi cntat voi had they been singing - s fi cntat ei/ele - de-ar fi cntat ei/ele N || if I had not been singing - if I hadn't been singing - dac eu nu a (n-a) fi cntat etc. I-N || had I not been singing - hadn't I been singing - s nu fi cntat eu - de n-a fi cntat eu etc. You would have found us at home if you had come to see us. - Ne-ai/ai fi gsit acas dac ai/ai fi venit pe la noi. Modul subjonctiv apare dup verbe care exprim sugestii, propuneri, comenzi sau ordine: I suggest that he begin(s) to learn his lessons. - Sugerez ca el s-i nvee leciile. I suggest(ed) that he should (ought to) go tomorrow. - Sugerez (Am sugerat) ca el s plece mine. I suggested that they come/came/should come at six o'clock. - Am sugerat ca ei s vin la ora ase. It was necessary (that) he be/was/should be there. - Era necesar ca el s fie acolo. Subjunctive II i Subjunctive III se folosesc dup verbul wish i dup if only. I wish you had much money. - A vrea ca tu s ai bani muli. I wish you had had much money. - A vrea ca tu s fi avut bani muli. If only you had much money. - Mcar dac ai avea bani muli. If only you were with us here now. - Mcar dac ai fi cu noi aici.

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C. MODUL CONDIIONAL (THE CONDITIONAL MOOD)


CONDIIONALUL PREZENT (THE PRESENT CONDITIONAL) Se formeaz cu auxiliarele should (pentru persoana I singular i plural) i would (pentru celelalte persoane) plus infinitivul scurt prezent al verbului de conjugat. Se traduce n limba romn prin optativ prezent. n zilele noastre auxiliarul would se folosete la toate persoanele nlocuindu-l astfel pe should i exprim o opiune, o dorin sau o invitaie la timpul prezent.
A.CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA CONDIIONAL PREZENT

A || fi

TO BE - a fi I should/would be - I'd be - eu a fi

we should/would be - we'd be - noi am

N || I || I-N || A ||

you would be - you'd be - tu ai fi you would be - you'd be - voi ai fi he/she/it would be - he'd/she'd/it'd be - el/ea ar fi they would be - they'd be - ei/ele ar fi I should/would not be - I shouldn't/wouldn't be - eu nu a fi - eu n-a fi etc. should/would I be ? - eu a fi ? - a fi eu ? etc. should/would I not be ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I be ? - eu nu a (n-a) fi ? - nu a (n-a) fi eu ? etc. TO HAVE - a avea I should/would have - I'd have - eu a avea you would have - you'd have - tu ai avea he/she/it would have - he'd/she'd/it'd have - el/ea ar avea we should/would have - we'd have - noi am avea you would have - you'd have - voi ai avea they would have - they'd have - ei/ele ar avea I should/would not have - I shouldn't/wouldn't have - eu nu a (n-a) avea etc. should/would I have ? - eu a avea ? - a avea eu ? etc.

N || I ||

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I-N || A || face N || I || I-N ||

should/would I not have ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I have ? - eu nu a (n-a) avea? etc. TO DO - a face I should/would do - I'd do - eu a face we should/would do - we'd do - noi am

you would do - you'd do - tu ai face you would do - you'd do - voi ai face he/she/it would do - he'd/she'd/it'd do - el/ea ar facethey would do - they'd do - ei/ele ar face I should/would not do - I shouldn't/wouldn't do - eu nu a (n-a) face etc. should/would I do ? - eu a face ? - a face eu ? etc. should/would I not do ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I do ? - eu nu a (n-a) face ? - nu a (n-a) face eu ? etc. B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA CONDIIONAL PREZENT

A || s s

CAN - COULD - 0 - TO BE ABLE TO I could (go)-I should/would be able to (go)-eu a putea s (merg)-eu a putea (merge)-eu a fi n stare you could (go) - you would be able to (go) - tu ai putea s (mergi) - tu ai putea (merge) - tu ai fi n stare

he/she/it could (go) - he/she/it would be able to (go) - el/ea ar putea s (mearg) - el/ea ar putea el/ea ar fi n stare s (mearg) we could (go) - we should/would be able to (go) - noi am putea s (mergem) - noi am putea (merge) noi am fi n stare s (mergem) you could (go) - you would be able to (go) - voi ai putea s (mergei) - voi ai putea (merge) - voi ai fi n stare s (mergei) they could (go) - they would be able to (go) - ei/ele ar putea s (mearg) - ei/ele ar putea (merge) ei/ele ar fi n stare s (mearg) N || I could not (go) - I couldn't (go) - I should/would not be able to (go) - I shouldn't/wouldn't be able to (go) - eu nu a (n-a) putea s (merg) - eu nu a fi n stare s (merg) etc. I || could I (go) ? - should/would I be able to (go) ? - a putea eu s (merg) ? - a putea eu (merge) ? - a fi eu n stare s (merg) ? etc. I-N || could I not (go) ? - couldn't I (go) ? - should/would I not be able to (go) ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I be able to (go) ? - eu nu a putea s (merg) ? - n-a putea s (merg) eu ? - eu nu a fi n stare s (merg) ? - n-a fi eu n stare s (merg) ? etc. (merge) n exemplul : I could go verbul could exprim i permisiunea, nu numai capabilitatea. n acest caz could - might. n limbajul colocvial can l nlocuiete des pe may. MAY - MIGHT - 0 - TO BE PERMITTED/ALLOWED TO I might (go) - I should/would be permitted/allowed to (go) - eu a avea voie s (merg) - eu a putea s (merg) - mie mi-ar fi permis/ngduit s (merg) you might (go) - you would be permitted/allowed to (go) - tu ai avea voie s (mergi) - tu ai putea s (mergi) - ie i-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mergi) he/she/it might (go) - he/she/it would be permitted/allowed to (go) - el/ea ar avea voie s (mearg) el/ea ar putea s (mearg) - lui/ei i-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mearg) we might (go) - we should/would be permitted/allowed to (go) - noi am avea voie s (mergem) - noi am putea s (mergem) - nou ne-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mergem) you might (go) - you would be permitted/allowed to (go) - voi ai avea voie s (mergei) - voi ai putea s (mergei) - vou v-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mergei) they might (go) - they would be permitted/allowed to (go) - ei/ele ar avea voie s (mearg) - ei/ele ar putea s (mearg) - lor le-ar fi permis/ngduit s (mearg) N || I might not (go) - I mightn't (go) - I should/would not be permitted/allowed to (go) - I shouldn't / wouldn't be permitted/allowed to (go) - eu nu a avea voie s (merg) - eu nu a putea s (merg) - mie nu mi-ar fi permis/ngduit s (merg) etc. I || might I (go) ? - should/would I be permitted/allowed to (go) ? - a avea eu voie s (merg) ? - a putea eu s (merg) ? - a putea eu (merge) ? - mi-ar fi mie permis/ngduit s (merg) ? etc. I-N || might I not (go) ? - mightn't I (go) ? - should/would I not be permitted/ allowed to (go) ? shouldn't/ wouldn't I be permitted/allowed to (go) ? - nu a (n-a) avea eu voie s (merg) ? nu a (n-a) putea eu s (merg) ? - nu mi-ar fi mie permis/ngduit s (merg) ? - mie nu mi-ar fi permis/ngduit s (merg) ? etc. A || MUST - 0 - 0 - TO HAVE TO A || I should/would have to (go) - I'd have to (go) - eu ar trebui s (merg)

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N || I || I-N ||

you would have to (go) - you'd have to (go) - tu ar trebui s (mergi) he/she/it would have to (go) - he'd/she'd/it'd have to (go) - el/ea ar trebui s (mearg) we should/would have to (go) - we'd have to (go) - noi ar trebui s (mergem) you would have to (go) - you'd have to (go) - voi ar trebui s (mergei) they would have to (go) - they'd have to (go) - ei/ele ar trebui s (mearg) I should/would not have to (go) - I shouldn't/wouldn't have to (go) - eu nu ar trebui s (merg) etc. should/would I have to (go) ? - eu ar trebui s (merg) ? - ar trebui eu s (merg) ? etc. should/would I not have to (go) ? - eu nu ar trebui s (merg) ? - n-ar trebui eu s (merg) ? etc.

SHALL - SHOULD - a trebui s, a se cuveni/cdea s . . . I should (go) - eu ar trebui s (merg) you should (go) - tu ar trebui s (mergi) he/she/it should (go) - el/ea ar trebui s (mearg) we should go - noi ar trebui s (mergem) you should (go) - voi ar trebui s (mergei) they should (go) - ei/ele ar trebui s (mearg) N || I should not (go) - I shouldn't (go) - eu nu ar trebui s (merg) - eu n-ar trebui s (merg), etc. I || should I (go) ? - ar trebui eu s (merg) ?, etc. I-N || should I not (go) ? - shouldn't I (go) ? - eu nu ar trebui s (merg) ? - n-ar trebui eu s (merg) ? etc. Verbul should se foloseste dup how , why i when. How should they know ? - De unde s tie ei ? A || Verbul SHOULD exprim: a) - probabilitatea: They should be in the mountains. - Ar trebui s fie la munte. - Probabil sunt la munte. If he should come tell him I've bought the tickets. - Dac cumva vine spune-i c am cumprat biletele.- Dac se ntmpl s vin spune-i c am cumprat biletele. b) - necesitatea sau sfatul: You should go to the dentist now. - Ar trebui s te duci la dentist acum. You shouldn't waste your time. - N-ar trebui s-i iroseti timpul. WILL - WOULD - 0 - a vrea I would (go) - eu a vrea s (merg) we would (go) - noi am vrea s (mergem) you would (go) - tu ai vrea s (mergi) you would (go) - voi ai vrea s (mergei) he/she/it would (go) - el/ea ar vrea s (mearg) they would (go) - ei/ele ar vrea s (mearg) N || I would not (go) - I wouldn't (go) - eu nu a vrea s (merg) - eu n-a vrea s (merg) etc. I || would I (go) ? - a vrea eu s (merg) ? - eu a vrea s (merg) ? etc. I-N || would I not (go) ? - wouldn't I (go) ? - eu nu a vrea s (merg) ? - n-a vrea eu s (merg) ? etc. A || Verbul WOULD exprim: a) - dorin n prezent: He would go on the trip. - El ar vrea s mearg n excursie. b) - comenzi politicoase: Would you open that door, please ? - Ai vrea s deschidei ua aceea, v rog ? - Would + mind: Would you mind opening that door, please ? - V-ar deranja/supra dac ai deschide ua aceea, v rog ? Would you mind my smoking ? - V deranjeaz dac fumez ? I should/would go home - a merge acas - condiional prezent; aici should/ would este auxiliar I should/would go home - ar trebui s merg acas; aici should/would este auxiliar modal, modul condiional I should/would go home - trebuia s merg acas; aici should/would este modal, modul indicativ if I should/would go home - dac ar trebui s merg acas; aici should/would este auxiliar modal, modul subjonctiv prezent if I should/would go home - dac trebuia s merg acas; should/would este modal, modul indicativ if I should/would go home - dac s-ar ntmpla s merg; should/would este auxiliar modal, condiional prezent I would go home - a vrea s merg acas; would aici este auxiliar modal, modul condiional I would go home - obinuiam s merg acas - mergeam acas; would este aici modal, modul indicativ I would go home - voiam s merg acas; la fel would este modal, modul indicativ, Past Tense if I would go home - dac a vrea s merg acas; would este auxiliar modal if I would go home - dac voiam s merg acas; would este modal, modul indicativ, Past Tense if I would go home - dac obinuiam s merg acas - dac mergeam acas - la fel would este modal, modul indicativ, Past Tense I might go home - a avea voie s merg acas; aici might este auxiliar modal, modul condiional I might go home - aveam voie s merg acas; might este modal, Past Tense

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OUGHT TO - 0 - 0 I ought to (go) - eu ar trebui s (merg/plec) - eu s-ar cuveni/cdea s (merg/plec) you ought to (go) - tu ar trebui s (mergi/pleci) - tu s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mergi/ pleci) he/she/it ought to (go) - el/ea ar trebui s (mearg/plece) - el/ea s-ar cuveni/ cdea s (mearg/plece) we ought to (go) - noi ar trebui s (mergem/plecm) - noi s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mergem/plecm) you ought to (go) - voi ar trebui s (mergei/plecai) - voi s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mergei/plecai) they ought to (go) - ei/ele ar trebui s (mearg/plece) - ei/ele s-ar cuveni/cdea s (mearg/plece) N || I ought not to (go) - I oughtn't to (go) - eu nu ar trebui s (merg/plec) - eu nu s-ar cuveni/cdea s (merg) I || ought I to (go) ? - eu ar trebui s (merg/plec) ? - eu s-ar cuveni/cdea s (merg/plec) ? - s-ar cuveni eu s I-N || ought I not to (go) ? - oughtn't I to (go) ? - eu nu ar trebui s (merg/plec) ? - eu nu s-ar cuveni s (merg ) ? A || C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL COMUN TO SEE - a vedea La condiional i la viitorul n trecut, la persoana I-a singular i plural se folosete att auxiliarul should [~ud] ct i would [wud], iar la persoanele a II-a i a III-a se folosete doar would. A || I should /would see - I'd see - eu a vedea he/she/it would see - he'd/she'd/it'd see - el/ea ar vedea you would see - you'd see - tu ai vedea we should/would see - we'd see - noi am vedea you would see - you'd see - voi ai vedea they would see - they'd see - ei/ele ar vedea N || I should/would not see - I shouldn't/wouldn't see - eu nu a vedea etc. I || should/would I see ? - eu a vedea ? - a vedea eu ? etc. I - N || should/would I not see ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I see ? - eu nu a (n-a) vedea ? etc. D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA ACTIV, ASPECTUL CONTINUU TO PLAY - a (se) juca I should/would be playing - eu a juca we should/would be playing - noi am juca you would be playing - tu ai juca you would be playing - voi ai juca he/she/it would be playing - el/ea ar juca they would be playing - ei/ele ar juca N || I should/would not be playing - I shouldn't/wouldn't be playing - eu nu a (n-a) juca etc. I || should/would I be playing ? - a juca eu ? - eu a juca ? etc. I - N || should/would I not be playing ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I be playing ? - eu nu a (n-a) juca ? etc. A || A || TO DARE - a ndrzni I should/would dare - I'd dare - eu a ndrzni - eu m-a ncumeta you would dare - you'd dare - tu ai ndrzni - tu te-ai ncumeta he/she would dare - he'd/she'd dare - el/ea ar ndrzni - el/ea s-ar ncumeta we should/would dare - we'd dare - noi am ndrzni - noi ne-am ncumeta you would dare - you'd dare - voi ai ndrzni - voi v-ai ncumeta they would dare - they'd dare - ei/ele ar ndrzni - ei/ele s-ar ncumeta I should/would not dare - I shouldn't/wouldn't dare - eu nu a (n-a) ndrzni - eu nu m-a ncumeta should/would I dare ? - a ndrzni eu ? - eu a ndrzni ? - eu m-a ncumeta ? etc. should/would I not dare ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I dare ? - eu nu a (n-a) ndrzni ? - eu nu m-a

N || etc. I || I - N || ncumeta A ||

TO NEED - a avea nevoie I should/would need - I'd need - eu a avea nevoie - mie mi-ar trebui you would need - you'd need - tu ai avea nevoie - ie i-ar trebui he/she/it would need - he'd/she'd/it'd need - el/ea ar avea nevoie - lui/ei i-ar trebui we should/would need - we'd need - noi am avea nevoie - nou ne-ar trebui you would need - you'd need - voi ai avea nevoie - vou v-ar trebui they would need - they'd need - ei/ele ar avea nevoie - lor le-ar trebui

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N || mie nu I || ?I - N || avea

I should/would not need - I shouldn't/wouldn't need - eu nu a avea nevoie - mie nu mi-ar trebui mi-ar fi necesar etc. should/would I need ? - eu a avea nevoie ? - a avea eu nevoie ? - mie mi-ar trebui ? - mi-ar trebui mie mie mi-ar fi necesar ? etc. should/would I not need ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I need ? - eu nu a (n-a) avea nevoie ? - nu a (n-a) eu nevoie ? - mie nu mi-ar trebui ? etc. E. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE - DIATEZA PASIV

TO BE SEEN - a fi vzut; (to be invited - a fi invitat etc.) I should/would be seen - I'd be seen - eu a fi vzut() you would be seen - you'd be seen - tu ai fi vzut() he/she/it would be seen - he'd/she'd/it'd be seen - el/ea ar fi vzut() we should/would be seen - we'd be seen - noi am fi vzui/vzute you would be seen - you'd be seen - voi ai fi vzui/vzute they would be seen - they'd be seen - ei/ele ar fi vzui/vzute N || I should/would not be seen - I shouldn't/wouldn't be seen - eu nu a (n-a) fi vzut() etc. I || should/would I be seen ? - eu a fi vzut() ? - a fi eu vzut() ? etc. I - N || should/would I not be seen ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I be seen ? - eu nu a (n-a) fi vzut() ? etc. A || F. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE - ASPECTUL COMUN TO ENJOY ONESELF - a se distra I should/would enjoy myself - I'd enjoy myself - eu m-a distra you would enjoy yourself - you'd enjoy yourself - tu te-ai distra he would enjoy himself - he'd enjoy himself - el s-ar distra she would enjoy herself - she'd enjoy herself - ea s-ar distra it would enjoy itself - it'd enjoy itself - el/ea s-ar distra we should/would enjoy ourselves - we'd enjoy ourselves - noi ne-am distra you would enjoy yourselves - you'd enjoy yourselves - voi v-ai distra they would enjoy themselves - they'd enjoy themselves - ei/ele s-ar distra N || I should/would not enjoy myself - I shouldn't/wouldn't enjoy myself - eu nu m-a distra etc. I || should/would I enjoy myself ? - eu m-a distra ? - m-a distra eu ? etc. I - N || should/would I not enjoy myself ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I enjoy myself ? - eu nu m-a distra ? etc. A || G. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE - ASPECTUL CONTINUU A || TO ENJOY ONESELF - a se distra I should/would be enjoying myself - I'd be enjoying myself - eu m-a distra you would be enjoying yourself - you'd be enjoying yourself - tu te-ai distra he would be enjoying himself - he'd be enjoying himself - el s-ar distra she would be enjoying herself - she'd be enjoying herself - ea s-ar distra we should/would be enjoying ourselves - we'd be enjoying ourselves - noi ne-am distra you would be enjoying yourselves - you'd be enjoying yourselves - voi v-ai distra they would be enjoying themselves - they'd be enjoying themselves -ei/ele s-ar distra I should/would not be enjoying myself - I shouldn't/wouldn't be enjoying myself - eu nu m-a distra should/would I be enjoying myself ? - eu m-a distra ? - m-a distra eu ? etc. should/would I not be enjoying myself ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I be enjoying myself ? - eu nu m-a CONDIIONALUL PERFECT (THE PERFECT CONDITIONAL) Se formeaz cu auxiliarele should/would (pers. I singular i plural) i would (pers. a II-a i a III-a singular si plural) plus infinitivul perfect al verbului de conjugat i se traduce prin optativ perfect n limba romn. A. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR AUXILIARE LA CONDIIONAL PERFECT

N || etc. I || I - N || distra ?

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TO BE - WAS - BEEN - a fi I should/would have been - eu a fi fost we should/would have been - noi am fi fost you would have been - tu ai fi fost you would have been - voi ai fi fost he/she/it would have been - el/ea ar fi fost they would have been - ei/ele ar fi fost N || I should/would not have been - I shouldn't/wouldn't have been - eu nu a (n-a) fi fost etc. I || should/would I have been ? - eu a fi fost ? - a fi fost eu ? etc. I - N || should/would I not have been ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I have been ? - eu nu a (n-a) fi fost ? - nu a (n-a) fi fost eu ? etc. A || TO HAVE - HAD - HAD - a avea I should/would have had - eu a fi avut we should/would have had - noi am fi avut you would have had - tu ai fi avut you would have had - voi ai fi avut he/she/it would have had - el/ea ar fi avut they would have had - ei/ele ar fi avut N || I should/would not have had - I shouldn't/wouldn't have had - eu nu a (n-a) fi avut etc. I || should/would I have had ? - eu a fi avut ? - a fi avut eu ? etc. I - N || should/would I not have had ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I have had ? - eu nu a (n-a) fi avut ? - nu a (n-a) fi avut eu ? etc. A || TO DO - DID - DONE - a face I should/would have done - eu a fi fcut we should/would have done - noi am fi fcut you would have done - tu ai fi fcut you would have done - voi ai fi fcut he/she/it would have done - el/ea ar fi fcut they would have done - ei/ele ar fi fcut N || I should/would not have done - I shouldn't/wouldn't have done - eu nu a (n-a) fi fcut etc. I || should/would I have done ? - eu a fi fcut ? - a fi fcut eu ? I-N || should/would I not have done ? - shoulnd't/wouldn't I have done ? - eu n-a fi fcut ? - nu a fi fcut eu ? A || B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR MODALE LA CONDIIONAL PERFECT A || CAN - COULD - O - TO BE ABLE TO I should/would have been able to (go) - eu a fi fost n stare s (merg) you would have been able to (go) - tu ai fi fost n stare s (mergi) he/she/it would have been able to (go) - el/ea ar fi fost n stare s (mearg) we should/would have been able to (go) - noi am fi fost n stare s (mergem) you would have been able to (go) - voi ai fi fost n stare s (mergei) they would have been able to (go) - ei/ele ar fi fost n stare s (mearg) I could have gone - eu puteam s fi mers we could have gone - noi puteam s fi mers you could have gone - tu puteai s fi mers you could have gone - voi puteai s fi mers he/she/it could have gone - el/ea putea s fi mers they could have gone - ei/ele puteau s fi mers I should/would not have been able to (go) - I shouldn't/wouldn't have been able to (go) - eu nu a fi fost n stare s (merg) - eu nu a fi putut s (merg) etc. I could not have gone - I couldn't have gone - eu nu puteam s fi mers etc. should/would I have been able to (go) ? - a fi fost eu n stare s (merg) ? etc. could I have gone ? - puteam eu s fi mers ? etc. should/would I not have been able to (go) ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I have been able to (go) ?- nu a fi fost eu n stare s (merg) ? - n-a fi putut eu s (merg) ? etc. could I not have gone ? - couldn't I have gone? - nu puteam eu s fi mers ? etc.

N || (n-a) I || I - N || (n-a)

MAY - MIGHT - O - TO BE PERMITTED / ALLOWED TO A || I should/would have been permitted/allowed to (go) - eu a fi avut voie s (merg) - a fi putut s (merg) mie mi-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (merg) you would have been permitted/allowed to (go) - tu ai fi avut voie s (mergi) - tu ai fi putut s (mergi) - ie i-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mergi) he/she/it would have been permitted/allowed to (go) - el/ea ar fi avut voie s (mearg) - el/ea ar fi putut s (mearg) - lui i-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mearg) we should/would have been permitted/allowed to (go) - noi am fi avut voie s (mergem) - noi am fi putut s (mergem) - nou ne-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mergem) you would have been permitted/allowed to (go) - voi ai fi avut voie s (mergei) - voi ai fi putut s (mergei) - vou v-ar fi fost permis /ngduit s (mergei)

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they would have been permitted/allowed to (go) - ei/ele ar fi avut voie s (mearg) - ei/ele ar fi putut (mearg) - lor le-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (mearg) I might have gone - eu puteam s fi mers you might have gone - tu puteai s fi mers he/she/it might have gone - el/ea putea s fi mers we might have gone - noi puteam s fi mers you might have gone - voi puteai s fi mers they might have gone - ei/ele puteau s fi mers N || I should/would not (shouldn't) have been permited/allowed to (go) - eu nu a fi avut voie s (merg) eu nu a fi putut s (merg) - mie nu mi-ar fi fost permis/ ngduit s (merg) etc. I might not (I mightn't) have gone - eu nu puteam s fi mers etc. I || should/would I have been permitted/allowed to (go) ? - eu a fi avut voie s (merg) ? - eu a fi putut s (merg) ? - eu a fi putut (merge) ? - mie mi-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (merg) ? etc. might I have gone ? - puteam eu s fi mers ? - eu puteam s fi mers ? etc. I - N || should/would I not (shouldn't/wouldn't I) have been permitted/allowed to (go)? - eu nu a fi avut voie s (merg) ? - nu a (n-a) fi avut eu voie s (merg) ? - eu nu a (n-a) fi putut s (merg) ? - eu nu a (n-a) fi putut (merge) ? - mie nu mi-ar fi fost permis/ngduit s (merg) ? - nu mi-ar fi fost mie permis/ngduit s ? might I not have gone ? - mightn't I have gone ? - nu puteam eu s fi mers ? - eu nu puteam s fi mers ? s MUST - O - O - TO HAVE TO I should/would have had to (go) - eu ar fi trebuit s (merg) you would have had to (go) - tu ar fi trebuit s (mergi) he/she/it would have had to (go) - el/ea ar fi trebuit s (mearg) we should/would have had to (go) - noi ar fi trebuit s (mergem) you would have had to (go) - voi ar fi trebuit s (mergei) they would have had to (go) - ei/ele ar fi trebuit s (mearg) N || I should/would not have had to (go) - eu nu ar fi trebuit s (merg) etc. I || should/would I have had to (go) ? - eu ar fi trebuit s (merg) ? - ar fi trebuit eu s (merg) ? etc. I - N || should/would I not have had to (go)? - shouldn't/wouldn't I have had to (go)? - eu nu ar (n-ar) fi trebuit s (merg) ? - nu ar (n-ar) fi trebuit eu s (merg) ? etc. A || SHALL - SHOULD - O A || I should have (come) - eu se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit) you should have (come) - tu se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit) he/she/it should have (come) - el/ea se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit) we should have (come) - noi se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit) you should have (come) - voi se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit) they should have (come) - ei/ele se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit) N || I should not (shouldn't) have (come) - eu nu se cuvenea (nu trebuia) s fi (venit) etc. I || should I have (come) ? - eu se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit) ? - se cuvenea (trebuia) s fi (venit) eu ? etc. I - N || should I not (shouldn't I) have (come) ? - eu nu se cuvenea (nu trebuia) s fi (venit) ? - nu trebuia (nu se cuvenea) s fi (venit) eu ? etc. WILL - WOULD - O I would have (come) - eu voiam s fi (venit) you would have (come) - tu voiai s fi (venit) he/she/it would have (come) - el/ea voia s fi (venit) we would have (come) - noi voiam s fi (venit) you would have (come) - voi voiai s fi (venit) they would have (come) - ei/ele voiau s fi (venit) N || I would not (wouldn't) have (come) - eu nu voiam s fi (venit) etc. I || would I have (come) ? - voiam eu s fi (venit) ? etc. I - N || would I not (wouldn't I) have (come) ? - eu nu voiam s fi (venit) ? etc. A || A || OUGHT TO I ought to have come - eu s-ar fi cuvenit s vin - eu se cuvenea s fi venit you ought to have come - tu s-ar fi cuvenit s vii - tu se cuvenea s fi venit he/she/it ought to have come - el/ea s-ar fi cuvenit s vin - el/ea se cuvenea s fi venit we ought to have come - noi s-ar fi cuvenit s venim - noi se cuvenea s fi venit you ought to have come - voi s-ar fi cuvenit s venii - voi se cuvenea s fi venit they ought to have come - ei/ele s-ar fi cuvenit s vin - ei/ele se cuvenea s fi venit I ought not (oughtn't) to have come - eu nu s-ar fi cuvenit s vin - eu nu se cuvenea s fi venit etc. ought I to have come ? - eu s-ar fi cuvenit s vin ? - eu se cuvenea s fi venit ? etc.

N || I ||

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I - N || etc.

ought I not (oughtn't I) to have come ? - eu nu s-ar fi cuvenit s vin ? - eu nu se cuvenea s fi venit ?

