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CUPRINS 1. Alfabetul limbii engleze 1.1. Vocalele limbii engleze 1.2.Consoanele limbii engleze 2. Substantivul 3. Articolul 4. Prepozitia 5.

Conjunctia 6. Interjectia 7. Adejectivul 8. Adverbul 9. Numeralul 10. Pronumele 11. Verbul 11.1. Verbele auxiliare(to be, to do, to have) 11.2. Verbele modale 11.3. Verbele copulative 12. Modul indicativ 12. 1. Prezentul simplu 12. 2. Prezentul continuu 12. 3. Prezentul perfect 12. 4. Prezentul perfect continuu 12. 5. Trecutul simplu 12. 6. Trecutul continuu 12. 7. Trecutul perfect 12. 8. Trecutul perfect continuu 12. 9. Viitorul simplu 12.10. Viitorul continuu 12.11. Viitorul de intentie 12.12. Viitorul apropiat 12.13. Viitorul in trecut 12.14. Viitorul perfect 13. Conditionalul 13.1.Conditionalul prezent 13.2.Conditionalul trecut 14. Subjonctivul 15. Modul imperativ 16. Diateza pasiva 17. Corespondenta timpurilor 18. Lista verbelor neregulate 19. Verbe cu prepozitii 20. Zilele saptamanii, Lunile si Anotimpurile 21. Exprimarea datei si orei 22. False friends 23. Unitati de masura 24. Semnele matematice 2 3 3 4 9 12 21 22 23 32 37 44 48 49 52 56 57 59 60 61 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 71 72 74 74 74 77 78 78 80 81 85 89 90 91 92 93

1. ALFABETUL LIMBII ENGLEZE Engleza foloseste un alfabet latin cu literele cunoscute si in alte limbi straine de origine indo-europeana dar cunoaste grupuri de litere care se pronunta diferit. De exemplu, "th" este grupul cel mai cunoscut. Ceea ce este mai interesant in alfabetul englez este ca adesea "y" si "w" devin vocale si astfel intervin schimbarile necesare (articolul nehotarat "a" se transforma in "an" daca cuvintele incep cu una dintre aceste litere). Engleza este o limba tonala in care intonatia este importanta. De aceea, adesea, vocea ajuta sa transmita ironia sau surpriza, afirmatia sau interogatia. Spre exemplu, intrebarea poate fi formata cu ajutorul inversiunii subiectului cu auxiliarul verbului dar exista si posibilitatea mentinerii afirmatiei si a schimbarii intonatiei. Diacriticele apar destul de rar in limba engleza, in special in cuvintele imprmutate (appliqu, attach, crpe, lite) si pronuntia lor este identica cu cea din limba din care provin, in mare parte din franceza. Litera a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Transcriere fonetica [ei] [bi:] [si:] [di:] [i:] [ef] [dji:] [eitch] [ai] [gei] [kei] [el] [em] [en] [ou] [pi:] [kju:] [a:] [es] [ti:] [ju:] [vi:] ['dablju:] [eks] [wai] [zed]

1.1.VOCALELE LIMBII ENGLEZA (THE WOELS)

Limba engleza are 12 vocale, lungi (mai lungi decat in limba romana, pe care le indicam in transcrierea fonemica prin doua puncte [:]), si scurte (mai scurte decat in limba romana): 1. a scurt, intre "a" anterior si "o", ex.: nut [nat] nuca 2. a: mai lunga decat vocala romaneasca, urmata de obicei de "r" (care nu se pronunta, doar daca urmatorul cuvant incape cu o vocala!), ex.: arm [a:m] brat, car [ca:] masina 3. [a] a cu barcuta deasupra, e scurt, si intalnit in silabe neaccentuate, ex.: a pen [ a pen] un stilou, at home [at haum] acasa, after [a:fta] dupa, England [ingland] Anglia

4. [a: ] a cu barcuta deasupra, prelungit si pronuntat printre dinti, intr-un zambet larg, ex.: girl [ga:l] fata, learn [la:n] a invata 5. [ae] este un sunet intermediar intre "e" si "a", pronuntat cu gura foarte mult deschisa, ex.: Ann [aen] Ana, has [haez] (el, ea) are 6. e similar cu vocala romaneasca, ex.: men [men] barbati, many [meni] multi, multe i scurt, intre "i" si "e" 7. it [it] el, ea (pentru substantive ce denumesc obiecte, animale si notiuni abstracte), ex: big [big] mare 8. i: vocala lunga, intalnita in exclamatiile din limba romana!, ex: be [bi:] a fi, see [si:] a vedea 9. o intermediara intre o si a, ex: dog [dog] caine, not [not] nu (adverb) 10. o: lung, intre "u" si "o", ex: all [o:l] toti, toate, door [do:] usa 11. u scurt, intre "u" si "o", ex: good [gud] bun 12. u: lung, ex: you [iu:] tu, voi, do [du:] a face 1.2 CONSOANELE LIMBII ENGLEZA (THE CONSONANTS) Unele consoane englezesti sunt deosebite de cele din limba romana: 1. urmate de aspiratie, de un "h" usor, cand sunt folosite la inceputul cuvintelor k come [cham] a veni (de regula, "e"-ul din pozitie finala nu se citeste!) p pen [phen] stilou t ten [then] zece 2. alveolare; varful limbii se sprijina pe alveolele incisivilor superiori d did [did] facut t ten [ten] zece n not [not] nu 3. interdentale, tine varful limbii intre dinti si rosteste "s" (consoana surda) sau "z" (consoana sonora) ["s"] thank ["s"aenc] multumesc ["z"] then ["z"en] atunci 4. "l" velar, pozitie finala / "l" clar, apare inainte de vocale tell [tel] a povesti like [laic] a place 5. "n" velar / "n" clar sun [san] soare English [inglish] englez 6. "r" fricativ, nu se pronunta in pozitie finala, decat daca urmatorul cuvant incepe cu o vocala Henry 7. "s"-ul dintre doua vocale, sau uneori cel aflat la sfarsitul cuvantului se pronunta "z" please [pli:z] va rog (adu-ti aminte ca "e" final, dupa consoana, nu se citeste!) his [hiz] al lui 8. "sh" are ca echivalent "sh"-ul romanesc: shogun English [inglish] englez 9. "ts" indentic cu "ts"-ul romanesc nuts [nats] nuci 2. SUBSTANTIVUL / THE NOUN ATENTIE: In engleza, toate propozitiile trebuie sa aiba subiect. Subiectul poate fi un substantiv sau un pronume. Felul substantivelor Substantivele n limba engleza se pot mparti n patru categorii: substantive comune: cat, girl, lamp substantive proprii: England, London, Mr Smith, Mary substantive abstracte: beauty, love, courage, fear, joy

substantive colective: crowd, group, team

Genul Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin: fenomene cu caracter puernic, de regula negative Ex.: man, boy, lion, dog, Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin: Ex.: woman, girl, cat, giraffe Baroness (femininul e format citeodata adaugand "ess" la forma de masculin) Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile, plantele, animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu este cunoscut (pronume: it/they): -obiecte fara suflet Ex.: world, peace, house, mouse, baby Exceptii: tarile, navele, n majoritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt de genul feminin. Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze. Substantivele care intra n aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe: Ex.: child (copil, copila), cook (bucatar, bucatareasa), teacher (profesor, profesoara). Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin: Ex.: boy - girl, husband wife, brother - sister, father - mother, son - daughter, uncle - aunt, bull - cow, king queen NOTA: In incercarea de a elimina discriminarea de gen (gender discrimination)exista o tendinta de a inlocui terminatiile man si woman cu person sau de a le elimina complet. In alte cazuri au fost create alte expresii sau alte cuvinte lipsite de gen. salesman, saleswoman salesperson / chairman, chairwoman chairperson sau chair / steward, stewardess flight attendant Numarul 1. Substantivele numarabile se pot numara, adica au numar. Pot avea atat forme de singular cat si de plural. La plural avem urmatoarele forme: a. la majoritatea substativelor se adauga -s formei de singular: book, books / day, days / house, houses / donkey, donkeys / handkerchief, handkerchiefs 2. substantivele in o, ch, sh, s sau x primesc -es: potato, potatoes / church, churches / brush, brushes / bus, buses / box, boxes / kiss, kisses 3. terminate in consoana + y pierd pe y si primesc -ies: baby, babies / factory, factories / fly, flies NOTA: Exista exceptii : kilo, kilos/ photo, photos piano, pianos / radio, radios/soprano, sopranos 4. unele substantive elimina -f/fe de la final si primesc -ves: calf, calves / wife, wives / wolf, wolves / loaf, loaves / half, halves / leaf, leaves / life, lives / shelf, shelves / thief, thieves/ knife, knives / self, selves 5. unele substantive isi modifica vocalele: foot, feet / tooth, teeth / goose, geese / man, men / woman, women / mouse, mice / louse, lice / child, children / person, people 6. unele substantive au aceeasi forma la singular si la plural: sheep, trout, deer, aircraft, fish (RAR: fishes) trout, salmon, series, species, means, headquarters 7. unele substantive exista numai la forma de plural: clothes, pants, pyjamas, scissors, eyeglasses, scales, stairs, savings, earnings, belongings, outskirts, wages, premises, surroundings, archives, customs, police, the Middle Ages 8. unele substantive imprumutate pastreaza pluralul grecesc, italian sau latin: crisis, crises / cactus, cacti / phenomenon, phenomena / datum, data / libretto, libretti / fungus, fungi / nucleus, nuclei / stimulus, stimuli / criterion, criteria / basis, bases / thesis, theses / oasis, oases / axis, axes / medium, media / bacterium, bacteria NOTA: Engleza moderna foloseste adesea data, media, bacteria cu sens plural, dar cu un verb la singular. The latest data is highly encouraging.

9. numele de familie se pot folosi la plural pentru a indica intreaga familie. Numelui i se adauga un -s. Nu au loc schimbari de ortografie: The Kennedys are world-famous. 10. Substantivele colective se refera la un grup de oameni sau lucruri. Sunt in mod normal folosite la singular. In engleza britanica (Br.E.) se pot folosi atat cu verbe la singular cat si la plural. In engleza americana (Am.E.) au intotdeauna un verb la singular. Iata o lista de substantive colective uzuale: family, aristocracy, nobility, government, enemy, proletariat, press, opposition, jury, community, army, audience, crew, staff, team, committee, public NOTA: Ocazional substantivele colective sunt folosite la plural si sunt numarabile. Romeo and Juliet came from two feuding families. The governments of Israel and Egypt agreed to sign the treaty. Only two teams can get to the finals. Substantivele nenumarabile NU pot fi numarate, adica nu au numar. De obicei au numai forma de singular. Se impart in urmatoarele categorii: substantive concrete:water, wood, metal, paper, gras, glass , oil, silver, gol, sand, snow, rain, bread, milk, coffee butter, wine, fire, food, salt substantive abstracte: love, beauty, hope, relief, experience, advice, purity, joy, freedom, information, courage, design, duty, capacity, education, evil, time, patience, reality, intelligence NOTA: Work este nenumarabil, dar job este numarabil. Harriet is looking for work. James has two jobs. Works inseamna: fabrica, parte mecanica, productie literara, fapte sau acte. Mother Teresa of Calcutta is known for her good works. My father has the complete works of Victor Hugo in his library. The steel works are down the road. ATENTIE: Iata cateva substantive nenumarabile in engleza care in alte limbi se pot deseori numara: advice, baggage, luggage, furniture, damage, hair, shopping, homework, information, knowledge, money, weather, research, progress, business, spaghetti, news - substantive verbale (verbe in ING): camping, dancing, shopping, jogging, singing etc. Smoking is bad for your health. The town council does not permit parking on this street. - nume de limbi: German, English, Chinese, Italian, Spanish etc. You speak excellent English. - unele nume de boli, stiinte si jocuri au forma de plural, dar in mod normal primesc un verb la singular. Sunt considerate nenumarabile: measels, mumps, dominoes, physics, politics, ethics, acoustics, statistics, mathematics, news, eletronics etc. Politics does not interest me. The latest news is quite encouraging. Mathematics is an important subject. DAR: His mathematics were all wrong. (NU stiinta, si calculele) ATENTIE: Substativele nenumarabile nu sunt niciodata precedate de expresii de numar (a, an, one, two, three etc.). Iata cateva expresii folosite pentru a indica numarul/cantitatea: a piece of information / furniture / advice / equipment / glass / paper / news a type of atmosphere / behaviour / violence an item of luggage / baggage / news a case of mumps / measels / flu a ray of hope / sunshine a lot of strength / security Pluralul substantivelor compuse

-n cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuvnt va trece la plural. Ex.: boy-friends, break-ins, travel agents -Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element esteman sauwom an vor primi semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive componente. Ex.: men drivers, women teachers, men servants -n cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv + prepozitie / adverb + substantiv, substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului. Ex.: sisters-in-law, passers-by, men-of-war, hangers-on, lookers-on, runners-up -Abrevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unuis Ex.: MPs (Members of Parliament), VIPs (very important persons) Sens Unic / Sens Comun Her hair is black. (Parul ei este negru.) She found a hair in the milk. (A gasit un fir de par n lapte.) Their house was made of wood. (Casa lor este din lemn.) We picnicked in the woods. (Am mers la picnic n padure.) Cazurile substantivului 1. Nominativ Intr-o propozitie substantivul in nominativ este subiectul actiunii. Substantivul in nominativ este ingrosat: Mark read a book. / The tree has a lot of flowers. / Water freezes at 32F (0C). 2. Acuzativ Indica obiectul asupra caruia se rasfrange actiunea intr-un mod direct. Acuzativul este un caz ce exprim complementele direct, indirect i circumstaniale. Intrebarile cu care se identifica: ce? pe cine? unde? de unde? pana unde? de cand? pe cine? pe ce? cu ce? cu cine? de ce? de cine? de la cine? cand? pana cand? Substantivele in acuzativ sunt ingrosate: Max fixed the car/The girl sells the big box /The girl hugs the boy/I eat the pizza you gave me. 3. Dativ Indica obiectul asupra caruia se rasfrange actiunea intr-un mod indirect. Identificarea se face cu intrebarea "Cui ?". Substantivele ingrosate sunt in cazul Dativ. 1. I have baked Mary a cake. (Am gatit o prajitura pentru Mary. Cui i-am gatit prajitura ?) 2. The king gave his son his kingdom. (Regele i-a dat regatul fiului sau. Cui i-a dat regele regatul sau ?) 3. Give the ball to Mary.(Da-i mingia lui Mary. Cui sa-i dau mingea ?) 4. Give Mary the ball. (Da-i mingia lui Mary. Cui sa-i dau mingea ?) In cazul verbelor care cer dupa ele un complement direct si unul indirect, dativul se poate construi in 2 feluri (vezi exemplul nr. 3 si nr. 4). 4. Genitiv Exprima o posesie (ceva/cineva apartine cuiva) 1. Mark's shop (magazinul lui James) 2. John's car (masina lui John) 3. the sailors' boat (barca pescarilor) 4. the chemist's guide (ghidul chimistului) 5. the window of the house (fereastra casei) 6. the firms new project (noul proiect al firmei) 7. the gift of the girl who... (darul fetei care ...) Comentarii

a) Genitivul (posesia) in limba engleza se formeaza astfel: -cand posesorul este o persoana: prin adaugarea unui 's dupa posesor (obiectul posedat se afla dupa posesor in propozitie). Vezi exemplele nr. 1, 2, 4; -cand posesorii sunt mai multe pesoane: prin adaugarea unui ' (apostrof) dupa posesori (obiectul posedat se afla dupa posesori in propozitie). Vezi exemplul nr.3; -cand posesorul este un lucru: se foloseste constructia cu "of": obiect posedat + of + posesor (un lucru). Vezi exemplul nr. 5; b) In exemplul nr. 6 ambele forme de genitiv sunt corecte deoarece posesorul este un grup de persoane. Aceeasi regula se aplica pentru posesori precum: government, company, committee, team, party. c) Daca posesorul e urmat de that, who, etc se foloseste genitivul format cu "of". Vezi exemplul nr. 7. Forma posesiva Se adauga 's la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina n s: Ex.: a child's voice, the people's choice, a horse's mouth, women's clothes Vom folosi doar apostroful (') cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina n s. Ex.: a boys' school, the Johnsons' residence Numele proprii terminate n s vor primi fie doar apostrof ('), fie 's Ex.: Mr Jones's / Mr Jones' car, Yeats's / Yeats' poems n cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuvnt va primi 's Ex.: My father-in-law's guitar, Henry the Eighth's wives 's se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri. Ex.: The CEO's assistant, the PM's speech Forma posesiva se foloseste n general cnd vorbim de oameni, animale, tari. Se foloseste de asemenea n urmatoarele cazuri: n expresii temporale Ex.: yesterday's newspaper, in five years' time, ten minutes' break n expresii construite dupa modelul bani + worth Ex.: ten dollars' worth of bananas, a shilling's worth of stamps n alte expresii uzuale: Ex.: for heaven's sake, a winter's day, the water's edge, the plane's wings, the train's departure n cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv, este uzuala omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci cnd sensul comunicarii este clar (magazine, birouri, oficii, casa, locuinta). Ex.: You can buy this at the baker's (shop). Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent's (office). The kids went to Bobby's (house). Ideea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of+substantiv. Aceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate de o propozitie subordonata. Ex.: the walls of the town, the roof of the church, the keys of the house In limba engleza exista o serie de substantive care denumesc animalul viu (1). Aceste denumiri provin dintr-o limba germana veche anglo-saxona, care se vorbea cu mai bine de 1000 de ani in urma pe teritotiul Angliei. Dar atunci cand animalul este sacrificat, denimirea sa ase schimba si devine Denumire Animalul viu Animalul sacrificat Vaca, bou / carne de vita Cow, ox Beef Vitel / carne de vital Calf Veal Oaie / carne de oaie Sheep Mutton Porc / carne de porc Pig Pork 7

Aceasta schimare se explica prin faptul ca dupa anul 1066 (batalia de Hastings, cand anglo-saxonii au fost cuceriti de normanzi, un popor ce venea din nordul Frantei si vorbeau franceza normanda). Anglia s-a aflat timp de 350 de ani sub ocupatie normanda si in acesta perioada limba oficiala a fost frnaceza normada. Cei saraci-taranii, serbii, care cresteau animalele, au continuat sa vorbeasca anglo-saxona folosind denumirile respective pentru animalele vii, dar cand animalul era sacrificat, el ajungea pe masa nobililor care vorbeau franceza si care foloseau denumirile respective pentru carnea animalului. Astfel se explica existenta a 2 termeni.

3. ARTICOLUL /THE ARTICLE Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete nteles ntr-o propozitie oarecare, acesta trebuie sa fie nsotit de un determinant substantival. Cel mai des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. Articolele se pot clasifica dupa cum urmeaza: Articolul hotart - the Articolul nehotart - a / an Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata) Articolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se schimba n functie de numarul sau genul substantivului si se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat. Articolul hotart (the) se foloseste: 1 inaintea unui substantiv singular numarabil sau nenumarabil sau a unui substantiv plural numarabil pentru a face o noua referire la ceva ce a fost deja sau la care s-a facut deja aluzie:He wanted to go to the bank to change some money, but all the banks were on strike./Dave had a nasty accident when he was young. You can still see the scar. Do you remember the fun we had when we were at school together? 2 pentru a face referire la cineva sau ceva anume:The American economy is suffering at the moment. / The people I work with are very friendly. I dont like the president of that company. 3 in fata unui substantiv reprezentand o anume persoana sau un lucru sau un grup de persoane sau lucruri: I dont feel well. Can you call the doctor? (= medicul personal) The kids arent at home. (= proprii tai copii) Can you pass me the butter, please? (= untul de pe aceasta masa) Shall I drive the car? (= aceasta masina) Maria Callas sang so beautifully that the audience threw flowers onto the stage. (=publicul care o urmarea a aruncat flori pe scena pe care canta ea) 4 cu referire la ceva unic in mod absolut: The sun rises in the East and sets in the West. The weather at the North Pole is very cold. The President of the United States visited the Pope last May. 5 in fata adjectivelor pentru a face referire la un anumit grup sau clasa de oameni. In acest caz NU este nevoie de substantiv: Only the strong survive. (= oamenii puternici in general) The question of the unemployed came up again. Robin Hood stole from the rich and gave to the poor. 6 in fata unui substantiv la singular pentru a se referi la un anume grup de oameni, animale sau obiecte: The Indian elephant is smaller than the African elephant. The dolphin is said to be a very intelligent animal. Henry Ford invented the automobile. The customer is always right. 7 inaintea unor substantive proprii pentru a denumi zone geografice, nume de mari si rauri, lanturi muntoase, grupuri de insule, nume la plural de tari si deserturi:the Middle East, the North of England, the Ivory Coast, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea, the English Channel, the River Thames, the Straits of Gibraltar, the Himalayas, the Alps, the Carpathians, the Hawaiian Islands, the Falklands, the United States of America, the Netherlands, the Philippines, the Arizona Desert, the Mojave Desert NOTA: THE nu se foloseste cu nume de munti izolati. Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Scotland. THE nu se foloseste cu nume de lacuri.

