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Chili powder (also powdered chili or chile powder) is the ground, dried fruit of one or more varieties of chili pepper, sometimes with the addition of other spices (when it may be known as chili powder blend). It is used as a spice to add piquance and flavor to dishes. In American English the name is usually spelled "chili", or, less commonly, "chile". In British English the spelling "chilli" (with two "l"s) is used consistently. Chili powder is sometimes known by the specific type of chili pepper used (such as cayenne pepper). It is used in many different cuisines, including Tex-Mex,Indian, Chinese, and Thai. Chili powder blend is composed chiefly of chili peppers and blended with other spices including cumin, oregano, garlic powder, and salt.[1][2] The chilis are most commonly either red chili peppers or cayenne peppers, which are both of the species Capsicum annuum; many types of hot pepper may be used, including ancho, Jalapeo, New Mexico, and pasilla chilis. As a result of the various potential additives, the spiciness of any given chili powder is variable. Chili powder blends are especially popular in American cuisine, where they are the primary flavor ingredient in chili con carne. The first commercial blends of chili powder in the U.S. were created by D.C. Pendery and William Gebhardt for this dish.[3] Gebhardt opened Miller's Saloon in New Braunfels, Texas. Chili was the town's favorite dish. However, chili peppers could only be found at certain times of the year. Gebhardt imported some ancho peppers from Mexico and ran the peppers through a small meat grinder three times and created the first commercial chili powder, which became available in 1894.

Chili pepper, the spicy fruit of plants in the genus Capsicum Chili powder, dried, ground red chili peppers, sometimes with cumin and other spices Chili con carne, often referred to simply as "chili" a stew-like dish Cincinnati chili, a stew resembling chili con carne, usually served over pasta and hot dogs Chilis, a restaurant chain Fictional characters Chili Palmer, a character in Get Shorty and Be Cool Chili (Pokmon), a character of the Pokmon universe

Chili Storm, a Marvel Comics character who appeared in Millie the Model stories and was spun off into her own title, Chili

Chilli powder is a great alternative to heart surgery! It unclogs plaque from one's arteries and boosts circulation. Make sure to take non-irradiated chilli however. It is easiest to ingest after packing into capsules and I recommend that one takes it with food, building up the dosage gradually. Type Hot or cold beverage

Country of origin Introduced China

approx. 10th century BC.

Cultivation and harvesting

Camellia sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows mainly in tropical and sub-tropical climates. Some varieties can also tolerate marine climates and are cultivated as far north as Pembrokeshire in the British mainland and Washington in the United States. Tea plants are propagated from seed or by cutting; it takes approximately 4 to 12 years for a tea plant to bear seed, and about 3 years before a new plant is ready for harvesting. In addition to a zone 8 climate or warmer, tea plants require at least 127 cm. (50 inches) of rainfall a year and prefer acidic soils. Traditional Chinese Tea Cultivation and Studies believes that highquality tea plants are cultivated at elevations of up to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft): at these heights, the plants grow more slowly and acquire a better flavour. Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called flushes.[9] A plant will grow a new flush every seven to fifteen days during the growing season, and leaves that are slow in development always produce better flavored teas. A tea plant will grow into a tree of up to 16 metres (52 ft) if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking.

Tea contains catechins, a type of antioxidant. In a freshly picked tea leaf, catechins can compose up to 30% of the dry weight. Catechins are highest in concentration in white and green teas, while black tea has substantially fewer due to its oxidative preparation. Research by the U.S. Department of Agriculture has suggested that levels of antioxidants in green and black tea do not differ greatly, with green tea having an oxygen radical absorbance capacity(ORAC) of 1253 and black tea an ORAC of 1128 (measured in molTE/100g). Tea also contains theanine and the stimulant caffeine at about 3% of its dry weight, translating to between 30 mg and 90 mg per 8 oz (250 ml) cup depending on type, brand[19] and brewing method. Tea also contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline. Due to modern day environmental pollution fluoride and aluminum have also been found to occur in tea, with certain types of brick tea made from old leaves and stems having the highest levels. This occurs due to the tea plant's high sensitivity to and absorption of environmental pollutants. Certain tea has more caffeine by weight than coffee; nevertheless, more dried coffee is used than dry tea in preparing the beverage, which means that a cup of brewed tea contains significantly less caffeine than a cup of coffee of the same size. Tea has negligible carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Although tea contains various types of polyphenols and tannin, tea does not contain tannic acid. Tannic acid is not an appropriate standard for any type of tannin analysis because of its poorly defined composition.