Did he/she tell you why you ought to do it ? - i-a spus el/ea ie de ce trebuie (se cuvine/cade) s-o faci ? - i-a spus el/ea ie de ce trebuia (se cuvenea/cdea) s-o faci ? Did he/she tell you that you ought to have done it ? - i-a spus el/ea ie c se cuvine/cuvenea s-o fi fcut ? Ought your friend to have been an engineer ? - Se cuvenea prietenul tu s fie inginer? - Se cuvenea prietenul tu s fi fost inginer ? If I were you I should/would learn more. - Dac a fi n locul tu a nva mai mult. If I had seen you I might have helped you. - Dac te-a fi vzut a fi putut s te ajut. Had I known him I should/would have helped him. - S-l fi cunoscut, l-a fi ajutat. Even if they had been there, they couldn't have helped us. - Chiar dac ei ar fi fost acolo nu ar fi putut s ne ajute. B. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA CONDIIONAL PERFECT - DIATEZA ACTIV TO READ - a citi I should/would have read - eu a fi citit we should/would have read - noi am fi citit you would have read - tu ai fi citit you would have read - voi ai fi citit he/she would have read - el/ea ar fi citit they would have read - ei/ele ar fi citit N || I should/would not have read - I shouldn't/wouldn't have read - eu nu a fi citit - eu n-a fi citit etc. I || should/would I have read ? - eu a fi citit ? - a fi citit eu ? etc. I - N || should/would I not have read ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I have read ? - eu nu a (eu n-a) fi citit ? - nu a (na) fi citit eu ? etc. A || C. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR PRINCIPALE LA CONDIIONAL PERFECT- DIATEZA PASIV TO BE SEEN - a fi vzut I should/would have been seen - eu a fi fost vzut() you would have been seen - tu ai fi fost vzut() he/she/it would have been seen - el/ea ar fi fost vzut() we should/would have been seen - noi am fi fost vzui/vzute you would have been seen - voi ai fi fost vzui/vzute they would have been seen - ei/ele ar fi fost vzui/vzute N || I should/would not have been seen - I shouldn't/wouldn't have been seen - eu nu a (eu n-a) fi fost vzut() etc. I || should/would I have been seen ? - eu a fi fost vzut() ? - a fi fost eu v- zut() ? etc. I - N || should/would I not have been seen ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I have been seen ? - eu nu a (eu n-a) fi fost vzut() ? - nu a (n-a) fi fost eu vzut() ? etc. A || D. CONJUGAREA VERBELOR REFLEXIVE LA CONDIIONAL PERFECT TO ENJOY ONESELF - a se distra I should/would have enjoyed myself - eu m-a fi distrat you would have enjoyed yourself - tu te-ai fi distrat he would have enjoyed himself - el s-ar fi distrat she would have enjoyed herself - ea s-ar fi distrat we should/would have enjoyed ourselves - noi ne-am fi distrat you would have enjoyed yourselves - voi v-ai fi distrat they would have enjoyed themselves - ei/ele s-ar fi distrat N || I should/would not (I shouldn't/wouldn't) have enjoyed myself - eu nu m-a fi distrat etc. I || should/would I have enjoyed myself? - eu m-a fi distrat? - m-a fi distrat eu? etc. I - N || should/would I not have enjoyed myself ? - shouldn't/wouldn't I have enjoyed myself ? - eu nu ma fi distrat ?- nu m-a fi distrat eu ? etc. Exemple care conin verbe la subjonctiv i condiional: I should/would come if I could come. - A veni dac a putea s vin. We should/would come if we should/would come. - Am veni dac ar trebui s venim. They would come if they might come. - Ei ar veni dac le-ar fi permis s vin. I should/would have come if I had had time. - Eu a fi venit dac a fi avut timp. We should/would have come if we had had to come. - Noi am fi venit dac ar fi trebuit s venim. He would have come if it had not been so late. - El ar fi venit dac n-ar fi fost aa trziu. A ||

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We should/would have given you the books if we have found you at home. - V-am fi dat crile dac v-am fi gsit acas. If he hadn't told me the truth, I shouldn't/wouldn't have given him anything. - Dac nu mi-ar fi spus adevrul, nu i-a fi dat nimic. He wishes he were rich. - El ar vrea s fie bogat. (dar nu este)

D. MODUL IMPERATIV (THE IMPERATIVE MOOD)


Exprim un sfat, un ndemn, un ordin, o sugestie, o recomandare, o rugminte, o dorin, o urare etc. Come here ! - Vino/Venii aici ! Wait a moment ! - Ateapt/Ateptai o clip ! Speak louder ! - Vorbete/Vorbii mai tare ! Rugmini, ordine, recomandri, urri sau comenzi pot fi adresate i persoanelor I i III. n acest caz se apeleaz la auxiliarul let care este urmat de un pronume sau substantiv n acuzativ i apoi de un verb la infinitiv scurt prezent. A || let me go! - s merg/plec eu! - s m duc eu! go! - mergi/pleac! - du-te! let him go! - s mearg/plece el! - s se duc el! let her go! - s mearg/plece ea! - s se duc ea! let it go! - s mearg/plece el/ea! - s se duc el/ea! let us go! - let's go! - s mergem/plecm noi! - s ne ducem noi! go! - mergei/plecai! - ducei-v! let them go! - s mearg/plece ei/ele! - s se duc ei/ele! N || do not (don't) let me go! - let me not go! - s nu merg/plec eu! do not (don't) go! - nu te duce! - nu pleca! do not (don't) let him go! - let him not go! - s nu mearg/plece el! - el s nu se duc! do not (don't) let her go! - let her not go! - s nu mearg/plece ea!- ea s nu se duc! do not (don't) let it go! - let it not go! - s nu mearg/plece el/ea! - el/ea s nu se duc! do not (don't) let us go! - s nu plecm/mergem! - s nu ne ducem! do not (don't) go! - nu plecai/mergei! - (s) nu v ducei! do not (don't) let them go! - let them not go! - s nu plece/mearg ei/ele! - s nu se duc! Modul imperativ are doar timpul prezent. Do come to see us! - Insist s vii pe la noi! este o form accentuat de imperativ. Do be careful what you are doing! - Fii foarte atent ce faci! Trust in God and He will watch over you! - Crede n Dumnezeu, iar El va veghea asupra ta!

MODURILE NEPERSONALE ALE VERBELOR (THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB - THE VERBALS)
Modurile impersonale ale verbului sunt: 1. Infinitiv, 2. Participiu, 3. Gerund. 1.MODUL INFINITIV (THE INFINITIVE MOOD) Se traduce prin infinitiv, conjunctiv, gerunziu, supin, iar n limba englez substituie subjonctivul. They asked me to do it (Mi-au cerut s-o fac), n loc de They asked me that I (should) do it. Infinitivul exprim scopul i se traduce prin conjunctivul romnesc. He has come to give me a book. - El a venit s-mi dea mie o carte. We have come to school to learn. - Am venit la coal s nvm.

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We go to church to pray. - Mergem la biseric s ne rugm. They have a lot of books to read.- Ei/Ele au o mulime de cri de citit (n acest exemplu se traduce prin supin). To be or not to be, this is the question (Shakespeare : Hamlet). - A fi sau a nu fi, aceasta-i ntrebarea. n aceste ultime dou exemple infinitivul din limba englez s-a tradus n limba romn tot prin infinitiv. Exist posibilitatea de a intercala ntre particula infinitival to i verb un adverb. to greatly influence - a influena mult to humbly thank - a mulumi umil to again express - a exprima din nou to rightly intervene - a interveni corect. Aceast form se numete n limba englez The Split Infinitive. Unele verbe la infinitiv pot fi ntlnite, ca i n limba romn, la nceputul unor proverbe. To go through fire and water. - A trece prin foc i ap. To be in the ninth heaven. - A fi n al noulea cer. To kill two birds with one stone. - A nimeri doi iepuri dintr-o lovitur. To go to the dogs. - A se duce de rp, a se ruina. To hang by a hair. - A atrna de un fir de pr.

CLASIFICAREA INFINITIVULUI

INFINITIV

Prezent

Scurt

diateza activ diateza pasiv

aspectul comun aspectul continuu aspectul comun aspectul continuu aspectul comun aspectul continuu aspectul comun aspectul continuu aspectul comun aspectul continuu aspectul comun aspectul continuu aspectul comun aspectul continuu aspectul comun aspectul continuu

look (privi) be looking (privi) be looked at (fi privit) be being looked at (fi privit) to look (a privi) to be looking (a privi) to be looked at (a fi privit) to be being looked at (a fi privit) have looked at (fi privit) have been looking at (fi privit) have been looked at (fi fost privit) have been being looked at (fi fost privit) to have looked at ( a fi privit) to have been looking at (a fi privit) to have been looked at (a fi fost privit) to have been being looked at (a fi fost privit)

Lung

diateza activ diateza pasiv

Perfect

Scurt

diateza activ diateza pasiv

Lung

diateza activ diateza pasiv

1.6.3.1.2. CONSTRUCII INFINITIVALE A. ACUZATIV CU INFINITIV I want him to come earlier. - Vreau ca el s vin mai devreme. I want the boy to come earlier. - Vreau ca biatul s vin mai devreme. n exemplele de mai sus pronumele him i substantivul the boy sunt n cazul acuzativ i sunt urmate de verbul to come la modul infinitiv. Aceast structur este posibil numai dup verbe care exprim : 1. percepii ale simurilor: to feel (a simi), to hear (a auzi), to notice (a observa), to see (a vedea), to watch (a urmari) etc. I saw him enter the house. - L-am vzut c intr n cas. He heard her play the piano. - El a auzit-o cntnd la pian. You will watch us play tennis. - Ne vei privi pe noi jucnd tenis. 2. ordin, permisiune, intenie, obligaie etc. : to allow (a ngdui/admite, a da voie), to command (a comanda), to compel (a obliga/fora/sili), to let (a lsa), to make (a face), to order (a ordona/porunci), to permit (a permite), to persuade (a convinge/determina), to request (a pretinde/ cere) etc. I permit them to play in the garden. - Le permit s se joace n grdin. I want him to learn, not to play. - Vreau ca el s nvee, nu s se joace. Will you allow us to visit the museum ? - Ne permitei s vizitm muzeul ? John didn't allow them to make any noise. - John nu le-a permis s fac nici un zgomot.

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He let them walk in the park. - El i-a lsat s se plimbe n parc. Don't make us laugh! - Nu ne face/facei s rdem! 3. dorin, plcere, antipatie etc. : to bear (a suporta /ndura /suferi), to desire (a dori/ pofti), to detest (a detesta), to hate (a ur), to like (a-i plcea), to love (a iubi, a-i fi drag), to notice (a observa, a bga de seam), to perceive (a observa, a nelege), to smell (a mirosi), to taste (a avea gust de), to want (a vrea), to wish (a dori, a tnji dup). I'd love you to come and see us. - Mi-ar fi drag s vii pe la noi . A || John wants me to go. - John vrea ca eu s merg. John wants you to go. - John vrea ca tu s mergi. John wants him to go. - John vrea ca el s mearg. John wants her to go. - John vrea ca ea s mearg. John wants us to go. - John vrea ca noi s mergem. John wants you to go. - John vrea ca voi s mergei. John wants them to go. - John vrea ca ei/ele/dnii/dnsele s mearg. N || John does not (doesn't) want me to go. - John nu vrea ca eu s merg etc. I || Does John want me to go ? - Vrea John ca eu s merg ? etc. I - N ||Does John not (Doesn't John) want me to go ? - John nu vrea ca eu s merg ? etc. He asked them to be quiet and listen to him. - El le-a cerut s tac i s asculte la el. I saw him not only play the guitar but also dance. - L-am vzut nu numai cntnd la chitar ci i dansnd. He wanted him to do it, not me. - El a vrut ca el s-o fac, nu eu. Do you wish them to stay or to leave ? - Vrei ca ei s stea sau s plece ? He taught me to swim. - El m-a nvat s not. They warned me not to come late. - M-au avertizat s nu vin trziu. I cannot allow/permit her to do that. - Nu-i pot ngdui/permite ei s fac asta. All the neighbours thought her to be a communist. - Toi vecinii o presupuneau/ bnuiau pe ea a fi comunist. I declared myself to be against war. - M-am declarat a fi contra/mpotriva rzboiului. Did you teach him to drive the car ? - L-ai nvat s conduc maina ? I did not deny her to be beautiful and to sing beautifully. - N-am negat c ea este frumoas i cnt frumos. Do you know him to be honest ? - l tii pe el a fi (ca fiind, c este) cinstit ? B. ACUZATIV CU INFINITIV SCURT Dup verbe ca: to feel (a simi), to hear (a auzi), to let (a lsa), to make (a face), to notice (a observa), to see (a vedea), to watch (a privi/viziona), se folosete infinitiv scurt cnd sunt folosite la diateza activ, i infinitiv lung dac sunt la diateza pasiv. I felt the wind blow. - Am simind vntul suflnd. Did you hear him say that ? - L-ai auzit spunnd-o ? Why don't you let me solve the problem by myself ? - De ce nu m lai s rezolv problema singur ? Who makes you laugh ? - Cine te face s rzi ? I noticed him enter (into) the bookshop. - L-am zrit intrnd n librrie. They saw us buy some books. - Ne-au vzut cumprnd nite cri. You can watch us swim. - Poi s ne priveti notnd. He was heard to say something. - El a fost auzit zicnd ceva. Someone was heard to sing a song. - Cineva a fost auzit cntnd un cntec. He was allowed to do what he wanted. - A fost lsat s fac ce vrea. C. CONSTRUCIA/STRUCTURA "FOR" + PRONUME / SUBSTANTIV N ACUZATIV + INFINITIV It is easy for him to understand. - Pentru el este uor de neles. - Lui i este uor s neleag. Este de fapt tot acuzativ cu infinitiv, dar este precedat de prepoziia for. Se folosete dup structurile impersonale there is (este, se afl/gsete), there are (sunt, se afl/gsesc), here is (iat), here are (iat), it is early (este devreme), it is easy (este uor), it is difficult (este greu), it is important (este important), it is late (este trziu), it is necessary (este necesar), it is right (este drept/just), it is wrong (este nedrept/nejust/greit) etc. Here are some books for me to read. - Iat nite cri pentru mine s citesc. It is too early for us to go to the station. - Este prea devreme pentru noi s mergem la gar. Was it too late for you to learn that language ? - Era prea trziu ca tu s nvei limba aceea ? There was nothing for me to do there. - Nu era nimic pentru mine de fcut acolo. It is better for you to leave now. - Este mai bine ca tu s pleci acum. - Este mai bine pentru tine s pleci acum. CONJUGAREA STRUCTURII IT IS EASY FOR ME TO LEARN

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A ||

It is easy for me to learn. - Mie mi este uor s nv. It is easy for you to learn. - ie i este uor s nvei. It is easy for him to learn. - Lui i este uor s nvee. It is easy for her to learn. - Ei i este uor s nvee. It is easy for it to learn. - Lui/Ei i este uor s nvee. It is easy for us to learn. - Nou ne este uor s nvm. It is easy for you to learn. - Vou v este uor s nvai. It is easy for them to learn. - Lor le este uor s nvee. N || It is not (isn't) easy for me to learn. - Mie nu-mi este uor s nv. etc. I || Is it easy for me to learn ? - mi este mie uor s nv ? etc. I - N ||Is it not (isn't it) easy for me to learn ? - Nu-mi este mie uor s nv ? etc. It was easy for me to learn. - Mie mi-a fost uor s nv.. It had been easy for me to learn. - Mie mi fusese uor s nv. It would be easy for me to learn. - Mie mi-ar fi uor s nv. D. NOMINATIV CU INFINITIV Este varianta pasiv a acuzativului cu infinitiv, i se folosete dup aceleai grupe de verbe. 1 : I want him to play the piano. - Vreau ca el s cnte la pian. - este acuzativ cu infinitiv. Iat cum se transform el n nominativ cu infinitiv : 2 : He is wanted to play the piano by me. - Se dorete ca el s cnte la pian de ctre mine. Subiectul din exemplul 1adic I devine n exemplul 2 complement de agent (deci subiect logic). Verbul want din exemplul 1 i schimb diateza din activ n pasiv. Pronumele him din exemplul 1, care era la acuzativ trece n exemplul 2 la cazul nominativ i devine subiectul propoziiei. by me - de (ctre) mine by us - de (ctre) noi by you - de (ctre) tine by you - de (ctre) voi/dv. by him/her/it - de (ctre) el/ea by them - de (ctre) ei/ele by whom? - de (ctre) cine ? By whom was he wanted to play the piano ? - Who(m) was he wanted to play the piano by ? - De (ctre) cine s-a dorit s cnte el la pian ? They were expected to come much earlier. - Erau ateptai s soseasc mult mai devreme. Dup verbele to prove (a dovedi, a se dovedi), to turn out (a se dovedi), to happen (a se ntmpla) i to seem (a se prea) nominativul cu infinitiv este o construcie activ, nu pasiv. She proves to be a good tennis player. - Ea se dovedete a fi o bun juctoare de tenis. They do not seem to be too friendly. - Ei nu par a fi prea prietenoi. We happened to be watching the match when he came. - S-a ntmplat ca noi s privim meciul cnd a venit el. He turned out to be a reliable man. - El s-a dovedit un om de ndejde. If she were considered to be a good tennis player... - Dac ea ar fi considerat o bun juctoare de tenis... If she can be considered to be a good tennis player... - Dac ea poate fi considerat a fi bun juctoare de tenis... If she could be considered to be a good tennis player... - Dac ea ar putea fi considerat o bun juctoare de tenis... If she should be considered to be a good tennis player... - Dac ea ar trebui s fie considerat o bun juctoare de tenis... CONJUGAREA STRUCTURII I AM KNOWN TO BE LA PREZENT A || I am known to be... - se tie/cunoate c eu sunt... - eu sunt cunoscut a fi... - eu sunt cunoscut ca fiind... you are known to be... - se tie/cunoate c tu eti... - tu eti cunoscut a fi... - tu eti cunoscut ca fiind.. he is known to be... - se tie/cunoate c el este... - el este cunoscut a fi... - el este cunoscut ca fiind... she is known to be... - se tie/cunoate c ea este... - ea este cunoscut a fi... - ea este cunoscut ca fiind... it is known to be... - se tie/cunoate c el/ea este... - el/ea este cunoscut() a fi.. - el/ea este cunoscut() ca fiind... we are known to be... - se tie/cunoate c noi suntem cunoscui ca fiind... you are known to be... - se tie/cunoate c voi suntei cunoscui ca fiind... they are known to be... - se tie/cunoate c ei/ele sunt cunoscui ca fiind... N || I am not known to be... - eu nu se tie/cunoate c sunt cunoscut ca fiind... etc. I || am I known to be...? - eu se tie/cunoate c sunt...? - se cunoate/tie c eu sunt...? - sunt eu cunoscut ca fiind...? etc. I - N || am I not known to be...? - eu nu se tie/cunoate c sunt... ? - nu sunt eu cu-noscut a fi...? - eu nu sunt cunoscut ca fiind...? etc. I was known to be... - se tia/cunotea c eu sunt... - eu eram cunoscut a fi... - eu eram cunoscut ca fiind...

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I had been known to be... - se tiuse/cunoscuse c eu sunt... - eu fusesem cu-noscut a fi... if I were known to be... - dac s-ar ti/cunoate c eu sunt.... if I had been known to be... - dac s-ar fi tiut/cunoscut c eu sunt... - dac eu a fi fost cunoscut ca fiind... 1.6.3.2. MODUL PARTICIPIU (THE PARTICIPLE MOOD) diateza activ diateza pasiv prezent seeing - vznd beeing seen - fiind vzut speaking - vorbind Participiu trecut seen - vzut seen - vzut spoken - vorbit perfect having seen - vznd having been seen - fiind vzut having spoken - vorbind Din schema i exemplificarea de mai sus se vede c participiul are trei timpuri, iar pentru unele verbe are forme pentru diatezele activ i pasiv. 1. PARTICIPIUL PREZENT mpreun cu verbul to be, care se conjug, formeaz, aa cum s-a artat, aspectul continuu al verbelor. I am speaking. - Eu vorbesc (acum). Participiul prezent se mai traduce n limba romn i prin modul gerunziu. We watched them playing football. - I-am privit jucnd fotbal. The boy running is John - The boy, who is running, is John. - Biatul, care alearg, este John. We came to know each other playing tennis. - Am ajuns s ne cunoatem jucnd tenis. Participiul prezent este un adjectiv verbal. a singing bird - o pasre cnttoare the coming days - zilele care vin the rising generation - generaia care se ridic in the coming years - n anii care vin the rising/setting sun - soarele care rsare/apune running water - ap curgtoare the winning horse - calul ctigtor

to keep somebody waiting - a face pe cineva s atepte I did not keep him waiting. - Nu l-am fcut s atepte. to find somebody doing something - a gsi pe cineva fcnd ceva I found her writing a letter. - Am gsit-o scriind o scrisoare. to leave somebody doing something - a lsa pe cineva fcnd ceva I left them playing in the garden. - I-am lsat jucndu-se n grdin. I felt the earth shaking. - Am simit pmntul cltinndu-se. to see somebody doing something - a vedea pe cineva fcnd ceva She is watching her baby sleeping. - Ea i supravegheaz copilul care doarme. Did you catch him stealing anything ? - L-ai prins furnd ceva ? Keep on singing! - Cntai mai departe! I can feel the wind blowing. - Pot simi vntul suflnd. I like to listen to the birds singing. - mi place s ascult la psri cntnd. We left her learning her lessons. - Am lsat-o nvndu-i leciile. He wrote the exercise while singing a song. - A scris exerciiul cntnd un cntec. I noticed him smiling happily at them. - L-am zrit/observat zmbind fericit ctre ei. Did you see us swimming in the lake ? - Ne-ai/ne-ai vzut (pe noi) notnd n lac ? Searching in the library I came across an interesting book. - Cutnd prin bibliotec, am dat peste o carte interesant. We were watching the setting sun and the waves receding from the shore. - Priveam soarele care apunea i valurile ce se retrgeau de la rm. A man learning to swim should be very cautious. - Un om care nva s noate ar trebui s fie foarte precaut. 2. PARTICIPIUL TRECUT (The Past Participle) este a III-a form de baz a verbelor, form care intr n alctuirea timpurilor The Present Perfect i The Past Perfect. 3. PARTICIPIUL PERFECT (The Perfect Participle) Having given him the book, I went home. - Dup ce i-am dat (lui) cartea, (eu) am plecat acas. Structura aceasta const din participiul prezent al verbului to have urmat de un verb la participiul trecut. Having been read the book was returned to the library. - After the book had been read it was returned to the library. - Dup ce a fost citit cartea a fost napoiat la bibliotec.

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1.6.3.2.1. CONSTRUCII PARTICIPIALE A. ACUZATIV CU PARTICIPIU Everybody admired him driving his car. - Toat lumea l-a admirat conducn-du-i maina. Nobody heard her playing the piano or singing any song. - Nimeni n-a auzit-o cntnd la pian sau cntnd vreun cntec. I did not hear the bell ringing. - N-am auzit clopoelul (soneria) sunnd. B. NOMINATIV CU PARTICIPIU Were you heard singing a song? - Ai fost (tu) auzit cntnd un cntec? Was the bell heard ringing? - A fost clopoelul (soneria) auzit() sunnd? C. NOMINATIVUL ABSOLUT The door being locked, we went to bed. - Ua fiind ncuiat, ne-am dus la culcare. We may go swimming while the sun is shining. - Putem merge s notm n timp ce soarele strlucete. D. PARTICIPIUL ABSOLUT Judging by appearances is not the best method. - A judeca dup aparene nu este cea mai bun metod. Exemple cu structuri care conin verbe la participiul trecut : We saw a deserted village. - Am vzut un sat prsit He found the window shut. - El a gsit fereastra nchis. Can you make your presence felt ? - i poi face prezena simit ? You should make yourself respected. - Ar trebui s te faci respectat. She felt herself admired. - S-a simit admirat. You must have your hair cut. - Trebuie s-i scurtezi/tunzi prul. 1.6.3.3. MODUL GERUNZIU (THE GERUND MOOD) Este un substantiv verbal, i seamn ca form cu participiul. His coming was expected. - Venirea lui era ateptat. Seeing is believing. - Faptul de a vedea (vzutul) nseamn a crede. Gerund prezent perfect diateza activ seeing - vznd having seen - dup ce a vzut diateza pasiv being seen - fiind vzut having been seen - dup ce a fost vzut

Acest substantiv verbal apare de obicei dup verbe cu prepoziii ca : to accuse of - a acuza de He was accused of being late. - A fost acuzat de ntrziere. We accuse him of having committed a crime. - l acuzm pentru comiterea unei crime. to be afraid of - a se teme de They were afraid of coming across a tiger. - Se temeau s nu dea peste un tigru. to be astonished at - a fi uimit/uluit de Were you astonished at seeing the shark ? - Erai uimii la vederea rechinului ? to be aware of - a-i da seama de, a fi contient de We were aware of John's being cleverer than Nick. - Eram contieni de faptul c John era mai detept dect Nick. to be fond of - a fi amator de He is fond of swimming and fishing. - Este amator de not i pescuit. to be good at - a fi bun/priceput la Tom is good at driving cars. - Tom este bun/priceput la conducerea mainilor. to be impressed by - a fi impresionat de Everybody was impressed by his scoring the goal. - Toi erau impresionai de nscrierea golului de ctre el. to be interested in - a-l interesa He is interested in learning English. - l intereseaz nvarea limbii engleze. to be proud of - a fi mndru de Are you proud of your son's winning the prize ? - Eti mndru de ctigarea premiului de ctre fiul tu ? to be satisfied with - a fi mulumit de We are satisfied with winning the prize. - Suntem mulumii de ctigarea premiului. to appologize for - a-i cere iertarea pentru You must appologize to him for not replying to his letter. - Trebuie s-i ceri iertarea de la el pentru a nu-i fi rspuns la scrisoare. to begin by - a ncepe prin a I ought to begin by thanking you for... - Se cuvine s ncep prin a-i mulumi pentru... to complain of - a se plnge de

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We are complaining of having such bad weather. - Ne plngem (de faptul) c avem o vreme aa de proast. to contribute to - a contribui la He contributed to our winning the prize. - El a contribuit la ctigarea premiului de ctre noi. to be crazy about - a fi nebun/mort/topit dup John is crazy about fishing. - John este nebun dup pescuit. to count (up) on - to rely on - a se baza / bizui pe - a conta pe You can count/rely on our helping you. - Poi s te bazezi/bizuieti pe faptul c noi te ajutm. to depend on/upon - a depinde de Does everything depend on his winning a scholarship ? - Depinde totul de ctigarea unei burse de ctre el ? to forgive for - a ierta pentru We forgive you for your being late. -Te iertm pentru ntrzierea ta. to insist on - a insista asupra Need you insist on her writing her homework ? - Este nevoie s insiti asupra scrierii temei sale de ctre ea ? to long for - a tnji dup We are longing for a short holiday. - Tnjim dup o scurt vacan. to prevent from - a mpiedica / preveni s You must prevent your son from making mistakes. - Trebuie s-l previi pe fiul tu s nu fac greeli. to refer to - a se referi la Did he refer to his coming to see us ? - S-a referit el la venirea lui pe la noi ? to resort to - a recurge la He mustn't resort to stealing however poor he were. - El nu trebuie s recurg la furat orict de srac ar fi. to be sated with - a fi stul / dezgustat de We aren't sated with fishing and swimming, are we ? - Noi nu suntem plictisii / stui de pescuit i not, nu-i aa ? to see to - a avea grij de, a se ocupa de See to making some tea, will you ? - Vezi / ocup-te s faci nite ceai, te rog. to succeed in - a reui s He succeeded in learning the poem by heart. - El a reuit s nvee poezia pe de rost. to thank for - a mulumi pentru Thank you for comming. - Mulumesc c ai venit. to think of - a se gndi la We are thinking of going on a trip. - Ne gndim s mergem ntr-o excursie. 1.6.3.3.1. GERUND PREZENT (THE PRESENT GERUND) Gerund prezent (sau indefinit) este, cum s-a putut observa i n exemplele de mai sus, precedat : a) fie de adjective posesive, ca n structurile : my coming - venirea mea my being late - ntrzierea mea etc. b) fie de unele substantive cu prepoziii : He is known for his art of writing. - El este cunoscut pentru arta lui de a scrie. Let me tell you about their surprise at seeing us! - S-i povestesc despre surpriza lor la vederea noastr. I know his interest in learning. - i cunosc interesul pentru nvtur. I like the idea of building a house here. - mi place ideea de a construi o cas aici. Alte astfel de substantive cu prepoziii dup care se poate folosi gerund-ul sunt: the art of (living) - arta de a (tri) astonishment at - uimire fa de confidence in - ncredere n dependence on - dependen fa de disappointment at - dezamgire la experience in - experien n fear of - team de idea of - idee de a interest in - interes fa de risk of - riscul de a mode of (living) - modul de a (tri) surprise at - surpriz la Gerund-ul prezent se traduce fie prin gerunziu, fie printr-un substantiv, fie prin infinitiv sau conjunctiv. I prefer watching football matches. - Eu prefer vizionarea meciurilor de fotbal. He went on smoking and drinking coffee. - El a continuat s fumeze i s bea cafea. Please excuse my saying so. - Te rog s m scuzi c zic/spun aa. Do you mind opening the window ? - Te/V deranjeaz dac deschid fereastra ? Did you mind my opening the window ? - Te-a/V-a deranjat c am deschis fereastra ? Do you enjoy dancing ? - i place mult s dansezi ? Willing and wishing are two different things, aren't they ? - A vrea/voi i a dori sunt dou lucruri diferite, nu-i aa ? Any work needs correcting. - Oricare lucrare are nevoie s fie corectat. I like swimming not mountain climbing. - mi place notul nu alpinismul. Some women hate fishing. - Unele femei detest pescuitul.