Lake Superior, Lake Victoria, Lake Ontario in fata numelor de instruente muzicale: Rachmaninov began to play the piano when he was only 4 years old. The guitar has always been my favourite instrument. 9 in fata unor adjective nationalitati cu referire la oameni dintr-o anumita tara. Aici se foloseste un verb la plural: The Swiss have decided not to join the EU. The Spanish are doing very well in this years Olympics. NOTA: In anumite cazuri, se pot folosi numai substantive la plural. The Germans were upset about losing the WW II. The Americans hosted the 1994 World Football Championship. 10 inaintea adjectivelor superlative si a numeralelor ordinale: Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon. Laura is the most beautiful in my class. That is the silliest thing I have ever heard. NOTA: Uneori numeralele oridinale pot fi folosite fara THE atunci cand se face referire la ordinea in care se petrec evenimentele. Brendan came first ad Colin second at 100 meters. We went to Manhattan first, then on to Brooklyn. 8 Articolul nehotart (a / an). Se foloseste a naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o consoana si an naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u). Articolul nehotart se foloseste: 1. inaintea unui substantiv pentru a ne referi la ceva sau cineva pentru prima data: Ive received a postcard from a friend of mine in the US. After months of searching, my brother found a job. The Jacksons live in a bungalow. 2. pentru a exprima ce este ceva sau cineva, inclusiv slujbe sau profesii: My neighbour is a sociologist and his wife is an architect. Jenny doesnt eat meat; shes a vegetarian. There is a man at the door who says he is a detective. That was a kind thing to say. 3. dupa verbul be sau alte verbele copulative, cand dupa ele urmeaza locutiuni prepozitionala sau propozitii relative care ofera mai multa informatie despre cineva sau ceva: I read an interesting article about pollution in yesterdays paper. Jacks son is a talented artist. He studied law at University and became a judge. I bought a painting that reminded me of my childhood home. John Smith wrote an interesting article on Education in the Times yesterday. 4. cu unele expresii numerice insemnand unu sau su expresii ale pretului, vitezei, raportului si cantitatii: A hundred guests were invited. Petrol costs 1.50 a litre in England. Hes crazy driving at 190 kilometres an hour. You must take this medicine four times a day if you want to get better. There was a great deal of noise coming form the house next door. 5. cu substantive numarabile la singular pentru a da definitii, a face afirmatii generale, exclamatii sau cand ne exprimam dorinte: A thesaurus is a dictionary of synonyms. A house built of stone is stronger than a house built of wood.

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An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (proverb) Wow! What a pretty girl walked by just now. Id like a nice cool glass of beer. Articolul a / an si one 1. Atunci cnd numeri sau masori timpul, distanta, greutatea, etc. se poate folosi fie a/an fie one pentru singular: Ex.: a / one pound, a / one million pounds You can take an/ one hour for lunch. 2. Dar a/an si one nu nseamna ntotdeauna acelasi lucru: Ex.: A box is no good. (We need a crate not a box). One box is no good, we need two boxes. Articolul zero. Nu se foloseste articol n urmatoarele cazuri: 1.in fata substantivelor nenumarabile sau numarabile la plural cand se face o afirmatie generala (adesea precedate de determinanti ca: some, any, a piece of, a lot of etc.): Water quenches thirst on a hot day. Pollution in big cities is very worrying. Dogs make good companions. There is some luggage to be taken upstairs. Is there any bread in the kitchen? 2.in fata substativelor abstracte cand sunt folosite in mod generic: beauty, happiness, fear, hope, knowledge, intelligence etc.; cu exceptia cazurilor cand sunt folosite cu sens mai bine specificat: Knowledge comes to us through our senses. DAR: She got the job because she has a knowledge of English. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. DAR: What a beauty! 3.in fata substantivelor proprii, nume de persoane si numele unei companii, cu exceptia situatiilor cand se vorbeste de familie ca un tot: He works for Microsoft. Helen and George Parker are coming to dinner tonight. DAR: The Parkers are coming to dinner tonight. pentru a vorbi despre sporturi, in fata numelor de echipe etc: He loves football and supports Manchester Utd. inaintea meselor zilei: Where did you have breakfast / lunch / dinner? inaintea cuvintelor home, church, university, prison, hospital, market etc. atunci cand ele reprezinta o institutie sau o idee generala. THE se foloseste totusi atunci cand se face o referire speciala la locul respectiv: Al Capone was arrested and put in prison for tax evasion. (ne referim nu la o anumita inchisoare, ci la institutie) His mother went to the prison once a week to visit him. (aici ne referim la acea inchisoare unde se afla Al Capone) My mother goes to church every Sunday. (biserica in sensul de institutie, serviciu religios) She sometimes goes to the church near the Royal Palace. (acea biserica anume). Our University is 150 years old. (institutia universitatii) Emma and Ben often go to the university to talk to their professor. (la o universitate anume, in cladirea ei)

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4. PREPOZITIA / PREPOSITIONS 1. Prepozitia de loc - se foloseste cu verbe statice: to be/to stay/to exist/to stand, etc. in in, la, pentru spatii mari Ex: I live in Bucharest. at in, la, pentru spatii reduse Ex: I live at Sinaia. within in cadrul, pentru suprafete restranse Ex: A lot of words have been said within these walls. against rezemat Ex: The man is against the wall. impotriva Ex: We are against them. on pe (pozitia pe o suprafata) Ex: The book is on the table. Pentru apropiere: imediata: next to, close to, beside apropiere: near, near by, by Pozitia pe verticala: over deasupra under dedesubt (fara raportare la un punct fix) above deasupra below dedesubt (cu raportare la un punct fix) Ex: above zero, below the water level underneath punctul cel mai de jos on top of punctul cel mai de sus (prin atingere) Ex: The green book is underneath. (este cea mai de jos carte) Pozitia pe orizontala: in front of in fata behind in spate (pt lucruri pentru a indica pozitia)Ex: The tree is in front of the house. after dupa before inainte (pt oameni, pentru a indica ordinea)Ex: Im before you at the queue between intre 2 among printre (mai mult de 2) 2. Prepozitia de miscare - se foloseste numai cu verbe de miscare to la, catre (pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go to school. towards la, catre (nu pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go towards office. Into in (pp patrunderea intr-un spatiu) Ex: Put the bag into the house. Onto pe (pp miscarea pe o suprafata orizontala;se pune ondaca sta)The cat is running onto the floor. along de-a lungul (pp miscarea pe o suprafata plana si lunga) Ex: Im walking along the beech. through prin (pp traversare si patrundere) Ex: I walk through the park. across traversare (nu si patrundere) Ex: I run across the street. about prin (arata o miscare nedefinita)Ex: I walk about town (prin oras, fara un tel precis) around in jurul (pp o miscare circulara) Ex: I dance around the fire. out of pp iesirea dintr-un volum Ex: Get out of my house. off pp desprinderea de o suprafata Ex: The plane takes off. up-and-down in sus si in jos pe un plan vertical Ex: The children run up-and-down the stairs. from de la, de pe, din Ex: Take it from my bag. past langa (pp apropierea imediata prin miscare) Ex: I drive past the university (si nu near the university!, pt ca sunt in miscare)

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3. Prepozitia de timp in pentru ani, lunile anului, anotimpuri, perioade ale vietii (in my childhood), in anumite momente ale zilei (in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening) at pentru ora (at 10 oclock), in anumite momente ale zilei (at noon, at midday, at midnight, at dusk), pentru varsta (at the age of 15), mesele zilei (at lunch time), cu week-end (at the week-end) si in sarbatori (at Christmas) on cu zilele saptamanii (on Sunday), data (on the 15th of June) si sarbatorile (on Christmas day cand este vorba de ziua de Craciun, nu de toata perioada) before si after inainte si dupa, cu raportare la un punct fix by nu mai tarziu de Ex: Try to arrive by ten. during in timpul over in timpul, dar pe perioade scurte Ex: Read it over the week-end. throughout / althrough de-a lungul, dar pe o prioada lunga de timp Ex: Althrough the years. 4. Diferentiere intre prepozitii in time on time cu ceva timp inainte la fix in the end at the end finally, in cele din urma la capatul (urmeaza un substantiv) in with pentru ceva cu care esti imbracat pentru o trasatura fizica Ex: A woman in trousers. A woman with long hair. as like pentru rol, functie, pozitie pentru comparatie Ex: I work as a teacher. Ex: I talk like a teacher. (I am a teacher) (I am an engineer) on about in legatura cu, folosit academic despre Ex: Give me a book on Economics. Ex: Lets talk about sex. due to owing to datorita (doar dupa to be) datorita (restul inafara de to be) Ex: My success is due to her. Ex: Owing to my work I succeeded. over across pp traversarea peste un obstacol traversare pe jos Ex: Im over the ocean. (cu avionul) Ex: Im across the ocean. (cu barca) despite in spite of dupa urmeaza CD (niciodata sub.) dupa urmeaza genitiv Ex: Despite the bad weather I left. Ex: In spite of the bad weather I left. made of recunosc materialul Ex: made of gold made from deduc ceva elemente Ex: the cake is made from cocoa made with recunosc 1 element Ex: a chocolate made with milk (dar laptele nu este elementul de baza) in in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening at at dawn, at midnight on pentru orice moment al zilei atunci cand exista un atribut Ex: In the morning dar On a fine day At night dar On a starry night 5. Pentru mijloace de locomotie by cu orice mijloc de transport, daca nu este determinat Ex: by car, by bus, by plane (dar on foot!) in pentru autovehicule, daca sunt determinate

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Ex: in my fathers car, in the car that you bought me on pentru toate celelalte in afara de autovehicule daca sunt determinate Ex: on my fathers plane, on the tube/subway/underground 6. Expresii cu Prepoziii Prepozitia About (despre) Expresii

About the town-prin ora About six oclock-n jurul orei ase A journey about the world-o cltorie prin lume About my head-deasupra capului meu About all-mai presus de orice,n primul rnd Across (de-a curmeziul sau de-a To walk across the street-a traversa strada latul) Across the road-peste drum After (dup) After dark-dup lsarea ntunericului After breakfast-dup micul dejun After five oclock-dup ora cinci Day after day-zi de zi,zi dup zi Time after time-deseori,foarte adesea After theat-dup aceea The day after tomorrow-poimine Against-mpotriv,contra Against the laws-mpotriva legilor A race against time-o curs contra cronometru To lean against a wall-a se sprijini de un perete Along-de-a lungul Along a valley-de.a lungul unei vi Along the sea shore-de-a lungul rmului Among-ntre Among us-ntre noi(cnd este vorba de 3 sau mai multe persoane) Among his friends-printre(ntre) prietenii lui Among the most important reasons-printre cele m.imp.cauze(motive) Around-mprejur A trip around the contry-o cltorie prin ar To sit around the table-a edea n jurul mesei I will come around ten-o s vin pe la zece (n jur de ora zece) At la At noon-la prnz At day break-la revrsatul zorilor At sunset-la apusul soarelui,la asfinit At rondom-la intmplare At work-la lucru At the door-la u At the beginning-la nceput At the end-la sfrit At the same time-n acelai timp At the age of-la vrsta de At first-la nceput At last-la sfrit,n cele din urm At full speed-la vitez maxim,cu toat viteza At first sight-la prima vedere At what time?-la ce or? At once-imediat At least-cel puin At my disposal-la dispoziia mea Byfore-nainte Byfore my eyes-naintea ochilor mei 14

Byfore one aclock-nainte de ora unu To sail byfore the wind-a naviga cu vntul n spate Behind(bihaind)-n spate Behind the clouds-n spatele norilor To hide behind the door-a se ascunde n spatele uii Below(bilou)-sub To strike below the belt-a lovi sub centur Below sea level-sub nivelul mrii Below the ground-sub pmnt Below the average-sub nivelul mediu Beneath-sub,mai jos de Beneath ones dignity-sub demnitatea cuiva Besides-n afar de He has two cars besides this-el are dou maini n afar de aceasta Between-ntre, se folosete cnd este Between the two world wars-ntre cele dou rzboaie mondiale vorba de dou elemente sau dou An understanding between us-o nelegere ntre noi persoane Beyond-dincolo de Beyond doubt(deaut)-fr ndoial Beyond the sea-dincolo de mare Beyond limits-peste limit By-de,de ctre,prin To open by force-a deschide cu fora To travel by train-a cltori cu trenul To go by car-a merge cu maina Day by day-zi de zi Step by step-pas cu pas Drop by drop-strop cu strop Piece by piece-bucat cu bucat One by one-unul cte unul Two by two-doi cte doi To learn by heart-a nva pe de rost To go by the post-office-a trece pe lng pot By force of circunstances-prin fora mprejurrilor To sleep side by side-a dormi unul lng altul For-pentru Good for food-comestibil To leave for school-a pleca la coal To look for help-a cuta ajutor To cry for help-a striga dup ajutor For a time-un timp,pentru un timp To go for a walk-a merge la plimbare To read for pleasure-a citi de plcere What is this good for?-la ce este bun sta? For all the world-pentru nimic n lume To have a taste for art-a avea gust artistic For this reason-pentru(din) acest motiv For the sake of peace-n numele pcii Enough(inagh) for the present-suficient deocamdat Im sorry for you-mi pare ru de tine(pentru tine) From-din,de la From first to last-de la primul la ultimul From heaven to earth-de la cer la pmnt From bad(bead) to worse-din ce n ce mai ru From place to place-din cnd n cnd From morning to night-de dimineaa pn seara Light from the sun-lumin de la soare A man free from care-un om liber de griji 15

In-n

Into-n,spre

Inside-nuntru Near-lng Of-de

A man from the country-un om de la ar To be far from home-a fi departe de cas From theat point of view-din punctul acela de vedere From my point of view-din punctul meu de vedere To be released from prisom-a fi eliberat din nchisoare Seen from above-vzut de sus Seen from below(bilou)-vzut de dedesubt On my way from Piteti to Bucharest-n drumul meu de la P.la B To tell one thing from another-a deosebi un lucru de cellalt In the morning-dimineaa In the shade(eid)-la umbr In the end-la final In the garden-n grdin In heaven-n cer In spring-primvara In summer-vara In fall-toamna In winter-iarna To be in danger(deinger)-a fi n pericol To lie(lai) in bed-a sta ntins n pat To live in the country-a sta la ar In our centuri(aur senturi)In all seasons-n toate anotimpurile In my youth-n tinereea mea In his memory-n memoria lui Early in the morning-dimineaa devreme In the past-n trecut In the future(fiucir)-n viitor In come just in time-a veni la timp To keep(kip)in mind(maind)-a ine minte Done in haste-fcut n grab To put in mind-a-i pune n gnd To put in order-a pune n ordine In general-n general To work in vain-a munci n zadar To be in pain-a fi ndurerat To speak in public-a vorbi n public To take in hand-a lua n mn To lead into error-a duce n eroare To get into difficulties-a da de greuti To fall into the river-a cdea n ru(lac) To burst into tears-a izbucni n lacrimi To get into trouble-a da de bucluc,belea,necaz To pour walter into a glass-a turna ap n pahar Inside the room-nuntrul camerei His is inside-el e nuntru Near the sea shore-lng rm Near at hand-la ndemn,aproape Near you-lng tine A crown of gold-o coroan de aur 16

Off-departe de On-pe

Over-peste

Past

Round-n jurul

A flock of sheep-o turm de oi Hard of hearing(hiring)-surd,tare de urechi A book of proverbs-o carte de proverbe The force of the wind-fora vntului A place of honour-n loc de onoare A man of mark-un om nsemnat(important) A man of no importance-un om oarecare(fr importan) To wear adress of silk-a purta o rochie de mtase Love of a mother-iubire de mam Master of the house-stpnul casei A piece of paper-o bucat de hrtie A friend of mine-un prieten de-al meu The events of late-evenimentele din ultimul timp In days of old-n zilele de mult apuse Of course-bineneles,cu siguran,sigur c da Keep off the grass-nu clcai pe iarb To be off duty-a fi liber,a nu fi la serviciu To fall off the horse-a cdea de pe cal To be on duty-a fi de serviciu To sit on the grass-a sta pe iarb Some goods(gudz)on sale-nite mrfuri de vnzare Haus on fire-o cas n flcri To go on foot-a merge pe jos On a beautiful day-ntr-o zi frumoas On such a day-ntr-o astfel de zi On this occasion(ocheijen)-cu aceast ocazie On certain conditions-cu anumite condiii To stand on tip toe-a sta n vrful picioarelor To be on land-a fi pe uscat On the whole-n ansamblu,n general,n mare On an average-n medie To be on holiday-a fi n vacan To sit on a chair-a sta pe un scaun To pay on demand-a plti la cerere To pay on the spot-a plti pe loc On the celing-pe tavan On a desert island(ailnd)-pe o insul pustie On the point of-a fi pe punctul de a Over the rocks-peste stnci To be head over heels in love-a fi ndrgostit lulea To stay somewhere(samuer) over night-a sta undeva peste noapte To be famous all over the world-a fi celebru(cunoscut )n toat ara To cook over the fire-a gti la foc To tremble all over-a tremura din toate mdularele,a tremura tot Past his comprehension-peste puterea lui de a nelege To be past work-a nu mai putea munci,a nu mai putea s munceasc To be past danger(deinger)-a fi n afara pericolului Have past one-unu i jumtate It is past five oclock-este trecut de ora cinci A round table-o mas rotund 17

Since-de,de la Through-prin

Through whom?-prin cine Till-pn,pn la To-la,ctre

Under-sub

Up-n susul,ctre

Until-pn la,pn n UponWithin-n,nuntrul,nu mai trziu de

A round peg in a square hole-potrivit ca nuca n perete Round the world-n jurul lumii Since four oclock-de la ora patru I havent seen him since-nu l-am mai vzut de atunci To go through thick and thin-a trece prin foc i ap Through the wood-prin pdure To at through fear-a aciona de fric All through the night-toat noaptea,tot timpul nopii To go through life-a trece prin via Throughout this country-de-a lungul i de-a latul acestei ri Throughout our holidays-pe tot parcursul vacanei noastre,tot timpul vacanei noastre To be up lill late-a se culca trziu,a nu se culca devreme Till death do us part-pn ce moartea ne va despri To go to bed-a merge la culcare To take to wife-a lua de soie(nevast) From end to end-de la cap la cap From hand to mouth-de la mn pn la gur To come to an end-a lua sfrit To finish-a termina,a se termina To be wet to the skin-a fi ud pn la piele To count up to ten-a numra pn la zece From time to time-din cnd n cnd,din timp n timp To dance to the musics-a dansa dup muzic I dont want to!-nu vreau Under lock and key-sub cheie,sub paz Under the tree-sub copac To swim under water-a nota sub ap To be under arms-a fi sub arme To be under a vow(veau)-a fi sub un jurmnt,a fi legat prin jurmnt To be under sentence of death-a fi condamnat la moarte Under what conditions?-n ce condiii Under these conditions-n aceste condiii In under ten minutes-n mai puin de 10 minute To be under age-a fi minor To be under treatement-a fi sub ngrijire medical a fi n tratament Under my feet-sub tlpile(picioarele) mele The ball rolled underneath a table-mingea s-a rostogolit sub o mas The ups and downs of life-urcuurile i coborurile vieii,geutile vieii To run up the hill-a alerga pe deal n sus To walk up a hill-a urca un deal Wake up!-trezete-te,scoal-te Until the end of life-pn la sfritul vieii To refuse upon the principle-a refuza din principiu Upon the top of the hill-n vrful dealului Upon our word-pe cuvntul nostru To keep within doors-a ine n cas Within the law-n limita legii Within a week-n mai puin de o sptmn 18

Without-fr

Within our room-n interiorul camerei noastre To be without help-a fi fr de ajutor To come without delay-a veni fr ntrziere To escape without damage-a scpa nevtmat To come without fail-a veni sigur(negreit) To come without doubt-a veni fr ndoial It goes withaut sayng(seing)-se nelege de la sine I will leave withaut him-o s plec fr el

PROPOZITII ATRIBUTIVE RELATIVE SI PRONUME RELATIVE A. Pronume relative forma: persoane obiecte Subiect who that which that Complement who / whom that which that Posesiv whose whose

B. Propozitii relative exista doua tipuri: 1. Subordonate relative calificative. Utilizare: pronumele relative pot fi: subiect: The woman who / that has red hair is my sister. All who / that met Erica admired her. He studied the picture which / that depicted the prince on horseback. We never met anyone who / that liked him. NOTA: Pronumele calificative subiecte (who, which, that) sunt uneori inlocuite in relativele calificative de: 1. un participiu prezent: The road which / that leads to Arlington has been closed. = The road leading to Arlington has been closed. 2. un participiu trecut: The woman who / that was caught stealing was arrested. = The woman caught stealing was arrested. 3. un INFINITIV, dupa the only, the last, the first, the second etc: The only driver who / that won twice was Pearson. = The only driver to win twice was Pearson. complement: She is the woman (who / that) we met last night. The milk (which / that) I bought has gone bad. ATENTIE! Cand este folosit cu functie de complement, de obicei prinumele relativ este omis (dupa cum se vede in exemplele de mai sus). posesiv: There is the musician whose composition won first prize. Where is the hotel whose manager is so famous? complement prepozitional (who, that sau whom se folosesc pentru persoane; which sau that se folosesc pentru lucruri): The man to whom I spoke was very rude. SAU: The man (whom / who / that) I spoke to was very rude. The subject in which he is interested is sociology. SAU: The subject (which / that) he is interested in is sociology. 19

ATENTIE! Prepozitiile sunt de obicei plasate DUPA verb in propozitia subordonata, iar pronumele relativ se omite. 2. Subordonate relative explicative forma: subordonatele nu folosesc niciodata pronumele relativ that, nu omit niciodata pronumele relative, sunt intotdeauna separate prin virgule. Utilizare: pronumele relativ poate fi: subiect: Our neighbours, who are quite old, have a Jeep. That dirty truck, which looks abandoned, is mine. complement: Dr. Smith, whom I met a year ago, writes a weekly column in the local newspaper. Their lawn, which was newly seeded in the spring, has turned brown. posesiv: My grandmother, whose eightieth birthday we celebrated in May, broke her leg last week. Our fence, whose paint is peeling, looks terrible. complement prepozitional (whom / who se folosesc pentru persoane; which se foloseste pentru lucruri): The wanted man, for whom the police are looking, used to live in our town. SAU: The wanted man, whom / who the police are looking for, used to live in our town. SAU: The wanted man, the police are looking for, used to live in our town. NOTA: Which se foloseste cu referire la o propozitie precedenta: Jerry testified that he had never met her, which was a lie. What se foloseste cu sensul de lucrurile care, ceea ce: What Jerry said was a lie. All / both / few / most / some + of + whom / which se refera la persoane si lucruri: The travellers, all of whom were ill, were hospitalized. The two Inca pots, both of which were museum pieces, were stolen.