Health effects
The health benefits of tea is a controversial topic with many proponents and detractors. An article from the journal Nutrition (1999, pp. 946949) states: The possible beneficial effects of tea consumption in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases have been demonstrated in animal models and suggested by studies in vitro. Similar beneficial effects, however, have not been convincingly demonstrated in humans: beneficial effects have been demonstrated in some studies but not in others. If such beneficial effects do exist in humans, they are likely to be mild, depending on many other lifestyle-related factors, and could be masked by confounding factors

in certain populations. Another concern is that the amounts of tea consumed by humans are lower than the doses required for demonstrating the diseaseprevention effects in animal models. Caution should be applied, however, in the use of high concentrations of tea for disease prevention. Ingestion of large amounts of tea may cause nutritional and other problems because of the caffeine content and the strong binding activities of tea polyphenols, although there are no solid data on the harmful effects of tea consumption. More research is needed to elucidate the biologic activities of green and black tea and to determine the optimal amount of tea consumption for possible health-beneficial effects. In 2010, researchers found that people who consumed tea had significantly less cognitive decline than non-tea drinkers. The study used data on more than 4,800 men and women aged 65 and older to examine change in cognitive function over time. Study participants were followed for up to 14 years for naturally-occurring cognitive decline. (AAICAD 2010; Lenore Arab, PhD; UCLA[30]) Several of the potential health benefits proposed for tea are outlined in this excerpt from Mondal (2007, pp. 519520) as following: Tea leaves contain more than 700 chemicals, among which the compounds closely related to human health are flavanoids, amino acids, vitamins (C, E and K), caffeine andpolysaccharides. Moreover, tea drinking has recently proven to be associated with cell-mediated immune function of the human body. Tea plays an important role in improving beneficial intestinal microflora, as well as providing immunity against intestinal disorders and in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage. Tea also prevents dental caries due to the presence of fluorine. The role of tea is well established in normalizing blood pressure, lipid depressing activity, prevention of coronary heart diseases and diabetes by reducing the.

Type Country of origin Introduced Color Hot Ethiopia Approx. 15th century (beverage) Dark brown, beige, black, light brown

Food Adulterant

Coffee powder Cereal starch


Take a small quantity (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube and add 3 ml of distilled water in it. Light a spirit lamp and heat the contents to colourize. Add 33 ml of a solution of potassium permanganate and muratic acid (1:1) to decolourize the mixture. The formation of blue colour in mixture by addition of a drop of 1% aqueous solution of iodine indicated adulteration with starch.

Food Adulterant

Coffee powder Powder of scorched persimmon stones Take a small quantity (1 tea-spoon) of the sample and spread it on a moistened blotting paper. Pour on it, with much care, 3 ml of 2% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate. A red colouration indicates the presence of powder of scorched persimmon stones in coffee powder.


Health and pharmacology

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings have been contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding the potentially harmful effects of coffee consumption.[10] Variations in findings, however, can be at least partially resolved by considering the method of preparation. Coffee prepared using paper filters removes oily components called diterpenes that are present in unfiltered coffee. Two types of diterpenes are present in coffee: kahweol andcafestol, both of which have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease via elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in blood.[93] Metal filters, on the other hand, do not remove the oily components of coffee.[11]

In addition to differences in methods of preparation, conflicting data regarding serving size could partially explain differences between beneficial/harmful effects of coffee consumption. Coffee consumption has been shown to have minimal or no impact, positive or negative, on cancer development;[95] however, researchers involved in an ongoing 22-year study by the Harvard School of Public Health state that "the overall balance of risks and benefits [of coffee consumption] are on the side of benefits."[95] For example, men who drank six or more cups of coffee per day were found to have a 20% reduction in developing prostate cancer.[96]