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1.6.3.3.2. GERUND PERFECT (THE PERFECT GERUND) He does not remember having said such a thing. - El nu-i amintete s fi spus/zis aa ceva. Do you remember having invited them there ? - i aminteti s-i fi invitat pe ei acolo ? Iat n continuare o list de verbe dup care se folosete gerund-ul : to admit - a admite, to allow/permit - a ngdui/permite, to anticipate - a anticipa, to attempt - a ncerca, to advice - a sftui, to avoid - a evita, can't bear - a nu putea suferi, to consider - a considera, to continue - a continua, to deny - a nega, to enjoy - a savura, to excuse - a scuza, to finish - a termina, to forgive - a ierta, to hate - a ur, to imagine - a imagina, to intend - a inteniona, to like - a-i plcea, to love - a iubi, a-i fi drag, to mean - a nsemna; a vrea s spun, to mind - a supra, to miss - a pierde; a-i fi dor de, to postpone - a amna, to prefer - a prefera, to propose - a propune, to regret - a regreta, to remember - a-i aminti, to risk -a risca, to start - a porni, to stop - a opri, to suggest - a sugera, to try - a ncerca, used to - obinuia s. Tot gerund se mai folosete dup expresii ca : it's no use - it's no good - n-are rost/sens s It's no use going now. - N-are rost s mergem acum. can't stand - a nu suferi/nghii/suporta I can't stand wasting time. - Nu pot suferi irosirea timpului. can't help - a nu putea s nu, a nu avea ncotro I can't help laughing when I see you making faces. - Nu pot s nu rd cnd te vd strmbndu-te. 1.6.4. CONJUGAREA EXPRESIILOR THERE IS, THERE ARE there is - este, se afl, exist, se gsete. there are - sunt, se afl, exist, se gsesc. Timpul prezent (The Present Tense) There is a book on the table. - Este (Se afl/gsete) o carte pe mas. There are two books on the table. - Sunt (Se afl/gsesc) dou cri pe mas. N || There is not (there isn't) a book on the table. - Nu este (Nu se afl) o carte pe mas. There are not (there aren't) two books on the table. - Nu sunt (nu se afl) dou cri pe mas. I || Is there a book on the table ? - Este (se afl) o carte pe mas ? Are there two books on the table ? - Sunt (se afl) dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Is there not (isn't there) a book on the table ? - Nu este (nu se afl) o carte pe mas ? Are there not (aren't there) two books on the table ? -Nu sunt (nu se afl) dou cri pe mas ? A || Timpul prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus (The Present Perfect) There has been a book on the table. - Este o carte pe mas. There have been two books on the table. - Sunt dou cri pe mas. N || There has not (hasn't) been a book on the table. - Nu este (nu se afl) o carte pe mas. There have not (haven't) been two books on the table. - Nu sunt (nu se afl) dou cri pe mas. I || Has there been a book on the table ? - Este (se afl) o carte pe mas ? Have there been two books on the table ? - Sunt (se afl) dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Has there not (hasn't there) been a book on the table ? - Nu este (nu se afl) o carte pe mas ? Have there not (haven't there) been two books on the table ? - Nu sunt (nu se afl) dou cri pe mas ? A || Timpul imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus (The Past Tense) There was a book on the table. - A fost (s-a aflat) o carte pe mas. There were two books on the table. - Au fost (s-au aflat) dou cri pe mas. Erau dou cri pe mas. N || There was not (there wasn't) a book on the table. - Nu a fost (nu s-a aflat) o carte pe mas. There were not (there weren't) two books on the table. - Nu au fost (nu s-au aflat) dou cri pe mas. I || Was there a book on the table ? - A fost (s-a aflat) o carte pe mas ? Were there two books on the table ? - Au fost (s-au aflat) dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Was there not (wasn't there) a book on the table ? - Nu a (n-a) fost (nu s-a aflat) o carte pe mas ? Were there not (weren't there) two books on the table ? - Nu au (n-au) fost (nu s-au aflat) dou cri pe mas ? A || Timpul mai mult ca perfect (The Past Perfect) There had been a book on the table. - Fusese (se aflase) o carte pe mas. There had been two books on the table. - Fuseser (se aflaser) dou cri pe mas. N || There had not (there hadn't) been a book on the table. - Nu fusese (nu se aflase) o carte pe mas. There had not (there hadn't) been two books on the table. - Nu fuseser (nu se aflaser) dou cri pe mas. I || Had there been a book on the table ? - Fusese (se aflase) o carte pe mas ? Had there been two books on the table ? - Fuseser (se aflaser) dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Had there not (hadn't there) been a book on the table ? - Nu fusese (nu se aflase) o carte pe mas ? Had there not (hadn't there) been two books on the table ? - Nu fuseser (nu se aflaser) dou cri pe mas ? A ||

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A ||

Timpul viitor simplu (The Simple Future) There will (there'll) be a book on the table. - Va fi (o s fie) o carte pe mas - Se va afla o carte pe mas. There will (there'll) be two books on the table. - Vor fi (o s fie) dou cri pe mas - Se vor afla dou cri pe

mas. N || There will not be (there won't be) a book on the table. - Nu va fi (n-o s fie) o carte pe mas. - Nu se va afla (n-o s se afle) o carte pe mas. There will not be (there won't be) two books on the table. - Nu vor fi (n-o s fie) dou cri pe mas. - Nu se vor afla (n-o s se afle) dou cri pe mas. I || Will there be a book on the table ? - Va fi (o s fie) o carte pe mas ? - Se va afla (o s se afle) o carte pe mas ? Will there be two books on the table ? - Vor fi (o s fie) dou cri pe mas ? - Se vor afla dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Will there not (won't there) be a book on the table ? - Nu va fi o carte pe mas ? - Nu se va afla o carte pe mas ? Will there not (won't there) be two books on the table ? - Nu vor fi (n-o s fie) dou cri pe mas ? - Nu se vor afla (n-o s se afle) dou cri pe mas ? Timpul viitor anterior (The Future Perfect) There will (there'll) have been a book on the table. - Va fi fost o carte pe mas. - Se va fi aflat o carte pe mas. There will (there'll) have been two books on the table. - Vor fi fost dou cri pe mas. N || There will not (there won't) have been a book on the table. - Nu va fi fost o carte pe mas. - Nu se va fi aflat o carte pe There will not (there won't) have been two books on the table. - Nu vor fi fost dou cri pe mas. I || Will there have been a book on the table ? - Va fi fost (se va fi aflat) o carte pe mas ? Will there have been two books on the table ? -Vor fi fost (se vor fi aflat) dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Will there not (won't there) have been a book on the table ? - Nu va fi fost (nu se va fi aflat) o carte pe mas ? Will there not (won't there) have been two books on the table ? - Nu vor fi fost (nu se vor fi aflat) dou cri pe mas ? A || A || Timpul viitor n trecut (The Future in the Past) There would be a book on the table. - Va fi (se va afla) o carte pe mas. There would not (wouldn't) be a book on the table. - Nu va fi (nu se va afla) o carte pe mas. There would not (wouldn't) be two books on the table. - Nu vor fi (nu se vor afla) dou cri pe mas.

Timpul viitor apropiat/inteniei (The Near Future) There is going to be a book on the table. - Va fi (o s fie) o carte pe mas. There are going to be two books on the table. - Vor fi (o s fie) dou cri pe mas. N || There is not going to be a book on the table. - Nu va fi (n-o s fie) o carte pe mas. There are not going to be two books on the table. - Nu vor fi (n-o s fie) dou cri pe mas. I || Is there going to be a book on the table ? - Va fi (o s fie) o carte pe mas ? Are there going to be two books on the table ? - Vor fi (o s fie) dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Is there not (isn't there) going to be a book on the table? - Nu va fi (n-o s fie) o carte pe mas? Are there not (aren't there) going to be two books on the table ? - Nu vor fi (n-o s fie) dou cri pe mas ? A || Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE combinate cu verbele modale la Present Tense - cu verbul can-could - a putea/ti, a fi posibil A || There can be a book on the table. - Poate fi (se poate afla) o carte pe mas. There can be two books on the table. - Pot fi (se pot afla) dou cri pe mas. N || There cannot (there can't) be a book on the table. - Nu poate fi (nu se poate afla) o carte pe mas. There cannot (there can't) be two books on the table. - Nu pot fi (nu se pot afla) dou cri pe mas. I || Can there be a book on the table ? - Poate fi (se poate afla) o carte pe mas ? Can there be two books on the table ? - Pot fi (se pot afla) dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Can there not (can't there) be a book on the table ? - Nu poate fi (nu se poate afla) o carte pe mas ? Can there not (can't there) be two books on the table ? - Nu pot fi (nu se pot afla) dou cri pe mas ? - cu verbul may - might - a putea, a fi voie/permis A || There may be a book on the table. - Poate fi (este voie s fie) o carte pe mas. There may be two books on the table. - Pot fi (este voie s fie) dou cri pe mas. N || There may not (there mayn't) be a book on the table. - Nu poate fi (nu este voie s fie) o carte pe mas. There may not be two books on the table. - Nu pot fi (nu este voie s fie) dou cri pe mas. I || May there be a book on the table ? - Poate fi (este voie s fie) o carte pe mas ? May there be two books on the table ? - Pot fi (este voie s fie) dou cri pe mas ? I - N || May there not be a book on the table ? - Nu poate fi (nu este voie s fie) o carte pe mas ? May there not be two books on the table ? - Nu pot fi (nu este voie s fie) dou cri pe mas ?

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- cu verbul must - to have to - trebuie s - a trebui s A || There must be a book on the table. - Trebuie s fie o carte pe mas. There must be two books on the table. - Trebuie s fie dou cri pe mas. N || There must not (there mustn't) be a book on the table. - Nu trebuie s fie (nu trebuie s se afle) o carte pe mas. There must not (there mustn't) be two books on the table. - Nu trebuie s fie dou cri pe mas. I || Must there be a book on the table ? - Trebuie s fie (trebuie s se afle) o carte pe mas ? Must there be two books on the table ? - Trebuie s fie dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Must there not (musn't there) be a book on the table ? - Nu trebuie s fie (nu trebuie s se afle) o carte pe mas ? Must there not (musn't there) be two books on the table ? - Nu trebuie s fie dou cri pe mas ? Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE combinate cu verbele modale la Past Tense There could be a book on the table. - Putea fi o carte pe mas. - Putea s se gseasc o carte pe mas. There could be two books on the table. - Puteau fi dou cri pe mas. - Puteau s se afle dou cri pe mas. N || There could not (there couldn't) be a book on the table. - Nu putea fi o carte pe mas. - Nu putea s se gseasc o carte pe mas. There could not (there couldn't) be two books on the table. - Nu puteau fi dou cri pe mas. - Nu puteau s se afle dou cri pe mas. I || Could there be a book on the table ? - Putea fi o carte pe mas ?- Putea s se gseasc o carte pe mas ? Could there be two books on the table ? - Puteau fi dou cri pe mas? - Puteau s se afle dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Could there not (couldn't there) be a book on the table ? - Nu putea fi o carte pe mas? - Nu putea s se gseasc o carte pe mas ? Could there not (couldn't there) be two books on the table ? - Nu puteau fi dou cri pe mas ? - Nu puteau s se afle dou cri pe mas ? A || There might be a book on the table. - Putea fi (era voie s fie) o carte pe mas. There might be two books on the table. - Puteau fi (era voie/permis s fie) dou cri pe mas. N || There might not (there mighn't) be a book on the table. - Nu putea fi (nu era voie s fie) o carte pe mas. There might not (there mightn't) be two books on the table. - Nu puteau fi (nu era voie s fie) dou cri pe mas. I || Might there be a book on the table ? - Putea fi (era voie s fie) o carte pe mas? Might there be two books on the table ? - Puteau fi (era voie s fie) dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Might there not (mighn't there) be a book on the table ? - Nu putea fi (nu era voie s fie) o carte pe mas ? Might there not be two books on the table ? - Nu puteau fi (nu era voie s fie) dou cri pe mas ? A || There had to be a book on the table. - Trebuia s fie (trebuia s se afle) o carte pe mas. There had to be two books on the table. - Trebuia s fie dou cri pe mas. A || Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE combinate cu verbele modale la Future Tense There will possibly be a book on the table. - Va putea fi o carte pe mas. There will possibly be two books on the table. - Vor putea fi dou cri pe mas. N || There will not (there won't) possibly be a book on the table. - Nu va putea fi o carte pe mas. There will not (there won't) possibly be two books on the table. - Nu vor putea fi dou cri pe mas. I || Will there possibly be a book on the table ? - Va putea fi o carte pe mas ? Will there possibly be two books on the table ? - Vor putea fi dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Will there not (won't there) possibly be a book on the table ? - Nu va putea fi (s se afle) o carte pe mas ? Will there not (won't there) possibly be two books on the table ? - Nu vor putea fi (s se afle) dou cri pe mas ? A || Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE combinate cu verbele modale la Future in the Past There could be a book on the table. - Va putea fi o carte pe mas. There could be two books on the table. - Vor putea fi dou cri pe mas. N || There could not be (there couldn't be) a book on the table. - Nu va putea fi o carte pe mas. There could not be (there couldn't be) two books on the table. - Nu vor putea fi dou cri pe mas. Exemplu: He told me that there could be a book on the table. - El mi-a spus c va putea fi o carte pe mas. A || A || There might be a book on the table. - Va putea fi o carte pe mas. There might be two books on the table. - Vor putea fi dou cri pe mas. N || There might not (there mightn't) be a book on the table. - Nu va putea fi o carte pe mas. - Nu va fi permis s fie o carte pe mas. There might not (there mightn't) be two books on the table. - Nu vor putea fi dou cri pe mas. - Nu va fi permis s fie dou cri pe mas. A || There had to be a book on the table. - Va trebui s fie o carte pe mas.

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There had to be two books on the table. - Va trebui s fie dou cri pe mas. There had not (there hadn't) to be a book on the table. - Nu va trebui s fie o carte pe mas. There had not (there hadn't) to be two books on the table. - Nu va trebui s fie dou cri pe mas. I-N || I didn't find out whether there might be a book on the table. - N-am aflat dac va putea fi o carte pe mas. I didn't find out whether there would be a book on the table. - Nu am aflat dac va fi o carte pe mas. N || Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE la Condiionalul prezent There would be a book on the table. - Ar fi (s-ar afla) o carte pe mas. There would be two books on the table. - Ar fi (s-ar afla) dou cri pe mas. N || There would not be a book on the table. - Nu ar fi o carte pe mas. - Nu s-ar afla o carte pe mas. There would not be two books on the table. - Nu ar fi dou cri pe mas. - Nu s-ar afla dou cri pe mas. I || Would there be a book on the table ? - Ar fi o carte pe mas ? Would there be two books on the table ? - Ar fi dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Would there not be a book on the table ? - Nu ar fi o carte pe mas ? - Nu s-ar afla o carte pe mas ? A || Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE la Condiionalul perfect There would have been a book on the table. - Ar fi fost o carte pe mas. There would have been two books on the table. - Ar fi fost dou cri pe mas. N || There would not have been a book on the table. - Nu ar fi fost o carte pe mas. - Nu s-ar fi aflat o carte pe mas. There would not have been two books on the table. - Nu ar fi fost dou cri pe mas. I || Would there have been a book on the table ? - Ar fi fost o carte pe mas ? - S-ar fi aflat o carte pe mas ? Would there have been two books on the table ? - Ar fi fost dou cri pe mas? - S-ar fi aflat dou cri pe mas ? I - N || Would there not have been a book on the table ? - Nu ar fi fost o carte pe mas? - Nu s-ar fi aflat o carte pe mas ? Would there not have been two books on the table ? - Nu ar fi fost dou cri pe mas ? A || A || N || mas. A || Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE la Subjunctive III If there had been a book on the table. - Dac ar fi fost o carte pe mas. - Dac s-ar fi aflat o carte pe mas. If there had been two books on the table. - Dac ar fi fost dou cri pe mas - Dac s-ar fi aflat dou cri pe Expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE la Subjunctive II If there were a book on the table. - Dac ar fi o carte pe mas. - Dac s-ar afla o carte pe mas If there were two books on the table. - Dac ar fi dou cri pe mas. - Dac s-ar afla dou cri pe mas. If there were not a book on the table. - Dac nu ar fi o carte pe mas. - Dac nu s-ar afla o carte pe mas. If there were not two books on the table. - Dac nu ar fi dou cri pe mas. - Dac nu s-ar afla dou cri pe

mas. N || If there had not been a book on the table. - Dac n-ar fi fost o carte pe mas. - Dac nu s-ar fi aflat o carte pe mas. If there had not been two books on the table. - Dac n-ar fi fost dou cri pe mas. - Dac nu s-ar fi aflat dou cri pe Alte exemple cu there is i there are: We should not want there to be new wars. - Nu am vrea s fie noi rzboaie. Do you want there to be another festival ? - Vrei s fie un alt festival ? There can be no doubt about it. - Nu poate fi nici o ndoial n aceast privin. He doesn't want there to be any misunderstanding. - El nu vrea s fie nici o nenelegere.

1.6.5. SCHEMA RECAPITULATIV A VERBULUI Formele de baz ale verbului sunt: I II III IV

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Present Infinitive to see

Past Tense saw

Past Participle seen

Present Participle/Gerund seeing

MODUL INDICATIV (THE INDICATIVE MOOD) 1) The Present Simple (prezent) - subiect + I (fr particula to) I see. - Eu vd. 2) The Present Perfect (prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus) - subiect + have + III I have seen. - Am vzut. 3) The Past Tense (imperfect, perfect simplu, perfect compus) - subiect + II I saw. - Am vzut/vedeam/vzui. 4) The Past Perfect Tense (mai mult ca perfect, perfect compus) - subiect + had + III I had seen. - Vzusem. 5) The Future Tense (viitor) - subiect + shall/will + I I shall/will see. - Voi vedea; I'll see. - O s vd. 6) The Future in the Past (viitor) - subiect + should/would + I I should/would see - Voi vedea. 7) The Future Perfect (viitor anterior) - subiect + shall/will + have + III I shall/will have seen (something). - Voi fi vzut (ceva). 8) Near Future (prezent, perfect simplu, perfect compus, imperfect, mai mult ca perfect) - subiect + to be going to + I I am going to see. - Am de gnd s vd. - Voi vedea. (deci viitor) I was going to see. - Aveam de gnd s vd. I had been going to see. - Avusesem de gnd s vd. MODUL CONDIIONAL (THE CONDITIONAL MOOD) 1) Present Conditional (Optativ prezent) - subiect + should/would + I I should/would come. - Eu a veni. 2) The Perfect Conditional (optativ trecut) - subiect + should/would + have + III I should/would have seen. - A fi vzut. MODUL SUBJONCTIV (THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD) 1) The Subjunctive II (condiional optativ prezent) - if + subiect + II If I saw. - Dac a vedea. etc. 2) The Subjunctive III (condiional optativ trecut) - if + subiect + had + III If I had had time.... - Dac a fi avut timp ... etc. DIATEZA PASIV The Passive Voice (diateza pasiv) - if + to be + III I am seen. - Sunt vzut. ASPECTUL CONTINUU The Continuous/Definite Progressive Aspect (aspectul continuu) - subiect + to be + IV I am speaking. - Vorbesc (acum).

1.6.6. TIMPUL I TIMPUL GRAMATICAL (TIME AND TENSE) Se tie c timpul trece i este ireversibil. El se scurge/trece dinspre viitor spre trecut, aa cum se vede n schema de mai jos: Viitorul devine prezent, iar prezentul devine trecut. Aciunile prezente ale verbelor coincid n principal cu momentul vorbirii; aciunile trecute sunt anterioare prezentului, iar cele viitoare sunt posterioare prezentului.

1.6. ADVERBUL (THE ADVERB) 10 2

Adverbul (lat : ad - lng, verbum - verb - cuvnt) determin un verb, un alt adverb sau un adjectiv. 1.7.1. CLASIFICARE 1.7.1.1. ADVERBE DE MOD (ADVERBS OF MANNER) Adverbele de mod rspund la ntrebarea how ? - cum ? upside-down - cu faa n jos, somehow - cumva, willingly - bucuros, fluently - fluent/curgtor, by chance - din ntmplare, accidentally - accidental, beautifully - frumos, deliberately - deliberat, completely - complet, extremely extrem, fast - iute, hardly - greu/abia, how - ct/cum, little - puin, much - mult, rather - cam, scarcely - abia, very foarte, well - bine, badly - ru, unawares - deodat/pe neateptate, quickly - repede, fast - iute, slowly - lent/rar/ncet, aloud - tare/cu voce tare 1.7.1.2. ADVERBE DE TIMP (ADVERVBS OF TIME) Adverbele de timp rspund la ntrebarea when ? - cnd ? afterwards - dup aceea, daily - zilnic, early - devreme, formerly - odinioar, immediately - imediat, meanwhile - ntre timp, never - niciodat, now - acum, presently - imediat, yearly - anual, recently - recent, sometimes - uneori, soon curnd, yesterday - ieri, often - adesea, late - trziu, then - atunci, always - totdeauna, last month - luna trecut, before nainte, after - dup, today - azi/astzi, just - tocmai/abia, at present - n prezent, at last - n cele din urm/n fine, by now - pn acum, already - deja, still - nc, once - odinioar/cndva, when - cnd, just now - chiar acum, so far - pn aici/acum, sooner or later - mai curnd sau mai trziu etc. 1.7.1.3. ADVERBE DE LOC (ADVERBS OF PLACE) Adverbele de loc rspund la ntrebarea where ? - unde ? behind - n spate, far - departe, here - aici, near - aproape, there - acolo, inside - n interior, upstairs - la etaj, along de-a lungul, up and down - n sus i n jos, here and there - ici i colo, abroad - n strintate, under - dedesubt, somewhere - undeva, nowhere - nicieri, niciunde, anywhere - oriunde, everywhere - pretutindeni, southwards - ctre sud, homeward - spre/ctre cas, where - unde etc. 1.7.1.4. ADVERBE DE CAUZ (ADVERBS OF CAUSE/REASON) Adverbele de cauz rspund la ntrebarea why ? - de ce ? that is why - iat de ce, therefore - pentru acest motiv, de aceea, for the reason that - pentru motivul c etc. 1.7.1.5. ADVERBE DE SCOP (ADVERBS OF PURPOSE) Adverbele de scop rspund la ntrebarea for what purpose? - cu ce scop? for this purpose - cu acest scop, for the mere purpose of - pentru simplul motiv de a, etc. 1.7.1.6. ADVERBE DE CANTITATE /GRAD (ADVERBS OF QUANTITY) Adverbele de cantitate /grad rspund la ntrebrile how much ? - ct ?, how little ? - ct de puin ? etc. almost - aproape/aproximativ, enormously - enorm, entirely - n ntregime, little - puin, much - mult, quite chiar/total, really - ntr-adevr/cu adevrat, so - astfel/aa, sufficiently - suficient, enough - destul/suficient, too prea/suficient, very - foarte etc. ALTE ADVERBE : especially - mai ales, n special at most - cel mult precisely - precis exactly - exact at latest - cel mai trziu also - de asemenea even - chiar at earliest - cel mai devreme at least - cel puin only - numai, doar however - totui, cu toate acestea consequently - ca urmare surely - sigur of course - desigur at any rate - n orice caz at worst - n cel mai ru caz

1.7.2 REVERSIBILITATEA PRILOR DE VORBIRE - FAMILII DE CUVINTE


VERB SUBSTANTIV ADJECTIV ADVERB

to amuse - a amuza to attract - a atrage -

amusement - amuzare amuser - care amuz, nveselete amusingness - amuzare attraction - atracie attractibility - atracie

amusing - amuzant, care amuz amusive - hazliu attractable - care se poate atrage attractive - atrgtor -

amusingly - amuzant attractingly - atrgtor attractively - n mod atrgtor -

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to brighten a lumina, a nviora

brightness - strlucire, agerime brilliance - strlucire brilliantness - splendoare

brightly - luminos brightened - nviorat, luminat brilliant - eminent, splendid, strlucitor careful - atent, grijuliu careless - neglijent changeable - schimbtor changeless - neschimbat changed - schimbat cloudy - noros cloudless - fr nori, senin clouded - noros comparative - comparativ
ADJECTIV

brightly - strlucitor, brilliantly - splendid, eminent carefully - cu atenie carelessly - neglijent changeably - schimbtor cloudily - nebulos cloudlessly - clar comparably - comparativ
ADVERB

to care - a-i plcea, a dori; a-i psa to change - a schimba to cloud - a innora to compare - a compara
VERB

care - grij carefulness - atenie carelessness - nepsare, neglijen changeableness - nestatornicie cloudiness - nnourare cloudlessness - senintate compare/comparison - comparaie
SUBSTANTIV

to continue - a continua to deepen - a adnci, to disagree - a displace to hope - a spera to live - a tri, a vieui to open - a deschide to pain - a durea to taste - a gusta to tidy - a ordona to use - a folosi -

comparative - comparativ (grad) comparation - comparaie comparability - comparabilitate continuity - continuitate deepness - adncime, profunzime disagreement - antipatic, neplcut disagreeableness - aspect neplcut hope - speran hopefulness - speran, ncredere hopelessness - disperare liveliness - vioiciune, animaie life - via openness - deschidere, sinceritate opener - deschiztor pain - durere painfulness - durere taste - gust tastefulness - bun gust tastelessness - lips de gust tidiness - ordine use - uz, folosin usage - ntrebuinare usefulness - utilitate uselessness - inutilitate

comparable - comparabil compared - comparat continuous - continuu continued - continuat deep - adnc deepened - adncit, cufundat disagreeably - neplcut hopeful - plin de speran; promitor hopeless - disperat livable - cu care se poate tri livelong - trainic open - deschis painful - dureros tasty - gustos tasteful - gustos tasteless - fr gust tidy - curat, ngrijit used - folosit, ntrebuinat useful - util -

comparatively - comparativ continuously - continuu deeply - profund, adnc hopefully - promitor hopelessly - fr speran, lively - vioi openly - deschis painfully - dureros tastily - gustos tastefully - cu gust tastelessly - fr gust tidily - ordonat usefully - util uselessly - inutil

1.7.3 COMPARAIA ADVERBELOR 1.7.3.1. COMPARAIA NEREGULAT A ADVERBELOR Comparaia neregulat a adverbelor este explicat la capitolul comparaia adjectivelor
POZITIV COMPARATIV DE SUPERIORITATE SUPERLATIV RELATIV

well - bine badly -ru far - departe much - mult near - aproape little - mult late - trziu up -sus

better - mai bine worse - mai ru farther - mai departe further - mai departe more - mai mult nearer - mai aproape less - mai puin later - mai trziu upper - mai sus

the best - cel mai bine the worst - cel mai ru the farthest - cel mai departe the furthest - cel mai departe the most - cel mai mult the nearest - cel mai aproape the least - cel mai puin the latest - cel mai trziu upmost - cel mai sus

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1.7.3.2. COMPARAIA ANALITIC A ADVERBELOR


POZITIV COMPARATIV DE SUPERIORITATE SUPERLATIV RELATIV

attractively - atrgtor beautifully - frumos bestially-bestial carefully-atent fortunately - norocos quickly - rapid charmingly - fermector fluently - fluent gratefully - recunosctor willingly - bucuros

more attractively - mai atrgtor more beautifully - mai frumos more bestially - mai bestial more carefully - mai atent more fortunately - mai norocos more quickly - mai rapid more charmingly - mai fermector more fluently - mai fluent more gratefully - mai recunosctor more willingly - mai bucuros

the most attractively - cel mai atrgtor the most beautifully - cel mai frumos the most bestially - cel mai bestial the most carefully - cel mai atent the most fortunately - cel mai norocos the most quickly - cel mai rapid the most charmingly - cel mai fermector the most fluently - cel mai fluent the most gratefully - cel mai recunosctor the most willingly - cel mai bucuros

1.7.3.3. COMPARAIA SINTETIC A ADEVERBELOR


POZITIV COMPARATIV DE SUPERIORITATE SUPERLATIV RELATIV

cleanly - curat early devreme hard - greu low - deprimat

cleanlier - mai curat earlier - mai devreme harder - mai greu lower - mai deprimat

the cleanliest - cel mai curat the earliest - cel mai devreme the hardest - cel mai greu the lowest - cel mai deprimat

Multe adverbe i adjective se folosesc dup verbul to be, i dup verbele modale, fiind nume predicative. Se tie c verbul to be poate fi predicat n propoziie doar cnd este urmat de un adverb de loc : to be black - a fi negru to be cold - a fi frig to be bloody - a fi afurisit to be concise - a fi concis to be careful - a fi grijuliu/atent to be hard - a fi greu Toate aceste cuvinte black, bloody, careful, cold, concise etc. pot fi fie adjective, fie adverbe, faptul depinznd de cuvntul pe lng care stau i l determin, iar de comparat se compar aa cum se arat n tabelele prezentate n capitolul comparaia adjectivelor, respectiv comparaia adverbelor. Mary has put on her very best dress. - Mary i-a mbrcat chiar cea mai bun rochie a ei. Alice sees quite well, but John sees far better. - Alice vede foarte bine, ns John vede i mai bine. John speaks French the best. - John vorbete franuzete cel mai bine. Jane does not sing so beautifully. - Jane nu cnt aa de frumos. We haven't seen him lately. - Nu l-am vzut n ultimul timp. This book is a lot more interesting than that. - Aceast carte este mult mai interesant dect aceea. That book is very very interesting. - Cartea aceea este foarte foarte interesant. 1.7.4. LOCUL ADVERBELOR Adverbele cu ajutorul crora se formeaz gradul superlativ absolut stau totdeauna naintea adjectivelor sau adverbelor. very well - foarte bine quite right - perfect adevrat Adverbul enough este singurul adverb care st dup adjective sau adverbe She sings beautifully enough. - Ea cnt destul / suficient de frumos. 1.7.4.1. LOCUL ADVERBELOR DE TIMP afterward(s) - dup aceea I saw them afterwards. - I-am vzut dup aceea. again - din nou, iar, iari ; once more - nc o dat I saw him again. - L-am vzut din nou. again / time and again - very often - mereu - foarte adesea You must try again and again. - Trebuie s ncerci mereu. always - totdeuna, ntotdeauna I am always at home on Sundays. - Sunt totdeauna acas duminica. The sun always rises in the east. - Soarele rsare totdeauna n est. You must always remember these rules. - Trebuie s-i aminteti mereu aceste reguli. Before - nainte; at an earlier time - ntr-un moment anterior I had read that book before. - Citisem cartea aceea nainte. ever - vreodat Do you ever go to see them ? - Te duci vreodat pe la ei ? Have you ever tried ? - Ai ncercat vreodat ?