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5. CONJUNCTIA A. Dupa aspect 1. Simple: but, if, and. 2. Compuse: however, unless, otherwise. 3. De legatura: asas, bothand, eitheror, neithernor, not onlybut also, whetheror . 4. Locutiuni: as well as, as if (de parca), as though (de parca), for instance, thats why, so long as (atata timp cat). B. Dupa functie 1. De coordonare a) and - care leaga - propozitii intre ele - parti de vorbire de acelasi fel Ex: I go and stay there for a week b) as well as Ex: I work in a school as well as at home. c) neithernor Ex: I am neither in the kitchen nor in the bathroom. d) not onlybut also Ex: I am not only intelligent but also pretty. e) as well Ex: He is calm and good as well. f) eitheror Ex: They are either brother and sister or husband and wife. g) furthermore (cu atat mai mult) Ex: I speak English, furthermore I wood like to visit England. h) conjunctii adversative: but, while, whereas (pe cata vreme, tinand seama de) contrasteaza cu propozitia principala. Ex: I am tall but fat. I am talking while you are righting. k) conjunctii disjunctive: or, else, or else (ori, cu alte cuvinte), otherwise (altfel). Ex: Would you prefer coffee or tea? Please put your coat else you get whet. Learn your lesson otherwise you fail. i) conjunctiile concluzive: consequently, on that account, so, then, that is why (iata de ce), therefore (de aceea). Ex: I havent slept therefore/that is why I am tired. j) conjunctii explicative: for example, for instance, namely, that is to say. Ex: Only one friend of mine left Romania, namely Ela. I like do a lot of thinks for instance/example reading, dancing, 2. De subordonare acelea care introduc o propozitie secundara. Unele dintre ele sunt specializate pe anumite tipuri de propozitii. Ex: pt. concesive: through, although (desi) pt. conditionale: if pt. comparative: as if (de parca), as though pt. predicative sau pt. subiective, completive directe, attributive Subordonate predicative introduse prin: a) what - Ex: The question is what I must read. b) who - Ex: The question is who is he. c) where - Ex: The question is were I go. d) when - Ex: The question is when I can come. e) whatever, whoever, that, why Subordonate subiective introduse prin: a) that - Ex: It is necessary that you should understand this rule. b) what Ex: It doesnt matter what you believe. c) who Ex: It hasnt be decided who is the leader of the team. d) which, whoever, whatever, whichever, when, how, why, where, if, whether.

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ubordonate completive directe (cele cu forma de complement): if, that, whether, whatever, whoever, wherever, why, whichever. Ex: She sad that she was tired. I dont know if you leave Romania. I dont know whoever wants my dog. I do whatever you want me to do. I may take whatever book you want. Subordonate indirecte introduse prin: to whom, to what, to anyone, whoever. Ex: I may give the flowers to whom you want. You interpret whatever she says. Subordonate prepozitionale introduse prin: who, whom, whoever, whichever, how daca sunt precedate de o prepozitie. Ex: You depend on what I say. You must approved of whatever she says. Subordonate atributive introduse prin: whose, which, whom, were, why, when, that. Ex: This is the woman who loves me. This is the man whose wife is pretty. This is the boy whom I greeted. Subordonate adverbiale introduse prin: as, like, much as, how, in the manner, as if, as though, just. Ex: No one speaks like you do. They acted much as I told them. (respectand majoritatea celor spuse de mine) Subordonate conditionale introduse prin: if, on condition that, only if. Ex: I shall come soon if/on condition that I find my passport.

6. INTERJECTIA
Prin interjectie se exteriorizeaza sentimente, manifestari, sau se reproduc sunete din natura. Interjectiile sunt scurte exclamatii ca si : Oh!, Um sau Ah! Ele nu au o valoare gramaticala reala, dar le folosim chiar des, de obicei mai mult in vorbire decat in scris. Exemple: surpriza: Wow! Oh! - Uau! bucurie: Ah! Ooh! - Ah! mirare: Oh dear! Indeed! - Vai draga! Intradevar! admiratie: Whew! dispret: Pshaw! What a same! - Ce pacat! aprobare: Well done! - Foarte bine! manifestari de vointa: Oh! Help! Look out! Cheer up! - Oh! Ajutor! Ai grija! Capul sus! zgomote: Bang! Click! Miaow! - Bang! Clic! Miau! Interjectii ca er si um sunt cunoscute si ca interjectii de ezitare. Ele sunt extrem de folosite in engleza. Sunt folosite atunci cand cineva nu stie ce sa spuna, sau iti indica faptul ca se gandeste la ce va spune.

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7. ADJECTIVUL / THE ADJECTIVE


Forma adjectivului Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu si schimba forma n functie de gen sau numar. Ex.: A hot potato, some hot potatoes. Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really: Ex.: A very hot potato, some really hot potatoes. Pozitia adjectivului De obicei adjectivul se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat: Ex.: A good movie. Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc: Ex.: The movie is good. You seem upset. This cheese tastes different. Dupa substantiv n expresii fixe: Ex.: the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial Cteva adjective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (=unfortunate) stau numai n fata substantivului determinat: Ex.: This is the main purpose of the meeting. That poor woman was living in a garage. Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone, annoyed, ill, well, sorry Ex.: He's asleep. I'm alone. Unele adjective si schimba sensul n functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate n fata substantivului sau dupa acesta. Ex.: These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do with the matter) They had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex) I am a concerned mother. (worried, anxious) The list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students who were there) The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current) Functiile adjectivului Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. Pot exprima: Sentimente sau calitati: Ex.: They make an original couple. She is a single mother. Nationalitatea sau originea: Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian. I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas. Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:Ex.: The table is long. The steel tray was a gift. Vrsta: Ex.: My hat is too old. I will buy another one. He is still very young, almost a boy. Dimensiuni, marime si masuri: Ex.:"Gone with the Wind" is a very long film.

That boy is too tall. Culoarea: Ex.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt. Materie / material: Ex.: He wore a cotton shirt. It was a silver tray, not a steel tray. Forma: Ex.: A rectangular envelope. A round table. Judecati, pareri sau opinii: Ex.: Grammar is fascinating. The show was entertaining. Ordinea adjectivelor Atunci cnd se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material Value/opinion delicious, lovely, charming Size Age/Temperature Shape Colour Origin small, huge, tiny old, hot, young, little round, square, rectangular red, blonde, black Swedish, Victorian, Chinese

Material plastic, wooden, silver Ex: a green round plastic bucket / an elegant little French clock / a small round wooden table Gradele de comparatie Ca si in limba romana, adjectivul din limba engleza exprima o calitate si este asezat langa substantive, pe care il determina dar in fata acestuia. Din punct de vedere al modului in care se formeaza gradele de comparativ ale adjectivului englezesc se impart in 2 grupe: - adjective regulate care formeaza gradele de comparative dupa regulile fixe - adjective neregulate care au forme speciale pentru gradele de comparative, in care, uneori de schimba chiar radacina cuvantului Gradele de comparatie exprima in general raportul unui adjectiv fata de ceva sau starea maxima a acestuia. De exemplu: mai cald, mai rapid, cel mai bun. Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: 1. pozitiv adjectivul nu se schimba 2. comparative: a.de inferioritate b.de egalitate c.de superioritate 3. superlative: a.relativ b.absolut

1. pozitiv - adjectivul nu se schimba 2. n limba engleza, comparativul (comparative) se poate forma in doua moduri, in functie de cate silabe are adjectivul. a) Adjective cu o silaba Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba formeaza comparativul adaugand -er la forma simpla, [adjectiv_simplu + -er]. tall - taller (mai inalt), blue - bluer (mai albastru) - Adjectivele simple, formate din [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla consoana finala. fat - fatter (mai gras), big - bigger (mai mare), hot - hotter (mai fierbinte) b) Adjective cu doua silabe Adjectivele formate din doua silabe formeaza comparativul adaugand -er la forma simpla, [adjectiv_simplu + -er] -cuvantul more in fata, [more + adjectiv_simplu]. - er se adauga doar la adjectivele care se termina in: -y, -ly, -ow, -le, -er, -ure sau la adjectivele: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet. In rest, pentru celelalte, dar si pentru acestea, se poate adauga more in fata. Exemple: yellow - yellower /more yellow (mai galben) simple - simpler /more simple (mai simplu) tender - tenderer /more tender (mai tandru) - Adjectivele terminate in -y vor inlocui "y" cu "i" inainte de "-er". happy - happier /more happy (mai fericit) / pretty - prettier /more pretty (mai dragut) c) Adjective cu trei sau mai multe silabe Adjectivele formate din trei sau mai multe silabe formeaza comparativul adaugand cuvantul more in fata, [more + adjectiv_simplu]. important - more important (mai important) expensive - more expensive (mai scump) 3. Ca si comparativul, superlativul (superlative) in limba engleza se poate forma diferit, in functie de cate silabe are adjectivul. a) Adjective cu o silaba Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba formeaza superlativul adaugand -est la forma simpla, [adjectiv_simplu + -est]. tall - tallest (cel mai inalt), blue - bluest (cel mai albastru) - Adjectivele simple, formate din [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla consoana finala. fat - fattest (cel mai gras), big - biggest (cel mai mare), hot - hottest (cel mai fierbinte) b) Adjective cu doua silabe Adjectivele formate din doua silabe formeaza superlativul adaugand -est la forma simpla, [adjectiv_simplu + -est] sau cuvantul most in fata, [most + adjectiv_simplu]. - est se adauga doar la adjectivele care se termina in: -y, -ly, -ow, -le, -er, -ure sau la adjectivele: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet. In rest, pentru celelalte, dar si pentru acestea, se poate adauga most in fata. Exemple: yellow - yellowest /most yellow (cel mai galben) simple - simplest /most simple (cel mai simplu) tender - tenderest /most tender (cel mai tandru) - Adjectivele terminate in -y vor inlocui "y" cu "i" inainte de "-est".

happy - happiest /most happy (cel mai fericit) pretty - prettiest /most pretty (cel mai dragut) c) Adjective cu trei sau mai multe silabe Adjectivele formate din trei sau mai multe silabe formeaza superlativul adaugand cuvantul most in fata, [most + adjectiv_simplu]. important - most important (cel mai important) expensive - most expensive (cel mai scump) Forme neregulate Urmatoarele adjective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate (trebuie memorate asa cum sunt): Pozitiv Comparativ Superlativ good (bun) better (mai bun) best (cel mai bun) bad (rau) worse (mai rau) worst (cel mai rau) little (mic, putin) less (mai mic, mai putin) least (cel mai putin) old (batran, in varsta) older /elder (mai batran) oldest/eldest(cel mai batran) much /many (mult /multe) more (mai mult /multe) most (cel mai mult /multe) far (departe) further /farther (mai furthest /farthest (cel mai departe) departe) Comparatia adjectivelor Comparatia adjectivelor fata de altceva (lucru, obiect, fiinta, eveniment, loc, etc) se poate forma in mai multe feluri. - the + superlative This is the oldest theater in London. - Acesta este cel mai vechi (batran) teatru din Londra. - comparative + than - Pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte, evenimente sau fiinte: He makes fewer mistakes than you do. - El face mai putine greseli decat faci tu. Thailand is sunnier than Norway. - Tailanda e mai insorita decat Norvegia. Albert is more humbly than Arthur. - Albert e mai smerit decat Arthur. - as + adjective + as - Comparative de egalitate. Constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni, locuri, fiinte, evenimete sau obiecte, ntre care nu exista diferente: Peter is 28 years old. John is 28 years old. Peter is as old as John. - Peter are 28 de ani. John are 28 de ani. Peter e la fel de in varsta ca John. Ramona is as happy as Raphael. - Ramona e la fel de fericita ca Rafael. A tiger is as dangerous as a lion. - Un tigru e la fel de periculos ca un leu. - not as + adjective + as - Se poate arata diferentele dintre doua substantive folosind contructia not so/as ...as: Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest. - Muntele Blanc nu e la fel de inalt ca muntele Everest Norway is not as sunny as Thailand. - Norvegia nu e la fel de insorita ca Tailanda. Schimbare de valoare gramaticala Adjectiv Substantiv big, small size (masura) long, short length (lungime) broad, narrow breadth (largime pt ceva concret) wide, narrow width (largime pt ceva abstract) high, low height (inaltime) deep, shallow depth (adancime) heavy, light weight (greutate)

strong, weak

strength (putere)..etc.

Constructii cu comparativul de egalitate: as brave as a lion , as blind as a bat , as black as coal , as busy as a bee , as cool as a cucumber , as clear as daylight , as dry as a bone , as easy as ABC , as fresh as a daisy , as hairy as a gorilla , as mad as a hatter (palarier) , as poor as a church-mouse , as silent as a grave , as wise as Solomon , as soft as silk , as smooth as grass , as gentle as a lamb.etc. Comparativul de superioritate adj scurte: adj + er + than. Modificari ortografice: daca adj se termina in e, se adauga doar r Ex: nice nicer daca adj se termina in y precedat de consoana, se transforma y in ier Ex: pretty prettier Exceptii: shy shyer / sly slyer / wry wryer (stramb) daca adj se termina in consoana precedata de vocala, dublez consoana finala Ex: big bigger pt adj lungi: more + adj + than Ex: The book is more interesting than the movie. Adj provenite din latina sunt urmate de to si nu de than Ex: He is superior to me. Superlativul relativ adj scurte: the + adj +est Ex: large the largest / silly the silliest adj lungi: the most+ adj Ex: This is the most expensive thing. ATENTIE! dupa superlativ urmeaza prepozitiile of sau in Ex: He is the best of all/the best in my group. ATENTIE! daca se face comparatie intre 2 elemente, comparativul implica superlativul: the + comparativ Ex: Between you and me, I am the older. Superlativul absolut very + adj very poate fi inlocuit cu: extremely , exceptionally , tremendously , awfully ATENTIE! nu toate adj au grad de comparatie, unele definesc ideea de unitate (own, complete, proper, perfect, marvelous, maximum, minimum). Altele au sufixe si prefixe: extra large / over crowded / super fine / ultra short / priceless Comparatia neregulata good better the best / bad worse the worst / ill worse the worst many more the most / much more the most / little less the least near nearer the nearest (cel mai apropiat); next (urmatorul) far farther the farthest (in spatiu) / far further the furthest (in timp) late later the latest; the last (ultimul); the latter (ult din 2). Dintre 2, primul este the former, nu the first. up upper the upmost / in inner the inmost / out outer the outmost fore former the foremost / old older the oldest old elder the eldest (doar atributiv, pt membrii aceleiasi familii) Ex: My elder brother is older than me. (fratele meu mai mare)

Constructii adjectivale 1) cu mult mai = much/ a lot + comparative Ex: It is much warmer today / a lot warmer today 2) de departe cel mai = by far + superlativ Ex: This is by far the hottest day of the year. 3) din ce in ce mai = comp + and + comp Ex: It is warmer and warmer ATENTIE! pt adj lungi se repeta doar more Ex: It is more and more interesting. 4) cu cat mai, cu atat mai (the + comparativ the + comparativ) ATENTIE! Expresia e obligatoriu sa se repete identic si verbul to be lipseste: Ex: The more, the better (cu cat mai mare, cu atat mai bine) ATENTIE! Mai multe adjective care determina acelasi substantiv se despart prin virgula. Daca nu apare virgula intre ele atunci cel care nu este urmat de virgula este adverb. ATENTIE! Ordinea adjectivelor care determina un substantiv va tine cont de cele subiective (primele expuse) si de cele obiective (imediat langa substantiv). ATENTIE! Un adjectiv poate sa determine si un verb. Verbul va fi obligatoriu to be sau orice alt verb de perceptie care poate fi inlocuit cu to be. Ex: I am intelligent He looks happy sau He is happy. Adjectivul Calitativ Adjectivele din aceasta categorie sunt adjective care descriu proprietati ale obiectelor ce pot avea grade, nivele, intensitati ale acelei proprietati. big (mare) , small (mic) , dry (uscat) , good (bun) Adjectivul Posesiv Adjectivele posesive sunt cele care arata o posesie; arata al cui e un obiect (al meu, al tau, etc ...); invariabil ca forma si numar anuleaza articolul substantivului se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care-l determina forme: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their Ex: My book. my book (cartea mea)your book (cartea ta, cartea voastra) his book (cartea lui) her book (cartea ei) its book (cartea lui, ei -> pentru lucruri, animale, abstractiuni) our book (cartea noastra) our books (cartile noastre) your books (cartile voastre) their book (cartea lor) their books (cartile lor) Corespondenta pronumelor posesive cu adjectivele posesive: Persoana Pronumele posesiv 1st singular Mine 2nd singular Yours 3rd (female) Hers 3rd (male) His 3rd (neuter) Its 1st plural Ours 2nd plural Yours Adjectivul posesiv My Your Her His Its Our your

3rd plural

Theirs

their

Adjectivul Demonstrativ Adjectivul demonstrativ are numai 4 forme: Singular Plural Closer this (acesta/ aceasta) these (acestia/ acestea) Farther that (acela/ aceea) those (aceia/ acelea) anuleza articolul substantivului invariabil ca forma (M/F) se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care il determina daca nu determina un substantiv devine pronume demonstrativ Ex: this aceasta, acesta (singular apropiere) these acestea, acestia (plural apropiere) ambele merg cu here. that acela, aceea (singular departare) those acelea, aceia (plural departare) ambele merg cu there. NOTA! Indepartarea in spatiu presupune si indepartarea in timp. Deci that si those se vor cupla cu trecutul. Ex: This book is good. (this = adjectiv, book = substantiv) This is a good book. (this = pronume) Adjectivul interogativ pozitie initiala in propozitie invariabil ca forma anuleaza articolul determina un substantiv forme: what, which, whose, how much, how many. Diferenta: what./which Which presupune selectie dintr-un numar limitat. Ex: Which boy is your best friend? What nu presupune selectie. Ex: What days of the week do you know? Diferenta how much / how many How much presupune cantitatea si se foloseste pentru substantive nenumarabile. Ex: How much money do you want? How many inseamna numar si se foloseste la substantive numarabile. Ex: How many books do you want? Adjectivul relativ pozitie mediana introduce o propozitie secundara invariabil determina un substantiv anulandu-i articolul forme: whatever (fara selectie), whichever (selectie din numar limitat), whose (a, al, ai, ale cui). Ex: You may take 1/ whatever books you want 2/.