Caffeine and headaches

There is some controversy over whether the caffeine in coffee causes headaches or helps relieve headaches. In a 2000 controlled study by the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago, Illinois, revealed that adults who took ibuprofen, an over-the-counter pain killer, combined with caffeine or one cup of coffee had increased effectiveness against tension headaches. The study did not recommend that the caffeine and ibuprofen combination was effective against migraine headaches. A Johns Hopkins controlled study has linked drinking coffee with addictive withdrawal headaches, even with those who drink coffee in moderation. A 2009 Norwegian University of Science and Technology controlled study claims that heavy coffee drinkers, four cups a day, are more likely to suffer occasional headaches than persons who have low coffee or caffeine consumption.[120]

Caffeine content
The stimulant effect of coffee is due to its caffeine content. The caffeine content of a cup of coffee varies depending mainly on the brewing method, and also on the variety of bean.[121] According to Bunker and McWilliams (J. Am. Diet. 74:2832, 1979), coffee has the following caffeine content:[122]

brewed: 1 cup (7 oz, 207 ml) = 80135 mg. drip: 1 cup (7 oz, 207 ml) = 115175 mg.

espresso: 1 shot (1.52 oz, 4560 ml) = 100 mg While the percent of caffeine content in coffee beans themselves diminishes with increased roast level, this does not hold true for the same coffee brewed from different grinds and brewing methods using the same proportion of coffee to water volume. The coffee sack (similar to the French press and other steeping methods) extracts more caffeine from dark roasted beans, while the percolator and espresso methods extracts more caffeine from light roasted beans.[123]

Light roast Coffee sack - coarse .046 grind Percolator - coarse grind .068

Medium roast .045

Dark roast .054

.065 .062

.060 .061

Espresso - fine grind .069

Jaggery (also transliterated as jaggeree) is a traditional unrefined non-centrifugal whole cane sugar consumed in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and theCaribbean.[1] It is a concentrated product of cane juice without separation of the molasses and crystals, and can vary from golden brown to dark brown in color.[1] It contains up to 50% sucrose, up to 20% invert sugars, moisture content of up to 20%, and the remainder made up of other insoluble matter such aswood ash, proteins and bagasse fibers.

Origins and production

Jaggery is made of the products of both sugarcane and the palm tree. The sugar made from the sap of the date palm is both more prized and less commonly available outside of the regions where it is made. The sago palm and coconut palm are also now tapped for producing jaggery in West Bengal, South India,Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, syrup extracts from Caryota urens trees are widely used for jaggery production. This is considered the best quality jaggery available in local market and is given a higher value than jaggery coming from other sources. All types of the sugar come in blocks or pastes of solidified concentrated sugar syrup heated to 200 C. Traditionally, the syrup is made by boiling raw sugarcane juice or palm sap in a large shallow round-bottom vessel.

Uses South Asia

Jaggery is used as an ingredient in both sweet and savory dishes across India and Sri Lanka. For example, a pinch of it is sometimes added to sambar,rasam, and other staples in India. Jaggery is also added to lentil soups (dl) to add sweetness to balance the spicy, salty and sour components, particularly in Bengali cuisine and Gujarati cuisine. The Indian state of Maharashtra is the largest producer and consumer of jaggery in Marathi). In Maharashtra, most vegetables curries and dals contain it. This is specially used during Makar Sankranti for making a dessert called tilgul. In Gujarat, known as G , during Makara Sankranti, a similar preparation called Tal na Ladu or Tal Sankli is made. In rural Maharashtra, water and a piece of jaggery is given when someone arrives home from working under a hot sun. Kakvi, a byproduct of the production of jaggery, is also used in rural Maharashtra as a sweetener. It contains many minerals not found in ordinary sugar and is considered beneficial to health by the traditional Ayurvedic medical system.[2] It is an ingredient of many sweet delicacies such as gur ka chawal ("jaggery rice"), a traditional Rajasthani dish. In Gujarat, laddus are made from wheat flour and jaggery. A wellknown Maharashtrian recipe, Puran poli, also uses it as a sweetener apart from Sugar.[3]Jaggery is considered an easily available sweet which is shared on any good occasion. In engagement ceremonies, small particles of it are mixed with coriander seeds . Hence in many Gujarati communities, engagement is commonly known as Gol-Dhana, literally "jaggery and coriander seeds".