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never - niciodat; at no time - on no occasion - cu nici un prilej I have never tried. - N-am ncercat niciodat. I never go to seeaside alone. - Nu merg niciodat singur la mare. He is never at home after eight o'clock. - El nu este niciodat acas dup ora opt. I can never understand what he says. - Nu neleg niciodat ce zice el. Never do things by halves .( prov.) - S nu faci niciodat lucrurile pe jumtate. Never too old to learn. (prov.) - Nu suntem niciodata prea btrni s nvm. 0ften - adesea; many times - de multe ori I often go to see them . - Merg adesea pe la ei. How often do you visit them ? - Ct de des i vizitezi ? I have often been there. - Am fost adesea acolo. rarely - seldom- rareori You can seldom see such animals. - Rareori poi vedea asemenea animale. I rarely agree with them. - Rareori sunt de acord cu ei. sometimes - uneori - now and then - cnd i cnd Somtimes she makes good decisions. - Uneori ia hotrri bune. Sometimes clemency is cruelty and cruelty is clemency. (prov.) - Uneori clemena este cruzine, iar cuzimea este clemen. I want to tell you what I really think about it. - Vreau s-i spun ce cred eu cu adevrat despre asta. We are nearly always at home on Sundays. - Aproape totdeauna suntem acas duminica. We must talk about it beforehand. - Trebuie s discutm despre asta n prealabil. They are always asking for money. - Ei cer totdeauna bani. He often goes to Paris. - El pleac adesea la Paris. He has often been to Paris. - El a fost adesea la Paris. He has been there quite often . - El a fost acolo chiar/foarte des. As often as we try to find out the truth . . . - Ori de cte ori ncercm s aflm adevrul .... I have seldom met such good people. - Eu rareori am ntlnit/cunoscut oameni aa buni. We seldom go shopping. - Noi rareori mergem dup cumprturi. What do you usually do on holidays ? - Ce facei voi de obicei n vacan ? I have sometimes seen them in the park. - I-am vzut uneori n parc. The boys will be home very soon. - Bieii vor fi acas foarte curnd. It will soon be five years since he has learned English. - Vor fi curnd cinci ani de cnd nva el englezete. They arrived at the theatre twenty minutes too soon. - Ei au ajuns la teatru cu douzeci de minute mai repede/devreme. The girl started to learn as soon as she received the books. - Fata a nceput s nvee de ndat ce a primit crile. No sooner said than done. - Zis i fcut. No soonerhad I arrived home than it began to rain. - Nici n-am ajuns acas c a i nceput s plou. You will find out the truth sooner or later. - Vei afla adevrul mai devreme sau mai trziu. We shall forget as long as we live. - Nu vom uita ct vom tri. I expect my friends pretty soon. - i atept pe prietenii mei destul de curnd. What day is it today ? - Ce zi este astzi ? Today is Saturday, not Sunday. - Azi este smbt, nu duminic. Where's today's newspaper ? - Unde este ziarul de astzi ? Yesterday's newspaper is here, but today's isn't. - Ziarul de ieri este aici, dar cel de azi nu este. Today is Saturday, tomorrow will be Sunday and the day after tomorrow will be Monday. - Azi este smbt, mine va fi duminic, iar poimine va fi luni. They only returned home yesterday . - Ei s-au ntors acas doar/abia ieri. Yesterday was Friday and the day before yesterday was Thursday. - Ieri a fost vineri, iar alaltieri a fost joi. I read a book yesterday. - Yesterday I read a book. - Am citit o carte ieri. - Ieri am citit o carte. Where shall we be tomorrow morning/afternoon/evening/night ? - Unde vom fi mine diminea/dup mas/sear/noapte ? The announcement won't appear in tomorrow's newspaper. - Anunul nu va apare n ziarul de mine. We shall meet at the theatre tonight at seven o'clock. - Ne vom ntlni la teatru disear la ora apte. 1.7.4.2. LOCUL ADVERBELOR DE MOD He was walking fast, not slowly. - El mergea repede, nu ncet briefly - pe scurt He spoke about it briefly. - El a vorbit despre asta pe scurt. Did they do it deliberately? - Au fcut-o deliberat? The letter must be written very carefully. - Scrisoarea trebuie scris foarte atent. You must learn to speak English fluently. - Trebuie s nvei s vorbeti englezete curgtor/fluent. I love this country very much. - Iubesc aceast ar foarte mult. This lesson can easily be learned. - Aceast lecie poate fi uor nvat. He almost always makes mistakes. - El aproape totdeauna face greeli.

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Breakfast was almost ready. - Micul dejun era aproape gata. It is almost time we started to play tennis. - Este aproape ora s ncepem s jucm tenis. Almost no one can believe such a thing. - Aproape nimeni nu poate crede un asemenea lucru. They were fully satisfied. - Ei erau pe deplin satisfcui/mulumii. Our trip took fully five days. - Excursia noastr a luat cinci zile ntregi. I saw people who could hardly walk. - Am vzut oameni care abia puteau merge. That man can hardly speak. - Omul acela abia poate vorbi. It is nearly seven o'clock and we're nearly ready. - Este aproape ora apte, iar noi suntem aproape gata. He is probably the best football player. - El este probabil cel mai bun juctor de fotbal. There are people who drive too quickly. - Sunt/Exist oameni care conduc prea repede. quite - chiar, total, n ntregime It is quite so. - Este chiar aa. - Este exact. I know he is quite right. - tiu c are perfect dreptate. He spoke in quite another tone. - Vorbi pe cu totul alt ton. There are quite a few people in the street. - Sunt foarte muli oameni pe strad. really - ntr-adevr, cu adevrat I want to tell you what I really think about it. - Vreau s-i spun ce cred eu cu adevrat despre asta. scarcely - abia, greu, cu greutate I can scarcely hear what you say. - Abia aud ce zici. He could scarcely recognize me. - M-a recunoscut cu mare greutate. -Abia dac m-a recunoscut. It was really what he deserved. - A fost ntr-adevr ceea ce merita. I strongly advise you to do it. - Te sftuiesc special s-o faci. They felt truly grateful. - Se simeau ntr-adevr recunosctori. They were watching a truly beautiful picture. - Admirau un tablou cu adevrat frumos. I want to tell you what I really think about it. - Vreau s-i spun ce cred eu cu adevrat despre asta. We are nearly always at home on Sundays. - Aproape totdeauna suntem acas duminica. Din exemplele de mai sus se vede clar c adverbele : fully, hardly, nearly, probably, quite, really, scarcely, strongly i au locul n general naintea cuvntului pe care l determin. We are fully satisfied. - Suntem total mulumii. Our journey took fully five hours. - Cltoria noastr a durat cinci ore ncheiate. I hardly know that man. - Abia dac l cunosc pe omul acela. They hardly ever go out. - They very seldom go out. - Ei ies din joi n pati. Ei ies foarte rar. I can hardly see that plane. - Abia dac pot vedea avionul acela. He has hardly any money. - He has very little money. - El are foarte puini bani. Nearly all my friends came to my party. - Aproape toi prietenii mei au venit la petrecerea mea. We are nearly ready. - Suntem aproape gata. He nearly always loses his gloves. - El aproape totdeauna i pierde mnuile. It is nearly five o'clock. - Este aproape ora cinci. The little boy can nearly ski. - Bieelul aproape c tie s schieze. She will probably pass the exam. - Probabil ea va trece la examen. He was quite another man. - Era cu totul alt om. They quite forgot about the whole story. - Au uitat total de ntrega poveste. He knows me quite well. - El m cunoate foarte bine. I don't know what he really thinks of us. - Nu tiu ce crede n realitate despre noi. He really knows nothing. - El nu tie chiar nimic. I scarcely/hardly hear that noise. - Abia aud zgomotul acela. He strongly advises me to do it. - El m sftuiete insistent s-o fac. She spoke loud/loudly and clear/clearly. - Ea vorbi tare i clar. He only bought the book (but he didn't read it). - El doar a cumprat cartea (dar n-a citit-o). He showed the book to me only. - El mi-a artat cartea doar mie. He read only half of the book. - He only read half of the book. - El a citit doar jumtate din carte. The food tastes good. - Mncarea are gust bun. She was looking at them with disgust. - Ea privea la ei cu dezgust. Unhappy, she went back home. - Nefericit, ea merse napoi acas. What is strange, it is he who insists. - Ce este ciudat, este c el insist. They are smoking very heavily. - Ei fumeaz foarte mult. That boy spoke extremely quickly. - Biatul acela a vorbit extrem de repede. John was playing surprisingly well. - John juca surprinztor de bine. John's friend reasoned extremely soundly. - Prietenul lui John judeca extrem de sntos. John received about double the amount he expected. - John a primit aproape dublu suma la care se atepta. We paid more than twenty lei for it. - Am pltit mai mult de douzeci de lei pentru asta.

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He didn't have more than one hundred lei on him. - Nu a avut mai mult de o sut de lei la el. I counted aproximately twenty five new comers. - Am numrat aproximativ douzeci i cinci de noi venii. The bottle was three quarters full. - Sticla era trei sferturi plin. They don't like it much. - Nu le place mult. These are far more important problems. - Acestea sunt probleme mult mai importante. The first thing is that he is not here. - Primul lucru este c el nu este aici. The heart that once truly loves never forgets. (prov.) - Dragostea adevrat nu se uit niciodat. He didn't expect us to be here. - El nu s-a ateptat ca noi s fim aici. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. (prov.) - Cine se culc devreme i se scoal devreme ajunge sntos, bogat i nelept. By doing nothing, we learn to do ill. (prov.) - Lenea e mama tuturor viciilor. Four eyes see more than two. (prov.) - Patru ochi vd mai bine dect doi. 1.7.4.3. LOCUL ADVERBELOR DE LOC We'll be waiting inside, not outside. - Vom atepta nuntru, nu afar. I found the book where I had put it. - Am gsit cartea unde am pus-o. I saw John in the park. - L-am vzut pe John n parc. They walked past my car. - Ei au trecut de maina mea. They were walking about the town. - Ei se plimbau prin ora. He was left well behind. - El a fost lsat mult n urm. We shall find the book somewhere. - Vom gsi cartea undeva. The book may be anywhere. - Cartea poate fi oriunde. We may walk everywhere. - Ne putem plimba peste tot. 1.7.4.4. PROPOZIII CU MAI MULTE ADVERBE I must give this book to your friend today at six o'clock. - Trebuie s-i dau a- ceast carte prietenului tu azi la ora ase. It will be written by John later this week, perhaps on Saturday afternoon. - Va fi scris() de John mai trziu sptmna aceasta, poate smbt dup-mas. They are requested to be quiet between twelve and five o'clock every day. - Lor li se pretinde s fie linitii ntre orele doisprezece i cinci dup-amiaza n fiecare zi. My friends are living in the country somewhere near Cluj. - Prietenii mei triesc la ar undeva lng Cluj. It will be hard for her to live on her small pension from now on. - Va fi greu pentru ea s triasc din mica ei pensie de acum nainte/ncolo. We all are to meet them at the station tomorrow at a quarter past twelve. - Noi toi urmeaz s-i ntlnim la gar mine la doisprezece i un sfert.

1.8. PREPOZIIA (THE PREPOSITION)


(lat. prae - nainte, positia - poziie) Prepoziia este partea de vorbire care unete diferite uniti sintactice n cadrul unei propoziii, realiznd relaii de timp, loc etc. The book is on the table. - Cartea este pe mas. He will be there at three o'clock. - El va fi acolo la ora trei. Prepoziiile sunt: - simple : about, on, under etc. - compuse : into, within, without etc. - complexe : because of, instead of etc. - locuiuni prepoziionale : by means of, in the middle of etc. Termenii ntre care prepoziia realizeaz un raport au funcii sintactice diferite. Ea leag un verb de complementul lui sau un substantiv de un adjectiv sau adverb. Prepoziia of este cea cu care se formeaz genitivul prepoziional/analitic, iar prepoziia to este aceea a dativului prepoziional. S-a vzut cu ocazia prezentrii declinrii substantivelor i conjugrii verbelor c limba englez este o limb analitic. La conjugarea verbelor este obligatorie prezena pronumelui personal alturi de verb pentru realizarea persoanei acestuia. n cazul substantivelor ns, prepoziiile preiau funciile terminaiilor cazurilor limbilor sintetice. Ele sunt considerate instrumente gramaticale, dar rolul lor este important. Cei ce doresc s tie bine limba englez, trebuie s acorde o atenie la fel de mare i prepoziiei. n limba englez prepoziia st fie naintea substanivului sau altui cuvnt cu care este n relaie, fie la sfritul unei propoziii. What is he talking about? - About what is he talking? - Despre ce vorbete el? Who(m) is he talking about ? - About whom is he talking ? - Despre cine vorbete el ? Whose friend are you talking about ? - About whose friend are you talking ? - Despre prietenul cui vorbeti tu ? Despre al cui prieten vorbeti tu ? What are you looking at ? - At what are you looking ? - La ce priveti tu ?

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Who(m) is this poem by ? - By whom is this poem ? - De cine este poezia aceasta ? Who(m) is this book written by ? - By whom is this book written ? - De cine este scris cartea aceasta ? To whom must you give the book ? - Who(m) must you give the book to ? - Cui trebuie s-i dai cartea ? He is the boy who(m) I must give the book to. - El este biatul cruia trebuie s-i dau eu cartea. The boy to whom I must ... - Biatul cruia trebuie s ... n concluzie, prepoziiile n limba englez pot aprea n post - poziie n : 1. - ntrebrile care ncep cu cuvintele who, what, which 2. - n subordonatele atributive 3. - n unele exclamaii: What trouble they've got into ! - n ce ncurctur au intrat ! 4. - n unele construcii pasive: He is looked for by us. dar He is sought by us este forma preferat 5. - n propoziii infinitivale: They are impossible to talk to. - Cu ei este imposibil de discutat. 6. - n propoziii/fraze afirmative care ncep cu who, what, which: What I am looking at is John's house. - La (ceea) ce privesc eu este casa lui John. Cele mai importante prepoziii n limba englez sunt : about - despre along - de-a lungul around - mprejur; vreo below - dedesubt beyond - dincolo de in - n near - lng on - pe past - pe lng; dincolo de throughout - prin, peste, dup up - n susul; ctre above - deasupra alongside - unul lng altul, alturi at - la beneath - sub; mai jos de by - de, de ctre, prin inside - nuntru notwithstanding - cu toate c opposite - peste drum de, vizavi round - n jurul to - la, ctre within - n, nuntrul; nu mai trziu de across - de-a curmeziul/ latul among - ntre before - nainte besides - n afar de for - pentru into - n, spre of - de over - peste since - de, de la under - sub without - fr

1.8.1. EXPRESII / STRUCTURI IDIOMATICE CU PREPOZIII, CU ADVERBE SAU CU ADJECTIVE about - cam, n jurul; despre; prin etc. about the town - prin ora a journey about the world - o cltorie prin lume it is about two o'clock - este n jurul orei dou above - deasupra a plane above the clouds - un avion deasupra norilor above my head - deasupra capului meu across - peste, de-a curmeziul a bridge across the Danube - un pod peste Dunre to sail across the ocean - a naviga peste ocean to walk across a street - a traversa (pe jos) o strad after (prep.) - dup, de etc. after breakfast - dup micul dejun day after day - zi de zi after five o'clock - dup ora cinci soon after five o'clock - imediat/curnd dup ora cinci after (adv.) - dup They came two days after. - Ei au venit dou zile dup aceea. against - contra, mpotriva soon after - curnd dup aceea to be able to swim across - a fi n stare s traverseze not the hotel across the road - hotelul de peste drum to have money about oneself - a avea bani asupra sa

after all his care - cu/dup toat grija lui time after time - deseori, foarte adesea to run after somebody - a alerga dup cineva to inquire after smb. - a ntreba de cineva

against the enemy - mpotriva dumanului a race against time - o curs contra cronometru against the laws - mpotriva/contra legilor to swim against the stream - a nota contra curentului to marry against one's will - a se cstori mpotriva voinei proprii to hit one's head against a wall - a se lovi cu capul de un perete to lean against a wall - a se rezema de un perete to save money against a rainy day - a economisi bani albi pentru zile negre

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along - de-a lungul, pe, etc. to walk along the road - a merge pe drum along a valley - de-a lungul unei vi along the sea shore - de-a lungul rmului among/amongst - ntre/ printre etc among us - ntre noi (ntre trei sau mai muli) to hide among the bushes - a se ascunde ntre/printre tufiuri among his friends - ntre prietenii lui a house among the trees - o cas ntre copaci they divided the money among themselves - au mprit banii ntre ei a city among the largest cities of the world - un ora printre cele mai mari orae ale lumii amongst the most important reasons - printre cele mai importante cauze lots of flowers amongst the trees - multe flori ntre/printre copaci I chose him from among those boys. - L-am ales pe el dintre bieii aceia. around (prep.) - n jurul, prin etc. a trip around the country - o cltorie prin ar Put a coat around the baby ! - Pune o hain pe copil ! - ]nvelete copilul cu o hain ! The planets move around the sun. - Planetele se mic n jurul soarelui. to sail around the world - a naviga n jurul lumii in a voyage around the world - ntr-o cltorie n jurul lumii to sit around the table - a edea n jurul mesei She had a scarf around her neck. - Ea avea o earf n jurul gtului. He showed us around the house. - Ne-a prezentat casa lui. - Ne-a condus prin casa lui. around (adv.) - de jur mprejur etc. Is an island a land with water all around ? - Este o insul un uscat/pmnt nconjurat de ape ? Winter will soon be around again. - Iarna se va instala din nou. We could have fruit all the year around. - Am putea avea fructe tot timpul anului. to have a wall all around - a avea un zid de jur mprejur Come around to see us tomorrow ! - Trecei/Venii mine pe la noi ! at - la etc. at noon - la prnz at day break - la revrsatul zorilor, n zori at that time - la/pe vremea aceea at random - la ntmplare, haotic to be at school - a fi la coal at what time ? - la ce or ? at one/two etc. o'clock - la ora unu/dou etc. at any moment - n orice clip at my command - la ordinul meu, la comanda mea before (prep.) - nainte de etc. at the age of - la vrsta de at the same time - n acelai timp at first - la nceput at last - n cele din urm, n final to be at smb.'s mercy - a fi la mila cuiva at the end of a book - la sfritul unei cri at the end of the week - la sfrtul sptmnii

two days before Easter - (cu) dou zile nainte de Pati to come before the fixed time - a veni nainte de ora since before the war - de dinainte de rzboi fixat before the war - nainte de rzboi before (adv.) - nainte I've met him before - l-am cunoscut (mai) nainte the day before - cu o zi nainte before long - soon - curnd before (conj.) - nainte You must eat smth. before you go. - Trebuie s mnnci ceva nainte de a pleca. Tell him now before you forget. - Spune-i acum nainte de a uita. That happened in the year 55 B.C. (B.C. - Before Christ) - Asta s-a ntmplat n anul 55 nainte de Christos. behind (prep.) - n spatele to hide behind a tree - a se ascunde dup un copac - a se ascunde n spatele unui copac to hide behind the door - a se ascunde dup u to come out from behind the door - a iei de dup u behind (adv.) - n spate, n urm, napoia etc. to attack from behind - a ataca din spate to be behind with one's work - a fi n urm cu lucrul to fall on one's behind - a cdea pe spate

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below (prep.) - sub ,dedesubt The sun goes below the horizon. - Soarele se deplaseaz sub orizont. a leg broken below the knee - un picior fracturat sub genunchi below sea level - sub nivelul mrii to be below fifty - a fi sub cincizeci de ani below the average - sub nivelul mediu below (adv.) - sub, dedesubt We could see the lake below. - Puteam s vedem lacul dedesubt. He lived in the room below. - El locuia n camera de dedesubt. here below - on earth - pe pmnt beneath (prep.) - dedesubt, sub beneath one's dignity - sub demnitatea cuiva beside - by the side of - lng, alturi de a small park beside the river - un prcule lng ru to live beside the sea - a tri lng mare, a locui pe rmul mrii besides (prep.) - pe lng besides this - pe lng asta/aceasta. besides (adv.) - moreover - in addition to - n plus, pe deasupra He is tired and besides, away from home. - Este obosit i n plus, departe de cas. between (prep.) - ntre between Africa and Europe - ntre Africa i Europa an understanding between us - o nelegere ntre noi between the two World Wars - ntre cele dou rzboaie mondiale a war between two countries - un rzboi ntre dou ri a comparison between two things - o comparaie ntre dou lucruri between (adv.) - ntre They visited the two museums with a quick lunch between. - Ei au vizitat cele dou muzee cu un prnz rapid ntre ele. Prepoziia/Adverbul between se folosete cnd este vorba de dou elemente, persoane etc. Cnd este vorba de mai multe elemente se folosete prepoziia among. beyond (prep.) - dincolo, etc a hill beyond the village. - un deal dincolo de sat. the country beyond the sea - ara de dincolo de mare What is there beyond the stars ? - Ce se afl dincolo de stele ? Those apples are beyond reach. - Nu se poate ajunge la merele acelea. It was a scene beyond description. - A fost o scen indescriptibil. beyond limits - peste limit beyond (adv.) - dincolo, peste etc. Alaska and the lands beyond - Alaska i teritoriile de dincolo de ea John loves her beyond measure. - John o iubete peste msur. by (prep.) - lng, cu, dup, pe etc. to sit by smb. - a edea lng cineva a house by the river - o cas lng ru, o cas pe malul rului to have a day by the sea - a petrece o zi pe malul mrii, a petrece o zi pe litoral to open by force - a deschide ceva cu fora to travel by bus/train/plane/etc. - a cltori cu autobuzul/trenul/avionul/etc. to travel by ship/steamer - a cltori cu vaporul to travel by day not by night - a cltori ziua nu noaptea to come by the nearest road - a veni pe drumul cel mai apropiat to travel to Bucharest by Piteti - a cltori la Bucureti prin Piteti to tell the time by the sun - a spune ora dup soare to live by oneself - to live alone - a locui/tri singur to pay smth. by cheque - a plti ceva cu cec by (adv.) - deoparte to put/lay/set smth. by - a pune ceva deoparte by and by - later on - mai trziu, apoi; curnd, dup puin timp

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by and large - on the whole - n mare, n ansamblu down (prep.) - n jos, la vale to run/walk down a hill - a alerga/merge la vale pe un deal tears running down her face - lacrimi rostogolindu-se pe chipul / faa ei He is swimming down the river. - El noat n ru la vale. to walk down the street - a merge la vale pe strad, a merge n josul strzii down (adv.) - jos The sun goes down in the west. - Soarele coboar la apus. to be knocked down by a bus - a fi dobort la pmnt de un autobuz to sit down - a sta jos, a se aeza during (prep.) - n timpul They came to see us during our absence. - Au venit pe la noi n absena noastr. during our lifetime - n timpul vieii noastre during our holidays - n timpul vacanei noastre except (prep.) - not including - apart from - cu excepia every day except Saturday - n fiecare zi cu excepia zilei de smbt all my friends except Jim - toi prietenii mei cu excepia lui Jim for (prep.) - de la, pentru etc. something good for food - ceva comestibil, ceva bun de mncare to sail for Sidney - a naviga spre Sidney to be ready for smth. - a fi gata pentru ceva for a time - (pentru) un timp They have been here for a week. - Ei sunt aici de o sptmn. to leave for school - a pleca la coal to go for a walk - a merge la o plimbare to look for aid/help - a cuta ajutor from (prep.) - din, de la from one place to another - dintr-un loc n altul from flower to flower - din floare n floare to jump from the roof - a sri de pe acoperi wine made of grapes - vin fcut din struguri to be far from home - a fi departe de cas from first to last - de la primul la ultimul in (prep.) - din, n, la the best tennis player in the world - cel mai bun juctor de tenis din lume it is in the house - este n cas to live in the country - a tri la ar to have a picnic in the woods - a servi un picnic la pdure in (adv.) - nuntru, ntr-un to be in - a fi nuntru (n cas/camer) There is nobody in. - Nu este nimeni nuntru. in conclusion - n concluzie in fact - de fapt into (prep.) - n, nspre to come into the house/room - a intra n cas/camer to turn English into Romanian - a traduce din englez to fall into the river/lake - a cdea n ru/lac n romn to get into difficulties - a da de greuti/dificulti to get into trouble - a da de bucluc/necaz/belea near (prep.) - lng, aproape de near the seashore - lng rmul mrii near me or near my friend - lng mine sau lng prietenul meu to have a dictionary near at hand - a avea un dicionar la ndemn near (adj.) - apropiat there is a near way to - este un drum mai apropiat ctre the nearest way to - cel mai apropiat drum spre near (adv.) - aproape the river/lake is quite near - rul/lacul este foarte aproape a holiday in the mountains - o vacan la munte to lie in bed - a sta ntins n pat

in general - n general in brief / short - pe scurt in a word - ntr-un cuvnt in the meantime, meanwhile - ntre timp