Adjectivul nehotarat SOME (unii, niste, vreo, cativa) - Utilizare: 1. In propozitia enuntiativa urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural. Ex: I have some money / friends. 2. In propozitia interogativa in care se face o afirmatie sau o invitatie. Ex: Would you like some coffee? 3. In propozitia in care stiu sigur ca primesc raspuns pozitiv. Ex: Mother, can you give me some money? 4. In propozitia interogativa in care intrebarea nu se refera la some. Ex: Why are there so many people in some (so many) restaurants? 5. In propozitia negativa al carui sens este afirmativ. Ex: I never go home without buying some chocolate. 6. Cand poate fi inlocuitorul lui certain. Ex: Certain people/some people believe they are the best. ANY - este inlocuitorul lui some in: 1. Propozitia interogativa la care nu stiu ce raspuns voi primi. Ex: Is there any milk left? 2. In propozitia enuntiativa dar cu sensul de oricine, oricare, orice. Ex: Any book is good for you. 3. In propozitia care contine un adverb negativ de genul: hardly, barely, scarcely (de abia, cu greu, deloc). Ex: I hardly eat any bread (nu mananc paine aproape deloc) 4. In propozitia care contine if. (if = incertitudine) Ex: If you find any books, buy them. 5. In propozitia care contine o expresie de indoiala: maybe, perhaps. Ex: I doubt there are any good films in town. 6. In propozitia negativa in care verbul este negat. Ex: I havent any friends here. NO - Se foloseste numai in propozitia negativa in care verbul este la afirmativ. Ex: I have no friends here. EVERY (fara particularizare) Ex: Every day I go to my office. (nu ma duc chiar in fiecare zi) EACH (cu particularizare) Ex: Each person has a name. (fiecare, particularizare) EITHER (fiecare din doi) NEITHER (nici unul din doi) ATENTIE! Dupa each, every, either sau neither rmeaza substantiv numarabil la singular iar acordul cu verbul se face la singular. Expresii cu every si each Each other = unul pe altul (pp reciprocitate) Every bit/inch = fiecare bucatica Every right = tot dreptul Every now and than = din cand in cand Every other day = alternativ Every so often = la interval regulat de timp fara a sti exact cand. SUCH (astfel) - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil. Ex: I have such friends/information. SUCH A - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular. Ex: This is such a man of honor. ALL - Urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural. Ex: All books/information must be used.

WHOLE - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular. Ex: I like the whole book. NOTA! Pt perioade de timp se poate folosi si whole si all Ex: Im home all the morning/ the whole morning. (whole este cotat ca fiind mai puternic) THE OTHER - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular sau plural. Ex: The other child/children can swim. Expresia The other day = some days ago, cere obligatoriu trecutul. Ex: I was there the other day. (Am fost acolo acum cateva zile) OTHER + Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural. Ex: Give me other examples. + Daca e precedat de no poate fi urmat si de numarabil la singular. Ex: No other man is as good as you are. ANOTHER + substantiv la singular (different, in addition) Ex: Would you like another drink? = vrei inca unul (suplimentar) sau un altul (diferit)? BOTH + substantiv numarabil la plural (pt. doi) Ex: I like both kids -> acordul in plural Both are intelligent. SEVERAL (mai multi intr-un numar nedefinit) + substantiv numarabil la plural. Ex: We spent several days there. MOST (majoritatea) + substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil. Ex: Most books/information can be read easily. ENOUGH ATENTIE! Daca e urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural are pozitie mobila. Ex: I have enough money/money enough to be happy. ATENTIE! Daca e urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular se aseaza dupa el. Ex: He is man enough to understand me.

8. ADVERBUL / THE ADVERB Adverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum , unde, cnd, ct de frecvent sau n ce msura are loc o actiune. Functia adverbelor Astfel, adverbele determina n general verbe: Ex.: The bus moved slowly. (cum?) I am going home tomorrow. (cnd?) Adverbele pot determina: adjective: You look absolutely fabulous! adverbe: She played the violin extremely well. You're speaking too quietly. propozitii intregi: Perhaps we'll see you again next year. In general adverbul este terminat in ly, dar nu tot ce are ly este adverb. De regula se formeaza din adjectiv + ly. Modificari ortografice: 1. daca adjectivul se termina in e, acesta se pastreaza ely Ex: nice nicely Exceptii: due duly (datorat) / true truly / whole wholly 2. daca adjectivul se termina in le, se transforma e in y/ ly Ex: capable capably 3. daca adjectivul se termina in ll, se adauga doar lly Ex: full fully 4. daca adjectivul se termina in ic, se adauga ally Ex: automatic automatically 5. daca adjectivul se termina in y, indiferent daca este precedat de vocala sau de consoana, se transforma in i si se adauga ily Ex: pretty prettily gay gaily Exceptii: shy shyly / wry wryly / coy coyly (sfios) 6. adjectivul good face adverbul well NOTA: ca sa verific L-urile unui adverb, il desfac in adjectiv + ly Ex: usually = usual + ly / bitterly = bitter + ly / awfully = awful + ly Adverbe care au 2 forme cu acelasi inteles (oricare din ele este corect) 1. bright = brightly 2. sound = soundly 3. fair = fairly 4. tight = tightly (sunt echivalente) 5. dear = dearly 6. dead = deadly 7. cheap = cheaply Ex: The sun shines bright / brightly. NOTA: forma in ly se va prefera totusi cand adverbul determina un adjectiv Ex: He is deadly tired. (si nu he is dead tired). Adverbul cheap se va folosi in loc de cheaply doar pentru a caracteriza activitati comerciale (to buy, to sell, to get) Ex: She bought it cheap. Dar We traveled cheaply.

Adverbe cu 2 forme cu 2 intelesuri diferite clean = complet cleanly = intr-o maniera curata clear = exact clearly = intr-o maniera clara close = apropiat closely = indeaproape deep = adanc deeply = profund direct = direct directly = imediat due = spre (la busola Ex: They went due South. duly = punctual easy = usor Ex: Take it easy! easily = intr-o maniera lejera free = gratis freely = pe sleau, deschis full = complet fully = pe scara larga, intr-o maniera extinsa hard = greu hardly = de-abia, cu greu, aproape deloc

high = sus highly = foarte just = tocmai justly = asa cum se cuvine late = tarziu lately = in ultima vreme large = extins largely = pe scara larga most = majoritatea mostly = cu precadere near = langa nearly = aproape ca pretty = foarte prettily = intr-o maniera draguta right = exact rightly = cu precizie, clar sharp = fix sharply = intr-o maniera taioasa short = brusc shortly = imediat

Adverbe si adjective cu aceeasi forma si inteles Fast, far, early, alike, alone, past, solo, straight, next, little, outside. NOTA: daca adjectivul se termina in ly, el devine adverb prin contructia in a + adj + manner Ex: He is a friendly person. / He speaks to me in a friendly way / manner. Adj adv coward=las (substantiv) / cowardly = las (adjectiv) / in a cowardly manner = cu lasitate (adverb) Gradele de comparatie - se construiesc astfel: daca adjectivul si adverbul au aceeasi forma, se comporta ca un adjectiv scurt (gradele se fac cu er si est) Ex: I run fast / not so fast as / as fast as / faster than / the fastest of all / very fast daca adverbul se obtine din adjectiv + ly, face gradele de comparatie ca un adjectiv lung (cu more si the most) Ex: He runs quickly / less quickly than / as quickly as / more quickly than / the most quickly of all / very quickly Comparatia regulata well better the best badly worse the worst much more the most far farther the farthest further the furthest near nearer the next little less the least late later the last

Clasificarea adverbelor 1. Adverbe de mod 2. Adverbe de loc si directie 3. Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa 4. Adverbe de probabilitate 5. Adverbe de grad Adverbe de mod Adverbele de mod ne arata cum, in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se aseaza in propozitie dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia. fairly foarte, dar nu extraordinary. Fairly se cupleaza intotdeauna cu adjectivul la gradul pozitiv. Ex: Your story is fairly interesting. quite este mai puternic decat fairly. Se foloseste cand vreau sa fac o apreciere favorabila. Ex: This car is quite cheap. NOTA : cand se refera la adjective sau adverbe care nu au grade de comparatie, quite capata sensul de absolut, complet, de-a dreptul. Ex: Your dress is quite unique. rather se foloseste cand am de facut o apreciere nefavorabila si sensul este = foarte, neasteptat de. Se foloseste numai cu caracteristici negative. Poate fi precedat si urmat de articolul a Ex: This car is rather expensive. Ex: This is a rather difficult exercise. This is rather a difficult exercise. pretty foarte (familiar, intre prieteni) Ex: Im pretty tired. very Este cel mai cunoscut si se cupleaza cu orice (pozitiv, comparativ sau superlativ) Ex: I do my very best. He is very much faster than I am. much / a lot = se cupleaza cu comparativul Ex: He is much faster than I am. by far = se cupleaza cu superlativul Ex: He is by far the fastest of all. too se cupleaza cu pozitivul Ex: He is too fast. enough se cupleaza cu pozitivul, dar se aseaza dupa el Ex: He is fast enough for a champion. so se cupleaza - cu much, many, little, few + substantiv - cu adjectiv / adverb la pozitiv Ex: It is so difficult. I have so many friends / so much money. There is so little time left. such urmat de - substantiv numarabil la sg precedat de a - de constructia adjectiv + substantiv la pl Ex: He is such a man. / They are such interesting persons. Adverbe de loc si directie Ne arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal sau complementul sau. Ex: Dupa verb: I looked everywhere./ John looked ...away, up, down, around... / I'm going ...home, out, back... Dupa complement: They built a house nearby. / She took the child outside.

A. Here / there. Cu verbe de miscare, here exprima ideea de nspre/ cu / mpreuna cu vorbitorul, iar there contrariul, departe, fara participarea vorbitorului: Ex.: Come here (= spre mine) It's in here (= vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi) Put it there (= departe de mine) It's in there (= du-te singur sa vezi) Expresii cu here/ there: down here, down there, over here, over there, under here, under there, up here, up there. B. Adverbele de loc terminate n -wards - exprima ideea de miscare ntr-o anumita directie: Ex.: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards, northwards, southwards, eastwards, westwards, homewards, onwards. Cats don't usually walk backwards. / The ship sailed westwards. De retinut! Towards este prepozitie, nu adverb, astfel nct va fi ntotdeauna urmat de un substantiv sau pronume: Ex.: He walked towards the car. She ran towards me. C. Adverbe care exprima att locul ct si directia: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors. Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa Arata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii. Cnd: today, yesterday, later, now, last year Durata, pentru ct timp: all day, not long, for a while, since last year Ct de frecvent: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly De obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfrsitul propozitiei sau emfatic, la nceputul ei: Ex.: One of my children wrote to me yesterday. / Later the boy understood the story. Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei: Ex.: She stayed in the house all day. / My mother lived in France for a year. Adverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be, have, may, must): I often eat vegetarian food. (in fata verbului principal) You must always fasten your seat belt. (dupa verbul auxiliar must) I have never forgotten my first kiss. (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata verbului principal forgotten) Unele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza la sfarsitul prepozitiei: This magazine is published monthly. / He visits his mother once a week. Adverbe de fecventa: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, often, regularly, sometimes, usually. De retinut! Yet se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative. Have you finished your work yet? No, not yet. They haven't met him yet. Still exprima ideea de continuitate. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative. I am still hungry. / Do you still work for the BBC? Adverbe de timp usuale: ago se foloseste cand raportarea se face fata de un moment prezent Ex: I saw her one hour ago. NOTA! daca raportarea se face fata de un moment trecut, in loc de ago se pune before Ex: I told her that I had met her one hour before. for arata durata unei actiuni fara a prezenta momentul de inceput si sfarsit al actiunii. Este specific prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului perfect continuu.

Ex: I havent met her for two years. NOTA! se poate intalni si cu timpul trecut Ex: I was a student for two years (Im no longer a student). NOTA! pentru perioade lungi de timp (for ages, for centuries) ATENTIE! nu se pune for dupa verbele: to last, to take, to wait, to spend, to stay Ex: Ive been waiting ten minutes, (si nu Ive been waiting for ten minutes). It lasts five seconds, (si nu it lasts for five seconds). since arata inceputul perioadei fara a preciza durata si momentul final. Este specific prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului continuu. Ex: I havent met her since Monday. Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitate Acestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il relateaza: certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely, maybe, obviously, perhaps, possibly, really. Se aseaza in propozitie intre verbul auxiliar si verbul principal. Ex.: He has certainly forgotten the meeting. Pentru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor, se aseaza n debutul frazei: Ex.: Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician. De retinut! Surely asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins de adevarul unei afirmatii, dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely you've got a bicycle? Adverbe de grad Aceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb, adjectiv sau adverb: almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely. Locul lor in propozitie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina, fie in fata verbului principal: Ex.: The water was extremely cold. / He was just leaving. / She has almost finished. Enough, very, too Enough inseamna "pana la punctul necesar pentru a..." si se plaseaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb: Is your coffee hot enough? (adjectiv) / He didn't work hard enough. (adverb) Too = "mai mult decat este necesar pentru..." si se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului: This coffee is too hot. (adjective) / He works too hard. (adverb) Very intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora: The girl was very beautiful. (adjectiv) / He worked very quickly. (adverb) De retinut! Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very: Very exprima un fapt: He speaks very quickly. Too sugereaza existenta unei probleme: He speaks too quickly (for me to understand). Alte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather, not especially, not particularly. Locutiuni adverbiale subst + after + subst day after day / year after year / month after month during urmat intotdeauna de substantiv. A nu se confunda cu while (in timp ce), care presupune actiuni paralele. During poate fi inlocuit cu in daca se refera la perioade de timp Ex: during my life = in my life from to poate fi inlocuit cu till, dar niciodata cu until, pentru ca until nu presupune cunoasterea momentului de sfarsit al actiunii Ex: I work until I die. (nu stiu cand) / I get up at 8 oclock and work till 10 oclock. NOTA! until nu poate fi cuprins in expresia from to in loc de to

9 NUMERALUL / THE NUMERAL Numeralul reprezint partea de vorbire care exprim o cifr, numrul sau ordinea obiectelor, tot ce e legat de numere. Deseori determin un substantiv si apare naintea aceluia. Exist mai multe tipuri de numeral, dintre care cele mai frecvent ulilizate sunt: Numeralul cardinal si Numeralul ordinal. In afara de acestea doua, mai sunt numeralele: fractionar, colectiv, multiplicativ si distributiv 1. Numeralul cardinal - arata numarul, cantitatea Numeralul zero 1) zero = pentru calcul matematic si pentru exprimarea temperaturii Ex: Its ten degrees above zero. 2) love = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la tenis (15-0 = fifteen-love) 3) nil = (nothing) = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la fotbal 4) naught = zero cand face parte din partea zecimala a unui numar 5) oh = zero pentru numere de telefon 0 zero (zero, null) De la 1 la 12 avem forme distincte 1 one (unu) 2 two (doi) 3 three (trei) 4 four (patru) 5 five (cinci) 6 six (sase) 7 seven (sapte) 8 eight (opt) 9 nine (noua) 10 ten (zece) 11 eleven (unsprezece) 12 twelve (doisprezece) De la 13 la 19 avem (numeral simplu + teen), la care accentul cade pe sufix si i-ul este lung. 13 thirteen (treisprezece) 14 fourteen (patrusprezece) 15 fifteen (cincisprezece) 16 sixteen (saisprezece) 17 seventeen (saptesprezece) 18 eighteen (optsprezece) 19 nineteen (nouasprezece) De la 20 la 90 avem (numeral cardinal + ty), care este scurt si cu accentul pe prima silaba. Ex: 40 = forty (nu mai are u!) 20 twenty (douazeci) 30 thirty (treizeci) 40 forty (patruzeci) 50 fifty (cincizeci) 60 sixty (saizeci) 70 seventy (saptezeci) 80 eighty (optzeci)

90 ninety (nouazeci) Numeralele compuse se scriu cu cratima Ex: 42 = forty-two One hundred = 100 - Ca numeral nu poate avea plural, dar are ca substantiv. Este substantiv cand: a) este urmat de of: Ex: hundreds of pages b) nu determina alt substantiv: Ex: hundreds are here Numeralul compus peste suta se scrie cu prepozitia and la englezi si fara la americani. Numeralele care denumesc sute, mii sau milioane sunt legate prin "and" de cele care denumesc zeci si unitati. Ex: 210 = two hundred and ten 115 - a/one hundred and fifteen 735 - seven hundred and thirty-five 3008 - three thousand and eight 100 one hundred (o suta) 700 seven hundred(sapte sute) 1000-one thousand (o mie) 3000 three thousand (trei mii) One thousand = 1,000 - Aceleasi reguli ca la suta. One million = 1,000,000 - Fara s la TOEFL, dar este corect si cu s (2 millions) in engleza. One billion = 1,000,000,000 - Americanii zic milliard. Utilizarea numeralului cardinal: 1) pentru exprimarea temperaturii (cu verbul to be) 2) pentru calcule matematice: Addition (to add = a aduna) 2 + 3 = 5 two plus/and three is/are/equals five (acordul se face in sg si in pl) Subtraction (to subtract = a scadea) 5 3 = 2 five minus/take away is two (acordul se face doar in sg) Multiplication (to multiply = a inmulti) 2 x 3 = 6 two multiplied by three/twice three/3 times 2 is/are/equals six (acordul se face in sg si in pl) Division (to divide = a imparti) 6 : 3 = 2 six divided by three is two (acordul se face doar in sg) reminder = rest Root = radical - cube root = radical de ordinul 3 - square root = radical de ordinul 2 Power = putere More than = > Less than = < Equal to = egal Unequal to = diferit de Parallel to = paralel Perpendicular to = perpendicular Angle = unghi Right angle = unghi drept Straight angle = unghi de 180 grade Circle angle = unghi de 360 grade Even = par Odd = impar

3) pentru exprimarea unitatii monetare: coin = moneda bill/note = bancnota nickel = 5 centi dime = 10 centi quarter of a dollar = 25 centi half of a dollar = 50 centi 4) pentru unitati de masura la timpul potrivit (cand primim I20) !!! 5) pentru exprimarea anilor: se citesc cifrele 2 cate 2, iar anii formati din mai putin de 4 cifre se citesc ca un numeral. NOTA! zero nu se citeste in cadrul acestor 4 cifre ale anilor Ex: 1907 = nineteen seven - era noastra (e.n.) = a.d. (ante domini) sau in the year of Lord - inaintea erei noastre = b.c. (before Christ) 6) pentru exprimarea numerelor zecimale (decimal fractions), intregul se citeste ca atare, punct in loc de virgula, iar partea zecimala cifra cu cifra Ex: 20.03 = twenty point naught three NOTA! daca intregul este <1, nu se citeste Ex: 0.1 = point one 7) pentru exprimarea varstei (cu verbul to be) Ex: Im twenty (years old) / Im twenty years of age. Sau Im aged twenty. Aproximarea varstei se face cu: almost, about (around), over, under Ex: Im in my twenties (am douazeci si) Im mid-twenty (25 ani) 8) pentru exprimarea numerelor de telefon to dial = a forma un numar figure = cifra slot = orificiu pentru ban booth = cabina telefonica receiver = receptor long-distance call = convorbire la distanta call collector = convorbire cu taxa inversa operator = centralista extension = interior to be through = a avea legatura to hang on = a ramane pe fir to hang up = a inchide Numerele de telefon se citesc cifra cu cifra cu exceptia cifrei repetate daca este la inceputul sau la sfarsitul numarului. Regula nu se aplica pentru zero. Ex: 223700 double two, 3, 7, oh, oh 9) pentru exprimarea orei: - formal - informal Ex: Whats the time? What time is it? Whats the time by your watch? My watch is fast = ceasul meu e inainte My watch is slow = ceasul meu e in urma My watch is wrong = ceasul meu nu merge bine My watch is broken = ceasul meu e stricat face = cadran

a) b) c) d) e)

belt = curelusa hand = limba de ceas (minutes hand, seconds hand) Pentru ora exacta: Its seven oclock sharp PM/AM 00.00 = midnight 12.00 = midday Its half past (e si jumate) Its a quarter past/to (e si un sfert/ fara un sfert) Its ten minutes past/to (e si/fara zece) Ora oficiala: 08:00 = oh eight hundred hours 23:24 = twenty three twenty four

Numerale speciale: couple = 2 (pt oameni si pt timp); couple of minutes = 2 minute pair = 2 pereche (pt imbracaminte, incaltaminte, unelte cu structuri paralele) Ex: a pair of shoes yoke = team = 2 pentru animale Ex: a yoke of cattle = 2 vite a team of oxen = 2 boi brace = 2 pentru vanat Ex: I have brace duck (am 2 rate salbatice) score = 20 half a score = 10 dozen = 12 gross = 144 (12 duzini) 2. Numeralul ordinal Numeralul ordinal in limba engleza se formeaza de la numaralul cardinal prin derivare; ca si in limba romana el exprima ordinea intr-un sir si una din functiile sale principale este sa exprime dara. Numeralul ordinal este intotdeauna precedat de articolul hotarat THE. Pentru primele 3 cifre avem cuvinte speciale: 1- the first 2- the second 3- the third Urmatoarele se deriva cu ajutorul terminatiei THE 1- the first(the 1st) 2- the second(the 2nd) 3 - the third(the 3rd) 4 - the fourth (the 4th) 5 - the fifth(the 5th) 6 - the sixth(the 6th) 7 - the seventh(the 7th) 8 - the eigth(the 8th) 9 - the ninth(the 9th) 10 - the tenth(the 10th) 11 - the eleventh(the11th) 12 - the twelfth(the 12th) 13 - the thirteenth(the 13th) 14 - the fourteenth(the 14th)