In Tamil Nadu, it is used in a dish called chakkarai Pongal. It is prepared during the festival of Pongal, which is held when the harvesting season begins. In Oriya cuisine, cakes or pihas contain jaggery. Some marmalades made of mango and Dillenia also contain the ingredient. Traditional Karnataka sweets like Payasa, Obattu (Poli), and Unday use different kinds of jaggery. A pinch is commonly added to sambar and rasam . Karnataka produces both sugar- and palm-based jaggery. All over India, jaggery has religious significance to Hindus. Many of the festivals involve the offering of jaggery to deities during worship. Jaggery is considered auspicious in many parts of India, and is eaten raw before the commencement of good work or any important new venture, or after good news is shared by family and friends.[citation needed]

Other uses
Other uses include jaggery toffees and jaggery with pumpkin preserve, cashew nuts, pea nuts and spices. cake made

Jaggery may also be used in the creation of alcoholic beverages like palm wine. Besides being a food, jaggery may also be used to season the inside of tandoor ovens.[citation needed] Health benefits Some consider jaggery a particularly wholesome sugar, since it retains more mineral salts than refined sugar and it is made without chemical agents. IndianAyurvedic medicine considers jaggery beneficial in treating throat and lung infections; Sahu and Saxena[4] found that in rats jaggery can prevent lung damage from particulate matter such as coal and silica dust. Gandhi felt that jaggery was healthier than refined sugar, as it was not introduced into the blood as rapidly.[5] As such, he used it in his own personal diet and recommended it for use in his invented goat-milk diet (and all other diets and eating styles). Jaggery is also effective in easing stomach acidity.[6]

Food Adulterant

Jaggery Sodium bicarbonate


Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of muratic acid. The presence of sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate effects effervescence.

Food Adulterant

Jaggery Metanil yellow colour Take a little amount (one-fourth of a tea-spoon) of the sample in a test tube. Add 3 ml of alcohol and shake the tube vigorously to mix up the contents. Pour 10 drops of hydrochloric acid in it. A pink colouration indicates the presence of metanil yellow colour in jaggery.


Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated in South Asia and is commonly used in South Asian (Indian, Bangladeshi, Nepali and Pakistani) cuisine.

Religious use
Real ghee is made from cow's milk yogurt (hence called cow ghee [Sanskrit: go-ghta]) and has a sacred role in Vedic and modern Hindu libation and anointment rituals (see Yajurveda). There is also a hymn to ghee.[1] Ghee is also burnt in the Hindu religious ritual of rati (Aarti) and is the principal fuel used for the Hindu votive lamp known as the diy or dpa (deep). It is used in marriages and funerals, and for bathing mrtis (divine idols) during worship. In other religious observances, such as the prayers to Lord Krishna, iva (Shiva) on Janmashtami, Mah-ivartr (Maha Shivaratri), and other Hindu festivals, ghee is served in Pacmta (Panchamruta) along with four other sacred substances: sugar, honey, milk, and dah (yogurt). According to the Mahbhrata, ghee is the very root of sacrifice by Bhma. Also, it is used generously in homam or yaja since it is considered as food for the Devas. Ghta (ghee) is the Sanskrit descendant of Proto-Indo-European *ghrei-, "to rub," "to anoint," which evolved into Khrists in classical Greek usage, meaning anointed or covered in oil, and was used to translate Hebrew "messiah" ("Anointed"), evolving into Latin Christus and English Christ. Christ" (pronounced /krast/) is a title derived from the Greek (Christs), meaning the "Anointed One", a translation of the Hebrew [citation needed] (Messiah).