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to live nearby - a locui n apropiere Come near and listen to what I say ! - Vino aproape i ascult la ce spun ! of (prep.) - de, cu, din etc. ten kilometers south of Constana - zece kilometri la sud de Constana a book of proverbs - o carte de proverbe a bottle full of wine - o sticl plin cu/de vin to die of hunger and thirst - a muri de foame i sete a family of five - o familie din cinci membri off [of] (adv.) the lake is six kilometers off - lacul este la o deprtare de ase kilometri how far is it off? - la ce distan/deprtare este de aici? the holidays are far off - e mult pn la vacan to take off one's coat - a-i dezbrca haina to take off one's shoes - a-i descla pantofii off (prep.) to fall off the ladder/bicycle - a cdea de pe scar/biciclet to fall off the horse - a cdea de pe cal off (adj.) on the off chance that - n cazul n care, dac my off time - timpul meu liber an off season - un sezon mort/slab on (prep.) - pe a book on the table - o carte pe mas a picture on the wall - un tablou pe perete a hat on her/his head - o plrie pe capul ei/lui out of (prep.) - afar din, din to go/walk out of a room - a iei dintr-o camer to do smth. out of pity - a face ceva de/din mil trees grow out of the earth - copacii cresc din pmnt over (prep) - peste, deasupra, asupra over their heads - deasupra capetelor lor a bridge over the river - un pod peste ru over (adv.) I am to turn over the page. - Urmeaz s dau pagina. over and again - de mai multe ori to boil over with rage - a spumega de mnie over again - nc o dat to turn over the leaves of a book - a da/ntoarce foile unei cri past (prep.) - peste, i, trecut de half past one, two etc. - unu, dou etc. i jumtate past (adv.) to run past smb. - a trece n fug pe lng cineva, a trece de cineva n fug round (adj.) - rotund a round table - o mas rotund a round peg in a square hole - potrivit ca nuca n perete round (prep.) - n jurul to run round a house - a alerga n jurul unei case since (prep. & adv.) - de, din, de la since four o'clock - de la ora patru through (prep.) - pe, prin, printre to come in through the door - a intra pe u round the sun - n jurul soarelui I haven't seen them since. - Nu i-am vzut de atunci. to be over forty - a avea mai mult de patruzeci de ani to have authority over smb. - a avea autoritate asupra cuiva to ask out of curiosity - a ntreba de/din curiozitate to be out of work - a fi omer something out of use - ceva ieit din uz to sit on the grass - a sta jos pe iarb to write smth. on paper - a scrie ceva pe hrtie to go on foot - a merge pe jos/picioare to turn the light off - a stinge lumina to take a day off - a-i lua o zi liber de la serviciu

to be off duty - a fi liber, a nu fi la serviciu

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to look through a telescope - a privi printr-un telescop to go through life - a trece prin via throughout (prep.) - n, prin, peste throughout our holidays - pe tot parcursul vacanei noastre to revise a book throughout - a revizui o carte complet throughout this country - de-a lungul i de-a latul acestei ri to (prep.) - la, ctre, spre this road leads to Braov. - drumul acesta duce la Braov. to go to school/church - a merge la coal/biseric to walk to school - a merge la coal pe jos to go to school by bus - a merge la coal cu autobuzul to go to the baker's - a merge la patiserie/brutrie to go to bed - a merge la culcare to come to an end - to finish - a lua sfrit, a se termina to turn to the right and to the left - a se ntoarce la dreapta i la stnga to go from place to place - a merge dintr-un loc ntr-altul under (prep.) - dedesubt, sub, mai jos de to swim under water - a nota pe sub ap to be under arms - a fi sub arme under the age of fourteen - sub vrsta de paisprezece ani to be under treatment - a fi sub ngrijire medical, a fi n tratament under my, your etc. feet - sub tlpile mele, tale etc. to be under observation - a fi sub observaie this question under examination - aceast chestiune n studiu under (adv.) That boat went under. - Barca aceea a mers la fund. underneath (prep.) - sub, dedesubtul The ball rolled underneath a table. - Mingea s-a rostogolit sub o mas. up (prep.) - ctre, spre, n susul to run up the hill - a alerga pe deal n sus, a urca dealul n fug to walk up a hill/mountain - a urca un deal/munte the ups and downs of life - vicisitudinile/valurile vieii up (adv. particle) to be up for sometime - a fi n picioare de ctva timp, a fi sculat de ctva timp to be up till late - a nu se culca pn trziu He lifted his head up. - El i-a ridicat capul. Up with him ! - Sus cu el ! - S se scoale ! Time's up. You must leave. - Timpul s-a terminat. Trebuie s pleci. upon - on (prep.) - pe, n many books upon that desk - multe cri pe banca aceea a tree upon the top of the hill - un copac n/pe vrful dealului We see two boats upon the lake. - Vedem dou brci pe lac. with (prep.) - cu in the mountains with my friends - la munte cu prietenii mei to cut smth. with a knife - a tia ceva cu un cuit to travel with smb. - a cltori cu cineva to walk with haste - a merge grbit within (prep.) - n, n cadrul / interiorul / limita They are running within a circle - Ei alearg ntr-un cerc. within our room - n interiorul camerei noastre without (prep.) - fr within a week/month - n mai sptmn/lun within the law - n limita/limitele legii puin de o upon the surface of the sea - pe suprafaa mrii upon our word - pe cuvntul nostru

to go for a walk with smb. - a merge la plimbare cu cineva to discuss smth. with smb. - a discuta ceva cu cineva to help smb. with smth. - a ajuta pe cineva la ceva in comparison with - n comparaie cu in conection with - n legtur cu

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not to succeed without money - a nu reui fr bani to come without delay - a veni fr ntrziere to escape without damage - a scpa nevtmat to come without doubt - a veni fr ndoial to be without help - a fi fr ajutor, a fi lipsit de ajutor It goes without saying. - Se nelege de la sine. to do smth. without success - a face ceva fr succes They passed without saying a word. - Ei au trecut fr a spune vreun cuvnt. I cannot speak German without mistakes. - Nu pot vorbi germana fr greeli. 1.8.2. VERBE CU PREPOZIII OBLIGATORII
to accuse smb. of smth. - a acuza pe cineva de ceva to agree on - a fi de acord asupra to approve of smth. - a aproba ceva to ask smb. for smth. - a cere cuiva ceva to be acquainted with smth.-a fi obinuit cu ceva to be angry with smb. - a fi suprat pe cineva to be astonished at - a fi uimit/uluit de to be characteristic of - a fi caracteristic pentru to be concerned with - a fi preocupat de to be crazy about - a fi nebun dup to be dependent on/upon - a fi dependent de to be different from - a fi diferit de to be good at - a fi bun la, a se pricepe la to be grateful to - a fi recunosctor fa de to be of opinion that - a fi de prere c to be on the move - a fi n micare to be independent of - a fi independent de to be intent on - a fi absorbit de to be jealous of - a fi gelos pe to be polite to - a fi politicos/civilizat cu to be proud of - a fi mndru de to be seized with - a fi prins de to be sorry for - a-i prea ru pentru; a-i cere scuze to be surprised at - a fi surprins de to beg for - a ceri/implora to belong to - a aparine to boast of - a se luda/fli cu to call for - a cere, a necesita to call at a place - a trece printr-un loc to compare to/with - a compara cu to conceal from - a se ascunde de to contribute to - a contribui la to cure of - a vindeca de to defend from - a apra de to die of - a muri de to do without - a se lipsi de, a face fr to embark on - a o porni ntr-o direcie; to feed on - a hrni cu to forgive for - a ierta pentru to go to - a merge la, a se duce la to hope for - a spera la to insist on - a insista asupra to introduce to - a prezenta (cuiva) to knock at - a bate la to laugh at - a rde de to lend to smb. - a da mprumut cuiva to long for - a tnji dup to look after - a ngriji de, a avea grij de to look into - a examina to look on/upon - a considera to meet with - a ntmpina to move from ... to ... - a se muta din ... la/n ... to part with - a se despri de to agree with smb./smth. - a fi de acord cu cineva/ceva to apologize for - a-i cere iertare pentru to arrive at/in - a ajunge la/n to be accustomed to smth. - a fi obinuit/ familiar cu ceva to be afraid of smb./smth. - a se teme de cineva/ ceva to be anxious about smth. - a fi ngrijorat de ceva to be aware of - a fi contient de, a-i da seama de to be close to - a fi aproape/ alturi de to be confident of - a fi ncreztor n to be cruel to - a fi crud cu, a fi crud/ru fa de to be deprived of - a fi lipsit/deposedat de to be fond of - a fi amator de to be good/kind to - a fi amabil cu to be indignant at - a fi indignat de to be bent on/upon - a fi hotrt s to be impressed by - a fi impresionat de to be indifferent to - a fi indiferent fa de to be interested in - a fi interesat de to be patient with - a fi rbdtor cu to be preoccupied by - a fi preocupat de to be satisfied with - a fi mulumit cu/de to be similar to - a fi asemntor cu to be superior to - a fi superior to be typical of - a fi caracteristic pentru to begin by - a ncepe prin to beware of - a se feri/pzi de to borrow from - a mprumuta de la to call on smb. - a vizita pe cineva to care for - a ine la, a-i plcea to complain of - a se plnge/vita de to congratulate on - a felicita pentru to count/rely on/upon - a se bizui / baza pe/ conta pe to deal with - a se ocupa cu/de to depend on/upon - a depinde de to differ from - a diferi de to doubt of - a se ndoi de to escape from - a scpa de to fill with - a umple cu to glance at - a arunca o privire la to go in for - a se prezenta la to indulge in - a se deda la, a se complace n; a ndemna s to interfere in - a interveni n, a se amesteca n to intrude on - a deranja, a tulbura to leave for - a pleca la to laugh with joy - a rde de bucurie to live on - a tri din/cu to look at - a privi la to look for - a cuta to look like - a semna cu to look to - a se ngriji de to mistake for - a confunda cu, a lua drept to object to - a obiecta asupra/ mpotriva to participate in - a participa la

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to pass for - a trece drept to pine for - a tnji dup to prevent from - a mpiedica/opri s to protect from - a proteja/apra de to pull at - a trage la to recover from - a-i reveni dup, a se face bine dup to refrain from - a se abine de la to resort to smb. - a se adresa cuiva, a apela la cineva to reproach smb. with smth. - a reproa cuiva ceva to be sated with - a fi stul/dezgustat de to send for - a trimite dup to smell of - a mirosi a to stare at - a privi fix/intens la to subtract from - a scdea din to supply with - a aproviziona cu to think about/of - a se gndi la to transform/change into - a transforma/schimba in to wait for smb. - a atepta pe cineva

to peep at - a privi pe furi la to play at - a se juca de-a to profit by smth. - a profita de ceva to provide with - a nzestra cu to put in(to) practice - a pune n practic to refer to - a se referi la to remind smb. of smth. - a aminti cuiva de ceva to retire from - a se retrage din to rush at smth. - a se repezi la ceva to see to - a se ngriji/ocupa de to separate from - a separa de to stand for - a reprezenta to start for - a porni ctre/spre to succeed in - a reui s to take into account/consideration - a lua n seam/consideraie to threaten with - a amenina cu to translate from ... into ... - a traduce din ... n ... to worry about - a-i face griji n privina

1.9. CONJUNCIA (THE CONJUNCTION)


(lat.: conjunctio, con - mpreun; junctio - legtur) Este partea de vorbire care leag n propoziii cuvinte cu aceeai funcie sintactic, sau 1.9.1. CLASIFICAREA CONJUNCIILOR a) conjuncii simple: and, after, but etc. b) conjuncii compuse: however, unless etc c) conjuncii corelative: either ... or ...; neither. . . nor; both... and... ; in order to; as if ; as though Dup funcii conjunciile sunt: 1.9.1.1. CONJUNCII COORDONATOARE (COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS) Conjunciile coordonatoare leag pri de propoziie cu aceeai valoare sintactic sau propoziii de acelai fel. 1.9.1.1.1. CONJUNCII COPULATIVE (COPULATIVE CONJUNCTIONS) and - i, iar I see a boy and a girl. - Vd un biat i o fat. He went home and brought the book. - El a mers acas i a adus cartea. as well as - precum i He speaks English as well as German. - El vorbete engleza precum i germana both . . . and - att.... ct i ...... I like both English and German. - mi place att engleza ct i germana. not only . . . but also - nu numai ... ci i .....

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I like not only English but also German. - mi place nu numai engleza ci i germana. 1.9.1.1.2. CONJUNCII DISJUNCTIVE (DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONS) Conjunciile disjunctive exprim o alternativ. either . . . or - sau.... sau ....., fie..... fie.... He can speak either English or German. - El tie s vorbeasc fie engleza fie germana. neither . . . nor - nici.... nici..... I see neither him nor her. - Nu-l vd nici pe el, nici pe ea. otherwise - altfel , altminteri The book is expensive, otherwise it is very useful. - Cartea este scump, altminteri este foarte util. else (if not) - altfel (dac nu), or else - c/cci altfel, c dac nu Hurry up or (else) you will miss the train. - Grbete-te, (c) altfel pierzi trenul. 1.9.1.1.3. CONJUNCII ADVERSATIVE (ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS) Conjunciile adversative exprim contrastul. but - ns, dar; We want to buy a house but we don't have money. - Vrem s cumprm o cas dar nu avem bani. however - ns, dar totui I didn't want to do it, however I did it. - N-am vrut s-o fac, dar am fcut-o. nevertheless - totui, cu toate acestea Mathematics is difficult, nevertheless I like it. - Matematica este grea, totui mi place. still - totui, ns, dar, cu toate acestea It is expensive, still I'll buy it. - Este scump, totui o voi cumpra. while - whereas - pe ct vreme, n timp ce, pe cnd Your motorcar is old, while/whereas mine is new. - Maina ta este veche, pe cnd a mea e/este nou. yet (nevertheless) - totui, cu toate acestea These goods are expensive, and yet people buy them. - Aceste mrfuri sunt scumpe i totui lumea le cumpr. 1.9.1.1.4. CONJUNCII CONCLUSIVE (ILLATIVE CONJUNCTIONS) Conjunciile conclusive exprim o concluzie. accordingly - n consecin, deci, prin urmare, ca atare I found the book I needed and accordingly I bought it. - Am gsit cartea, de care aveam nevoie i, n consecin am cumprat-o. consequently - n consecin, aadar, prin urmare I found the book interesting, consequently I bought it. - Am gsit cartea interesant, aadar am cumprat-o. so - aadar, de aceea, prin urmare, astfel c, aa c I considered the book important, so I bought it. - Am considerat cartea important, astfel c am cumprat-o. therefore - astfel cA, deci, de aceea, aadar, prin urmare, n consecin I didn't find them in the park, therefore I went home. - Nu i-am gsit n parc, aadar am plecat acas. 1.9.1.1.5. CONJUNCII CAUZALE (CAUSAL CONJUNCTIONS) for - cci, pentru c, ntruct, deoarece, fiindc It is very hot for it is August. - Este foarte cald cci este august. Sunt rare ns cazurile cnd se ntlnesc n engleza vorbit astfel de exemple/cazuri cu for cauzal. 1.9.1.2. CONJUNCII SUBORDONATOARE (SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS) Conjunciile subordonatoare leag o subordonat de regenta sa.

1.9.1.2.1. CONJUNCII DE LOC (CONJUNCTIONS OF PLACE) where - unde You must come here where I live. - Trebuie s vii aici unde locuiesc/triesc eu. wherever - oriunde We'll live wherever it is possible. - Vom tri oriunde va fi posibil. as far as - pn unde / la I shall/will go as far as you go. - Voi merge pn unde mergi tu. whence - de unde

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I'm going there whence you are coming. - Merg acolo de unde vii tu. 1.9.1.2.2. CONJUNCII DE TIMP (CONJUNCTIONS OF TIME) after - dup, dup ce I came after you had left. - Am venit dup ce ai plecat tu. - Am venit dup ce plecasei tu. before - nainte de a I must put down your telephone number before I forget it. - Trebuie s-mi notez numrul tu de telefon nainte de a-l uita. the first time - prima dat/oar cnd I realized he was a serious man the first time I saw him. - Mi-am dat seama c este om serios cnd l-am vzut prima dat . all the time - tot timpul ct We are laughing all the time we are watching the play. - Rdem tot timpul ct privim piesa. as long as - ct timp A man must learn as long as he lives. - Un om trebuie s nvee ct timp triete. as soon as - de ndat ce, imediat ce I must find out the truth as soon as I arrive. - Trebuie s aflu adevrul imediat ce sosesc. since - de cnd I haven't seen him since he was a student. - Nu l-am vzut de cnd era el student. ever since - chiar de cnd I relized he was a good man ever since I met him. - Mi-am dat seama c este om bun chiar de cnd l-am cunoscut. till - until - pn cnd, pn ce, pn la, pn s, pn You must wait till they come. - Trebuie s atepi pn vin ei. when - cnd I shall tell you everything when you come. - i voi povesti totul cnd vei veni. whenever - ori de cte ori I realize she is an excellent singer whenever I listen to her. - ]mi dau seama c este o cntrea desvrit ori de cte ori o ascult. while - ct timp, n timp ce While there is life, there is hope. - Omul sper ct triete. the moment - n momentul /clipa n care I recognized him the moment I saw him. - L-am recunoscut n clipa n care l-am vzut. the very moment - chiar n momentul/clipa n care I understood the real state of things the (very) moment I entered their house. - Am neles adevrata stare a lucrurilor (chiar) n momentul n care am intrat n casa lor. 1.9.1.2.3. CONJUNCII DE MOD (CONJUNCTIONS OF MANNER) Conjunciile de mod introduc subordonate modale. as - cum, aa cum, dup cum, ntocmai cum, n acelai fel n care He talks as he thinks. - Vorbete cum gndete. He knows many things young as he is. - El tie multe lucruri aa tnr cum este. as if - as though - ca i cnd, de parc, parc s He opend his mouth as if to say something. - A deschis gura parc s spun ceva. He greeted us as if he knew us. - Ne-a salutat ca i cnd ne-ar cunoate. not so . . . as . . . - nu aa de . . . ca . . . Your house is not so big as I thought. - Casa ta nu este aa mare cum am crezut. as . . . as - la fel de ...ca.., tot aa de ca.... She sang the song as beautifully as she could. - Ea a cntat cntecul ct a putut de frumos. so much as - aa de mult ct/ca I do not like tennis so much as he does. - Mie nu-mi place tenisul aa de mult ct lui. so far as - n msura n care You will buy the house so far as you can afford it. - Vei cumpra casa n msura n care i poi permite. 1.9.1.2.4. CONJUNCII DE CAUZ (CONJUNCTIONS OF CAUSE) Conjuncii de cauz introduc subordonatele cauzale. because - for the reason that - pentru c, pentru motivul c , deoarece , ntruct I bought the ball because it was cheap. - Am cumprat mingea pentru c era ieftin. seeing that - vznd c Seeing that it was raining I entered the house. - Vznd c plou am intrat n cas. since - ntruct, deoarece, cci Since it is raining, I must take my umbrella. - ntruct plou, trebuie s-mi iau umbrela. now that - acum c, deoarece Now that I have come I shall/will drink a cup of coffee. - Acum c am venit, voi bea o ceac cu cafea.

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1.9.1.2.5. CONJUNCII DE SCOP (CONJUNCTIONS OF PURPOSE) Conjunciile de scop introduc subordonatele finale. in order to/that - cu scopul de a, ca s We have come to school in order to learn. - Am venit la coal ca s nvm. lest (+ should) - ca s nu Turn on the light lest you should knock your head against smth. ! - Aprinde lumina ca s nu te loveti cu capul de ceva ! so that - aa nct, ca s Turn on the light so that I can see better ! - Aprinde lumina ca s pot vedea mai bine ! 1.9.1.2.6. CONJUNCII CONCESIVE (CONJUNCTIONS OF CONCESSION) Conjunciile concesive introduc subordonatele concesive. though - although - dei, cu toate c I shall/will go there although it is late. - Voi merge acolo dei este trziu. even if - chiar dac I shall go there even if it is very late. - Voi merge acolo chiar dac este foarte trziu. however (much) - orict de (mult) You must buy it however much it costs. - Trebuie s-o cumperi indiferent ct de mult cost. no matter how - nu conteaz ct/cum, indiferent ct/cum You must read it no matter how borring it is. - Trebuie s-o citeti indiferent ct de plictisitoare este. Boring as it is you must read it. - Plictisitoare aa cum este trebuie s-o citeti. in spite of - n ciuda He succeeded in spite of all the difficulties that he came across. - El a reuit n ciuda tuturor dificultilor pe care le-a ntmpinat. in spite of the fact that - n ciuda faptului c, dei, chiar dac They failed in spite of their efforts. - Au euat n ciuda eforturilor lor. notwithstanding - dei, n ciuda/pofida faptului c They failed notwithstanding the efforts they made. - Ei au dat gre n ciuda/ pofida eforturilor pe care le-au fcut. 1.9.1.2.6. CONJUNCII CONDIIONALE (CONJUNCTIONS OF CONDITIONAL) Conjunciile condiionale introduc subordonatele condiionale. if - dac I shall not come if I don't have time. - Nu voi veni dac nu voi avea timp. if only - doar/numai dac I shall come if only I have time. - Voi veni doar dac voi avea timp. on condition that - cu condiia c I shall come on the condition that I have time. - Voi veni cu condiia c voi avea timp. provided that - cu condiia c I shall come provided that I have time. - Voi veni cu condiia c voi avea timp. if and only if - dac i numai dac I shall come if and only if I have time. - Voi veni dac i numai dac voi avea timp. as long as - att timp ct, dac I shall not give you the money as long as you don't tell me the truth. - Nu-i voi da banii atta timp ct nu-mi vei spune adevrul. but - dac nu But for John, I would have gone. - Dac n-ar fi fost John a fi mers. unless - dac nu I shall not give you the money unless you tell me the truth. - Eu nu-i voi da banii dac nu-mi vei spune adevrul. 1.9.1.2.8. CONJUNCII CONSECUTIVE (CONJUNCTIONS OF RESULT) Conjunciile consecutive introduc subordonatele consecutive. so . . . that . . . - aa de . . . nct . . ., that - nct/c; I lent you the book so that you could read it. - i-am mprumutat cartea ca s-o poi citi. such . . . that . . . - aa/astfel de . . . nct/c . . . Such was the force of the wind that we could not stand. - Aa mare era fora vntului c noi nu puteam sta n picioare. 1.9.1.2.9. CONJUNCII ATRIBUTIVE (ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSE CONJUNCTIONS) Conjuncile atributive introduc subordonatele atributive sau relative.

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that - care, pe care, de care (pentru persoane i lucruri) This is the book that I need. - Aceasta este cartea de care am eu nevoie. He is the man that/who knows us. - El este omul care ne cunoate pe noi. who (pronume relativ) - care He is the man who knows us. - El este omul care ne cunoate. whose - al, a, ai, ale cui/crui/crei/cror He is the playwright whose plays are eternal. - El este dramaturgul ale crui piese sunt eterne. to whom - who(m) . . . to - cruia, creia, crora The boy, to whom I must give this book, is my friend. - The boy, who(m) I must give this book to, is my friend. Biatul, cruia eu trebuie s-i dau aceast carte, este prietenul meu. whom / that - pe care (pentru persoane) The boys, whom/that you see, are John's friends. - Bieii, pe care i vezi, sunt prietenii lui John. which / that - care, pe care (pentru lucruri) The house, which/that you see, is mine. - Casa, pe care o vezi, este a mea. 1.9.1.2.10. CONJUNCII SUBIECTIVE ( SUBJECT CLAUSE CONJUNCTIONS) Conjunciile subiective introduc subordonatele subiective. that - c That we have to work hard is a necessity. - C trebuie s muncim mult este o necesitate. who - cine, care Who knows the truth is not here. - Cine tie adevrul nu este aici. what - ce What I like is not to be found here. - Ce-mi place mie nu se gsete aici. when - cnd When he comes depends on the weather. - Cnd vine el depinde de vreme. why - de ce, din ce cauz Why he has come is a mystery. - De ce a venit el este un mister. what . . . for - for what - pentru ce For what he has come is a mystery. - Pentru ce a venit el este un mister. how - cum How he has done it is a mystery. - Cum a fcut-o este un mister. where - unde Where we shall go is a mystery. - Unde vom merge este un mister. wherever - oriunde Wherever we went would be a mystery/secret. - Oriunde am merge ar fi un mister/secret. whenever - ori de cte ori Whenever we went would be a mystery. - Ori de cte ori am merge ar fi un mister. whose - al, a, ai, ale Whose this book is is a mystery. - A cui este aceast carte este un mister. what kind / sort of - ce fel de What kind / sort of man he is is a mystery. - Ce fel de om este el este un mister. which - care Which book I must buy is a mystery. - Care carte trebuie s-o cumpr este un mister. which of - care dintre Which of us will travel by train is a secret. - Care dintre noi va cltori cu trenul este secret. 1.9.1.2.11. CONJUNCII COMPLETIVE (OBJECT CLAUSE CONJUNCTIONS) that - c You did not tell me that you would come earlier. - Nu mi-ai spus c vei veni mai devreme. Conjuncia that se poate omite: I knew you were very busy. - tiam c eti foarte ocupat. 1.9.2. ALTE CUVINTE DE LEGTUR for instance - for example - de exemplu/pild one - o dat One, you would have more spare time. - O dat, ai avea mai mult timp liber. two - doi, n al doilea rnd Two, you would be better paid. - Doi, ai fi mai bine pltit. Secondly, and far more importantly . . . - n al doilea rnd, i mult mai important . . . and to conclude . . .- i n ncheiere first / firstly - n primul rnd, mai nti second / secondly - n al doilea rnd third / thirdly - n al treilea rnd to conclude - n ncheiere / concluzie for a start - pentru nceput

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I want to begin by saying that. - Vreau s ncep prin a spune (spunnd) c. Another thing is that . . . - Alt lucru este c . . . Which is far more important. - Care este cu mult mai important. There is still another thing. - Mai este nc un lucru. The final thing I must say is . . . - Ultimul lucru pe care trebuie s-l spun este . . . The second/third reason is . . . - Al doilea/treilea motiv este . . . Also, it's not . . . - De asemenea, nu este . . . You didn't read that book. - I didn't read it either. - Neither did I. - Tu nu ai citit cartea aceea. - Nici eu n-am citit-o. "You are in a hurry." "Indeed we are." - Voi v grbii. Ne grbim, ntr-adevr; Da, aa este; Sigur c da. That reminds me of . . . - Asta mi amintete de . . . By the way. - By the by. - Apropo. In a word, briefly. - ntr-un cuvnt, pe scurt. My conclusion is that . . . - Concluzia mea este c . . . That is. - That is to say. - Adic This is another way of putting it. - Aceasta este un alt fel/mod de a-l spune/ exprima. Such an example would be . . . - Un astfel de exemplu ar fi As a result...- consequently... - Ca urmare; n consecin... The consequence was that . . . - Consecina/urmarea a fost c . . . The consequence of his being late was that . . . - Consecina/urmarea ntrzierii lui a fost c . . . in other words - cu alte cuvinte in that case - n cazul acela if so - dac e aa if not - dac nu I would rather say - a spune/zice mai degrab a way of putting it - un fel de a spune a better way of putting it - un fel mai bun de a zice It would be better to . . . - Ar fi mai bine s. . on the one hand / side - pe de o parte; on the other hand / side - pe de alt parte on the contrary - dimpotriv by contrast - prin contrast Of course, he . . .- Desigur, el . . . He is , of course.... - El este, desigur... it is true that - este adevrat c There is little doubt about that. - Este puin ndoial n privina aceasta/aceea. There is no doubt about that. - Nu este nici o ndoial n acest sens. The truth is that . . . - Adevrul este c . . . He will even read it. - El o va i citi. - El chiar o va citi. "He likes to spend his holidays at the seaside". "So do we". - Lui i place s-i petreac vacana la mare. i nou. "We are at the seaside". "So am I". - Noi suntem la mare. i eu. "He can speak French". "So can we". - El tie s vorbeasc franuzete. i noi. "He cannot speak French". "Neither can we"; "We can't either". - El nu tie s vorbeasc franuzete. Nici noi. the first reason - primul motiv, prima cauz the first suggestion - prima sugestie He feels so bad today. - El se simte aa (de) ru azi/astzi. I do not feel that bad. - Eu nu m simt aa (de) ru. I expected it to be this big. - M-am ateptat s fie aa de mare. in the same way as - n acelai fel ca much similar to - mult asemntor cu The girl other than Jane. - Alt fat dect Jane; Alt fat n afar de Jane.