15 - the fifteenth(the 15th) 16 - the sixteenth(the 16th) 17 - the seventeenth(the 17th) 18 - the eihteenth(the 18th) 19 - the nineteenth(the 19th) 20 - the twentieth(the 20th) 21 -the twenty-first (the 21st) 30 - the thirtieth (the 30th) 32 - the thirty-second (the 32nd) 40 - the fortieth (the 40th) 43 - the forty-third (the 43rd) 50 - the fiftieth (the 50th) 60 - the sixtieth (the 60th) 70 - the seventieth (the 70th) 80 - the eightieth (the 80th) 90 - the ninetieth (the 90th) 100 - the hundreth (the 100th) 101- the hundred and first(the101st) 1000 - the one thousandth(the 1000th) Prescurtarea se face folosindfolosind cifrele care reprezinta numeralul - ultimele 2 litere Prescurtari: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 21st, 22nd, etc. NOTA! th se aplica doar ultimei cifre ! Modificari ortografice: five the fifth eight the eighth nine the ninth twelve the twelfth twenty the twentieth (+ toate cele terminate in ty) Utilizarea numeralului ordinal: 1) exprimarea datei (in 2 forme) a) luna/zi/an b) zi/luna/an 2) exprimarea ordinii intr-o insiruire Ex: Henry the eighth , the first floor , the second World War 3) pentru numeralul fractionar (common fraction/vulgar fraction) numerator = numaratorul (cardinal) denominator = numitorul (ordinal) Ex: 1/3 = one third NOTA! daca numaratorul > 1, numitorul va fi in plural Ex: 2/3 = two thirds Intregul = the whole Fractia pe 100 = per cent Procentaj = percentage

Numeralul distributiv - Arata distributia lucrurilor: Numeralul distributiv (The Distributive Numeral) exprima gruparea numerica a obiectelor. Se formeaz cu ajulorul lui by sau and. one by one - unul cte unul , three by three - trei cte trei , by twos - cte doi , by threes - cte trei , two and two - doi si cu doi , three and three - trei si cu trei , One by one = unul cate unul Two at a time = 2 odata , By twos / in twos = cate 2 Nota: Aproximarea numeric se exprim prin: about (circa), nearly (aproximativ), almost (aproape) Depsirea unei cifre se exprim prin: over (peste), morethan (mai mult decat /de), above (peste) Numeralul adverbial - Arata de cate ori se repeta o actiune: Once = o data Twice = de doua ori Secondly = in al doilea rand Three times = de trei ori Firstly = in primul rand Ten times = de zece ori Four times = de patru ori Thirdly = in al treilea rand They would go swimming three timea a week NOTA! nu exista twice more, ci twice as much as = de 2 ori mai mult Numeralul multiplicativ - Arata de cate ori creste o cantitate: double = twofold = indoit (de 2 ori) tenfold = inzecit Numeralul multiplicativ (The Multiplicative Numeral) arata masura n care creste o cantitate sau o actiune (Ex.: double the amount - dublu sumei [sau "dubleaza cantitatea"]). Numeralul multiplicativ are forme diferite, n functie de stilul familiar, tehnic, oficial etc. n care el este folosit. - n vorbirea curenta, numeralele multiplicative de la 1 la 3 au urmatoarele forme: once (odata), twice (de doua ori), thrice (de trei ori) [Forma thrice este nvechita]. - De la numarul 4 n continuare, numeralele multiplicative se formeaza cu numeralul cardinal urmat de substantivul times (ori, dati). Ex.: four times (de patru ori), eight times (de opt ori). Forma cu "times" este folosita si n locul lui "thrice": three times. - n stilul literar, tehnic sau oficial, se foloseste numeralul multiplicativ format din numeralul cardinal si sufixul -fold. Ex.: twofold (dublu), threefold (triplu), a hundredfold (de o suta de ori) - Pentru unitatea 1, forma numeralului multiplicativ este si single, iar pentru 2 se foloseste, pe lnga forma double si twofold. Numeralul fractionar Numeralul fractionar (The Fractional Numeral), numerele fractionare, arata una sau mai multe parti ale ntregului. Este redat sub forma unor fractii (1/3, 4/5), iar cu litere se exprima cu numaratorul numeral cardinal, iar numitorul, printr-un numeral ordinal, ca in urmatoarele exemple: 1/3 - one-third (o treime) 2/5 - two-fifths (doua cincimi) 3/4 - three-fourths (trei patrimi)

- Cand numaratorul exprima o unitate mai mare de 1, numitorul se scrie si se pronunta la plural (2/3 - two-thirds). Fractia (the fraction ) ordinara (vulgar) zecimala (decimal) =a/one half (o doime) =a/one third (o treime) =a/one quarter = a fourth (un sfert) =three fourths= three quarters (trei patrimi) =nine over five hundred and twenty thhree (noua supra cinci sute douazeci si trei) =4.53 four point five three (patru virgula cincizeci si trei) Numeralul colectiv Numeralul colectiv (The Collective Numeral) arata ca obiectele sunt considerate n grup si nu izolat (couple = doi, doua; pair = pereche; team = echipa [peeche, grupa]; yoke = pereche; dozen = duzini; score = douazeci). - a pair of shoes - o pereche de pantofi - two team of cattle - doua perechi de vite - four yoke of oxen - patru perechi de boi - two dozen of eggs - doua duzini de oua Numeralul nehotarat (The Indefinite Numeral) a number of = un numar de s lot of = o multime/gramada de Lots of = many = multi multe tens of = zeci de hundreds = sute de thousands of = mii de Lots of people are walking in the park (multi oameni se plimba prin parc)

PRONUMELE
Functia pronumelui Pronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. Ele nu denumesc si nu aracterizeaza nimic, functia lor fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv, facand astfel referire la o idee, obiect sau actiune mentionate anterior sau cunoscuta de catre interlocutor. Ex.: John did all the work. He did all the work. Who did all the work? Forma pronumelui Pronumele au forme specifice in functie de: Numar: singular - this; plural these Caz: Nominativ - she; Genitiv - hers; Dativ - to her; Acuzativ her Gen: masculin - he; Feminin - she; neutru - it Pronumele pot fi simple (you, which, many) sau compuse (everybody, whatever, no one). Clasificarea pronumelor 1. Personale 2. Reflexive 3. Nehotarate 4. Demonstrative 1. Pronumele personale Nominativ I you Singular he she it we Plural you they Genitiv mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs Dativ (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it (to) us (to) you (to) them Acuzativ me you him her it us you them 5. Relative 6. De ntarire 7. Interogative 8. Reciproce

ATENTIE! I se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula. Its (pronume) nu are apostrof. It's vine de la it is sau it has! Forme arhaice si poetice: pers. II sg. - thou, thine, (to) thee You / They impersonal - putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre oameni in general. Ex.: You have to drive on the other side of the road in Great Britain. They say she's very clever. It - poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta: It impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale, exprimand starea vremii, distante sau in contructii pasive) Ex.: It's 7 o'clock. It was spring. Is it Monday? How hot it is! How far is it to the station? It demostrativ

Ex.: Who is it? It's the postman. It's the children. 2. Pronumele reflexive Acestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana. Forme: Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves Ex.: I wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me. he fell off the ladder and injured herself. 3. Pronumele nehotarate Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate: anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything. No poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody, no-one. NOTA! Atat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana, pronumele nehotarate anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la singular si trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular. Alte pronume nehotarate: enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every, each, any, either, neither, none, some. De retinut! Daca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume, ci determinanti substantivali. Ex.: Few will be chosen; fewer will finish, Little is expected. 4. Pronumele demonstrativ Pronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such pot functiona atat ca pronume, cat si ca determinanti substantivali. Ex.: That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw) I will never forget this. (referring to a recent experience) Such is my belief. (referring to an explanation just made) This si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala, pe cand that si those sugereaza ideea de departare. Ex.: These (pancakes sitting here now on my plate) are delicious. Those (pancakes that I had yesterday morning) were even better. This (book in my hand) is well written; that (book that I'm pointing to, over there, on the table) is trash. Aceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva: Ex.: Are you going to wear these? (They are awful. I do not like them at all.) Can you belive I would have bought that? 5. Pronumele relative Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in contextul aterior (antecedent) si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent de propozitia continand substantivul determinat. Pronumele relative sunt : who, whoever, which, that. Ex.: The student who studies hardest usually does the best. Alegerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente nelamuriri ale studentilor la limba engleza. In general, which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de paranteze, explicatii suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a schimba intelesul frazei. Din acest motiv propozitiile introduse prin which sunt in general intre virgule. Din

contra propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule. Who si formele sale se refera la persoane, which se refera la lucruri, iar that poate face referire la ambele. Ex.: The man who hijacked the plane wanted to get to Cuba The couple who live next door have the radio on all night. The team that won the championship received a great reception. This is the program which won the prize. We'll plant new trees to replace those which fell. 6. Pronumele de intarire Insoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. Ca forma sunt identice cu pronumele reflexive: Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves Ex.: I myself don't know the answer. Mary did all this herself. Mary herself did all this. Expresii: by myself = singur, de unul singur Ex.: I worked by myself. 7. Pronumele interogativ Pronumele interogative introduc intrebari, propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte. Forme: who? what? which? whose? (to) whom? Ex.:Who said that? Whose are those books? I do not remember to whom I gave my sweater. What happened?What's the weather like? 8. Pronumele reciproce Forme: each other si one another. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre fiinte, idei, lucruri. Ex.: If Bob gave Alicia a book for Christmas and Alicia gave Bob a book for Christmas, we can say that they gave each other books. My mother and I give each other a hard time. They borrowed each other's ideas. De retinut! Each other se refera la doua obiecte, pe cand one another face referire la mai mult de doua obiecte sau fiinte. Ex.: The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment. Hockey players hit one another quite frequently. Pronumele IT functii: 1. Pronume personal, persoana a treia sg.,gen neutru folosit pentru obiecte i noiuni abstracte, nepersonificate, animale nepersonificate i crora nu li se cunosc sexul sau sunt luate n sens generic. Ex: Here is a book. It is very interesting. / How ould is your baby? It is five months ould 2. Pronume personal-folosit pentru a indica: a. Timpul dup calendar sau ceas : It is six oclock on the 4th of February. b. Scurgerea timpului: It is getting lake se face trziu c. Starea atmosferic: It is getting dark se ntunericete; Its rather cloudy mai degrab e norat d. Fenomene meteorologice i naturale: It is raining cats and dogs plou cu gleata(torenial); It thunders tun; It lightens fulger; It is ten degrees above zero sunt +10

f. Distanele: Itsnearly ten kilometres to Albota-sunt aproape 10 km pn la Albota. g. Starea lucrurilor n general: Its ok sau its all right! 3. Pronume demonstrativ (echivalent cu That sau Which rsferindu-se la ceva vzut sau menionat nainte) Ex : He expressed his sympathies i-a prezentat condoleanele It was nice of him (to do that) drgu din partea lui (s fac asta) 4. Pronume introductiv a. Introductiv anticipativ - are rolul de a introduce propoyiia printr-un subiect formal deoarece subiectul real este deplasat dup numele predicativ pentru a-l scoate n eviden. Ex: Its nice to see /seeing such a garden este o plcere s vezi o asmenea grdin. Subiectul real se poate exprima prin: Infinitivul lung to see Construcii gerumviale O propoziie subiectiv,de obicei introdus prin conjuncia That. b. Introductiv de ntrire sau subliniere avnd rolul de a sublinia foarte puternic sau de a scoate n eviden oricare parte a propoziiei cu excepia predicatului. Ex:Its Peter who/that solved all the problems.- Peter este cel care a rezolvat toate problemele. 5. Pronume nesemnificativ folosit ca, complement direct formal mai ales al unor verbe intranzitive. Acest tip de pronume apare frecvent n engleza vorbit. Ex: Shall we cab it to the station ? S lum taxiul pn la staie. No,I would rather foot it. Nu,prefer s merg pe jos.

11. VERBUL / THE VERB Verbul in limba engleza se prezinta sub 3 forme de baza (verb1, verb 2, verb3) de la care se formeaza timpurile modului indicativ. In functie de modul de formare a V2 si V3, verbele se impart in 2 mari grupe: -verbe regulate formeaza V2 si V3 cu ajutorul terminatiei ED adaugata la V1 to work worked worked (t) to love loved loved (d) to visit visited visited (id) -verbe neregulate au forme speciale pt V2 si V3 in care, uneori, se schimba chiar si radacina cuvantului To write wrote written To go went gone To have had had n gramatic, verbul este o parte de vorbire care exprim n general o aciune, ca de exemplu a alerga, a construi. Tot n categoria verbelor intr i o serie de alte cuvinte care, dei nu exprim aciunea propriu-zis svrit de subiect, din punct de vedere morfologic se comport identic. Astfel exist verbe care exprim existena sau starea (a fi, a sta), recepionarea pasiv a unei aciuni exterioare (a primi, a auzi), o transformare (a crete, a disprea), etc. Termenul verb vine n romnete din franuzescul verbe, cu acelai sens, i care la rndul lui provine din latinescul verbum (cuvnt, verb). Romanii au preluat noiunea din grecete, unde rhema avea acelai sens. Datorit importanei sale deosebite n comunicare, verbul este una dintre cele dou pri de vorbire prezente n toate limbile, cealalt fiind substantivul. n multe limbi, inclusiv limba romn, cele mai scurte propoziii corecte gramatical i cu sens de sine stttor snt cele care conin un verb. Pe de alt parte este remarcabil creaia literar Le train de nulle part (Trenul de nicieri) a lui Michel Dansel, (publicat n 2004 sub pseudonimul Michel Thaler), care pe parcursul a 233 de pagini nu conine nici un verb.

11.1. Verbele auxiliare (to be, to do, to have) Sunt verbe deosebit de puternice Au forme distincte pt. prezent si trecut Intra in alcatuirea altor timpuri verbale: to be la toate formele de continuu to have la toate timpurile perfecte Nu-si pot forma participiul nedefinit (forma in ing) cu exceptia situatiei cand verbul to have pierde sensul de a avea, a poseda si intra in alcatuirea alocutiunilor verbale (to have a bath, to have a shower, to have a rest, to have talk, to have a walk, to have lunch). Isi fac singure interogativul prin inversarea cu subiectul Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei not Isi fac singure intrebarea disjunctiva si raspunsul scurt Ex: He has a car. Hasnt he? Yes, he has. Trecutul verbelor auxiliare: Pt. to be was la pers I si a II-a singular, were pt. toate celelalte Pt. to have had

VERBUL BE
BE WAS BEEN Afirmativ I am (I'm) You are (You're) He is (He's) She is (She's) It is (It's) We are (We're) You are (You're) sunteti They are (They're) Negativ I am not (I'm not) You are not (You aren't) He is not (He isn't) She is not (She isn't) It is not (It isn't) We are not (We aren't) You are not (You aren't) They are not (They aren't) Interogativ Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are you? Are they?

Utilizare 1. pentru construirea timpurilor continue si a formei pasive: The old man is taking an afternoon nap. The bridge was destroyed by the earthquake. 2. pentru a exprima existenta, starea fizica sau mentala sau alte informatii despre o persoana sau un lucru: Dr. Johnson is a dentist. He is calm and patient. 3. pentru a exprima varsta: The baby is two months old. How old are you? 4. BE TO + INFINITIV: pentru a da ordine/instructiuni sau pentru a comunica un plan: You are to finish your homework before dinner. (= You must finish) The chairman is to give his annual speech tomorrow. (= He plans to give) 5. BE ABOUT TO + INFINITIV: pentru a indica viitorul imediat: Meg is about to leave. (= Meg is on the point of leaving.) 6. THERE + BE + SUBSTANTIV: pentru a indica existenta unei fiinte sau a unui lucru: There are two pieces of cake left in the fridge. There is a person outside the door.

VERBUL DO
DO DID DONE Afirmativ I do You do He does She does It does We do You do They do Negativ I do not (I don't) You do not (You don't) He does not (He doesn't) She does not (She doesn't) It does not (It doesn't) We do not (We don't) You do not (You don't) They do not (They don't) Interogativ Do I? Do you? Does he? Does she? Does it? Do we? Do you? Do they?

Utilizare: DO se foloseste atat ca verb auxiliar cat si ca verb propriu-zis. A. DO ca verb auxiliar: 1. pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului simplu so trecutului simplu: The kitten doesnt play with strangers. / Did they go to the opera yesterday? 2. pentru a evita repetarea aceluiasi verb sau aceleiasi expresii: My company made a profit last year but IBM did not. /Mary typed that letter very badly. She certainly did! 3. pentru a sublinia un afirmativ sau imperativ: Do eat your vegetables! / Youre wrong: I did pay you! B. DO ca verb propriu-zis are sensul general de a duce la bun sfarsit, a realiza, a executa, a administra, a pune in practica: Students should do the exercises at the end of each unit. /He always does the job well. The office clerk did the transaction yesterday. NOTA: A nu se confunda DO cu MAKE! Verbul MAKE are sensul general de a crea, a produce, a construi, a cauza, a face sa fie sau a prepara. Comparati: to do someone a favour to do ones best to do good to do the dishes to do the shopping to do ones homework to do a crossword puzzle to do ones duty to do well/badly to make a friend to make the bed to make money to make a rule to make a mistake to make a mess to make a living to make fun of someone to make oneself at home

VERBUL HAVE
HAVE HAD HAD Afirmativ I have (I've) You have (You've) He has (He's) She has (She's) It has (It's) We have (We've) You have (You've) They have (They've) Negativ I have not (I haven't) You have not (You haven't) He has not (He hasn't) She has not (She hasn't) It has not (It hasn't) We have not (We haven't) You have not (You haven't) They have not (They haven't) Interogativ Have I? Have you? Has he? Has she? Has it? Have we? Have you? Have they?

Utilizare: HAVE se foloseste atat ca verb auxiliar cat si ca verb propriu-zis. A. HAVE ca verb auxiliar: 1. pentru a forma alte timpuri: Present perfect: I have worked. Past perfect: I had worked. Future perfect: I will have worked. Past conditional: I would have worked. 2. HAD BETTER + INFINITIV fara TO (short INFINITIVE): They had better study hard from the first day of school. (It would be a good idea if they studied hard from) Youd better go home. (It would be a good idea if you went home.) 3. I WONT HAVE + COMPLEMENT + -ING: I wont have that dog sleeping on my bed! (I wont permit that dog to sleep on my bed!) B. HAVE ca verb propriu-zis: 1. posesia: Anne always has a cold. / Anne doesnt always have a cold. / Does Anne always have a cold? Cand HAVE este urmat de GOT, se intareste sensul posesiv. Debbies got a lovely voice. / Have you got a computer? 2. a manca, a bea sau a organiza: The twins usually have dinner early. / My aunt Mary doesnt have coffee often. / Our neighbours had a cocktail party last week. 3. HAVE + COMPLEMENT + PAST PARTICIPLE: Mrs. Riley had her house painted. (Mrs. Riley got someone to paint her house.) My best friend has his hair trimmed every Friday. (My best friend has someone to cut his hair every Friday.)