Usage in food

A dosa in South India served with ghee Ghee is widely used in Indian cuisine. However, it is mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh, and is probably Akkadian in origin[citation needed]. In many parts of India and Pakistan, especially in Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bengal, Orissa and many other states, rice is traditionally prepared or served with ghee (including biryani). In Rajasthan, ghee is considered to be a must have with Baati. All over north India, people dab Roti with ghee. In the Bharuch district of Gujarat, Ghee is served with kichdi, usually an evening meal of yellow rice with curry, a sauce made from yoghurt, cumin seeds, kari leaves, ghee, cornflour, tumeric, garlic and salt. Ghee is also an ingredient as well as used in the preparation of kadhi and used in Indian sweets such as Mysore pak, and different varieties of halva and laddu. Punjabi cuisine prepared in restaurants uses large amounts of ghee. Naan and roti are sometimes brushed with ghee, either during preparation or while serving. Ghee is an important part of Punjabi Cuisine and traditionally, the Parathas, Daals and Curries in Punjab often use Ghee instead of oil, in order to give the food added richness. Ghee is an ideal fat for deep frying because its smoke point (where its molecules begin to break down) is 250 C (482 F), which is well above typical cooking temperatures of around 200 C (392 F) and above that of most vegetable oils. Ayurveda considers ghee to be sttvik or sattva-gui (in the "mode of goodness"), when used as food.


Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.[2] It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20 C and 30 C and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive.[3] Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes, and propagated from some of those rhizomes in the following season. When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine, for dyeing, and to impart color to mustard condiments. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy, slightly bitter, slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell. In medieval Europe, turmeric became known as Indian saffron, since it was widely used as an alternative to the far more expensive saffron spice.[4] Nizamabad, a city in the south Indian state of Andhra pradesh, is the world's largest producer and most important trading center of turmeric in Asia. For these reasons, Nizamabad in history is also known as "Turmeric City".[citation needed] Sangli, a town in the southern part of the Indian western state of Maharashtra, is the second largest and most important trading center for turmeric in Asia.

Usage Culinary uses

Turmeric powder is used extensively in South Asian cuisine. Turmeric grows wild in the forests of South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the key ingredient for many Indian, Persian and Thai dishes such as in curry and many more. Ancient Indian medicine, Ayurveda has recommended its use in food for its medicinal value, much of which is now being researched in the modern day. Its use a coloring agent is not of primary value in South Asian cuisine. In Indonesia, the turmeric leaves are used for Minangese or Padangese curry base of Sumatra, such as rendang, sate padang and many other varieties. Although most usage of turmeric is in the form of root powder, in some regions (especially in Maharashtra, Goa and Konkan), leaves of turmeric are used to wrap and cook food. This usually takes place in areas where turmeric is grown locally, since the leaves used are freshly picked. This imparts a distinct flavor. In recipes outside South Asia, turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich, custard-like yellow color. It is used in canned beverages and baked products, dairy products, ice cream, yogurt, yellow cakes, orange juice, biscuits, popcorn color, sweets, cake icings, cereals, sauces, gelatins, etc.[citation needed] It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. Turmeric is mostly used in savory dishes, as well as some sweet dishes, such as the cake sfouf. Although usually used in its dried, powdered form, turmeric is also used fresh, much like ginger. It has numerous uses in Far Eastern recipes, such as fresh turmeric pickle, which contains large chunks of soft turmeric. Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive), indicating how it is used as a food colouring (it normally gives food slightly yellow colour)[9] is used to protect food products from sunlight. The oleoresin is used for oilcontaining products. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water-containing products. Over-coloring, such as in pickles, relishes, and mustard, is sometimes used to compensate for fading. In combination with annatto (E160b), turmeric has been used to color cheeses, yogurt, dry mixes, salad dressings, winter butter and margarine. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards, canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). Turmeric is widely used as a spice in South Asian and Middle Eastern cooking. Many Persian dishes use turmeric as a starter ingredient for almost all Iranian fry ups (which typically consist of oil, onions and turmeric followed

by any other ingredients that are to be included). In Nepal, turmeric is widely grown and is extensively used in almost every vegetable and meat dish in the country for its color, as well as for its medicinal value. In South Africa, turmeric is traditionally used to give boiled white rice a golden color. In Goa and Dakshina Kannada (Karnataka state, India), turmeric plant leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes, patoleo, by layering on the leaf rice flour, and coconut-jaggery mixture, and then closing and steaming in a special copper steamer (goa). In Tamil Nadu, an Indian State, it is called "Manjal", which is extensively used for its aroma, color and as a disinfectant.