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2. S I N T A X A (THE SYNTAX)
(gr.: syn - mpreun, cu; taxis - aranjament, aezare) Sintaxa este aceea parte a gramaticii care se ocup cu studiul funciilor cuvintelor n propoziii i cu studiul propoziiilor n fraz. Ea stabilete regulile dup care se mbin propoziiile n fraz.

2.1. SINTAXA PROPOZIIEI (THE SYNTAX OF THE SENTENCE)


Propoziia este comunicarea n care se afl un singur predicat. Din punct de vedere formal propoziiile sunt simple i dezvoltate. Propoziia simpl conine doar subiect i predicat. The boy learns. - Biatul nva. 2.1.1. Subiectul (The Subject) Subiectul este partea propoziiei, care poate fi uneori autorul aciunii, alteori obiect al aciunii svrite de altcineva. Subiect mai poate fi cineva/ceva despre care se comunic ceva n propoziie. Rspunde la ntrebrile: who ? - cine ?; what ? - ce ? n exemplul The boy learns cuvntul the boy este subiect, iar cuvntul learns este predicat. 2.1.2. Predicatul (The Predicate) Predicatul este partea de propoziie prin care se comunic ceva despre subiect sau ce anume svrete/face subiectul. Subiectul i predicatul sunt pri principale ale unei propoziii. Se poate vorbi uneori despre propoziii cu mai multe subiecte sau cu subiect multiplu: The boys and the girls learn to swim. - Bieii i fetele nva s noate. n momentul n care ntr-o comunicare apar dou predicate, comunicarea respectiv nu mai este propoziie ci fraz. n cazul n care pe lng subiect i predicat exist i alte pri de propoziie, propoziia respectiv nu mai este o propoziie simpl, ci o propoziie dezvoltat: A clever student learns every day. - Un student detept nva n fiecare zi. Predicatul unei propoziii este reprezentat printr-un verb la unul dintre cele patru moduri personale ale verbului care sunt: indicativ, condiional, subjonctiv i imperativ. Predicatele sunt: a) verbale b) nominale Predicatul verbal este reprezentat printr-un verb principal. He studies chemisty. - El studiaz chimie. They will come by coach. - Vor veni cu autocarul. He had seen the monastery. - El vzuse mnstirea. Three and three makes six. - Trei plus trei fac ase. Predicatul nominal const dintr-un verb copulativ i un nume predicativ Iat cteva verbe copulative: to be, to become, to continue, to get, to grow, to seem etc. Everybody grows old. - Toat lumea mbtrnete. - Toi mbtrnesc. Nici verbele modale nu pot fi singure predicate n propoziii, ci mpreun cu verbul pe care l preced. I must go to church. - Trebuie s merg la biseric. He is clever. - El este detept. He must be clever. - Probabil c este detept. Roses smell sweet. - Trandafirii miros plcut. Their pleasure is to swim. - Plcerea lor este s noate. We are to leave right away. - Urmeaz / Trebuie s plecm imediat. He could come any minute. - Ar putea veni n orice clip. It is I. - Eu sunt. - Sunt eu. Prile secundare ale propoziiei sunt atributul i complementul. 2.1.3. Atributul (The Atribute) Atributul determin un substantiv i i are locul naintea lui. She is singing a beautiful song. - Ea cnt un cntec frumos. He is my friend. - El este prietenul meu. He is my good friend. - El este prietenul meu cel bun. - El este bunul meu prieten. John is my best friend. - John este cel mai bun prieten al meu. Uneori atributul st dup substantivul su. They were the last to come. - Ei au fost ultimii care au venit. You can ask the man in the street. - l poi ntreba pe omul de pe strad. The book read by me is interesting. - Cartea citit de mine este interesant.

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2.1.4. Complementul (THE OBJECT) 2.1.4.1. Complementul direct (The Direct Object) Complementul direct este partea de propoziie asupra creia se orienteaz aciunea subiectului. Se exprim prin substantive / pronume n cazul acuzativ. I am reading a book. - Eu citesc o carte. I - subiect; am reading - predicat What am I reading ? - Ce citesc eu ? Who is reading a book ? - Cine citete o carte ? a book - complement direct I am reading an interesting book. - Eu citesc o carte interesant. interesting - - atribut Locul complementului direct n propoziie este dup verbul su. Exist i un complement intern (The Cognate Object), care st ntre verbul tranzitiv i complementul direct propriu-zis. to run a swift race - a face o curs rapid to dream an interesting dream - a visa un vis interesant Dublul complement direct: I teach them grammar. - i nv pe ei gramatic. I - subiect; teach - predicat Who teaches them grammar ? - Cine i nva pe ei gramatic ? them, grammar - complemente directe What do I do ? - Ce fac eu ? Whom do I teach grammar ? - Pe cine nv eu gramatic ? What do I teach them ? - Ce i nv eu pe ei ? I see people in the street. - Vd oameni pe strad. What do I see in the street ? - Ce vd eu pe strad ? I see John in the street. - l vd pe John pe strad. Whom do I see in the street ? - Pe cine vd eu pe strad ? 2.1.4.2. Complementul indirect (The Indirect Object) Complementul indirect este cel asupra cruia aciunea subiectului se ndreapt / rsfrnge indirect i este exprimat prin substantive sau pronume n cazul dativ. I shall buy a book for you. - Voi cumpra o carte pentru tine. He bought the boy a book. - He bought a book to the boy. - El i-a cumprat biatului o carte. - El i-a cumprat o carte biatului. To whom did he buy it ? - Who(m) did he buy it to ? - Cui i-ai cumprat-o ? He bought a book for the boy. - El a cumprat o carte pentru biat. Who(m) did he buy a book for ? - For whom did he buy a book ? - Pentru cine a cumprat el o carte ? Complementul indirect rspunde la ntrebri ca: to whom? - who(m)... to ? - cui ? for whom? - who(m)... for ? - pentru cine ?, cui ? about whom ? - who(m)... about ? - despre cine ? with whom ? - who(m)... with ? - cu cine ? without whom ? - who(m)... without ? - fr cine ? Complementul indirect n limba englez poate fi alctuit cu unele prepoziii ca to, for, about, with, without i atunci el poart numele de complement indirect prepoziional, sau poate aprea fr prepoziie. - neprepoziional: I shall give you a book. - i voi da ie o carte. I shall buy you a book. - i voi cumpra ie o carte. - prepoziional: I shall give a book to you. - i voi da o carte ie. I shall buy a book for you. - Voi cumpra o carte pentru tine. 2.1.4.2.1. Verbe cu prepoziii pentru complemente indirecte to accustom oneself to something - a se obinui cu ceva to administer smth. to smb. - a administra/aplica ceva cuiva to announce smth. to smb. - a anuna ceva cuiva to appear to - a prea to attribute smth. to smb. - a atribui ceva cuiva to belong to - a aparine to communicate smth. to smb. - a comunica ceva cuiva to confide smth. to smb. - a destinui ceva cuiva to convey smth. to smb. - a comunica/transmite ceva cuiva to deliver smth. to smb. - a nmna/livra ceva cuiva to describe smth. to smb. - a descrie ceva cuiva to explain smth. to smb. - a explica ceva cuiva to be devoted to smb. - a fi devotat cuiva to impute smth. to smb. - a imputa ceva cuiva to introduce smb. to smb. - a prezenta pe cineva cuiva to leave smth. to (chance) - a lsa ceva (la voia ntmplrii) to listen to smb./smth. - a asculta la cineva/ceva to mention to smb. that - a meniona cuiva c to prescribe smth. to smb. - a prescrie ceva cuiva to propose smth. to smb. - a propune ceva cuiva to prove to smb. that - a dovedi cuiva c to relate to smb. smth. - a relata cuiva ceva to be related to smb. - a fi rud cu cineva, a se nrudito resign smth. to smb. - a ceda ceva cuiva

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to reveal smb. smth. - a dezvlui cuiva ceva, to say smth. to smb. - a zice/spune ceva cuiva to say no to smth. - a refuza ceva, a zice nu la ceva to seem to smb. - a i se prea cuiva, a-i prea cuiva to speak to smb. about smth. - a vorbi cu cineva despre ceva, to submit to - a (se) supune to suggest smth. to smb. - a sugera ceva cuiva to yield to smth. - a consimi la ceva; a ceda la ceva 2.1.4.2.2. Verbe cu complement direct i complement indirect to allow smth. to smb. - a permite ceva cuiva to bring smth. to smb. - a aduce ceva cuiva to give smb. smth. - to give smth. to smb. - a da ceva cuiva to give smb. much trouble - to give much trouble to smb. - a da cuiva mult btaie de cap - a da mult btaie de cap cuiva to give smb. an example - a da cuiva un exemplu to grant smb. smth. - to grant smth. to smb. - a garanta cuiva ceva - a garanta ceva cuiva to hand smb. smth. - to hand smth. to smb. - a nmna cuiva ceva - a nmna ceva cuiva to leave smb. smth. - to leave smth. to smb. - a lsa cuiva ceva - a lsa ceva pentru cineva to lend smb. smth. - to lend smth. to smb. - a da cuiva mprumut ceva - a da ceva mprumut cuiva to offer smb. smth. - to offer smth. to smb. - a oferi cuiva ceva - a oferi ceva cuiva to owe smb. smth. - to owe smth. to smb. - a datora cuiva ceva, a datora ceva cuiva to pay smb. smth. - to pay smth. to smb. - a plti cuiva ceva - a plti ceva cuiva to promise smb. smth. - to promise smth. to smb. - a promite/fgdui cuiva ceva - a promite/ fgdui ceva cuiva to refuse smb. smth. - to refuse smth. to smb. - a refuza cuiva ceva - a refuza ceva cuiva to sell smb. smth. - to sell smth. to smb. - a vinde cuiva ceva - a vinde ceva cuiva to send smb. smth. - to send smth. to smb. - a trimite cuiva ceva, a trimite ceva cuiva to show smb. smth. - to show smth. to smb. - a arta cuiva ceva, a arta ceva cuiva to tell smb. smth. - to tell smth. to smb. - a spune/povesti cuiva ceva, a spune/ povesti ceva cuiva to wish smb. smth. - to wish smth. to smb. - a ura/dori cuiva ceva - a ura/ dori ceva cuiva to write smb. smth. - to write smth. to smb. - a scrie cuiva ceva 2.1.4.3. Complementul prepoziional (The Prepozitional Object) Complementul prepoziional este un complement al unui verb cu prepoziie. OF - de, cu, din etc. to be afraid of - a se teme de to be aware of smth. - a fi contient de ceva, a-i da seama de ceva to approve of smth. to smb. - a aproba ceva cuiva to be characteristic of smb. - a-i fi caracteristic cuiva, a fi caracteristic pentru cineva to deprive smb. of smth. - a lipsi/priva pe cineva de ceva to be fond of smth. - a fi amator de ceva to accuse smb. of smth. - a acuza pe cineva de ceva to be independent of smth (smb). - a fi independent de ceva (de cineva) to be jealous of smb. - a fi gelos pe cineva to be proud of smb./smth. - a fi mndru de cineva/ceva to beware of - a se feri / pzi de to boast of smth. - a se luda cu ceva to complain to smb. of smth. - a se plnge cuiva de ceva to cure smb. of smth. - a vindeca pe cineva de ceva to die of smth. - a muri de ceva to doubt of smth. - a se ndoi de ceva to remind smb. of smth./smb. - a aminti cuiva de ceva/cineva to smell of smth. - a mirosi a ceva to taste of smth. - a avea gust de ceva to think of smth. - a reflecta/medita la/asupra, a lua n seam ceva to be confident of - a fi ncreztor n, a avea ncredere n FOR - de la, pentru etc. to apologize for - a-i cere iertare pentru to ask smb. for smth. - a cere ceva cuiva to be angry with smb. for smth. - a fi suprat pe cineva pentru ceva to be anxious for smth. - a fi ngrijorat/nelinitit de ceva to call for - a necesita to care for smb (smth). - a-i plcea de cineva, ceva to forgive smb. for smth. - a ierta pe cineva pentru ceva to long for - a tnji dup, a visa la to pine for smth. - a tnji dup ceva

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to look for smb./smth. - a cuta pe cineva /ceva to mistake smb. (smth) for smb. (smth) else - a confunda pe cineva cu altcineva to pass for - a trece drept to send for smb. - a trimite dup cineva to stand for smb./smth. - a reprezenta pe cineva, a reprezenta ceva to be sorry for smth. - a-i prea ru de/pentru ceva to struggle for smth. - a lupta pentru ceva to thank smb. for smth. - a mulumi cuiva pentru ceva to wait for smb.( smth) - a atepta pe cineva / ceva to wait for. - a atepta TO - la, ctre, spre to apologize to smb. for smth. - a-i cere iertare cuiva pentru ceva to agree to smth. - a fi de acord cu ceva to accustom oneself to smth. - a se obinui cu ceva to be grateful to smb. for smth. - a fi recunosctor cuiva pentru ceva to be accustomed to smth. - a fi obinuit cu ceva to be cruel to smb. - a fi crud/nemilos fa de cineva to be different to - a fi diferit/deosebit de to be good/kind to smb. - a fi bun/amabil fa de cineva, a fi bun cu cineva to be indifferent to - a fi indiferent fa de to be polite to - a fi politicos cu, a fi politicos fa de to be similar to smth. - a fi similar/asemntor cu ceva to be superior to - a fi superior to belong to - a aparine to boast to smb. about smth. - a se luda cuiva cu ceva to compare smth. to smth. - a compara ceva cu ceva to contribute to smth. - a contribui la ceva to introduce smb. to smb. else - a prezenta pe cineva altcuiva to lend smth. to smb. - a mprumuta ceva cuiva to move to another place - a se muta n alt loc to refer to smb./smth. - a se referi la cineva/ceva to resort to smth. - a recurge la ceva FROM DE LA, DIN to be different from - a fi diferit/deosebit de to borrow smth. from smb. - a mprumuta ceva de la cineva to conceal smth. from smb. - a ascunde ceva cuiva to differ from smth./smb. - a diferi de ceva/cineva to escape from something - a scpa de ceva to move from... to... - a se muta de la... la... to prevent smb. from doing smth. - a opri/preveni pe cineva s fac ceva to refrain from smth. - a se abine de la ceva to retire from one place to another - a se retrage dintr-un loc n altul to defend smb. from smth. - a apra pe cineva de ceva to translate from... into... - a traduce din... n... to tell smb. from smb. else - a deosebi pe cineva de altcineva WITH - CU to agree with smb. on smth. - a fi de acord cu cineva asupra unui fapt to acquaint oneself with smth. - a se familiariza cu, a se obinui cu to be acquainted with - a fi familiarizat/obinuit cu, to be patient with smb. - a fi rbdtor cu cineva, a fi rbdtor fa de cineva to be satisfied with - a fi mulumit/satisfcut de to deal with smth. - a se ocupa cu ceva, a trata ceva to deal with smb. - a avea de-a face cu cineva to fill smth. with smth. - a umple ceva cu ceva to compare with - a (se) compara cu to meet with smb. - a se ntlni cu cineva to meet with smth. - a ntmpina ceva; a trece prin ceva; a da de ceva to part with smb./smth. - a se despri de cineva/ceva

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to play with smb./smth. - a se juca cu cineva/ceva to be sated with smth. - a fi stul/dezgustat de ceva to supply smb. with smth. - a aproviziona pe cineva cu ceva to threaten smb. with smth. - a amenina pe cineva cu ceva ON / UPON PE, IN to be crazy on smth. - a fi mare amator de ceva, a fi mort dup ceva to be dependent on smth. - a fi dependent de ceva to count on/upon smb./smth. - a se bizui/baza pe cineva/ceva, a conta pe cineva/ceva to call on smb. - a vizita pe cineva, a trece pe la cineva to congratulate smb. on smth. - a felicita pe cineva pentru ceva to depend on/upon - a depinde de to feed smb. on smth. - a hrni pe cineva cu ceva to insist on - a insista asupra to intrude smth. on/upon smb. - a se impune ceva cuiva to knock on smth. - a se lovi de ceva to live on - a tri cu to look on/upon a show - a privi la (ca spectator) to look on smb. as - a considera pe cineva drept to be intent on/upon - a fi concentrat asupra, a fi absorbit de ABOUT n jurul; despre; prin etc. to be concerned about smth. - a fi preocupat, ingrijorat de ceva to be crazy about smth. - a fi mare amator de ceva, a fi mort dup ceva to boast to smb. about smth. - a se luda cuiva cu ceva to think about smth. - a se gndi la ceva IN - din, n, la to be interested in smth. - a-l interesa ceva to have similar tastes in - a avea gusturi asemntoare pentru to be superior in - a fi superior n/ca to indulge in - a se complace n, a se deda la to interfere in smth. - a se amesteca/bga n ceva to laugh in smb.'s face - a-i rde cuiva n nas to participate in smth. - a participa la ceva to succeed in - a reui s AT - LA to be astonished at smth. - a fi uimit/surprins de ceva to be good at smth. - a fi bun, a se pricepe la ceva to be indignant at smth. - a fi indignat de ceva to be surprised at smth. - a fi surprins de ceva to glance at smb./smth. - a arunca o privire la cineva/ceva to knock at - a bate la to look at smb./smth. - a privi la cineva/ceva to play at smth. - a se juca de-a ceva to laugh at smb./smth. - a rde de cineva/ceva to rush at smb./smth. - a se repezi la cineva/ceva BY - lng, cu, dup, pe etc. to be impressed by smb./smth. - a fi impresionat de cineva/ceva to be preoccupied by smth. - a fi preocupat de ceva to begin by - a ncepe prin a to pass by smb./smth. - a trece de cineva/ceva to profit by smth. - a profita de ceva AGAINST - contra, mpotriva to defend against - a apra contra/mpotriva to knock against smth. - a se lovi de ceva to protect smb. against smth. - a proteja pe cineva mpotriva/de ceva AFTER - DUP

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to look after smth./smb. - a avea grij, a se ngriji de ceva/cineva WITHOUT - FR to do without - a se lipsi/dispensa de - a se descurca fr to ask smb. smth. - a ntreba pe cineva ceva to interfere between - a se amesteca ntre to look like smb. - a semna cu cineva to look like smth. - a semna cu ceva to move smth. near smth. - a muta ceva lng ceva to pass oneself off as - a se da/prezenta drept to transform smth. into smth. else - a transforma ceva n altceva to pass smb./smth. - a trece de cineva/ceva n limba romn aceste complemente prepoziionale au ca echivalent complementul indirect n acuzativ care rspunde la ntrebrile: cu cine?, cu ce?, la cine?, la ce?, fr cine? etc. 2.1.4.4. Complementul circumstanial de loc (The Adverbial of Place) Se exprim printr-un adverb de loc. William the Conqueror landed at Pevensey, on the coast of Sussex. - William Cuceritorul a debarcat la Pevensey, pe coasta Sussex-ului. We are at home. - Noi suntem acas. English is spoken all over the world. - Engleza este vorbit n toat lumea. Rspunde la ntrebrile: where ? - unde ?, from where ?, where...., from? - de unde ?, how far ? - ct de departe ?, pn unde ? etc. 2.1.4.5. Complementul circumstanial de timp (The Adverbial of Time) Se exprim printr-un adverb de timp. I was at home yesterday. - Yesterday I was at home. - Ieri eram acas. I have never seen him there. - Nu l-am vzut pe el niciodat acolo. We have lived in Craiova for twenty five years. - Locuim n Craiova de douzeci i cinci de ani. Rspunde la ntrebarea when ? - cnd ? 2.1.4.6. Complementul circumstanial de mod (The Adverbial of Manner) Se exprim prin adverbe de mod. Alice sings beautifully. - Alice cnt frumos. The children were playing happily. - Copiii se jucau fericii. Rspunde la ntrebrile: how ? - cum ?, how much ? - ct, ct ?, in what way ? - n ce fel ?, how many times ? de cte ori ? 2.1.4.7. Complementul circumstanial de cauz (The Adverbial of Cause) Exprim cauza aciunii svrite de subiect i exprimat prin predicat. I couldn't come because of the rain. - N-am putut veni din cauza ploii. We arrived late on my account. - Am ajuns trziu din cauza mea. Rspunde la ntrebrile: why ? - de ce ?, for what reason ? - din ce cauz/motiv ?, on what account ? - din ce cauz ?, on whose account ? - din cauza cui ? - din a cui cauz ? 2.1.4.8. Complementul circumstanial de scop/final (The Adverbial of Purpose) Reprezint materializarea scopului subiectului propoziiei n care se afl. He only works for money. - El muncete numai pentru bani. He worked hard to make a good impression and to get much money. - A muncit mult/ serios ca s fac o bun impresie i s ctige bani muli. This device is used for various purposes. - Acest dispozitiv este folosit n/pentru diverse scopuri. Rspunde la ntrebrile: for what purpose(s) ? - cu ce scop(uri) ?, for what ? - what... for ? - pentru ce ? 2.1.4.9. Complementul circumstanial concesiv (The Adverbial of Concession) They have come in spite of the bad weather. - Ei au venit cu toat vremea rea. They played tennis in spite of my refusal not to play. - Ei au jucat tenis n pofida refuzului meu de a juca. Rspunde la ntrebri ca: in spite of whom /what ? - n pofida/ciuda cui ? 2.1.4.10. Complementul circumstanial condiional (The Adverbial of Condition) Reprezint condiia subiectului n propoziie.

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Weather permitting we'll arrive earlier. - Dac vremea va permite vom sosi mai devreme. - Cu permisiunea vremii vom ajunge mai devreme. Come with your friend if possible! - Vino cu prietenul tu dac e posibil! Rspunde la ntrebarea: on what condition ? - cu ce condiie ? 2.1.4.11. Complementul de agent (The Adverbial of Agency) Complementul de agent sau subiectul logic este folosit numai la diateza pasiv. The book was read by the student. - Cartea a fost citit de student(). Se vede clar c autorul aciunii este studentul. Cartea este subiectul gramatical, ntruct despre ea se face comunicarea. The house was destroyed by the earthquake. - Casa a fost distrus de cutremurul de pmnt. Rspunde la ntrebrile: by whom ? - who(m)... by ? - de (ctre) cine ?, by what ? - what ...by ? - de ce ? 2.2. SINTAXA FRAZEI (THE SYNTAX OF THE COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCE) Fraza este o comunicare alctuit din mai multe propoziii aflate ntre ele fie n raporturi de coordonare fie de subordonare. n cadrul coordonrii, prile de propoziie n propoziie i propoziiile n fraz sunt independente una de alta. Se pot lega ntre ele prin conjuncii coordonatoare sau juxtapunere / alturare. Subordonare nsemneaz raport / relaie sintactic de dependen a unei pri de propoziie de alt parte de propoziie sau a unei propoziii de alt propoziie. Elementul subordonat depinde de termenul su regent, iar propoziia subordonat depinde de regenta sa. Elementul subordonat este deci termenul dependent, iar cel regent este cel care guverneaz n cadrul relaiei respective. Subordonarea se realizeaz prin conjuncii subordonatoare, prin juxtapunere sau printr-un cuvnt de legtur subordonator. Propoziia regent este aceea de care depinde semantic o alt propoziie n cadrul aceleiai fraze. Propoziia subordonat se poate adresa unui singur cuvnt din regenta sa, iar acest cuvnt, care se numete termen regent, determin felul subordona-tei respective. Pentru a se alctui o fraz este necesar ca n cadrul ei s existe o propoziie principal, un fel de nucleu al frazei. Alturi de ea exist propoziii secundare, adic propoziii totdeauna cu sens insuficient. Secundarele, spre deosebire de principale nu pot exista /funciona izolate n comunicare. Propoziia secundar funcioneaz n fraz ca o parte secundar a propoziiei principale. 2.2.1. Propoziia subiectiv (The Subject Clause) Funcioneaz ca subiect al predicatului din regent i ntregete nelesul regentei. Why they didn't come is still a secret. - De ce nu au venit ei este nc secret. How to write a book is not known by anybody. - Cum s scrii o carte nu se tie de ctre oricine. Se ntlnete dup expresii ca: it is advisable that - este recomandabil ca it is better that - este mai bine s it is certain that - este sigur c it is desirable that - este de dorit ca it is meet and proper that - se cuvine ca it is inevitable that - este inevitabil ca It is necessary that I came. - Este necesar ca eu s fi venit. It is important that they will buy this book. - Este important ca ei s cumpere aceast carte. It is possible that he may come tomorrow. - Este posibil ca el s vin mine. When they will come is not my business. - Cnd vor veni ei nu este treaba mea. When they come is not my business. - Cnd vin ei nu este treaba mea. When they came is not my business. - Cnd au venit ei nu este treaba mea. When they had come is not my business. - Cnd veniser ei nu este treaba mea. It is impossible that they should have come by train. - Este imposibil ca ei s fi venit cu trenul. It is compulsory for us to be there. - It is compulsory that we should be there. - It is compulsory that we be there. Este obligatoriu ca noi s fim acolo. It is good for them to live here. - It is good that they live here. - It is good that they should live here. - E bine ca ei s locuiasc aici. 2.2.2. Propoziia predicativ (The Predicative/Complement Clause) mplinete funcia de nume predicativ al verbului din regenta sa i se introduce n maniera n care se introduc i subiectivele. Why he has come is the question. - De ce a venit el este problema. Why he has come - subiectiv is the question - predicativ It looks as if it were going to rain. - Arat de parc ar avea de gnd s plou. It looks - subiectiv ; were going to rain - predicativ 2.2.3. Propoziia atributiv (The Atributive Clause) Este un atribut al unui substantiv din regenta sa.