11.2. Verbele modale Verbele modale (Modal verbs) exprima atitudinea vorbitorului fata de ceva, actiunea din cadrul acestuia fiind vazuta ca posibila, probabila, necesara, obligatorie, de dorit etc. Ex.: It might rain later. - S-a putea sa ploua mai tarziu. Verbele modale englezesti se pot imparti in: Verbe notionale exprimannd modalitatea. Acestea se comporta ca verbele obisnuite (want, wish, order, oblige, advise, intend, mean, prefer, etc.). Ex.: He wants to see the play. - El vrea sa vada piesa. Verbe modale defective (Defective Modal Verbs). Acestea exprima de asemenea modalitatea, dar din punct de vedere formal, prezinta anumite caracteristici (can / could, may / might, must, have to, shall/should, will / would, ought to, be to, used to, need, dare). Caracteristici : Verbe puternice Au forme distincte pt. prezent si trecut Nu au infinitiv lung (adica cu to in fata) Ex: I can (fara to) go Nu permit dupa ele verbe la infinitiv lung Nu apar niciodata singure, cu exceptia raspunsului scurt Nu pot avea forma in ing. Nu primesc "-s" la persoana a III-a singular (cu exceptia lui "be to" si "have to"). He must see this play. - Trebuie sa vada aceasta piesa. Nu isi pot forma toate timpurile. Sunt defective. - Adica le lipsesc anumite forme verbale si de aceea nu pot fi conjugate la toate modurile si timpurile. Dar ele pot fi folosite pentru redarea mai multor timpuri. I can help you next week. - Am sa te pot ajuta saptamana viitoare. I could skate when I was a child. Stiam sa patinez cand eram copil. Au inlocuitori Isi fac interogativul prin inversare cu subiectul. Formeaza singure interogativul si negativul fara ajutorul auxiliarului "do /did" (cu exceptia lui "have to"). Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei not Isi fac singure intrebarea disjuncta si raspunsul scurt Verbele modale nu poseda particula infinitivala TO Nu primesc particula TO dupa ele Cu unele exceptii, verbele modale, nu au V2 si V3, deci nu pot forma alte timpuri in afara de prezent. Pentru a exprima totusi modalitate la alte timpuri folosim inlocuitorii (substituentii) verbelor modale V1 V2 V3 can could may might (in anumite cazuri) Must -

CAN Utilizare:

1. pentru a cere, a acorda sau a refuza permisiunea, similar cu may, dar mai putin formal: You can drive at seventeen in the UK. Can I borrow your pen, please? Ive left mine at home. You cannot go hunting out of season. NOTA: forme alternative: You are permitted / are allowed to / may drive ar seventeen in the UK. ATENTIE: la negativ, could si might au sensuri diferite. Ex: Ken could not be building the house by himself. (It is impossible, it is too much work.) Ken might not be building thehouse by himself. (He is building the house himself, he probably has help.) 2. pentru a face referire la probabilitate, posibilitate sau imposibilitate in prezent, in trecut sau la conditional: Look, theres plenty of snow, we can go skiing today. Lets try his office, he could be there. Bill cannot drive for a few weeks, hes broken his leg. 3. pentru a face referire la abilitate sau indemanare in prezent, in trecut sau la conditional: She is a great secretary; she can type ninety words a minute. Can you speak English? Tim is hopeless. He cant even fry and egg. If he studied harder, he could pass the exam. NOTA: pentru alte timpuri, se foloseste be able to: She will be able to / has been able to type 100 words a minute. 4. could + INFINITIV perfect, pentru a se referi la o actiune care nu a avut loc: You could have hurt your back lifting that heavy table. I could have driven you to the airport, but I didnt have my car. cand nu stim daca actiunea s-a petrecut sau nu: Have you seen my umbrella? Dad could have taken it. NOTA: forme alternative: You might have hurt your back lifting that heavy table. You would probably have hurt your back lifting that heavy table. Inlocuitori: to be able to, to be capable to MAY Utilizare: 1. cu referire la evenimente sau actiuni posibile sau probabile in prezent, adesea cu sens de viitor. Might poate fi folosit pentru a sublinia o foarte redusa posibilitate: Theres a black cloud above us. It may rain. / Alice may get angry if you tell her. If you try hard enough, you might convince him to come. si cu forma continua: Call me after eight I may be working hard late tonight. Alex says he might be going on holiday without his parents this year. NOTA: formele alternative sunt: Maybe it wil rain. It is likely to rain. Maybe Alice will get angry if you tell her. Alice is likely to get angry if you tell her. 2. pentru a cere, a oferi sau a refuza permisiunea politicos: May I open the window? It is very hot in this office. You may go in to see the doctor now. You may not smoke in my car. NOTA: forme alternative: Am I allowed to open the window?

You are not permitted to smoke in my car. Can I open the window? (can poate fi si el folosit, dar este considerat mai putin politicos) 3. cu well pentru a indica o foarte mare probabilitate: I think it may well rain today, look at those black clouds. The Government may well decide to raise the price of gas again. NOTA: forme alternative: I think it is very likely to rain today. The Government is very likely to deicde to raise the price of gas. ATENTIE: may / might as well are alt sens: There is nothing interesting on TV this evening, I may / might as well have an early night. (= Din moment ce nu este nimic interesant la TV, e mai bine sa ma duc devreme la culcare.) 4. cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la o presupunere in trecut: Bill isnt at his office, he may have gone home early. Brian might not have been killed by Sally. 5. cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la ceva care s-ar fi putut petrece in trecut, dar nu s-a petrecut; se poate folosi numai might: You might have burnt your hand while taking that hot tray out of the oven (but you didnt). A lot of people, who might have been saved, died when the Titanic sank. 6. Exprimarea unei interdictii Ex: People may not bring dogs into the hotel. 7. Exprimarea unei urari Ex: May all your dreams come true. 8. Dupa verbele to hope si to trust Ex: I hope you may find tickets for the cinema. 9. La forma negativa are doar forma may not (nu exista forma contrasa maynt) 10. La trecut are forma may have+participiu trecut si might mai ales pt conditional. 11. Inlocuitori: to be allowed to, to be permitted to MUST 1. = trebuie, arata obligativitatea Ex: I must go now. 2. Arata o deductie logica Ex: As she left at four she must be at home now. 3. Negativ: mustnt (nu trebuie), neednt (nu este necesar). 4. Trecut: must + have + participiu trecut si had to. 5. Inlocuitori: to have to, to be obliged to, to be compelled to (toate = a fi obligat) 6. Diferenta dintre must si have to. Must => arata obligativitatea din punctul meu de vedere; Have to => arata obligativitatea impusa de altii. Ex: I must go now. I have to wear uniform. NEED 1. Are 2 valori: (a) verb lexical, (b) verb modal. (a) Verb lexical - este un verb regulat Ex: I need a new car. Do I need a new car? (b) Verb modal se foloseste numai in propozitii interogative si negative.Ex: Need she get up early? She neednt go there. Atentie! Totusi need se poate intalni si in afirmative ca modal propozitii in care exista de regula never, hardly, barely, scarcely Ex: He hardly need mention his name. 2. Exista 2 constructii cu need considerate arhaice. a) Must needs Ex: I must needs see your teacher. b) Needs must sugereaza ideea de sarcasm Ex: She needs must bring me now when I have OUGHT TO

1. Arata obligativitatea morala de a-si face datoria Ex: I ought to go (nu are acelasi nuanta cu must) 2. Daca e urmat de have si verb la participiul trecut exprima o datorie care s-a indeplinit Ex: You ought to have waited till 2 oclock. 3. Nu are forma de sine statatoare de trecut. Se formeaza: ought + have + participiu trecut + to Ex: Ought have invited to join the party. 4. Negativ: oughtnt SHOULD - Este mai moale ca ought to 1. Arata o datorie ca recomandare, e cel mai slab din cele care = trebuie Ex: You should read this book. 2. Pt exprimarea supozitiei Ex: For his age he should be taller. 3. Folosit daca e precedat de verbe ca: to suggest, to propose, to insist, to recommend, to advice Ex: I suggest that you should learn English. 4. Folosit cand este precedat de o constructie impersonala: it is important/ necessary/ natural/ better Ex: It is important that you should understand. 5. Folosit dupa constructii ca: so that, in order that, for fear that, lest (ca sa nu). Ex: I got up early for fear that/ lest/ so that I should arrive in time. 6. Dupa verbe de stari emotionale: to feel sorry for, to be delighted, to be annoyed (uimit). Ex: I feel sorry that he should go back. Imi pare rau ca trebuie sa se intoarca. 7. Dupa expresiile: dont know why, cant think why, see no reason why Ex: I dont know why you should ask me that. WOULD 1. Folosit pt. o cerere politicoasa Ex: Would you give me your tel. number? 2. Urmat de like ca sa aiba inteles mai politicos Ex: I would like to meet you. 3. Poate fi urmat de rather sau sooner pentru a exprima preferinta Ex: I would rather sleep than go for a walk. 4. Pt. a exprima un obicei, actiune repetata in trecut Ex: I would meet you whenever I crossed the road. 5. Pt a exprima probabilitatea Ex: The man would be his neighbor. USED TO 1. Arata un obicei trecut Ex: I used to visit my grand parents when I was child. 2. A nu se confunda cu to be used to care cere dupa ea verbul in ing Ex: I am used to getting up early. (sunt obisnuit cu sculatul de dimineata) DARE 1. Are 2 valori: (a) modala; (b) lexicala. (a) Valoarea modala in propozitii negative si interogative. Ex: Dare you say this? (indraznesti sa spui asta)/ I darent go there (nu indraznesc sa merg acolo) (b) valoare ca verb lexical in propozitii afirmative fiind verb regulat. Ex: I dare to ask you about my dog. I dare say = I suppose / I dare say I will invite them to dinner. / I daresay = I accept I daresay you are right again. NOTA! Pt a exprima indignarea se foloseste expresia: How dare you Ex: How dare you come so late?

11.3. Verbe copulative Verbele copulative (cunoscute sub numele de copular verbs sau light verbs sau linking verbs) sunt acele verbe care i-au pierdut total sau parial sensul lexical i nu pot forma singure predicat. Ele formeaz predicate nominale alturi de un alt constituent, care poart ncrctura semantic a predicatului respectiv i are funcia de nume predicativ (de obicei, un adjectiv sau substantiv). Exemple: - Andrew is clever. Andrei este inteligent. - The grapefruit tastes sour. Fructul de grapefruit este acru. Verbele copulative stabilesc o legtur ntre subiectul propoziiei i numele predicativ. Ele sunt intranzitive i, ntruct nu denot aciuni, n marea lor majoritate nu pot avea aspect continuu. Clasificarea verbelor copulative n funcie de gradul de slbire a valorii lexicale, verbele copulative se mpart astfel: I. To be (a fi) este verbul copulativ tipic (copula), caracterizat prin cea mai mare golire de coninut lexical i, datorit acestui fapt, prin cele mai numeroase posibiliti combinatorii: - Adjectiv: Michael is tall. Mihai este nalt. - Substantiv: Mary is his mother. Maria este mama lui. - Grup prepoziional: I am in need of money. Am nevoie de bani. (n romn nu mai apare predicatul nominal). - O ntreag propoziie: This is what I want. Asta este ceea ce vreau. Be copulativ poate avea aspect continuu, cu adjective non-statice, atunci cnd denot un comportament temporar: Your child is being naughty. Copilul tu este obraznic. (n romn nu mai sunt evidente diferenele de aspect) Aten ie! Cnd be are sensul se afl, exist, se gsete, are loc, atunci este verb predicativ, deci poate forma singur predicatul verbal: - Some beautiful houses are on the outskirts of the city. Sunt nite case frumoase la periferia oraului. - Where are my spectacles? Unde-mi sunt ochelarii? II. Verbe copulative (copula-like verbs) par ial golite de sens lexical. Ele se mpart n mai multe categorii semantice i au mai puine posibiliti combinatorii (n general sunt urmate de adjective sau substantive): - verbe copulative incoative, care exprim schimbarea unei stri: become, come, fall, get, go, grow, turn - The leaves have become yellow. Frunzele s-au nglbenit. - The heat in the room had became unbearable. Cldura din camer devenise insuportabil. - All his dreams have come true. Toate visurile i s-au mplinit. - The children fell asleep. Copiii au adormit. - It was getting dark when I arrived. Se nsera cnd am ajuns. - My father is going bald. Tatl meu chelete. - She might turn an excellent singer. S-ar putea dovedi o cntrea remarcabil. verbe copulative aspectuale, care exprim continuarea unei stri: continue, hold, remain, rest - The weather continued cold for a whole week. Vremea a continuat s fie rece pentru o sptmn ntreag.

- The scientists theory still holds good. Teoria omului de tiin nc st n picioare. - Jane remained a widow. Jane a rmas vduv. verbe copulative poziionale, care exprim poziia n spaiu: lie, loom, pass, rank, sit, stand. Uneori sunt folosite cu sens figurat. - The book was lying open on the desk. Cartea zcea deshis pe birou. - The castel loomed menacing in the distance. Castelul se profila amenintor n deprtare. - He passes for a learned man. Trece drept un om nvat. - His family ranks high in the community. Familia lui are o poziie nalt n comunitate. - John stands alone among his colleagues. John iese n eviden dintre colegii lui. verbe copulative ale aparenei: appear, look, seem - The girl appeared sad. Fata prea trist. - You seem ill. Pari bolnav. - The child looks pale. Copilul pare palid la fa. verbe copulative care exprim percepia senzorial: look, feel, smell, sound, taste - His face looked sad. Chipul i era trist. - I felt tired. M simeam obosit. - The mans voice sounded hoarse. Vocea brbatului era rguit. - This parfume smells sweet. Parfumul are un miros dulce. - The cake tastes delicious. Prjitura este delicioas. Observa ie. Verbele copulative care denot percepia senzorial exprim o stare i nu pot fi folosite la aspectul continuu dect dac i schimb sensul, exprimnd activiti deliberate: - The girl was feeling the velvet. Fata pipia catifeaua. - The little boy is sounding the drum. Bieelul cnt la tobe. - I was smelling the flowers in the garden. Miroseam florile din grdin. - Mary was looking at the crowd. Maria privea mulimea. Verbele copulative pot fi identificate prin nlocuirea lor cu verbul to be. Dac acest lucru este posibil, atunci avem de-a face cu un verb copulativ: - I feel fine = I am fine. - I am feeling the soft velvet. To feel n acest context nu poate fi nlocuit cu to be, deci nu este verb copulativ. Caracteristicile formale ale vervelor copulative Formarea interogativului i a negativului Cu excepia lui be, verbele copulative formeaz interogativul i negativul la timpurile prezent i trecut simplu cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do: Afirmativ: He became an architect. Interogativ: Did he become an architect? Negativ: He did not become an architect. Verbul to be: Afirmativ: I am beautiful. Interogativ: Am I beautiful? Negativ: I am not beautiful. Excep ie: Be cere i el inseria lui do la imperativ negativ: Dont be so naive!

Inversiunea cu subiectul Se observ c be i inverseaz poziia fa de subiect n propoziiile interogative, pe cnd celelalte verbe copulative nu fac acest lucru. 12. MODUL INDICATIV PREZENTUL Simplu Continuu Perfect Perfect continuu MODUL INDICATIV TRECUTUL simplu continuu perfect perfect continuu VIITORUL

12.1. PREZENTUL SIMPLU / PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE Afirmativ SB + V1(s/es a III-a sg) Negativ SB + DO NOT (DONT) + V1 Interogativ DO + SB + V1 + ? Afirmativ I work You work He/she/it works We work You work They work Negativ I do not (dont) work You do not (dont) work He/she/it does not (doesnt) work We do not (dont) work You do not (dont) work They do not (dont) work Interogativ * Do I work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do we work? Do you work? Do they work?

exceptie de la regula sunt verbele to be,to have, verbele modale (se formeaza interogativul prin inversarea si negativul adaugand particular NOT la forma afirmativa) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Desemneaza o actiune repetata ce devine o obisnuinta Adverbe specifice: usually, often, always, every, never Ex: Every day I go to my office. Desemneaza un adevar universal valabil, o lege Ex. Fish swim. Cu valoare de viitor cand actiunea depinde de un program. Ex: The train arrives tonight. Pt actiuni pas cu pas (instructiuni de utilizare, indicatii regizorale, comentarii sportive) In naratiune Ex: The boy enters the room, takes the ball and goes out. Pt actiuni care, desi se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii, nu au durata (verbe nondurative): to start, to end, to finish, to stop, to quite, to cancel, to kill, to die, to shoot. 8. Cu verbe de perceptie senzoriala: to see, to hear, to taste, to smell, to sound, to feel etc. 9. Cu verbe de perceptie mentala: to think, to realize, to remember, to forget, to remind, to suppose. 10. Cu verbe de perceptie afectiva: to like, to enjoy, to hate, to dislike. 11. Se formeaza din subiect + verb la infinitiv scurt ; pentru pers III sg se adauga s 12. Modificari ortografice la persoana a III-a: a) Daca verbul se termina in s, ss, sh, ch, tch, x, z sau o se adauga es Ex: to go => goes wash => washes b) Daca verbul se termina in y precedat de consoana se transforma y in i si se adauga es. Ex: cry => cries 13. Interogativul do/does + subiect + verb la infinitiv scurt Ex: She cries a lot. Does she cry a lot? 13. Negativ subiect + dont/doesnt + verb la infinitiv scurt Ex: She doesnt cry.\

12.2.PREZENTUL CONTINUU / PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS Afirmativ SB + TO BE + V1 + ING Negativ SB + TO BE + NOT + V1 + ING Interogativ TO BE + SB + V1 + ING+ ? Afirmativ I am working You are working He/she/it is working We are working. You are working They are working Negativ I am not working. You are not (arent) working. He/she/it is not (isnt) working. We are not (arent) working. You are not (arent) working. They are not (arent) working Interogativ Am I working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working?

1. Desemneaza o actiune ce se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii (in this very moment/now/right now)Ex: I am speaking now. 2. Se foloseste in descrieri Ex: The sun is shinning. 3. Cu valoare de viitor cand actiunea depinde de subiect Ex: I am leaving soon. 4. Pt. actiuni prezente paralele in desfasurare (when, while). Ex: While I am talking he is sleeping. 5. Pentru actiuni care, desi nu se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii, constituie o rupere de ritm. Ex: Every day I get up at 7, but on Sunday I am getting up at 9. 6. Pt. actiuni repetate care ma enerveaza Ex: She always eats fruits before soup. (constatare obisnuita) Dar She is always eating fruits before soup. (enervare) 7. Se formeaza din subiect + verbul to be + verb in ing. (se conjuga doar to be) Verbul in ing = participiu prezent si are urmatoarele modificari ortografice.: a) Daca verbul se termina in e acesta cade inaintea lui ing Ex: to dance => dancing b) Verbele terminate in ie transforma ie in y Ex: to lie => lying c) verbele terminate in consoana precedata de vocala moale dubleaza consoana finala Ex: to sit => sitting ! Sufixul ing nu afecteaza y si i final al verbului Ex: to play => playing to ski => skiing 8. verbe care nu primesc forme continui - verbe care exprima activitati ale creierului: to understand, to know, to remember/remaind, to think (poate sa apara in anumite momente, ex: visez la) - verbe exprimand sentimente: to love, to hate, to like, to enjoy, to dislike. - verbe exprimand stari permanente si altele: to measure, to cost, to mean, to weight.

12.3. PREZENTUL PERFECT / PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Afirmativ SB+ HAVE/HAS + V3 Negativ SB + DID NOT + V1 Interogativ DID+ SB + V1?

Afirmativ I have called You have called He has called She has called We have called You have called They have called

Negativ I have not call You have not call He has not call She has not call We have not call You have not call They have not call

Interogativ Have I call ? Have you call ? Has she call ? Has he call ? Have we call ? Have you call ? Have they call ?

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, care fie tocmai s-a incheiat, fie ca se desfasoara intr-un timp deschis, nedeterminat. Spre deosebire de trecut, care desemneaza tot o actiune trecuta, la prezent perfect momentul incheierii actiunii nu trebuie sa fie cunoscut Ex: I saw her yesterday. (stiu cand => trecut) dar I have seen her lately. (nu stiu cand => prezent perfect) Ex: Did you see Gone with the wind? (nu mai poti sa-l vezi) dar Have you seen American Pie? (mai poti sa-l vezi) ! de multe ori la o intrebare in prezent perfect raspunsul vine in trecut daca precizez momentul cand a avut loc actiunea Ex: Have you met her? Yes, I have. I met her an hour ago. (raspunsul trebuie sa contina have-ul din intrebare, dar trebuie sa precizez momentul, si atunci intra pe trecut). Verbele se impart in: - regulate (a) - neregulate (b) (a) Verbele regulate Au forma II si forma III identice, se formeaza cu sufixul ed adaugata la forma infinitivului scurt Modificari ortografice: 1) daca verbul se termina in e, adauga doar d 2) daca verbul se termina in y precedat de consoana, transforma y in i si adauga ed Ex: cry cried 3) daca verbul se termina in l, il dubleaza mereu Ex: travel travelled cancel cancelled 4) daca verbul se termina in ic, adauga ked

Ex: panic panicked 5) daca verbul se termina in consoana precedata de vocala moale (vocala intre 2 consoane), dubleaza consoana si adauga ed Ex: to stop stopped (b) Verbele neregulate Au forma II si forma III diferite. VEZI TABEL LA FINAL Adverbele specifice prezentului perfect Intre cele 2 verbe (auxiliar si verb) avem - adverbe de frecventa definita: (often, seldom, ever, never, usually, sometimes) - adverbe de frecventa indefinita: (just, recently, already) Ex: I have just met her. yet se aseaza doar pe finalul propozitiei si numai in propozitii interogative si negative. In interogative are sensul de deja: Ex: Have you met her yet? (daca ar trebui transpusa in propozitie afirmativa, yet ar deveni already) => I have already met her. In negativa are sensul de inca: Ex: I havent met her yet. for timp de (arata durata actiunii, fara a preciza momentul de inceput si de final). In propozitie are pozitie aproape finala. Ex: I havent met her for 2 years. since incepand din (arata momentul de inceput, fara a preciza durata sau momentul de final). Pozitia este spre finalul propozitiei. Ex: I havent met you since Monday. ! dupa since urmeaza intotdeauna trecut daca mai urmeaza o propozitie Ex: I havent met her since I came. (este o actiune mai trecuta decat cea cu intalnirea) Pe pozitia finala mai avem adv de timp deschis (lately, today, this year / month / week). ! prezentul perfect corespunde in romana trecutului (perfectul compus) Ex: A nins = It has snowed (nu stiu cand) Dar A nins acum o ora = It snowed an hour ago. Interogativul avand in constructie auxiliarul to be, se obtine prin inversia acestuia cu subiectul Ex: Has it snowed? Negativul prin adaugarea negatiei not la auxiliarul have Ex: It hasnt snowed.

12.4. PREZENT PERFECT CONTINUU / PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Afirmativ SB + HAVE / HAS (pers. a III-a sg.) + V1 + ING Negativ SB+ HAVE / HAS (pers. a III-a sg.) + NOT+ V1 + ING (HAVENT / HASNT) Interogativ HAVE /HAS (pers. a III-a sg.) + SB + BEEN+ V1 + ING + ?