Preliminary medical research

Turmeric is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease,[10] cancer,[11][12] arthritis, and other clinical disorders.[13][14] As an example of preliminary laboratory research, turmeric ameliorated the severity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury in mice.[15]According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal, research activity into curcumin and turmeric is increasing.[16] The U.S. National Institutes of Health currently has registered 61 clinical trials completed or underway to study use of dietary curcumin for a variety of clinical disorders (dated June 2011).[17]

Turmeric rhizome Some research shows compounds in turmeric to have anti-fungal and antibacterial properties, however, curcumin is not one of them.[18]

Turmeric paste is traditionally used by Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair and as an antimicrobial. Turmeric paste, as part of both home remedies and Ayurveda, is also said to improve the skin and is touted as an anti-aging agent. Turmeric figures prominently in the bridal beautification ceremonies of India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. Staining oneself with turmeric is believed to improve the skin tone and tan. Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens.[citation needed]


Inflorescence in Goa, India. Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye, as it is not very light fast (it fades with exposure to sunlight). However, turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing, such as saris.


Curcumin keto form

Curcumin enol form Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 5% curcumin, a polyphenol. Curcumin is the active substance of turmeric and curcumin is known as C.I. 75300, or Natural Yellow 3. The systematic chemical name is (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione.It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Curcumin is a pH indicator. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red.


Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. Milk derived from cattle species is an important food. It has many nutrients. The precise nutrient composition of raw milk vary by species and by a number of other factors, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C. Cow's milk has a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic.[1][2] Milk is an important food for over 6 billion human beings of all ages, majority of them in developing countries. Over 750 million people live within dairy farming households. World's dairy farms produced over 710 million tons of milk in 2010. India is the world's largest producer and consumer of milk, yet neither exports nor imports milk. New Zealand, EU-15 and Australia are the world's three largest exporters of milk and milk products. China, Mexico and Japan are the world's largest importers of milk and milk products.

Sources of milk
All female mammals can by definition produce milk, but cow milk dominates commercial production. Human milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially; however, milk banks exist that allow for the collection of donated human milk and its redistribution to infants who may benefit from human milk for various reasons (premature neonates, babies with allergies, metabolic diseases, etc.). In the Western world, cow's milk is produced on an industrial scale and is by far the most commonly consumed form of milk. Commercial dairy farming using automated milking equipment produces the vast majority of milk in developed countries. Dairy cattle such as the Holstein have been bred selectively for increased milk production. About 90% of the dairy cows in the United States and 85% in Great Britain are Holsteins.

Physical and chemical properties of milk

Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid that contains dissolved carbohydrates.[43] Because it is produced as a food source for a neonate, all of its contents provide benefits to the growing young. The principle requirements of the neonate are energy (lipids, lactose, and protein), biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids supplied by proteins (essential amino acids and amino groups), essential fatty acids, vitamins and inorganic elements, and water. [44]

Butterfat is a triglyceride (fat) derived from fatty acids such as myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids.

Normal bovine milk contains 3035 grams of protein per liter of which about 80% is arranged in casein micelles.

Salts, minerals, and vitamins

Minerals or milk salts, are traditional names for a variety of cations and anions within bovine milk. Calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, citrate, and chlorine are all included as minerals and they typically occur at concentration of 540 mM. The milk salts strongly interact with casein, most notably calcium phosphate. It is present in excess and often, much greater excess of solubility of solid calcium phosphate[44] In addition to calcium, milk is a good source of many other vitamins. Vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, K, E, thiamine, niacin, biotin, riboflavin, folates, and pantothenic acid are all present in milk.