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Every man, who knows him, appreciates him very much. - Fiecare om, care l cunoate, l apreciaz foarte mult. Every man appreciates him very much - propoziie regent who knows him - atributiv Termenul regent al atributivei de mai sus este substantivul man. The reason why he has come is very clear. - Motivul pentru care a venit este foarte clar. It rained cats and dogs on the day on which we arrived. - A plouat cu gleata n ziua n care am sosit. 2.2.4. Propoziia completiv direct (The Object Clause) Este complementul direct al verbului tranzitiv din regent. I did not ask him whether he was thirsty. - Nu l-am ntrebat dac i este/era sete. Did you know whose that house was ? - Ai tiut tu a cui este/era casa aceea ? I told you whom he gave the books to. - Eu i-am spus cui a dat el crile. He said that he would come later on. - El a zis c va veni dup aceea. I advised him to stay with us. - I advised that he stay with us. - L-am sftuit s stea cu noi. 2.2.5. Propoziia subordonat temporal (The Adverbial Clause of Time) Este n fraz complementul circumstanial de timp pe lng un verb sau adverb din regenta sa. I shall read this book when I have time. - Voi citi aceast carte cnd voi avea timp. Termenul regent este verbul read. Buy your ticket immediately that you reach the station! - Cumpr-i biletul imediat cum ajungi la gar! I shall read this book before you come home. - Voi citi aceast carte nainte ca tu s vii acas. I shall give you the money as soon as I meet you. - i voi da banii de ndat ce te voi ntlni. They have been dancing ever since the party started. - Ei danseaz chiar de cnd a nceput petrecerea. She is happy when she is with her family. - Ea este fericit cnd este cu familia ei. You may stay until your cousin arrives. - Poi sta pn sosete veriorul tu. He may write the letter while we are swimming. - El poate scrie scrisoarea n timp ce noi notm. You will repeat the lesson till/until you know it. - Vei repeta lecia pn o vei ti. No sooner had the sunset than they went to bed. - Nici n-a apus soarele c ei s-au i dus la culcare. He may stay until John comes. - El poate sta pn vine John. Subordonata temporal rspunde la ntrebrile: when ? - cnd ?, how long? - de ct timp ?, since when ? - de cnd ?, till when ? - pn cnd ? etc. 2.2.6. Propoziia circumstanial de loc (The Adverbial Clause of Place) Este complementul circumstanial de loc al unui verb sau adverb din regenta sa de care se leag prin adverbe relative ca: where - unde, wherever - oriunde etc. You cannot live where they live. - Nu poi tri unde triesc ei. We may spend our holidays wherever we like. - Noi putem petrece vacana/ concediul oriunde ne place. I'll go wherever I can find work. - Voi merge oriunde pot gsi de lucru. 2.2.7. Subordonata de proporie (The Clause of Proportion) Este o variant a subordonatei de mod. The more we are, the better it is. - Cu ct suntem mai muli, cu att mai bine. As time went on, (so) she began to type more quickly. - Cum timpul a trecut, ea a nceput s bat la main mai repede. - Cu trecerea timpului ea a nceput s scrie la main mai repede. The harder you work, the more money you make. - Cu ct munceti mai mult, cu att ctigi mai muli bani. 2.2.8. Subordonata preferenial (The Clause of Preference) Se traduce prin subordonata opoziional. Rather than play football, I'd prefer to swim. - Dect s joc fotbal, a prefera s not. Rather than play football, you had better learn. - Dect s joci fotbal, mai bine ai nva. - Dect s joci fotbal, mai bine s nvei. I would play football rather than learn. - A juca fotbal mai degrab dect s nv. 2.2.9. Propoziia circumstanial de mod i comparativ (The Adverbial Clause of Manner and Comparison) Joac rolul de complement circumstanial de mod pe lng un verb sau un adverb din regenta sa. Mary sings as beautifully as her sister does. - Maria cnt la fel de frumos cum cnt sora ei. My friend is older than your friend (is). - Prietenul meu este mai mare/btrn dect este al tu. He looked at me as if/though he hadn't known me. - El a privit la mine de parc nu m-ar fi cunoscut. Alice sings more beautifully than Jane (does). - Alice cnt mai frumos dect cnt Jane. She was singing as beautifully as her sister, Alice was. - Ea cnta la fel de frumos cum cnta sora ei, Alice. Tomorrow we shall work more than we worked yesterday. - Mine vom munci mai mult dect am muncit ieri. Subordonata circumstanial de mod rspunde la ntrebrile: how? - cum?, how beautifully ? - ct de frumos ?, how much ? - ct de mult ?, how little ? - ct de puin ?, how big ? - ct de mare ? etc.

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She cooks the breakfast exactly as her mother did. - Ea pregtete micul dejun exact cum fcea mama ei. 2.2.10. Propoziia subordonat cauzal (The Adverbial Clause of Cause/Reason) Este n fraza respectiv un complement circumstanial de cauz pe lng termenul su regent care este un verb sau un adverb din regenta sa. I didn't meet them there because I was late. - Nu i-am ntlnit acolo pentru c am ntrziat. Se leag de regenta sa prin conjuncii sau adverbe relative ca: because - pentru c, for the reason that - pentru motivul c, seeing that - vznd c, on the ground that - din cauz c, owing to the fact that - datorit faptului c, as cci, since - ntruct, on account that - din cauz c etc. Rspunde la ntrebri ca: why ? - de ce ?, on what account ? - din ce cauz, for what reason ? - din ce motiv/cauz ? etc. Seeing that they did not come I went home. - Vznd c ei nu vin am plecat acas. I did not come owing to the fact that it was too late. - Eu nu am venit pentru faptul c era prea trziu. 2.2.11. Propoziia subordonat final (de scop) (The Adverbial Clause of Purpose) Corespunde n fraza respectiv unui complement circumstanial de cauz pe lng un verb sau adverb din regenta sa, respectiv pe lng termenul su regent. You must get up earlier, so that you can meet him at the station. - Trebuie s te scoli mai devreme ca s-l poi ntmpina pe el la gar. We got up early, so that we should not be late for school. - Ne-am sculat de-noapte ca s nu ntrziem de la coal. He must turn on the light lest he should knock himself against something in the darkness. - El trebuie s aprind lumina ca s nu se loveasc de ceva pe ntuneric. Subordonata final se leag de regenta sa prin conjunciile i adverbele relative: in order that - cu scopul de a, so that - aa nct, that - nct/c, lest (+ should) - ca s nu, for fear that - de team s nu, on purpose to - cu scopul de a. I shall go to England so that I can learn English well. - Eu voi merge n Anglia ca s pot nva englezete bine. n limba englez un mare numr de subordonate finale se realizeaz cu ajutorul modului infinitiv, dei se tie c infinitivul nu este un mod personal. We go to school to learn. - Mergem la coal s nvm. - Mergem la coal pentru a nva. We go to church to pray. - Mergem la biseric pentru a ne ruga. - Mergem la biseric s ne rugm. They came here on purpose to borrow money from us. - Ei au venit aici cu scopul de a mprumuta bani de la noi. Rspunde la ntrebrile: on what purpose ? - cu ce scop ?, for what reason ? - pentru care motiv ?, for what ? what.. for ? - pentru ce ? 2.2.12. Subordonata concesiv (The Adverbial Clause of Concession) Se introduce prin conjunciile: though, although - dei, cu toate c, however - orict de, whoever - indiferent cine, in spite of - n ciuda /pofida, even if/though - chiar dac, whichever - indiferent care, no matter who - indiferent cine, no matter whose - indiferent al, a, ai, ale cui ?, no matter by whom - no matter who(m)... by - indiferent de cine, no matter why - indiferent de ce, no matter how - indiferent cum , no matter when - indiferent cnd, no matter where indiferent unde Though it is late we shall sit and watch the football match. - Dei este trziu noi vom sta i vom privi meciul de fotbal. We shall watch the football match although it is late. - Noi vom privi meciul de fotbal dei este trziu. Late as it is we shall watch the football match. - Trziu aa cum este noi vom privi meciul de fotbal. - Aa trziu cum este noi vom privi meciul de fotbal. You should be waiting for him even if it were late. - Ar trebui s-l atepi chiar dac ar fi trziu. n acest ultim exemplu se observ n subordonat folosirea modului subjonctiv prin care se exprim o situaie ireal sau o presupunere. You should have been waiting for him even if it had been late. - Ar fi trebuit s-l atepi chiar dac era trziu. We shall go to see them even if it is rather early. - Mergem pe la ei dei este cam devreme. I buy it however expensive it is. - l /O cumpr indiferent ct este de scump(). I should buy it however expensive it were. - A cumpra-o indiferent ct ar fi ea de scump. - L-a cumpra indiferent ct ar fi de scump. If they're poor, at least they're honest. - Dac sunt sraci cel puin sunt cinstii. 2.2.13. Propoziia consecutiv (The Adverbial Clause of Result or The Consecutive Adverbial Clause) Exprim rezultatul/urmarea/consecina aciunii din propoziia regent. Alice was so beautiful that everybody was admiring her. - Alice era aa/att de frumoas nct toat lumea o admira. His explanation was so clear that each of us understood it - Explicaia lui a fost aa de clar nct fiecare dintre noi a neles-o. He never goes to the seaside but spend a lot of money. - El nu merge niciodat la mare fr s cheltuiasc muli bani. Such was the force of his argument that everybody agreed with him. - Aa mare a fost fora argumentului su c toat lumea a fost de acord cu el. Se introduce prin conjunciile: so... that... - aa de... nct/c, that - c/nct

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He was so clever that everybody admired him. - El era aa/att de detept c/nct toat lumea l admira. 2.2.14. Propoziia subordonat condiional (The Adverbial Clause of Condition or the Conditional Clause) Reprezint condiia nfptuirii/ndeplinirii aciunii din regenta sa. Se leag de regenta sa cu ajutorul conjunciilor condiionale : if - dac, on condition that - cu condiia c, providing/provided that - cu condiia c, suppose/supposing that - presupunnd c - dac, unless - dac nu, cu condiia c nu , whether... or not - dac... sau nu, as soon as - de ndat ce - dac, as long as - ct timp - dac, in case - n caz c - dac Exist trei tipuri de condiionale, clasificare fcut n raport cu posibilitatea realizrii/ ndeplinirii aciunii din regenta respectiv. a) Subordonata condiional tip I condiie real i posibil, iar verbul din regenta sa este la viitor. Locul lor n fraz se poate schimba. If I have time I shall read this book. - Dac voi avea timp voi citi aceast carte. I shall read this book if I have time. - Voi citi aceast carte dac voi avea timp. I shall not read this book unless I have time. - Nu voi citi aceast carte dac nu voi avea timp. I shall read this book on the condition that I have time. - Voi citi aceast carte cu condiia c voi avea timp. Remind him of his promise in case he forgets. - Amintete-i de promisiunea lui n caz c uit. I'll remind you of your promise in case you forget. - i voi aminti de promisiunea ta n caz c uii. I'll not be waiting for you if you are late. - Nu te voi atepta dac vei ntrzia. I'll not wait for you if you are late. - Nu te voi atepta dac vei ntrzia. Din exemplele de mai sus se vede c aciunea din condiional probabil/ posibil se va ndeplini. b) Subordonata condiional tip II condiie ireal i improbabil, dar nu imposibil. I should read this book if I had time. - Eu a citi aceast carte dac a avea timp. Se observ c n exemplul de mai sus verbul este la modul condiional, timpul prezent, iar n regent verbul este modul subjonctiv, timpul prezent. n aceast situaie condiia devine probabil. n acest caz aciunea din regent pare mai degrab s nu se realizeze sau presupunerea din regent pare s fie n contradicie cu realitatea ori faptele cunoscute. He would buy this palace if he had money. - El ar cumpra acest palat dac ar avea bani. If he were to go on a journey round the world he would be very happy. - Dac el ar fi/ trebui/ urma s mearg ntr-o cltorie n jurul lumii ar fi foarte fericit. He would be very happy if he were to go on a journey round the world. - El ar fi foarte fericit dac ar fi s plece/mearg ntr-o cltorie n jurul lumii. c) Subordonata condiional tip III condiie imposibil n situaia aceasta verbul din regent este la modul condiional perfect, iar cel din regent este la modul subjonctiv perfect. Condiiile sunt trecute, sunt deci imposibil de ndeplinit. If I had had time I should have read the book. - Dac a fi avut timp a fi citit cartea. sau: I should have read the book if I had had time. - Eu a fi citit cartea dac a fi avut timp. I should have spoken to that Englishman if I had been able to speak English. - A fi vorbit cu englezul acela dac a fi tiut englezete. sau: Had I been able to speak English I should have spoken to that Englishman. - S fi tiut eu s vorbesc englezete a fi vorbit cu englezul acela. If you treat us kindly, we'll do anything for you. - Dac ne tratezi (ne vei trata) amabil vom face orice pentru tine. If you listened to us, you wouldn't make mistakes. - Dac tu ai asculta de noi n-ai face greeli. If you ever have any trouble, let us know. - Dac avei/ai vreodat vreo suprare, d-ne de tire. If it were to rain, you would get wet. - Dac ar fi s plou, v-ai uda. Should you change your mind, let me know. - Dac s-ar ntmpla s te rzgndeti, d-mi de veste. Give it back to him, or I'll tell your mother. - D-i-l napoi c altfel i spun mamei tale. 2.2.15. Subordonata condiional concesiv (The Alternative Conditional Concessive Clause) He will pay for everything, whether he likes it or not. - El va plti pentru tot, chiar dac i place sau nu. Wherever you live, you have to work hard. - Oriunde (indiferent unde) trieti, trebuie s munceti serios/mult. Wherever you lived, you'd have to work hard. - Oriunde ai locui/tri ar trebui s munceti mult. 2.3. CONCORDANA TIMPURILOR (THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES) Este acordul obligatoriu al timpului verbului din subordonat cu timpul verbului din regenta sa. n limba englez timpul verbului din subordonat trebuie s se subordoneze timpului verbului din regent. Cu alte cuvinte timpurile verbelor din regente dicteaz folosirea anumitor timpuri n subordonatele lor. Exist n acest sens trei reguli de cunoscut i aplicat. Regula I: Dac n regent verbul este la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense n subordonat se poate folosi orice timp.

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Regula II: Dac n regent verbul este la trecut n subordonat el trebuie s fie la unul din cele trei timpuri trecute ale limbii engleze: The Past Perfect, The Past Tense, The Future in the Past. Regula III: Dac verbul din regent este la viitor n subordonatele condiionale i temporale, el trebuie s fie la Present Tense sau Present Perfect Tense, iar dac subordonata este completiv direct verbul va fi la viitor. REGENT I. Verbul este la prezent SUBORDONAT verbul poate fi la orice timp

he had come - venise he came - a venit We all know that - Noi toi tim c he will come - el va veni he would come - el ar veni he would have come - el ar fi venit II. Verbul este la trecut verbul trebuie s fie la trecut she had come - ea venise - anterioritate He did not know that - El nu a tiut c she came - ea a venit - simultaneitate she would come - va veni - posterioritate III. Verbul este la viitor A. verbul s fie la Present sau Present Perfect n subordonatele condiionale i temporale I shall tell you the truth if/when - i voi spune adevrul dac /cnd you give (have given) me the book. - mi vei da cartea. B. verbul va fi la orice timp n subordonata completiv direct. I shall see what - Eu voi vedea ce I shall do. - voi face. EXCEPII (deci cazuri cnd nu se aplic regulile de concordan a timpurilor) 1. Cnd n subordonat se exprim un adevr tiinific /general. Everybody knew that gold is a metal. - Toat lumea tia c aurul este metal. I told you that silver is gray. - i-am spus c argintul este gri. 2. Cnd subordonata este: a) cauzal He will not go to school because he didn't learn his lessons. - El nu va merge la coal pentru c nu i-a nvat leciile. We shall go on the trip because they gave us the money. - Vom merge n excursie pentru c ei ne-au dat banii. b) atributiv You will see the man who wrote that book. - l vei vedea pe omul care a scris cartea aceea. I saw the girl who will play the piano. - Am vzut fata care va cnta la pian. c) comparativ modal Tomorrow I shall work more than I worked yesterday. - Mine voi munci mai mult dect am muncit ieri. Alte exemple: If you didn't give him the money he won't buy any books. - Dac nu i-ai dat banii el nu va cumpra nici o carte. If I had bought that house I would be a rich man now. - Dac a fi cumprat casa aceea a fi un om bogat acum. If you came in time you wouldn't have missed the train. - Dac veneai la timp n-ai fi pierdut trenul. If you were with us you would have admired the scenery. - Dac erai cu noi ai fi admirat peisajul. 2.4. TRANSFORMAREA VORBIRII DIRECTE N VORBIRE INDIRECT Vorbirea direct reprezint cuvintele unei persoane rostite ntr-o mprejurare, n prezena cuiva sau n conversaie cu cineva. n limba romn vorbirea direct se marcheaz n scris prin linie de dialog. n limba englez ea se marcheaz prin ghilimele, care se ataeaz totdeauna sus. limba englez limba romn "What is your name ?" he asked me. - Cum te cheam ? m ntreb el. "My name is George", I answered. M cheam George, am rspuns eu. Prezentarea /repetarea cuvintelor unei persoane de ctre alta oral sau n scris poart numele de vorbire direct sau stil direct - aa cum se vede n exemplele de mai sus. Reluarea acestor cuvinte i prezentarea lor de (ctre) cineva sub form de propoziii subordonate poart numele de vorbire indirect sau stil indirect. S-a transformat astfel vorbirea direct n vorbire indirect. "What is your name ?" he asked me. - Cum te cheam ? m ntreb el. devine: He asked me what my name was. - El m ntreb cum m cheam.

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Exist un mare numr de verbe cu ajutorul crora se realizeaz trecerea de la vorbirea direct la vorbirea indirect. Printre acestea sunt: to say (a zice /gri), to ask (a ntreba), to admit (a admite /ncuviina), to acknowledge (a recunoate), to agree (a fi de acord), to answer /reply (a rspunde), to think (a gndi /crede), to tell (a spune), to wonder (a se mira) etc. Ele se numesc verbe introductive. Iat concret cum se face transformarea vorbirii directe n vorbire indirect: a) "I am at home" he says. b) "I am at home" he said. Dac verbul introductiv este la prezent, aa cum se vede n varianta a) verbul din vorbirea direct care prin transformare ajunge predicatul subordonatei, nu-i va modifica timpul, ci i-l va menine astfel: "I am at home" he says. devine: He says (that) he is at home. Propoziia regent este He says, iar propoziia he is at home este subordonat. n varianta b) transformarea se face astfel: "I am at home" he said. devine: He said that he was at home. Verbul said, n vorbirea indirect, verbul regentei, este la Past Tense. Vom aplica concordana timpurilor. Astfel verbul am trece i el la Past Tense. n cazul b) timpurile verbelor din vorbirea direct transformndu-se dup cum urmeaz: The Present devine The Past Tense The Past Tense i The Present Perfect devin The Past Perfect The Future devine The Future in the Past Tot n aceast situaie se mai produc urmtoarele schimbri: I

he/ she I/ we the y our

you

the ir hi m/ her me /us

we

me

my

his /he r my /ou r his/ her s mi ne tha t tha t day

you

you r

us

the m

mi ne

our s

the irs

you rs this

you rs the se last we ek

our s tho se the we ek bef ore

tod ay

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yes ter day

the day bef ore or the pre vio us day the mo nth bef ore two /th ree day s bef ore the re

last nig ht

the nig ht bef ore

last mo nth

last yea r

the yea r bef ore

two /th ree day s ago

her e

on this day

on tha t day tha t nig ht the nex t day or the foll owi ng day

no w

the n

ton igh t

tod ay

yes ter day or tha t day

to mo rro w

Exemple: "This is my brother" he said. He said that that was his brother. "These are our friends" they said. They said that those were their friends. "You are in our garden" they said. They said that we were in their garden; They said that I was in their garden. "I can come by my motor-car" John said. John said that he could come by his motor-car; John said that he was able to come by his motor-car. "I shall come by my motor-car" John said. John said that he would come by his motor-car. "I came by my motor-car" John said. John said that he had come by his motor-car. "I have come by my motor-car" John said. John said that he had come by his motor-car. "I should come by my motor-car" John said. John said that he would have come by his motor-car. "Yesterday was my birthday" John said. John said that the previous day had been his birthday.

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"You can see us if you turn on the light" they said. They said that we could see them if we turned on the light. "You will find us at home if you come earlier" they said. They said that we/I would find them at home if we/I came earlier. "You can see me if you open your eyes" he said. He said that I could see him if I opened my eyes. 2.4.1. Transformarea n vorbire indirect a ntrebrilor generale ntrebrile generale sunt cele care pot primi rspunsul da sau nu. "Do you know me"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I knew him. "Did you know me"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I had known him. "Are you living in this town"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I was living in that town. "Will you come with us"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I would come with them. "Is he going to read this book"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether he was going to read that book. "Was he going to read this book ? he asked me. He asked me if/whether he had been going to read that book. "Can you come with me"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I could come with him. "Must you go there now"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I had to go there then. "Did you have to go there with them"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I had had to go there with them. 2.4.2. Transformarea n vorbire indirect a ntrebrilor speciale ntrebrile speciale sunt cele care: nu pot primi un rspuns scurt, adic da sau nu au o intonaie cobortoare (ca i propoziiile afirmative) se formeaz cu pronume, adjective sau adverbe interogative, sau cu combinaii ale acestora: who? - cine, care ? who else ? - mai cine ?, cine mai ?, cine altcineva ? whose ? - al, a, ai, ale cui ? whose else ? - al, a, ai, ale mai cui ?, al, a, ai, ale cui mai ?, al, a, ai, ale cui altcuiva ? to whom ? - who(m)... to ? - cui ?, la cine ? to whom else ? - mai cui ?, cui mai ?, cui altcuiva ?, la cine altcineva ? whom? - pe cine? whom else? - pe mai cine?, pe cine mai?, pe cine altcineva? about whom? - who(m)... about? - despre cine? about whom else? - despre mai cine?, despre cine mai?, despre cine altcineva? after whom? - who(m)...after? - dup cine? after whom else? - dup mai cine? - dup cine mai? - dup cine altcineva? among whom? - who(m)... among? - printre cine?, ntre cine? among whom else? - printre mai cine?, printre cine mai?, printre cine altcineva? at whom? - who(m)... at? - la cine? at whom else? - who(m) else... at? - la mai cine?, la cine mai?, la cine altcineva? because of whom else? - din cauza mai cui?, din a mai cui cauz? before whom else? - naintea mai cui?, n faa mai cui?, naintea cui altcuiva? between whom? - who(m)... between? - ntre cine? between whom else? - ntre mai cine?, ntre cine altcineva? beyond whom? - who(m)... beyond? - dincolo de cine? beyond whom else? - dincolo de mai cine?, dincolo de cine altcineva? by whom? - who(m)... by? - de cine? by whom else? - de mai cine?, de cine altcineva? far from whom? - departe de cine? far from whom else? - departe de mai cine?, departe de cine altcineva? for whom? - who(m)... for? - pentru cine? for whom else? - pentru mai cine?, pentru cine altcineva? from whom? - who(m)... from? - de la cine? from whom else? - de la mai cine?, de la cine altcineva? near whom? - who(m) near? - lng cine? near whom else? - lng mai cine?, lng cine altcineva? of whom? - who(m)... of? - despre cine? - la cine? of whom else? - despre mai cine?, despre cine altcineva? past whom? - dincolo de cine? past whom else? - dincolo de mai cine?, dincolo de cine altcineva? through whom? - who(m)... through? - prin cine? through whom else? - prin mai cine?, prin cine altcineva?, prin cine altul/alta/alii/altele?

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with whom? - who(m)... with? - cu cine? with whom else? - cu mai cine?, cu cine altcineva? without whom? - who(m)... without? - fr cine? without whom else? - fr mai cine?, fr cine altcineva? what? - ce? what else? - mai ce?, ce mai?, ce altceva? about what? - what... about? - despre ce? about what else? - despre mai ce?, despre ce altceva? after what? - what... after? - dup ce? after what else? - dup mai ce? - dup ce altceva? at what? - what.. at? - la ce? at what else? - la mai ce?, la ce altceva? because of what? - din cauza cui? because of what else? - din cauza mai cui?, din ce alt cauz? before what? - nainte de ce?, n faa a ce? before what else? - n faa mai cui?, n faa a ce altceva? by what? - what... by? - de ce?, prin ce? by what else? - de ce altceva?, prin ce altceva? far from what? - departe de ce? far from what else? - departe de ce altceva? from what? - what... from? - din ce?, de la ce? from what else? - din ce altceva?, din mai ce? near what? - lng ce? near what else? - lng ce altceva?, lng mai ce? of what? - what... of? - despre ce? of what else? - despre ce altceva? past what? - dincolo de ce? past what else? - dincolo de ce altceva?, dincolo de mai ce? through what? - what... through? - prin ce? through what else? - prin ce altceva? with what? - what... with? - cu ce? with what else? - cu ce altceva? without what? - what... without? - fr ce? without what else? - fr ce altceva?, fr mai ce? when? - cnd? when else? - cnd altcndva?, mai cnd? from when? - de cnd? from when else? - de cnd altcndva?, de mai cnd? since when? - de cnd? since when else? - de cnd altcndva? till/until when? - pn cnd? where? - unde? where else? - unde mai?, mai unde?, unde altundeva? where abouts? - pe unde? from where? - de unde? from where else? - de unde altundeva? which? - care? about which? - which... about? - despre care? about which of them? - despre care din/dintre ei/ele? after which of us/you/them? - dup care dintre noi/voi/ei /ele? after which (boy)? - dup care (biat)?, dup al ctelea biat? among which (trees)? - ntre/printre care (copaci)? among which of them? - ntre care dintre ei? (Which one of us is he looking at? - La care dintre noi privete el?) before which of us? - n faa cruia/creia/crora dintre noi? between which of them? - ntre care dintre ei/ele? beyond which (house)? - dincolo de care (cas)? beyond which of them? - dincolo de care dintre ei/ele? far from which (place)? - departe de care (loc)?

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for which of us/you/them? - pentru care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele? from which of us/you/them? - de la care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele? near which of us/you/them? - lng care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele? near which of the lakes? - lng care dintre lacuri? past which of us/you/them? - dincolo de care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele? (Past which of you did he walk? - Dincolo de care dintre voi a trecut el?) through which of us/you/them? - prin care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele? with which of us/you/them? - cu care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele? without which of us/you/them? - fr care dintre noi/voi/ei/ele? how? - cum? how else? - mai cum?, cum mai? how long? - de ct timp?, de ct vreme? "Who are you"? he asked me. He asked me who I was. Cine eti tu? m-a ntrebat el. devine : El m-a ntrebat cine sunt eu. "Who else is with you"? he asked me. He asked me who else was with me. Cine mai este cu tine? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cine mai este/era cu mine. "Whose are these books"? he asked me He asked me whose those books were. Ale cui sunt aceste cri? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ale cui sunt/erau crile acelea. "Whose else are these books"? he asked me. He asked me whose else those books were. Ale cui altcuiva sunt aceste cri? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ale cui altcuiva erau crile acelea. "To whom can you give this money"? he asked me. - "Who(m) can you give this money to"? he asked me. He asked me to whom I could give that money. - He asked me who(m) I could give that money to. Cui poi da aceti bani? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cui pot/puteam s dau banii aceia. "To whom else can you give this money"? he asked me. - "Who(m) else can you give this money to"? he asked me. He asked me to whom else I could give that money. - He asked me whom/who else I could give that money to. Cui altcuiva poi da aceti bani? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cui altcuiva i pot/puteam da eu banii aceia. "Whom do you see"? he asked me. He asked me whom I saw. Pe cine vezi? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat pe cine vd. "Whom else do you see"? he asked me. He asked me whom/who else I saw. Pe cine altcineva vezi? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat pe cine altcineva vd. - El m-a ntrebat pe cine mai vd. "About whom are you talking"? he asked me. - "Who(m) are you talking about"? he asked me. He asked me about whom I was talking. - He asked me whom/who I was talking about. Despre cine vorbeti? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat despre cine vorbesc. "About whom else can we talk"? he asked me. - "Who(m) else can we talk about"? he asked me. He asked me about whom else we could talk. - He asked me who(m) else we could talk about. Despre cine altcineva putem discuta?, m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat despre cine altcineva putem discuta. "After whom is the dog running"? he asked me. - "Who(m) is the dog running after"? he asked me. He asked me after whom the dog was running. - He asked me who(m) the dog was running after. Dup cine alearg cinele? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dup cine alearg cinele. "After whom else was the dog running"? he asked me. - "Who(m) else was the dog running after"? he asked me. He asked me after whom else the dog was running. - He asked me who(m) else the dog was running after. Dup cine altcineva alerga cinele? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dup cine altcineva alerga cinele. "Go and fetch a doctor" he told me. He told me to go and fetch a doctor. Du-te i adu un doctor, mi-a zis el. El mi-a zis s merg (s m duc) s aduc un doctor. "At whom are you looking"? he asked me. - "Who(m) are you looking at"? he asked me. He asked me at whom I was looking. - He asked me who(m) I was looking at. La cine priveti tu? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat la cine privesc eu. "Because of whom are you late"? he asked me. He asked me because of whom I was late. - He asked me who(m) I was late because of. Din cauza cui ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat din cauza cui am ntrziat. "On whose account are you late"? he asked me. - "Whose account are you late on"? he asked me. He asked me on whose account I was late. - He asked me whose account I was late on. Din cauza cui ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat din cauza cui am ntrziat. "Due to what are you late"? he asked me. He asked me due to what I was late. Datorit crui fapt ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat datorit crui fapt am ntrziat. "Due to whom are you late"? he asked me. He asked me due to whom I was late. - He asked me who(m) was I late due to. Datorit cui ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat datorit cui am ntrziat. "Because of whom else are you late"? he asked me. He asked me because of whom/who else I was late. Din cauza cui altcuiva ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat din cauza cui altcuiva am ntrziat.