Afirmativ I (Ive) have been painting You have been painting She/he has been painting We have been painting You have been painting They have been painting

Negativ I have not been painting You have not painting She/he has not painting We have not painting You have not painting They have not painting

Interogativ Have I been painting? Have you been painting? Has she/he been painting? Have we been painting? Have you been painting? Have they been painting?

- corespunde in romana prezentului Ex: Ninge de 2 zile. (ninge = prezent; de 2 zile = actiunea a inceput in trecut si continua pana in prezent) - desemneaza o actiune trecuta care s-a desfasurat necontenit si care fie tocmai s-a incheiat, fie se desfasoara intr-un timp nedeterminat Ex: It has been snowing for 2 days. ! se foloseste doar cu verbe durative care au o durata de actiune (nu poti sa spui ca moare de 2 ore) ! se foloseste cu verbe meteo ! are caracter subiectiv (nu pot spune despre altul ca doarme de 2 ore) ! cu: to work to live to study nu se poate folosi forma continua decat daca precizez anumite conditii Ex: NU ! I have been working all my life. (verb existential = pleonasm) DA I have been working in this company all my life. ! daca precizez de cate ori s-a desfasurat o actiune, nu mai pot folosi forma continua, pentru ca practic se fragmenteaza actiunea. Ex: Citesc cartea asta de cand am venit (nu stiu de cate ori) I have been reading this book since I came. dar Am citit cartea asta de 2 ori de cand am venit. I have read this book twice since I came. (am inceput, am terminat, iar am inceput, etc.) -adverbe specifice sunt de continuitate (since si for) () -interogativul si negativul cu auxiliarul have

12.5. TRECUTUL SIMPLU / PAST TENSE SIMPLE

Afirmativ SB + V1+ ED /V2 Negativ SB + DID NOT (DIDNT) + V1 Interogativ DID +SB + V1 + ? Afirmativ I spoke You spoke She/he spoke We spoke You spoke They spoke Negativ I did not speak You did not speak She/he did not speak We did not speak You did not speak They did not speak Interogativ Did I speak? Did you speak? Did she/he speak? Did we speak? Did you speak? Did they speak?

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, repetata, devenita obisnuinta (in romana corespunde cu perfectul compus) Ex: I used to visit my grandparents last year. 2) desemneaza o actiune la care momentul incheierii ei este bine precizat Adverbe specifice yesterday, the day before yesterday, 3 days ago, last year / month, the other day, when, etc. Ex: I visited them yesterday. 3) are valoare de prezent la trecerea de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta Ex: She said, I want to win.devine She told me that she wanted to win. (Virgula are valoare de 2 puncte inainte de cuvintele cuiva si nu exista linie de dialog, ci ghilimelele de sus). Se traduce, de obicei, cu perfectul compus Pronunarea i ortografierea terminaiei -ed este n funcie de terminaia infinitivului. -ed se pronun: a) [d] cnd verbele se termin n vocal sau consoan sonor [b,g,l,m,n,v,z,dz,_dj_]: play - played [pleid]; arrived [__raivd]; b) [t] cnd verbele se termin n consoan surd [f,k,p,s,sh,ch,__,t__] like - liked [laikt], cross crossed [kr_o_st]; c) [id] cnd verbele se termin n -t sau -d: want - wanted [w_o_ntid]; nod - nodded [n_o_did]. Particulariti ortografice ale terminaiei -ed: -Consoana final a formei de infinitiv se dubleaz cnd vocala care o precede este scurt i accentuat: stop - stopped; prefer - preferred - Consoana final se dubleaz la cteva verbe, dei silaba final nu este accentuat: kidnap kidnapped; handicap - handicapped; worship - worshipped; iar la verbe terminate n ic, =c se dubleaz n ck: picnic - picnicked. n engleza britanic, verbele terminate n -l dubleaz aceast consoan, indiferent de accent: control - controlled; travel - travelled

12.6. TRECUTUL CONTINUU / PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS

Afirmativ SB + TO BE (PAST TENSE =WERE/WAS ) + V1 + ING Negativ SB + TO BE (PAST TENSE = WERE/WAS)+ NOT + V1+ ING Interogativ TO BE (PAST TENSE = WERE/WAS ) + SB + V1 + ING+ ?

Afirmativ I was working You were working He was working She was working It was working We were working They were working You were working

Negativ I was not working You were not working He was not working She was not working It was not working We were not working You were not working They were not working

Interogativ Was I working? Were you working? Was he working? Was she working? Was it working? Were we working? Were you working? Were they working?

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta ce se desfasoara intr-un anumit moment bine definit sau intr-un moment trecut raportat momentului vorbirii (ieri pe vremea asta = this time yesterday) Ex: I was writing this time yesterday / yesterday at 5 oclock. 2) se foloseste in descrierile pe trecut Ex: That day the wind was blowing hard. ! pentru naratiune se foloseste trecutul simplu. Ex: The child got the ball and put it into the box. 3) desemneaza actiunile trecute paralele in desfasurare (cu when si while) Ex: While I was talking, you came. 4) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, repetata, care ma enerva Ex: He was always asking me to help him! Interogativul si negativul prin auxiliarul to be Ex: Was I dancing when you came? 5) Corespunde imperfectului in romana (vorbeam, scriam, citeam)

12.7. TRECUTUL PERFECT / PAST TENSE PERFECT

Afirmativ SB + HAD (TRECUTUL AUXILIARULUI HAVE) + V3 Negativ SB + HAD + NOT + V3 Interogativ HAD + SB + V3+ ?

Afirmativ I had painted You had painted She/he had painted We had painted You had painted They had painted

Negativ I had not painted You had not painted She/he had not painted We had not painted You had not painted They had not painted

Interogativ Had I painted? Had you painted? Had she/he painted? Had we painted? Had you painted? Had they painted?

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute Ex: O vazusem inainte sa plece = (inainte am vazut-o si dupa aceea a plecat) I had seen her before she left. 2) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, incheiata inaintea unui moment trecut Ex: O vazusem inainte de 1989. I had seen her before 1989. 3) este specifica constructiilor cu hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner, mai ales in inversie. Ex: I had met her before she left. cu inversie devine Hardly had I met her when she left. Adv specifice after, before, hardly, barely, scarcely, just, already, by the time, for, since Ex: I had just invited her to dinner when you arrived. Corespunde in romana cu mai mult ca perfectul (cantasem, vorbisem, citisem).

12.8. TRECUT PERFECT CONTINUU / PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Afirmativ SB + HAD + BEEN + V1+ ING Negativ SB + HAD + NOT + BEEN + V1 + ING (HADNT) Interogativ HAD + SB + BEEN + V1 + ING + ?

Afirmativ I had been painting You had been painting She had been painting he had been painting We had been painting You had been painting They had been painting

Negativ I had not been painting You had not been painting She had not been painting He had not been painting We had not been painting You had not been painting They had not been painting

Interogativ Had I been painting? Had you been painting? Had he been painting? Had she been painting? Had we been painting? Had you been painting? Had they been painting?

Desemneaza o actiune trecuta desfasurata necontenit si incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute sau al unui moment trecut Ex: I had been waiting for you 2 hours before you came. Se foloseste pentru: - accentueaza ideea de desfasurare a unei actiuni petrecute inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute I had been looking for it for hours before I found it L-am cautat ore intregi inainte de a-l gasi conform concordantei timpurilor, se foloseste in vorbirea indirecta atunci cand verbul din regenta este la trecut He said he had been studying English for several years Mi-a spus ca studiaza engleza de cativa ani Adverbe specifice for, since, after si before ! nu se foloseste decat cu verbe durative, are caracter subiectiv doar cand actiunea are o specificatie de genul Ex: I had been living in this house for 5 years before we moved. ! daca precizez de cate ori s-a desfasurat o actiune, nu se mai poate folosi forma continua

12. 9. VIITORUL SIMPLU / FUTURE SIMPLE

Afirmativ SB + SHALL (pers 1 sg)/ WILL + V1 (in SUA will la toate persoanele) Negativ SB + SHALL + NOT (SHANT)/ WILL + NOT (WONT) + V1 Interogativ SHALL/WILL + SB + V1 + ? Afirmativ I will/shall (ll) paint You will paint She/he will paint We shall paint You will paint They will paint Negativ I will not (wont) paint You will not (wont) paint He/she will not (wont) paint We shall not (shant) paint You will not (wont) paint They will not (wont) paint Interogativ Will I paint? Will you paint? Will she/he paint? Will we paint? Will you paint? Will they paint?

Se foloseste : -in exprimare anticiparii unei actiuni sau stari ce se va desfasura intr-un moment bine definit It will rain tomorrow. Maine va ploua. Will in asemenea contexte are valoare neutra, exprimand doar ideea de viitor si nu aceea de vointa, transmisa de verbul modal will. -exprima o intentie in viitor sau o decizie pentru viitor luata in momentul vorbirii, nu existenta anterior in mintea vorbitorului Oh, you can get it! Wait a minute, Ill help you. Ah, nu poti ajunge s-o/sa-l iei! Asteapta o clipa, te voi ajuta.. Adverbe specifice tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next , the following always, usually, often -desemneaza o actiune viitoare desfasurata in mod repetat, devenita obisnuinta Ex: I shall always think of you. ! daca in propozitia principala am viitor, in secundara nu pot avea decat prezent. Acest prezent poate sa fie: a) simplu daca depinde de un program Ex: I shall come when the train arrives. b) continuu daca depinde de subiect Ex: I shall come when I am finding the ticket. d) prezent perfect cand actiunea este anterioara momentului viitor Ex: I shall come when I have saved enough money. ! propozitiile secundara introduse prin temporale (when, while, before, after, as soon as, till, until, etc.) si if, nu pot sa contina viitor si contin prezent. Shall, auxiliarul pentru persoana I sing. si pl. este folosit in limbajul oficial, in vorbirea curenta preferandu-se will. - propozitiile interogative cu will la pers. a II-a pot exprima o rugaminte Will you help me lift the chair? Vrei sa ma ajuti sa ridic scaunul? - propozitiile interogative cu shall exprima fie o oferta (Shall I go there for you?) fie cererea unui sfat (Where shall I go?)

12.10. VIITOR CONTINUU / FUTURE CONTINUOUS

Afirmativ SB + WILL + BE + V1 + ING Negativ SB + SHALL + NOT (SHANT)/ WILL + NOT (WONT) + BE + V1 +ING Interogativ SHALL/WILL + SB + BE+ V1 + ING + ?

Afirmativ I will/shall be painting You will be painting She/he will be painting We shall be painting You will be painting They will be painting

Negativ I will not/shall not be painting You will not be painting She/he will not be painting We will not/shall not be painting You will not be painting They will not be painting

Interogativ Will I be painting? Will you be painting? Will she/hebe painting? Will we be painting? Will you be painting? Will they be painting?

1) desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura intr-un moment viitor raportat momentului vorbirii sau intr-un moment viitor raportat momentului precizat (tomorrow this time / tomorrow between 3 and 5). This time tomorrow Ill be having lunch Maine pe vremea asta voi lua masa de pranz 2) actiuni viitoare in desfasurare (paralele) when, while Ex: While Im watching TV you will be sleeping. ! atentie, nu pot avea viitor in ambele (when si while nu permit viitor) Ill be writing to you Iti voi scrie Will you be staying with us? Veti sta la noi? 3) exprima o supozitie in legatura cu o actiune care are loc in prezent Hell be swimming now. Acum o fi innotand.

12.11.VIITORUL DE INTENTIE

Afirmativ TO BE + GOING TO + V1 (se conjuga doar verbul to be) Negativ TO BE + NOT + GOING TO + V1 Interogativ TO BE + GOING TO +V1 + ?

Afirmativ I am going to write You are going to write He/She is going to write We are going to write You are going to write They are going to write

Negativ I am not / Im not going to write You are not/ You arent going to write He/She is not / She isnt going to write We are not / We arent going to write You are not/ You arent going to write They are not / They arent going to write

Interogativ Am I going to write ? Are you going to write ? Is he/she going to write ? Are we going to write ? Are you going to write ? Are they going to write ?

Se formeaz cu ajutorul formei be going to la prezent, urmat de infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat Going to Future se folosete n urmtoarele situaii : 1) cand avem o actiune viitoare apropiata de momentul vorbirii Exemplu : We are going to see a film tomorrow. 2) cand avem o actiune viitoare ce va aveaa loc ca urmare a unei intentii prezente Exemplu : We are going to spend our holiday in the mountains . Exemplu : We are going to spend our holiday in the mountains. Avem de gnd/intenionm s ne petrecem vacana la munte. 3) cand avem o actiune viitoare care va avea loc ca rezultat al unei cause prezente Exemplu : Its going to rain. Look at the clouds ! nu se poate folosi cu verbul to go si to come, ci cu to leave si to return

12.12. VIITORUL APROPIAT

Desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura datorita unei porunci, ordin, rugaminte, sau intrun moment imediat urmator. Are 2 forme: a) to be to + V infinitiv scurt (folosit pt ordine, comenzi)Ex: You are to read the book before midnight. b) to be about to + V infinitiv scurt (= a fi pe punctul de a) Ex: He is about to cry. Interogativul si negativul cu auxiliarul to be 12.13. VIITORUL IN TRECUT / FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST Viitorul n trecut are dou forme: simpl i continu: viitorul n trecut simplu/nedefinit se formeaz cu ajutorul verbelor SHOULD i WOULD, urmate de infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat. viitorul n trecut continuu/progresiv se formeaz cu ajutorul lui SHOULD i WOULD, urmate de participiul prezent al verbului de conjugat.

Viitorul n trecut (Future-in-the-Past) exprim o aciune posterioar unei alte aciuni din trecut: Mr Jones asked his wife if she would give him something to eat. Dan said he would send us a postcard from France. You did not tell me you would come by tonight. She told me she would be having her parents over the week-end. Se observ c viitorul n trecut se folosete numai n propoziii secundare, dup un timp trecut. Forma simpl a viitorului n trecut exprim: 1. opinia vorbitorului: He said he thought he would be back soon. 2. aciuni viitoare habituale: Mike said it would be too dark to see anything. 3. se folosete n propoziia principal atunci cnd exist o propoziie temporal n fraza complex: Ann asked me whether I should tell John everything when I saw him. Forma continu a viitorului n trecut exprim: 1. o aciune n desfurare n viitor: He said that by that time on Friday they would be flying to Rome. 2. o aciune viitoare care va avea loc n cursul normal al evenimentelor: They confirmed that the company would be signing contracts on the fifteenth of the month. Viitorul n trecut din limba englez se traduce prin viitorul propriu-zis sau viitorul popular din limba romn: Mary said she would give us a call. Maria a spus c ne va suna/o s ne sune. Tom promised me that he would not interfere. Tom mi-a promis c nu se va amesteca/n-o s se amestece.

Concordanta timpurilor cere folosirea acestui timp cu referire la actiuni sau stari ce erau viitoare intr-un moment trecut Este un timp sintetic care nu poate sa apara in propozitia principala, ci in secundara atunci cand in propozitia principala am un verb la timpul trecut si vreau sa sugerez o actiune ulterioara acelui moment trecut. Ex: I-am spus ca ma voi duce la film. (trecut) viitor (in rom) I told her that I should go to the movie.

! daca actiunea ce urmeaza sa se desfasoare in propozitia secundara are durata, voi folosi forma continua => should / would + be + V-ing Ex: I told him that I should be waiting for him. Celelalte forme de viitor in trecut (viitor de intentie in trecut / viitor apropiat in trecut) apar cand am un verb la trecut in principala, iar in secundara trebuie sa sugerez o actiune ulterioara. In acest caz verbul to be apare la trecut. Ex: I-am spus ca am de gand sa cumpar masina. I told him that I was going to buy the car.

12.12.VIITORUL PERFECT Este o actiune viitoare desfasurata intr-un moment viitor anterior inceput. Ex: Pana la sfarsitul anului voi fi invatat toate verbele. (incep sa invat mai de mult si pana la momentul viitor de reper, actiunea va fi terminata). I shall have learned all the verbs by the end of the year. Afirmativ SB + SHALL / WILL + HAVE + V3 Negativ SB + SHALL NOT / WILL NOT + HAVE + V3 Interogativ ! daca exista actiune cu desfasurare necontenita, folosesc o forma continua shall / will + have + been + V-ing Ex: Te voi fi asteptat 2 ore pana la sfarsitul zilei. I shall have been waiting for you 2 hours by the end of the day. Viitorul perfect si viitorul perfect continuu nu se folosesc decat in vorbire

Afirmativ SB +SHALL / WILL + HAVE BEEN + V+ ING Negativ SB+ SHALL NOT / WILL NOT + HAVE + V +ING Interogativ SHALL / WILL + SB + HAVE BEEN + V + ING + ?

Afirmativ

Negativ

Interogativ

I shall/will have been writing You will have been writing He/She will have been writing We shall/will have been writing You will have been writing They will have been writing

Shall/Will I have been writing? I shant/wont have been Will You have been writing writing? You wont have been writing Will He/She have been He/She wont have been writing writing? We shant/wont have been Shall/Will We have been writing writing? You wont have been writing Will You have been They wont have been writing writing? Will They have been writing?

Not : n limba englez contemporan formele cu Shall de la persoana I singular i plural au fost nlocuite cu forma Will. Not : Forma Shant este prescurtarea formei Shall Not iar forma Wont este prescurtarea formei Will Not. Viitorul Perfect Continuu (The Future Perfect Continuous Tense) exprim o aciune n desfurare n viitor, nainte i pn la o alt aciune viitoare (i poate i dup aceea). Exemplu: When the bell rings, we shall/will have been writing for fifty minutes. Cnd va suna clopoelul, noi vom fi fost ocupai cu scrisul/noi vom fi scris de 50 minute. Not : aciunea svrit n aceast perioad de timp viitoare anterioar unui moment sau unei aciuni de asemenea viitoare, este la viitorul perfect continuu dac se specific lungimea perioadei de timp sau nceputul ei (By 6 oclock p.m. she will have been selling blouses for 8 hours. Pn la ora 18.00 ea va fi vndut bluze timp de 8 ore.) i la viitorul perfect simplu dac este prezent o precizare numeric n legtur cu aciunea.(By 6 oclock p.m. she will have sold 80 blouses. Pn la ora 18.00 ea va fi vndut 80 de bluze.) Not : Viitorul Perfect Continuu este rar folosit n vorbire, fiind o form caracteristic limbii scrise.

13. CONDITIONALUL

13.1. Conditionalul prezent Afirmativ SB + SHOULD/WOULD + V1 Negativ SB + WOULD NOT (WOULDNT) + V1 Interogativ WOULD + SB + V1 + ?

Afirmativ I should/would paint You would paint She/he would paint We should /would paint You would paint They would paint

Negativ Interogativ I would not (wouldnt) / should Would I paint? not paint You would not paint Would you paint? She/he would not paint Would she/he paint? We would not paint Would we paint? You would not paint Would you paint? hey would not paint Would they paint?

13.2. Conditionalul trecut Afirmativ SB + SHOULD/WOULD + HAVE+ V3 Negativ SB + WOULD NOT (WOULDNT) + HAVE + V3 Interogativ WOULD + SB + HAVE + V3 + ?

Afirmativ I shoul/would have painted You would have painted She/he would have painted We shoul/would have painted You would have painted They would have painted

Negativ I would not (wouldnt) / should not have painted You would not have painted She/he would not have painted We would not have painted You would not have painted They would not have painted

Interogativ Would I have painted? Would you have painted? Would she/he have painted? Would we have painted? Would you have painted? Would they have painted?