Carbohydrates and miscellaneous contents

A simplified representation of a lactose molecule being broken down into glucose (2) and galactose (1) Milk contains several different carbohydrate including lactose, glucose, galactose, and other oligosaccharides. The lactose gives milk its sweet taste and contributes approximately 40% of whole cow's milk's calories. Lactose is a disaccharide composite of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose.Bovine milk averages 4.8% anhydrous lactose, which amounts to about 50% of the total solids of skimmed milk. Levels of lactose are dependant upon the type of milk as other carbohydrates can be present at higher concentrations that lactose in milks. [44].Other components found in raw cow's milk are living white blood cells, mammary gland cells, various bacteria, and a large number of active enzymes.[6]

Both the fat globules and the smaller casein micelles, which are just large enough to deflect light, contribute to the opaque white color of milk. The fat globules contain some yellow-orange carotene, enough in some breeds (such as Guernsey and Jersey cattle) to impart a golden or "creamy" hue to a glass of milk. The riboflavin in the whey portion of milk has a greenish color, which sometimes can be discerned in skimmed milk or whey products.[6] Fat-free skimmed milk has only the casein micelles to scatter light, and they tend to scatter shorter-wavelength blue light more than they do red, giving skimmed milk a bluish tint.[46]

Pasteurization is used to kill harmful microorganisms by heating the milk for a short time and then cooling it for storage and transportation. Pasteurized milk still is perishable, however, and must be stored cold by both suppliers and consumers. Dairies print expiration dates on each container, after which stores will remove any unsold milk from their shelves. The process destroys the vitamin C content of the raw milk. A newer process, ultrapasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment (UHT), heats the milk to a higher temperature for a shorter amount of time. This extends its shelf life and allows the milk to be stored unrefrigerated because of the longer lasting sterilization effect.

Microfiltration is a process that partially replaces pasteurization and produces milk with fewer microorganisms and longer shelf life without a change in the taste of the milk. In this process, cream is separated from the whey and is pasteurized in the usual way, but the whey is forced through ceramic microfilters that trap 99.9% of microorganisms in the milk (as compared to 95% killing of microorganisms in conventional pasteurization). The whey then is recombined with the pasteurized cream to reconstitute the original milk composition.

Nutrition and health

See also: Fat content of milk The composition of milk differs widely among species. Factors such as the type of protein; the proportion of protein, fat, and sugar; the levels of various vitamins and minerals; and the size of the butterfat globules, and the strength of the curd are among those than may vary.[8] For example:

Human milk contains, on average, 1.1% protein, 4.2% fat, 7.0% lactose (a sugar), and supplies 72 kcal of energy per 100 grams. Cow milk contains, on average, 3.4% protein, 3.6% fat, and 4.6% lactose, 0.7% minerals [51] and supplies 66 kcal of energy per 100 grams. See also Nutritional value further on.

Donkey and horse milk have the lowest fat content, while the milk of seals and whales may contain more than 50% fat.[52][53] High fat content is not unique to aquatic mammals. Guinea pig milk has an average fat content of 46%.[54] Milk composition analysis, per 100 grams Constituents Water Protein Fat Carbohydrate Energy

Energy Sugars (lactose) Cholesterol Calcium Saturated fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty g acids Polyunsaturated fatty g

Wate Uni Co Go She r t w at ep buffa lo 87. 88. g 83.0 81.1 8 9 g 3.2 3.1 5.4 4.5 g 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0 g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9 kca 66 60 95 110 l kJ 275 253 396 463 g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9 mg 14 10 11 8 mg 120 100 170 195 g 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2 1.1 0.8 1.5 0.1 0.1 0.3 1.7 0.2


Medical research
A 2006 study found that for women desiring to have a child, those who consume full fat dairy products may slightly increase their fertility, while those consuming low-fat dairy products may slightly reduce their fertility.

Numerous studies have found that conjugated linoleic acid, found mainly in milk, meat and dairy products, provides several health benefits including prevention of atherosclerosis, different types of cancer, and hypertension and improved immune function.[64][65][65] There is recent evidence suggesting consumption of milk is effective at promoting muscle growth[66] and improving post exercise muscle recovery.[67] In 2010, scientists at the Harvard School of Public Health identified a substance in dairy fat, trans-palmitoleic acid, that may substantially reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The researchers examined participants who have been followed for 20 years in an observational study to evaluate risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in older adults. During followup it was found that individuals with higher circulating levels of trans-palmitoleic acid had a much lower risk of developing diabetes, with about a 60% lower risk among participants in the highest quintile (fifth) of trans-palmitoleic acid levels.