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# Design for RC Flat Slabs

Ir Prof Dr J Chiang

Outline
Definitions Punching shear problem Code provisions: BS8110 & EC 2 Analysis procedures Design preliminaries Design procedures Yield line method

Definitions
In BS8110 cl 1.3.2.1: a slab with or without drops, supported generally without beams and columns with or without column heads. Next slide shows various types of RC flat slabs commonly designed and built.

## Diagrams of types of flat slabs

Flat slab with drop panel and capital Flat plate (with no drops, etc)

## Other possible flat slab arrangements

Waffle slab Band beam slab

## Flat slab plan and elevation

Typical layout and sectional view

## As built RC flat plate

Refer to photograph
Note absence of beams

## What is punching shear failure?

Punching shear is a type of two-way shear, often found in flat slabs or pad footings. Members which fail due to punching are often examined at regions near to the columns, with a pyramid-like diagonal crack occurring at the distance surrounding the column. This type of failure is catastrophic because it gives no warning or visible signs prior to occurrence of the failure.

## Punching shear effect

Refer to diagram below

## Incidents of punching shear failure

A catastrophic structural failure happened in June 1995, where a five storey Sampoong department store in South Korea collapsed due to punching shear failure. The disaster has killed 500 people, leaving almost 1000 others injured.

## Code provisions for RC flat slabs - 1

BS8110 cl 3.7.1 refers: (1) Ratio of longer to shorter span < 2 (2) Design moments by equiv frame, simplified or finite element methods (3) Effective dimension of column head is specified, where column head is shown in next few slides ahead (4) Effective diameter of column is specified, again discussed in next few slides

## Code provisions for RC flat slabs - 2

(5) Use of drop panels influence moment distribution, i.e. smaller dimension of drop smaller panel dimension (6) Panel thickness is generally controlled by deflection, where thickness > 125 mm

## Arrangement for column head

Where necessary a thickening (in width and depth) around the column support is allowed for to mitigate punching shear effect.

## Column head dimensions

lh = effective dimension of column head lc = column dimension (along direction of lh ) lho = actual dimension of column head lh = lesser of lc or lh max = lc + 2(dh 40)

## Analysis of loads on flat slab

Sufficient to use ULS loads, 1.4G + 1.6Q on all spans. Two methods are specified in BS8110:
(1) Frame analysis method (2) Simplified method

Both methods require the division of strips on the panel along column and middle strips.

## Column and middle strips for analysis 1

The floor plan is divided into column strips and middle strips

## Column and middle strips for analysis 2

Red outline = column strips Blue outline = middle strips

## Column and middle strips for analysis 3

Blue outline = middle strips

## Frame analysis method flat slab

Table 3.12 (BS 8110) refers internal panels:
At first interior support Moment Shear -0.086 Fl 0.6F Middle of interior span +0.063 Fl Interior supports -0.063 Fl 0.5F

Note: F = total design load on slab strip, between column supports l = full panel length in span direction

Simplified method
Table 3.18 (BS8119) refers moment distribution:
Distribution between column and middle strip as percentage of total negative or positive moments Column strip Negative Positive 75% 55% Middle strip 25% 45%

## Some conditions apply:

Only one single load case, i.e. 1.4G + 1.6Q At least three rows of panels approx of equal span Moments prescribed in Table 3.12 be reduced by 0.15Fhc, where hc = effective diameter of column head

## Punching shear perimeter

As defined in BS8110

## Shear forces & resistance 1

Design effective shear force, at punching shear perimeter around column: Veff ! 1.15Vt
where Vt = design shear transferred to column

## Checks for shear resistance (Table 5.1 BS8110):

At face of column:
R max ! Veff uo d e 0.8 f cu or 5 N / mm 2

## At perimeter 1.5d from column face:

R ! Veff ud
1 1 3 100 As 400 4 R c ! 0.79 /Km bd d

## Shear forces & resistance 2

Conditions applied and terms used:
f cu 3 2 R c v if f cu " 25 N / mm , but f cu 25 100 As 400 e 3; u1 and bd d
1

40 N / mm 2

Rc = design concrete shear stress (i.e shear capacity) As = area of bottom tension steel reinforcement along midspan of column strip Km = partial safety factor for material = 1.25 fcu = concrete grade for compressive strength (N/mm2)

Veff

## Case for shear reinforcement

When then shear reinforcement is required to resist punching shear. The shear reinforcement located within the checked shear R perimeter is given by A sin E u R c ud where R e 1.6R or
sv
1 1 1 3 4 100 As 400 f cu 3 " R c ! 0.79 R ! /Km ud bd d 25

Veff

0.95 f yv

ud 5 0.7R R c Asv sin E u 0.95 f yv in either case Asv sin E " 0.4ud , and 0.95 f yv

where 1.6 R e 2R c

where,

f yv e 460 N / mm 2

E = angle between shear reinforcement and plane of slab u = length of outer perimeter of the zone 7Asv = total area of shear reinforcement (in mm2)

## Successive perimeters for punching shear check

Plan of slab around a concentrated load showing successive perimeters for punching shear check, e.g. U 1 ! 2 a  b  6d U 2 ! 2 a  b  9d U 3 ! 2 a  b  12d

## Distribution of shear reinforcement

In three successive perimeters around loaded area (or column support)

Worked example 1

Worked example 2

## Worked example 2 solution p6

Plan view of punching shear steel reinforcement layout

Worked example 3 1

Worked example 3 2

Worked example 3 3

Worked example 3 4

## Design flat slab to Eurocode 2

Using Eurocode 2 for the analysis of flat slabs is similar to using BS 8110. The following methods may be used: Equivalent frame method Finite element analysis Yield line analysis Grillage analogy The Eurocode gives further advice on the equivalent frame method in Annex I and designers used to BS 8110 will find this very familiar.