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"Due to whom else are you late"? he asked me. - "Who(m) else are you late due to"? he asked me. He asked me due to whom else I was late. - He asked me whom/who else I was late due to. Datorit cui altcuiva ai ntrziat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat datorit cui altcuiva am ntrziat. "Before whom were you sitting"? he asked me. He asked me before whom I had been sitting. - He asked me who(m) I had been sitting before. n faa cui edeai tu, m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat n faa cui edeam eu. "Before whom else were you sitting"? he asked me. He asked me before whom else I had been sitting. n faa cui altcuiva edeai tu? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat n faa cui altcuiva edeam eu. "Between whom are you going to sit"? he asked me. -"Who(m) are you going to sit between? he asked me. He asked me between whom I was going to sit. ntre cine intenionezi s ezi? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ntre cine intenionez eu s ed/stau. "Between whom else did you sit"? he asked me. - "Who(m) else did you sit between"? he asked me. He asked me between whom else I had sat. - He asked me who(m) else I had sat between. ntre cine altcineva ai stat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat ntre cine altcineva am stat. "Beyond whom do you live"? he asked me. - "Who(m) do you live beyond"? he asked me. He asked me beyond whom I lived. Dincolo de cine locuieti? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dincolo de cine locuiesc. "By whom is this book written"? he asked me. - "Who(m) is this book written by"? he asked me. He asked me by whom that book was written. - He asked me who(m) that book was written by. De cine este scris cartea aceasta? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de cine este scris cartea aceasta/aceea. "By whom else were you seen"? he asked me. - "Who(m) else were you seen by"? he asked me. He asked me by whom else I had been seen. - He asked me who(m) else I had been seen by. De cine altcineva ai fost vzut? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de cine altcineva am fost eu vzut. "Far from whom do you live"? he asked me. He asked me far from whom I lived. Departe de cine locuieti tu? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat departe de cine locuiesc. "Far from whom else were you"? he asked me. He asked me far from whom else I had been. Departe de cine altcineva erai tu? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat departe de cine altcineva eram eu. "For whom will you write this letter"? he asked me. - "Who(m) will you write this letter for"? he asked me. He asked me for whom I should write that letter. - He asked me whom I should write that letter for. Pentru cine vei scrie aceast scrisoare? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat pentru cine voi scrie eu scrisoarea aceea. "For whom else will you buy books" he asked me. - "Who(m) else will you buy books for"? he asked me. He asked me for whom else I should buy books. - He asked me whom else I should buy books for. Pentru cine altcineva vei cumpra cri? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat pentru cine altcineva voi cumpra cri. "From whom do you have this present"? he asked me - "Who(m) do you have this present from"? he asked me. He asked me from whom I had that present. - He asked me whom I had that present from. De la cine ai acest cadou? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de la cine am cadoul acesta/acela. "From whom else do you have these presents"? he asked me. - "Who(m) else do you have these presents from"? he asked me. He asked me from whom else I/we had those presents. - He asked me who(m) else I/we had those presents from. De la cine altcineva ai aceste cadouri? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de la cine altcineva am cadourile acelea/acestea. "Near whom are you going to sit"? he asked me. - "Who(m) are you going to sit near"? he asked me. He asked me near whom I was going to sit. - He asked me who(m) I was going to sit near. Lng cine ai de gnd s ezi? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat lng cine am eu de gnd s ed/stau. "Near whom else did you sit"? he asked me. -"Who(m) else did you sit near"? he asked me. He asked me near whom else I had sat. - He asked me who(m) else I had sat near. Lng cine altcineva ai stat? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat lng cine altcineva am stat (eu). "Of what did they die"? he asked me. - "What did they die of"? he asked me. He asked me of what they died. He asked me what they died of. De ce au murit ei? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de ce au murit ei. "About whom are you speaking"? he asked me. - "Who(m) are you speaking about"? he asked me. He asked me about whom I was speaking. - He asked me who(m) I was speaking about. Despre cine vorbeti tu? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat despre cine vorbesc eu. "Of what kind of music are you fond? he asked me. - "What kind of music are you fond of"? he asked me. He asked me of what kind/sort of music I was fond. - He asked me what kind of music I was fond of. De ce fel de muzic eti amator? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de ce fel/gen de muzic sunt amator. "Past whom did they hurry"? he asked me. - "Who(m) did they hurry past"? he asked me. He asked me past whom they hurried. - He asked me who(m) they hurried past. De cine au trecut ei n grab? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat de cine au trecut ei n grab.

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"Through whom did you receive this letter'? he asked me - "Who(m) did you receive this letter through"? he asked me. He asked me through whom I received that letter. - He asked me whom I had received that letter through. Prin cine ai primit scrisoarea aceasta? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat prin cine am primit scrisoarea aceea. "Through whom else can you receive books"? he asked me. - "Who(m) else can you receive books through"? he asked me. He asked me through whom else I could receive books. - He asked me who(m) else I could receive books through. Prin cine altcineva poi primi cri? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat prin cine altcineva pot primi eu cri. "With whom will you go on the trip"? he asked me. - "Who(m) will you go on the trip with"? he asked me. He asked me with whom I should go on the trip. - He asked me who(m) I should go on the trip with. Cu cine vei merge n excursie? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat cu cine voi merge eu n excursie. "Shall I tell you a novel"? he asked me. He asked me if he should tell me a novel. S-i povestesc un roman? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dac s-mi povesteasc un roman. "Where is the boy you spoke to?" he asked me. He asked me where the boy I had spoken to was. Unde este biatul cu care ai vorbit? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat unde este biatul cu care am vorbit. "Do you know that three and three make six"? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I knew that three and three make six. tii c trei plus trei fac ase? m-a ntrebat el. El m-a ntrebat dac tiu c trei plus trei fac ase. "I dreamed that I was flying" he said. He said (that) he had dreamed that he had been flying. Am visat c zbor, a zis el. El a zis c a visat c zboar. etc. 2.4.3. ntrebrile disjunctive (The Tag/Tail Questions) Se traduc n limba romn prin ntrebrile: aa-i, nu-i aa sau nu? Ele se formeaz cu ajutorul unuia dintre urmtoarele verbe: be, do, have, shall, will, can, may, must, need, ought to, dare You are at home, aren't you? - Eti acas, nu-i aa? You are not at home, are you? - Nu eti acas, nu-i aa? He was at home, wasn't he? - Era acas, nu-i aa? He was not at home, was he? - El nu era acas, nu-i aa? He will not be at home, will he? - El nu va fi acas, nu-i aa? He will be at home, won't he? - El nu va fi acas, nu-i aa? Ele pot avea fie intonaie cobortoare i n acest caz nu se ateapt o confirmare sau o infimare din partea interlocutorului fie o intonaie urctoare i n cazul acesta ntrebarea trebuie s primeasc rspuns (afirmativ sau negativ). De fapt ele sunt nite comunicri formate din dou pri. Dac prima parte este afirmativ, a doua parte este obligatoriu negativ i invers. La formarea lor se mai ine seam, dup cum s-a vzut n exemplele prezentate, de timpul i aspectul verbului primei pri a comunicrii. They saw us in the street, didn't they ? - Ei ne-au vzut (pe noi) pe strad, nu-i aa ? They did not come by bus, did they ? - Ei nu au venit cu autobuzul, nu-i aa ? We have lived here for ten years, haven't we ? - Locuim aici de zece ani, nu-i aa ? You ought to learn, oughtn't you ? - Se cuvine s nvei, nu-i aa ? He can't answer the question, can he ? - Nu poate s rspund la ntrebare, nu-i aa ? I could come earlier, couldn't I ? - Eu puteam (a putea) veni mai devreme, nu-i aa ? She daren't go there alone, dare she ? - Ea nu are curaj s mearg acolo singur, nu-i aa ? You said they could come, didn't you ? - Ai/Ai spus c pot veni, nu ? 2.4.4. Cteva reguli de ortografie i punctuaie n limba englez Punctul (The Full Stop) Punctul se aeaz la sfritul propoziiilor afirmative. We like tennis very much. - Ne place tenisul foarte mult. Semnul ntrebrii (The Question Mark) Semnul ntrebrii se aeaz la sfritul propoziiilor/frazelor interogative. What is your name ? - Cum te cheam ? Who is the boy who brought this book ? - Cine este biatul care a adus cartea aceasta ? Semnul exclamrii (The Exclamation Mark) Semnul exclamrii se folosete dup: a) propoziiile imperative: Go and fetch a doctor! - Du-te i adu un doctor! b) propoziiile care conin o mirare n care se exprim admiraia fa de ceva/ cineva: How beautiful she is! - Ce frumoas este ea ! How beautiful she is singing! - Ce frumos cnt ea! c) dup interjecii: "Hush! Hush!" said the Rabbit. Dou puncte (The Collon)

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Dou puncte se aeaz cnd urmeaz o enumerare, se introduce un citat sau urmeaz cuvintele cuiva (vorbire direct). He said that he saw things like: books, pencils and pens. - El a zis c a vzut lucruri cum ar fi: cri, creioane i stilouri. That's what he said: "Read these books and you will find out interesting things"! - Iat ce a zis el: Citete aceste cri i vei afla lucruri interesante! One can visit the following cities: Cluj, Rome and London. - Se pot vizita urmtoarele orae: Cluj, Roma i Londra. Punctul i virgula (The Semicolon) Punctul i virgula are semnificaia unei pauze mai mari dect cea realizat cu ajutorul punctului. Se folosete mai rar. "I've told you once -I tell you again; We're not at home" - -i-am spus o dat -i spun din nou; nu suntem acas. Virgula (The Comma) Virgula desparte cuvinte sau propoziii cu aceeai valoare sintactic John, Bill and Nick are good friends. - John, Bill i Nick sunt prieteni buni. Ea se folosete: a) dup adverbe de afirmaie sau negaie: No, he said. - Nu, a zis el. Yes, they answered. - Da, au rspuns ei. b) Dup adverbe ca: indeed (ntr-adevr), however (totui), too (de asemenea), of course (desigur): Of course, he is right. - Desigur, el are dreptate. c) n frazele alctuite prin coordonare: They went home, ate a little, took the ball and began to play football. - Au mers acas, au mncat puin, au luat mingea i au nceput s joace fotbal. d) ntre subordonatele de acelai fel: He talked to me about the books that he read, that he had to read and that he liked to read. - Mi-a vorbit despre crile pe care le-a citit, pe care trebuie s le citeasc i pe care i plcea s le citeasc. n numerele lungi, virgula are n limba englez rolul punctului n limba romn. 1, 000, 000 - 1. 000. 000 Linia de desprire (The Dash) Linia de desprire marcheaz o idee nedeterminat sau o pauz lung, asemntoare cu aceea redat prin punct, iar uneori preia locul virgulei: "This will bring them here -when"? - -Asta i va aduce aici -cnd? "It's -it's a very fine day!" said a timid voice at her side. - -Este -este o zi foarte frumoas! zise o voce timid (de) lng ea. Liniua de unire i de desprire (The Hyphen) Se mai numete cratim. Apare n cuvintele compuse: up -to -date - modern kind - hearted - bun la suflet a sewing - machine - o main de cusut Ghilimelele (The Inverted Commas) Ghilimelele n limba englez marcheaz vorbirea direct: "I've not made up my mind", he said. - - Nu m-am hotrt, zise el. 2.4.5. Desprirea cuvintelor n silabe Cuvintele compuse se despart n respectivii componeni: Monday - Mon/day textbook - text/book schoolboy - school/boy understand - under/stand Prefixele i sufixele se despart de cuvintele la care se gsesc ataate: understanding - under/stand/ing scholarship - scholar/ship misunderstanding - mis/under/stand/ing looked - look/ed improvement - improve/ment smaller - small/er Terminaia s la plural, sau la persoana a treia a verbelor sau de la genitivul sintetic nu se poate separa /despri de cuvntul respectiv. speaks - speaks the girls' - the girls' boys - boys the boy's - the boy's Iar acum, n final, celor ce doresc s-i fac o imagine mai cuprinztoare asupra regulilor de punctuaie, le propun s rsfoiasc lucrri ale prozatorilor englezi, americani, australieni etc. Acolo vor putea gsi exemple edificatoare.

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I Present Infinitive to arise to awake to backbite to be to bear to beat to become to beg to begin to bend to beset to bid to bind to bite to bleed to blend to bless to blow to break to breed to bring to broadcast to build to burn to burst to buy to cast to catch to chide to choose to cleave to cling to clothe to come to cost to creep to crow to cut to dare

LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE III IV TRADUCERE Past Participle Present Participle arose arisen arising a se ridica/urca/ sui/ivi, a rsri; a se strni/ isca awoke awake awaking a se trezi/detepta/ scula backbit backbitten/ backbit backbiting a defima/ ponegri/ brfi/calomnia, was/were been being a fi, a se afla /gsi bore born bearing a purta/duce, a transporta/ cra; a rodi, beat beaten beating a bate/lovi ; a suna became become becoming a deveni/ajunge, a se potrivi begot begotten begetting a procrea, a da natere la; a cauza began begun beginning a ncepe, a debuta, a porni bent bent/bended bending a (se) ndoi/ n covoia/nclina/supune, a ceda beset beset besetting a aranja/pune/ potrivi; a bloca; a coplei, a ocupa bid/bade bid/bidden bidding a ruga/implora; a porunci/ ordona, a licita, a fgdui bound bound binding a (se) lega/uni, consolida, cptui, ntri, bit bit/bitten biting a muca, ciupi, apuca, defima bled bled bleeding a stoarce/slei, sngera blent/blended blent/blended blending a (se) amesteca, a (se) combina, (se) asorta, to break broke blessing a binecuvnta/ slvi/ glorifica, apra; sfini to blew blown blowing a bate/sufla, adia, rsuna, erupe broke broken breaking a (se) rupe/ sparge/ frnge bred bred breeding a crete/cultiva, hrni/ nutri, educa, a (se) nmuli brought brought bringing a aduce, mna/ mpinge, determina broadcast broadcast broadcasting a difuza/ rspndi/ transmite, semna built built building a construi/ cldi/ zidi, burnt/ burned burnt burning a arde/cauteriza burst burst bursting a izbucni/ plesni/ crpa bought bought buying a cumpra, corupe/mitui, cast cast casting a arunca/ azvrli, distribui, caught caught catching a (se) prinde/ apuca/fixa, chide chide/chidden chiding a certa/mustra/ dojeni, cicli chose chosen choosing a alege/ selecta/ prefera, a vrea cleft/clove cleft/clove cleaving a (se) crpa/ despica/detaa clung clung clinging a se lipi/aga de, a se ine de; a se mula (pe) clothed/ clad clothed/clad clothing a (se) mbrca/ nvemnta/acoperi, a se gti came come coming a veni/sosi, a se apropia; a exagera cost cost costing a costa/face, fixa preul crept crept creeping a (se) tr/ furia, a fi plecat/ umil crowed/ crew crowed crowing a cnta cucu- rigu; a-i manifesta bucuria cut cut cutting a tia/reteza/ seciona/despica/ciopli dared/ durst dared daring a ndrzni/ cuteza, a avea curajul II Past Tense

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to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to dwell to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight I Present Infinitive to find to flee to fly to forbear to forbid to forecast to forego to forknow to foresee to foretell to forget to forgive to forsake to forswear to freeze to gainsay to get to gird to give to go to grave to grind to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to inlay to keep to kneel to knit to know to lade to lay to lead to lean to leap to learn

dug did drew dreamt drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt fought II Past Tense found fled flew forbore forbade forecast(ed) forewent foreknew foresaw foretold forgot forgave forsook forsworn froze gainsaid got/gotten girt/girded gave went graved ground grew hung/hanged had heard hid hit held hurt inlaid kept knelt/ kneeled knit/ knitted knew laded laid led leant/ leaned leapt/ leaped learnt/ learned

dug done drawn dreamed/ dreamt drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought III Past Participle found fled flown forborne forbidden forecast(ed) foregone foreknown foreseen foretold forgotten forgiven forsaken forsworn frozen gainsaid got/gotten girt/girded given gone graved/ graven ground grown hung/hanged had heard hid/hidden hit held hurt inlaid kept knelt/kneeled knit/knitted known laden/laded laid led leant/leaned leapt/leaped learnt/ learned

digging doing drawing dreaming drinking driving dwelling eating falling feeding feeling fighting IV Present Participle finding fleeing flying forbearing forbidding forecasting foregoing foreknowing foreseeing foretelling forgetting forgiving forsaking forswearing freezing gainsaying getting girding giving going graving grinding growing hanging having hearing hidding hitting holding hurting inlaying keeping kneeling knitting knowing lading laying leading leaning leaping learning

a spa, a dezgropa/scormoni/ rscoli a face/svri/ executa/nfptui a trage/ ntinde/ remorca, a trasa; a distila a visa, a-i nchipui, crede/ gndi a bea, a sorbi, a suge a conduce maina; a circula a locui/ tri/ domicilia/ slui a mnca, a lua/ servi masa, a se hrni cu a cdea/pica, a se prbui a (se) hrni, a alimenta, a nutri a simi/resimi/ percepe, a pipi a (se) lupta/ bate, a disputa, a purta rzboi TRADUCERE a gsi/ntlni; a vedea, a da de, a descoperi a fugi; a se refugia din, a pr- si a zbura, a trece n zbor, a nala n aer a se abine de la, a se feri de, a evita a interzice, a nu ngdui/ permite, a opri a prevedea; a calcula dinainte a anticipa, a preceda a cunoate/ti dinainte; a prevedea/ presimi a prevedea a prezice/ prevesti/ prooroci a uita; neglija/ nesocoti/omite a ierta a prsi/abandona; a renuna la , a se lsa de a jura fals, a depune mrturie fals a nghea/ degera, a se congela; a se nspimnta a contrazice, a contesta/nega/tgdui a cpta/obine/ procura, a face, a dobndi a incinge, a nconjura a da/drui/oferi, a face cadou, a repartiza, a nmna a merge/pleca, a se deplasa/duce, a umbla a grava, a sculpta, a ciopli, a spa a mcina/rni/ pisa, lefui/ poliza, scrni a crete/spori, a se dezvolta/ maturiza/coace, a cultiva a (se) spnzura/ aga/atrna, a prinde/fixa a avea; a suferi de;a primi n vizit; a bea/mnca a auzi, a audia, a asculta a (se) ascunde/ piti, a dosi/ tinui a lovi/nimeri, a bate / izbi, a atinge, a da lovitura a ine/pstra, a deine, a se menine/pstra a rni/leza, a duna/strica, a lovi, a durea a intercala/ introduce/nsera a pstra; a respecta, a ine seama de, a rmne/sta, a ine/menine a ngenunchea, a se aeza n genunchi a croeta/ tricota/ mpleti; a deosebi; a fi la curent cu a ti , a cunoate a ncrca/ mbarca a pune/aeza/ ntinde/depune, a expune; a sta/ a edea a duce/conduce/ ghida, a comanda a se rezema/ sprijini, a se aplica/ nclina, a conta pe a sri/slta, a face salturi a nva/ afla/ studia, a se in- strui

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to leave to lend to let to lie to light to lose to make to mean to meet

left lent let lay lighted/lit lost made meant met

left lent let lain lighted/lit lost made meant met III Past Participle melted /molten misgiven mislaid misled mistaken misunderstood mowed/mown outridden outrun overcast overcome overdone overeaten overfed overlain overrun overseen overset overslept overtaken overthrown partaken paid put read rent repaid reset retold rid/ridden ridden rung risen riven/rived run sawn/sawed said seen sought sold sent set sewn/sewen

leaving lending letting lying lighting losing making meaning meeting IV Present Participle melting misgiving mislaying misleading mistaking misunderstanding mowing outriding outrunning overcasting overcoming overdoing overeating overfeeding overlying overrunning overseeing oversetting oversleeping overtaking overthrowing partaking paying putting reading rending repaying resetting retelling ridding riding ringing rising riving running sawing saying seeing seeking selling sending setting sewing

I II Present Past Tense Infinitive to melt melted to misgive misgave to mislay mislaid to mislead misled to mistake mistook to misunder- misunderstood stand to mow mowed to outride outrode to outrun outran to overcast overcast to overcome overcame to overdo overdid to overeat overate to overfeed overfed to overlie overlay to overrun overran to oversee oversaw to overset overset to oversleep overslept to overtake overtook to overthrow overthrew to partake partook to pay to put to read to rend to repay to reset to retell to rid to ride to ring to rise to rive to run to saw to say to see to seek to sell to send to set to sew paid put read rent repaid reset retold rid/ridden rode rang rose rived ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set sewed

a lsa/abandona/ prsi, a pleca din a da mprumut, a mprumuta (cuiva), a nchiria, a se preta la, a folosi a lsa/ngdui/ permite, a fi de nchiriat, a nchiria a sta ntins/ culcat, a zcea; a exista, se afla/ gsi a aprinde (foc etc.); a lumina; a poposi a pierde a fabrica/face/ confeciona; a construi a nsemna; a vrea s spun, a crede/gndi a (se) ntlni; a ntmpina; a se mpreuna/ a face cunotin TRADUCERE a se topi/dizolva; a se lichefia; a se nduioa a presimi ceva ru; a inspira fric/nencredere a pierde/rtci (un obiect), a pune unde nu trebuie a conduce/ ndruma greit a nelege greit a nelege/ interpreta greit cuvintele cuiva a cosi, a secera, a tunde/cosi cu maina a ntrece/depi pe cineva clare depi pe cineva in fug, a intrece pe cineva alergnd a ntuneca; a surfila; a nchide a nvinge/birui/ coplei/dobor/ nfrnge a exagera, a ntrece msura, a merge prea departe a mnca prea mult, a se ghiftui a supraalimenta a se ntinde peste a se revrsa; a depi limitele a supraveghea, a controla a rsturna ordinea, a zdrnici a dormi prea mult, a se scula trziu a depi un autovehicul; a-l ajunge o nenorocire a rsturna/a dobor, a nfrnge/ nvinge/nimici a profita/uza de, a se nfrupta din; a lua parte la ceva, a mprti a plti/achita; a prezenta avantaj a aeza/pune, supune a citi/interpreta, a studia, a se pregti a (se) rupe/ sfia/despica/crpa a rsplti/ recompensa; a napoia datoria a restabili, a repune; a potrivi ceasul a spune/povesti din nou, a repovesti, a repeta a se descotorosi/debarasa/elibera de, a salva/mntui de a clri (calul/ bicicleta); a domina/stpni a suna/rsuna, a anuna/semnala, a suna bine a se ridica/ nla/ scula, a se agita/ rscula a crpa/spinteca/ despica, a rupe/sfia a fugi/alerga, a conduce/administra; a topi a tia cu ferstrul a zice/spune/ gri, a afirma, a meniona; a admite a vedea, a ne- lege, a remarca/ observa a cuta/cerceta, a explora, a solicita a vinde, a desface mrfuri, a pcli a expedia/ trimite, a transmite, a lansa a pune/aeza/ instala, a culege la tipografie a coase, a lucra cu acul

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to shake to shear to shed to shine to shoe to shoot to show to shrink I Present Infinitive to shut to sing to sink to sit to slay to sleep to slide to slit to smell to sow to speak to speed to spell to spend to spill to spin to spit to split to spoil to spread to spring to stand to steal to stick to sting to stink to strike to string to strive to swear to sweep to swell to swim to swing to take to teach to tear to tell to think to throw to thrust to tread to unbend to unbind to undergo to undersell

shook sheared/ shore shed shone shod shot showed shrank II Past Tense shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slit smelt sowed spoke sped/ speeded spelt/spelled spent spilt/spilled spun/span spat/spit split spoilt /spoiled spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank/stunk struck strung strove swore swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought threw thrust trod unbent unbound underwent undersold

shaken shorn/sheared shed shone shod shot shown/showed shrunk III Past Participle shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid/sliden slit smelt sown/sowed spoken sped/speeded spelt/speld spent spilt/spilled spun spat/spit split spoilt/spoiled spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk struck/ stricken strung striven sworn swept swollen/ swelled swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown thrust trodden/trod unbent unbound undergone undersold

shaking shearing shedding shining shoeing shooting showing shrinking IV Present Participle shutting singing sinking sitting slaying sleeping sliding slitting smelling sowing speaking speeding spelling spending spilling spinning spitting spiting spoiling spreading springing standing stealing sticking stinging stinking striking stringing striving swearing sweeping swelling swimming swinging taking teaching tearing telling thinking throwing thrusting treading unbending unbinding undergoing underselling

a scutura/zgudui/agita, a amenina cu pumnul a tunde/despuia; a pgubi a vrsa (lacrimi); a pierde; a lepda a strluci, a luci; a izbndi a ncla, a pingeli, a potcovi, a tlpui a trage (n), a mpuca, a vna, a revrsa/ mprtia a arta/indica, a demonstra/dovedi, a aprea, a se ivi a se scurta/ micora, a se strmba TRADUCERE a (se) nchide a cnta; a uiera a se scufunda, a cdea la fund; a scdea/amortiza a edea, a sta jos, a poza ca model a omor/asasina/ ucide, a masacra a dormi, a adormi a aluneca, a se da pe ghea, a se furia/ strecura a crpa/spinteca/ despica, a face o deschiztur n a mirosi, a adulmeca a semna, a nsmna a vorbi/gri, a rosti a accelera, a goni, a merge cu vitez, a se grbi a ortografia, a rosti un cuvnt liter cu liter a cheltui/consuma/ epuiza; a petrece timpul a (se) revrsa/ vrsa/mprtia a toarce/fila/ rsuci, nvrti/ roti a scuipa/expectora; a ploua mrunt a (se) scinda/ descompune/ diviza/dezbina/ dezintegra a strica/ deteriora/altera/rsfa; a prda/ jefui a ntinde/desfura, a desface, a lungi, a mprtia a sri/ni, a ncoli/rsri, a izvor; a exploda a sta n picioare, a se ine drept; a fi, a se afla a fura/terpeli, a amgi/seduce, a cuceri a nfige/nepa/ introduce/mplnta; a (se) lipi, a adera a mpunge/nepa/ rni; a nela/amgi, a ustura a mirosi urt, a pui, a duhni a (se) lovi/izbi/ ciocni, a bate; a prinde rdcini a lega cu sfoara; a ntinde coarda, a nira pe a a se strdui/ lupta/zbate, a-i da osteneala, a tinde/nzui a jura, a depune jurmntul; a njura a mtura, a terge praful a umfla, a mri; a bomba a nota, a pluti, a trece not; a inunda a se legna/ balansa/roti/nvrti, a oscila/ pendula a lua, a mprumuta; a pune mna a nva pe cineva, a instrui, a preda, a da lecii a rupe/sfia, a distruge; a smulge a spune/povesti, a exprima; a arta/ indica a (se) gndi/ crede, a imagina/nchipui a (se) arunca/ lansa/ azvrli; a lepda, fta a mplnta/ vr/ndesa a clca/pi, a pi/clca pe a (se) ntinde/ destinde/relaxa a dezlega/ desface, a desprinde, a slobozi, a elibera a suferi/ndura/ suporta, a trece prin a vinde mai ieftin, a vinde sub preul de cost

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to understand to undertake to undo to upset to wake I Present Infinitive to wear to weave to wed to weep to win to wind to withdraw to withhold to withstand to write

understood undertook undid upset woke/woked II Past Tense wore wove wedded wept won wound withdrew withheld withstood wrote

understood undertaken undone upset waked/woken III Past Participle worn woven/wove wedded/wed wept won wound withdrawn withheld withstood written

understanding a nelege/pricepe, a sesiza undertaking undoing upsetting waking IV Present Participle wearing weaving wedding weeping winning winding withdrawing withholding] withstanding writing a ntreprinde, a lua asupra sa, a-i asuma a anula, desfiina, a desface, a distruge a (se) rsturna, a dezorganiza, a afecta a (se) trezi/ detepta; a priveghea, a strni TRADUCERE a purta, a fi mbrcat cu; a se uza/ponosi a ese, a mpleti; a se ames teca/bga n a (se) cstori, a da/lua n cstorie a plnge, a vrsa lacrimi a ctiga/obine, a reui; a ajunge la a erpui, a (se) rsuci, a nfura/ nveli a retrage/retracta, a lua napoi, renuna a opri/reine de la, a interzice ceva a se mpotrivi/ opune la, a rezista a scrie, a redacta

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