## Difference in EC 2 concrete grade

The Eurocode gives recommendations for the design of concrete up to class C90/105. However, for concrete strength greater than class C50/60, the stress block is modified. It is important to note that concrete strength is based on the cylinder strength and not the cube strength (i.e. for class C28/35 the cylinder strength is 28 MPa, whereas the cube strength is 35 MPa).

## BM coeffs for flat slabs in EC 2

End support/slab connection
Pinned End End support span
Moment 0 0.086Fl

-0.04Fl 0.075Fl

## First Interior Interior interior spans supports support

-0.086Fl

0.063Fl

-0.063Fl

Notes 1 Applicable to slabs where the area of each bay exceeds 30 m2, Qk, 1.25 Gk and qk 5 kN/m2 2 F is the total design ultimate load, l is the effective span 3 Minimum span > 0.85 longest span, minimum 3 spans 4Based on 20% redistribution at supports and no decrease in span moments

## Punching shear resistance (w/o shear reinforcement)

Table 8 vRd,c resistance of members without shear reinforcement, MPa
Vl Effective depth, d (mm) e200 225 250 275 300 350 400 450 0.25% 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.48 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.41 0.50% 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.49 0.75% 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.58 0.56 1.00% 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.62 1.25% 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67 1.50% 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.71 1.75% 0.90 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.77 0.75 u2.00% 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.78 k 2.000 1.943 1.894 1.853 1.816 1.756 1.707 1.667
R Rd ,c ! 0.12k V1 f ck 3 u 0.035k 1.5 f ck 100
1

500 0.40 0.48 0.55 0.61 0.66 0.70 0.73 0.77 1.632

600 0.38 0.47 0.53 0.59 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.74 1.577

750 0.36 0.45 0.51 0.57 0.61 0.65 0.68 0.71 1.516

## Table derived from: For fck = 30 N/mm2

where
Vly ! Asy / bd , Vlz ! Asz / bd

k ! 1  200 / d e 2; V1 ! V ly  V lz e 0.02

## Basic control perimeter for punching shear in EC 2

u1 = basic control perimeter
2d u1 bz 2d by 2d u1 2d u1

Control perimeters at a distance less than 2d should be considered where the concentrated force is opposed by a high distributed pressure (e.g. soil pressure on a base), or by the effects of a load or reaction within a distance 2d of the periphery of area of application of the force.

## Control perimeter near an opening

For loaded areas situated near openings, if the shortest distance between the perimeter of the loaded area and the edge of the opening does not exceed 6d, that part of the control perimeter contained between two tangents drawn to the outline of the opening from the centre of the loaded area is considered to be ineffective l1 e l2 e 6d B l2 e 6d B (l2 l1) l1 > l2

2d

A A - opening B

## Control perimeters for loaded areas close to or at edge or corner

For loaded areas situated near or on an edge or corner, i.e. at a distance smaller than d, special edge reinforcement should always be provided.
2d 2d u1

2d u1 2d 2d u1 2d

## Slab with enlarged column head

where IH < 2.0 hH
rcont U hH U U B U = arctan () = 26.6r IH < 2.0 hH c IH < 2.0 hH rcont U A d hH

## Slab with enlarged column head

where IH > 2(d + hH)
rcont,ext d U hH U = arctan () = 26.6r A IH > 2(d + hH) c IH > 2(d + hH) dH B U U rcont,int rcont,ext rcont,int dH U d hH A

## - basic control sections for circular columns

c1 c2

Shear distribution
due to an unbalanced moment at a slabinternal column connection
c1 c2
k e 0.5 0.45 1.0 0.60 2.0 0.70 u 3.0 0.80

2d c1

c2 2d

## Punching shear formula - 1

The design punching shear stress is given by:
R Rd, c ! CRd, c k V l f ck 3  0.10W cp 100
fck k Vl Vly, Vlz is the concrete characteristic compressive strength in MPa. a value given by: is the steel ratio for longitudinal reinforcement given by: relate to the bonded tension steel in y- and z-directions respectively. The values Vly and Vlz should be calculated as mean values taking into account a slab width equal to the column width plus 3d each side. compressive stress in the concrete from axial load or prestressing, and it is given as: Wcp = (Wcy + Wcz) where Wcy, Wcz NEdy, NEdz are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in y- and z-directions (in MPa), positive if compression: are the longitudinal forces across the full bay for internal columns and the longitudinal force across the control section for edge columns. The force may be from a load or prestressing action. is the area of concrete according to the definition of NEd

min

 0.10W cp

Wcp

Ac

## Punching shear formula - 2

Where shear reinforcement is required:
R Rd, cs
Asw sr fywd,ef

## d 1 ! 0.75R Rd, c  1.5 Asw f ywd,ef s u d sinE r 1

is the area of one perimeter of shear reinforcement around the column. is the radial spacing of perimeters of shear reinforcement. is the effective design strength of the punching shear reinforcement according to: fywd,ef = 250 + 0.25d e fywd (MPa) is the mean of the effective depths in the orthogonal directions (mm). the angle between the shear reinforcement and the plane of the slab.

d E