CONDITIONALUL, utilizari Utilizare: 1. la fel ca viitorul simplu, cand verbul principal este la trecut: I think he will come. I thought he would come. Sam says mother will get well. Sam said mother would get well. 2. pentru a face referiri la actiuni obisnuite in trecut: When we lived in Africa we would often spend our weekends outdoor. When Helen was a baby she would cry all night long. 3. in propozitii subordinate dupa: advise, agree, arrange, ask, beg, command, decide, demand, determine, insist, order, propose, recommend, request, suggest, be anxious, be determined. The doctor decided (that) the patient should have his appendix out. Mrs. Walker is anxious (that) her son should get the job. 4. cu it is / was + adjectiv + thatshould: It is essential that the students should get to their lesson on time. It was strange that he should say that. 5. dupa cant think, dont know why sau see no reason why: I cant think why Frank should apologise. I dont know why my neighbour should do that. I see no reason why we should worry. 6. cu oferte si cereri: Would you prefer tea or coffee? Would you like to see my stamp collection? NOTA: Would rather inseamna a prefera sa: I would rather have coffee than tea. 7. in propozitii conditionale (if clauses). Exista trei tipuri de propozitii conditionale in engleza: Tipuri Propozitie principala Propozitie subordonata Conditional I Viitor cu will Present Simple) (uneori Pres. Simple) Conditional II Present Conditional Past Tense Conditional III Perfect Conditional Past Perfect

IF

Conditional I Utilizare: 1. cand situatia din propoztia conditionala este probabila, sau se presupune ca se va intampla. Desi sensul poate fi de prezent sau viitor, verbul din propozitia conditionala este intotdeauna la timpul prezent: The vase will break if you drop it. If it snows on Christmas day, Emma and Ben will make a snowman. Will you get me some milk, if you go to the supermarket? 2. verbele modale (ex: can, may, must, should) il pot inlocui pe will in propozitia principala: You can enter the stadium, if you have a ticket. If he isnt in, you may leave a message. Jim must work very hard if he wants to get elected. If you want to wear that dress in summer you should lose some weight. (sugestie sau sfat) 3. cu doua timpuri prezente (cate unul in amandoua propozitiile) pentru a indica rezultate automate sau obisnuinte: If you push that button, the machine shuts down. If you dont ask for help, you dont get it. If you mix red and blue, you get purple. 4. cu timpuri prezente continue sau perfecte in propozitia conditionala:

If the Goodmans are coming for dinner, Ill open a special bottle of wine. (Prezent continuu pentru a indica un aranjament in viitor) If you are making a cup of coffee, Ill have one too. (Prezent continuu pentru a indica o actiune in desfasurare in prezent) If you havent seen that film yet, well go tonight. (Prezent perfect pentru a indica o legatura cu prezentul) NOTA: Unless inseamna if... not: Unless its a sunny day tomorrow, we wont go to that picnic. (= If it is not a sunny day tomorrow, we wont go to that picnic.) Otherwise inseamna or else: You must study, otherwise you will fail the exam. (= You must study, or else you will fail the exam. = If you dont study, you will fail the exam.) Conditional II Utilizare: 1. cand situatia din subordonata conditionala este improbabila sau ipotetica: If I won the lottery, I would stop working. (but I dont believe Ill win) If you stopped breathing, you would die. (but you dont intend to stop breathing) If the distance to the train station were shorter, I would walk there. (the distance is unlikely to change) If I were you, Id buy a bigger car. (but Im not you) NOTA: If I were you poate fi folosit si pentru a da sfaturi: If I were you, Id apologise to her. 2. pentru a sugestie politicoasa sau pentru a exprima o ipoteza perfect realizabila. Comparati: If we go in two cars, we will be more comfortable. If we went in two cars, we would be more comfortable. (mai politicos) 3. verbele modale la un timp trecut il pot inlocui pe would. Sensurile se modifica in mod corespunzator. Comparati: If Mr. Lynch applied for the job, he would get it. (sigur) If Mr. Lynch applied for the job, he might get it. (posibil) If Mr. Lynch got the job, he could start next Monday. (implica abilitatea sau permisiunea) Conditional III Utilizare: 1. cand situatia din subordonata conditionala este in trecut, deci imposibila: If we had taken an umbrella with us last night, we would not have got wet. (we didnt take an umbrella last night and so we got wet) If Jack had studied law at the university, he would have been a lawyer now. (but Jack didnt study law, he studied something else) 2.verbele modale could (abilitate sau permisiune) si might (posibilitate) pto inlocui would in propozitia principala: I could have made a cake for you if I had known it was you birthday. (abilitate) The prisoner might have been let out on parole, if he hadnt fought with his cellmate. (posibilitate) NOTA: If only se poate folosi la toate tipurile de conditional pentru a sublinia speranta, dorinta sau regretul. If only we had some money with us, we would take the cab. If only we had paid the bill earlier, we would not have been evicted. 14. SUBJONCTIVUL

Subjonctivul are 2 forme:

- sintetic (1) - analitic (2)

a) prezent b) trecut (simplu si perfect)

1.a) Subjonctivul sintetic prezent Identic ca forma cu infinitivul scurt; foarte folosit in engleza americana 1) se foloseste in urari Ex: May all your dreams come true. Long live the Queen. 2) la injuraturi Ex: Damn you! Curse this rain! God bless you! 3) in propozitii secundare introduse prin that daca in principala am o dorinta, o obligatie, o necesitate: to suggest, to recommend, to order, to demand, to urge Ex: I urged that she sit down. 4) in propozitii care contin urmatoare;e expresii impersonale:it is necessary, it is essential, it is important Ex: It is impossible that he arrive in time. 1.b) Subjonctivul sintetic trecut --Simplu Este forma a II-a a verbului, numai ca verbul to be are mereu forma were. Utilizare: 1) in propozitiile conditionalului 2vEx: I should take it if I were you. 2) dupa verbul wishvEx: I wish you were here. 3) dupa constructiile: its time, its high time, as if, as though, even if, even though, would rather, would sooner, suppose that Ex: Its time you went there. I would rather didnt go there. I talk as if I didnt know you. --Perfect Identic ca forma cu trecutul perfect (had + verb III) Utilizare: 1) in conditionalul 3 Ex: You would have invited them if you had found enough space. 2) dupa verbul wish atunci cand actiunea este trecuta si regretata (sensul propozitiei trebuie se fie negativ) Ex: I wish I hadnt said that. 2. Subjonctivul analitic Se formeaza dintr-un verb modal (should / would / might / could) + V infinitiv scurt. El a luat oarecum locul subjonctivului sintetic prezent; este intalnit atat in propozitia principala, cat si in cea secundara. Forma shall + V infinitiv scurt - se foloseste in principala cu sensul de vrei? Ex: Shall I help you? (sa te ajut?) - se foloseste in secundara cu sensul de trebuie Ex: I have decided that they shall help her. Forma should + V infinitiv scurt - se foloseste in principala cu sensul de daca e necesar Ex: Why should you come so early? - se foloseste in secundara dupa: a) expresiile impersonale: it is important / it is necessary / it is essential Ex: It is necessary that you should understand the problem. b) in propozitiile care contin constructiile: for fear that (de teama ca) / lest (ca sa nu) / in case Ex: I got up early lest I should miss the train. c) cu urmatoarele verbe: to demand, to command, to suggest, to recommend, to request, to insist Ex: I insisted that you should learn this lesson. d) atunci cand sunt introduse de: although, whatever, though Ex: Whatever she should say dont interrupt her. Forma may / might + V infinitiv scurt 1) se foloseste cand se exprima o urare Ex: May your dreams come true!

2) in subjonctive introduse prin: it is likely, it is probable, it is possible Ex: It is possible that they might invite us to dinner. 3) in propozitii introduse prin: so that, that, in order that Ex: I put the perfume in front of you so that you might smell it. Forma would + V infinitiv scurt - se foloseste dupa wish Ex: I wish you would call on you. (to call on = a vizita) Forma could + V infinitiv scurt - se foloseste pentru a exprima o certitudine Ex: We studied a lot so that we could pass TOEFL.

15. MODUL IMPERATIV Verbele din infinitiv se gasesc in propozitii exclamative ce reprezinta ordine, sfaturi ce trebuiesc executate. Exemple Let him go !( Lasa-l sa se duca ! ) Lock the door ! ( Incuie usa ! ) Go there ! ( Du-te acolo ! ) Let me know ! (Da-mi voie sa stiu !) Don't worry be happy! Nu te ingrijora, fii fericit! Leave me alone ! Lasa-ma in pace! Take it easy ! Usor !

16 . PASSIVE VOICE (DIATEZA PASIVA) Ca si in limba romana, diateza activa arata ca subiectul efectueaza actiunea. Diateza pasiva arata ca subiectul suporta actiunea efectuata de complementul de agent. In limba engleza complementul de agent este introdus prinprepozitia by. La trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva au loc unele schimbari: -subiectul devine complent de agent - complenmentul direct devine subiect -timpurile raman aceleasi dar structura lor este diferita: sunt formate din timpul respectiv al verbului TO BE + V3 al verbului de conjugat. Diateza pasiva este folosita atunci cand cel care efectuaeza actiunea nu este cunoscut sau nu este important; cand accentul cade pe actiune nu pe subiect; in textele tehnice, economice sau de afaceri. Double passive Existain limba engleza verbe ca pot primi 2 complimente: to tell, to give, to show, to order, to make, to send. Aceasta imseamna ca la trecerea la diateza pasiva putem alcatui 2 propozitii, fiecare din ele avand subiect unul din complemente. In limba vorbita este preferata varianta pasiva avand ca subiect fiinta. Subiectul din diateza activa devine complement de agent, iar CD din diateza activa devine subiect in pasiva.

Ex:

1) I write the letter. S CD 2) The letter is written by me. S C agent Diateza pasiva presupune un verb to be, iar verbul de baza va fi la forma: V III + by + C agent ! o propozitie care are atat CD cat si CI are 2 forme de pasiv, fiecare complement devenind pe rand subiect Ex: I give him my book. CI CD devine The book is given to him by me. S He is given the book by me. S Aspectul si timpul predicatului din activa se mentin in pasiva. ! complementul de agent poate sa lipseasca daca este un pronume Ex: I read the book. The book is read (by me). poate sa lipseasca ! daca subiectul este impersonal (somebody / someone), el poate de asemenea sa lipseasca DIATEZA ACTIVA DIATEZA PASIVA 1) I eat an egg. An egg is eaten. 2) I am eating an egg. An egg is being eaten. 3) I have eaten an egg. An egg has been eaten. 4) I have been eating an egg. 5) I ate an egg. An egg was eaten. 6) I was eating an egg. An egg was being eaten. 7) I had eaten an egg. An egg had been eaten. 8) I had been eating an egg. 9) I shall eat an egg. An egg will be eaten. 10) Im going to eat an egg. An egg is going to be eaten. 11) I am to eat an egg. An egg is to be eaten. 12) Im about to eat an egg. An egg is about to be eaten. 13) I should eat an egg. an egg would be eaten. 14) I shall have eaten an egg. An egg will have been eaten. ! atentie la prepozitiile care se aseaza la final (vor rezulta 2 prepozitii una dupa alta) Ex: They sent for the doctor. The doctor was sent for by them. Everybody laughed at him. He was laughed at by everybody. ! anumite verbe (to eat, to feel, to wear, to wash, to sell, to read, to perform) nu pot avea forma pasiva cand vrei sa spui ca sunt de foarte buna calitate / se vand singure / se poarta singure, etc. Ex: These books sold quickly. (si nu have been sold) The shoes wore comfortably. (si nu have been worn) ! verbul to grow nu poate avea sens de diateza pasiva pentru ca este de la sine Indirect/reported speech Ca si in limba romana vorbirea indirecta relateaza apusele unei personae. La trecera de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta apar schimbari in propozitie. Ele sunt de 2 tipuri:

1 - schimbari logice, cauzate de modificarea punctelor de vedere din care e privita informatia. Acestea apar intotdeauna: exemplu: trecerea de la pers I la pers a III-a I - he, she / we - they / this that / today that day 2 schimbari gramaticale, apar numai in cazul in care propozitia introductiva are verbul la timpul trecut deoarece in acest caz, in fraza in care se formeaza se aplica legile concordantei timpurilor. (dupa un timp trecut in porpozitia principala nua avem voie sa folosim prezentul, present perfect sau viitorul in subordonata). Astefel: Present Past Present perfect Past perfect Future Simple Comtinuous Simple Comtinuous Simple Comtinuous Simple Comtinuous Simple Comtinuous

Past tense Past perfect Past perfect Past perfect Future-in-the-past

Simple Continuous Simple Continuous Simple Continuous Simple Continuous

Can could May might Must must in functie de inteles had to Atentie! Schimbarile gramaticale nu apar daca vervul dein propozitia introductiva este la present, apar doar schimbarile logice

17. CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR 1) daca in principala avem prezent, in secundara putem avea orice Ex: I know she is / will be / was here. 2) daca in principala avem viitor, in secundara avem prezent a) simplu daca depinde de un program b) continuu daca depinde de subiect c) perfect daca a inceput intr-un moment anterior 3) daca in principala avem trecut, in secundara avem 3 raporturi: a) simultaneitate (actiuni paralele) => in secundara avem trecut Ex: While I was dancing, he took my hand. b) anterioritate => in secundara avem past perfect Ex: I told him I had met her before. c) posterioritate => in secundara avem future in the past

Ex: I told him I should go there. ! pt adevaruri universal valabile nu se respecta regula cu trecutul Ex: He told me that the sun rises from East.

18. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE Infinitiv to abide to arise to awake to be to bear to beat to become to begin to behold to bend to beseech to bear to bet to bid to bind to bite to bleed to bless to blow to break to breed to bring to broadcast to burn to burst to buy to can to cast to catch to choose to cleave to cling to come to cost to creep to cut to deal Trecut abode arose awoke was, were bore beat became began beheld bent besought bore bet bade bound bit bled blest blew broke bred brought broadcast burnt (burned) burst bought could cast caught chose cleft clung came cost crept cut dealt Participiu trecut abode arisen awoke been born beaten become begun beheld bent besought born bet bidden bound bitten bled blest blown broken bred brought broadcast burnt (burned) burst bought been able to cast caught chosen cleft clung come cost crept cut dealt Traducere a astepta, a sta, a locui a se ridica a se trezi a fi a se naste a bate a deveni a icepe a zari, a vedea a idoi a implora a se naste a paria a oferi, a licita a lega a musca a sangera a binecuvanta a sufla a sparge a creste a aduce a transmite prin radio a arde a izbucni a cumpara a putea, a fi posibil a arunca a prinde a alege a despica a se lipi a veni a costa a se tara a taia a se ocupa, a trata afaceri

to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to dwell to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly to forbid to forecast to foresee to foretell to forget to forgive to forgo forsake to freeze to get to give to go to grind to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to knit to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave

dug did drew dreamt (dreamed) drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forecast foresaw foretold forgot forgave forwent forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knit knew laid led leant learnt (learned) left

dug done drawn dreamt (dreamed) drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forecast foreseen foretold forgotten forgiven forgone forsaken frozen got given gone ground grown hung (hanged) had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt knit known laid led leant learnt (learned) left

a sapa a face a desena a visa a bea a conduce masina a locui, a ramane, a insista a manca a cadea a hrani a simti a lupta a gasi a zbura a interzice a prevedea a prevedea a prezice a uita a ierta a renunta la, a da uitarii a parasi a igheta a primi a da a merge a macina a creste a spanzura a avea a auzi a ascunde a lovi a tine a rani a pastra a igenunchia a tricota a sti, a cunoaste a aseza a conduce a se sprijini de a ivata a lasa, a parasi

to lend to let to lie to light to lose to make to mean to meet to misgive to mislead to mistake to outdo to overcome to overdo to pay to put to read to rend to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to send to set to sew to shake to shave to shed to shine to shoe to shoot to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to slay to sleep

lent let lay lit lost made meant met misgave misled mistook outdid overcame overdid paid put read rent rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook shaved shed shone shod shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slew slept

lent let lain lit lost made meant met misgiven misled mistaken outdone overcome overdone paid put read rent ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set sewn (sewed) shaken shaven shed shone shod shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slain slept

a mprumuta (cuiva) a permite a fi culcat a aprinde a pierde a face a isemna a italni a inspira neicredere a induce i eroare a itelege gresit a itrece a ivinge a face exces a plati a pune a citi a sfasia, a rupe a calari a suna a se ridica a alerga a spune a vedea a cauta a vinde a trimite a fixa, a regla a coase a scutura, a clatina a se barbieri a varsa (lacrimi) a straluci a icalta, a potcovi a mpusca a arata a se strange a ichide a canta a se scufunda a sta (pe scaun) a ucide a dormi

to slide to sling to slit to smell to smite to sow to speak to speed to spell to spend to spill to spin to spit to split to spoil to spread to spring to stand to steal to stick to sting to stink to strike to string to strive to swear to sweep to swim to swing to take to teach to tear to tell to think to throw to thrust to tread to underlie to understand to upset to wake

slid slung slit smelt (smelled) smote sowed spoke sped spelt (spelled) spent spilt spun spat split spoilt spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank struck strung strove swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought threw thrust trod underlay understood upset woke

slid slung slit smelt (smelled) smitten sown spoken sped spelt (spelled) spent spilt spun spat split spoilt spread sprung stodd stolen stuck stung stunk struck strung striven sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown thrust trodden underlain understood upset woken

a aluneca a azvarli a crapa, a despica a mirosi a lovi a semana a vorbi a accelera, a goni a pronunta litera cu litera a petrece, a cheltui a varsa a toarce, a se roti a scuipa a despica a strica a itinde a sari, a tasni a sta i picioare a fura a ifige, a se lipi a itepa a mirosi urat a lovi a isira, a icorda a se stradui a jura a matura a inota a se legana a lua a ivata, a preda a rupe, a sfasia a spune a gandi, a crede a arunca a mbranci a calca a sustine a itelge a supara a se trezi

to wear to weave to wet to win to wind to wring to write

wore wove wet won wound wrung wrote

worn woven wet won wound wrung written

a purta a tese a uda a castiga a se rasuci a frange, a smulge a scrie

19. VERBE CU PREPOZIII

To accuse of-a acuza de To agree with-a fi de acord cu To agree on-a fi de acord asupra To apologize for-a.i cere iertare pentru To approve of something-a aproba ceva To arrive at-a ajunge la To ask for something-a cere ceva To be accustomed to something-a fi familiar cu ceva To be acquainted with-a cunoate,a fi obinuit cu To be afreid of something-a se teme de ceva To be afreid of somebody-a se teme de cineva To be angry with somebody-a fi suprat pe cineva To be anxious about something-a fi ngrijorat de ceva To be astonished at-a fi uimit(uluit) de To be aware of a-i da seama de,a fi contient de To be characteristic of-a fi caracteristic pentru To be close to-a fi aproape de,a fi alturi de To be confident of-a fi ncreztor n To be crauy about-a fi nebun dup To be cruel to-a fi crud cu,a fi ru fa de,a fi crud fa de To be dependent on / upon-a fi dependent de To be deprived(dipraiv) of-a fi lipsit de,a fi deposedat de To be different(difrent)from-a fi diferit de To be fond of-a fi legat de To be good at-a fi bun la,a se pricepe la To be good(kind)to-a fi amabil cu To be grateful to-a fi recunosctor fa de To be indignant at-a fi indignat de To be of opinia on that-a fi de prere c To be bent on /upon-a fi hotrt s To be on the move-a fi n micare To be impressed by-a fi impresionat de

To be independent of-a fi independent de To be indifferent to-a fi indiferent fa de To be intent on-a fi absolvit de To be interested in-a fi interesat de Tu be jealous of-a fi gelos pe To be patient with-a fi rbdtor cu To be polite to-a fi politicos(civilizat)cu To be preoccupied by-a fi preocupat de To be proud of-a fi mndru() de To be satisfied with-a fi mulumit cu(de) To be sated with-a fi stul(dezgustat)de To be seized with-a fi prins de To be similar to-a fi asmntor cu To be sorry for-a-I prea ru pentru,a-i cere scuze To be superior to-a fi superior To be surprised at-a fi surprins de To be typical of-a fi caracteristic pentru To beg for-a ceri,a implora To begin by-a ncepe prin To belong to-a aparine To beware of-a se feri de,a se pzi To boast of-a se luda cu,a se fli cu To borrow from-a mprumuta de la To call for-a cere,a necesita To call on somebody-a vizita pe cineva To call at a place-a trece printr-un loc To care for-a ine la,a-I plcea To compare with(to)-a compara cu To complain of-a se plnge(vita)de To conceal from-a se ascunde de To congratulate on-a felicita pentru To contribute to-a contribui la To count /rely on upon-a se bizui /baza pe To cure of-a vindeca de To deal with-a se ocupa de (cu) To defend from-a apra de To depend on(upond)-a depinde de To die of-a muri de To differ from-a diferi de To do withaut-a face fr,a se lipsi de To doubt of a se ndoi de To embark on a participa la,a o porni ntr-o direcie To escape from-a scpa de To feedon-a hrni cu To fill with-a umple cu To forgivefor-a ierta pentru To glanceat-a arunca o privire la To go to-a merge la,a se duce la

To go in for-a se prezenta la To hope for-a spera la To indulge in-a se deda la,a se complace n,a ndemna s To insist on-a insista asupra To interfere in a interveni(amesteca) n To intrudeon-a deranja,atulbura To knock at-a bate la To laugh at-a rde de To laughwith joy-a rde de bucurie To leavefor-a pleca la To lend to somebody-a da mprumut cuiva To live on-a tri din,a tri cu To long for-a tnji dup To look at-a privi la To look after-a avea grij de,a ngriji de To look for-a cuta To look into-a examina To look like-a semna cu To look on-a considera To look to-a se ngriji de To meet with-a ntmpina To mistake for-a confunda cu,a lua drept To move fromto-a se muta din.la. To object to-a obiecta asupra(mpotriva) To part with-a se despri de To participate in-a participa la To pass for-a trece drept To peep at-a privi pe furi la To pine for-a tnji dup To play at-a se juca de-a To prevent from-a mpiedica s,a opri s To profit by something-a profita de ceva To protect from-a proteja de,a apra de To provide with-a nzestra cu To pull at-a trage la To put in practice-a pune n practic To recover from a-i reveni dup,a se face bine dup To refer to-a se referi la To refrain from-a se abine de la To remind somebody of something-a aminti cuiva de ceva To resort to somebody-a se adresa cuiva,a apela la cineva To retire from-a se retrage din To reproach somebody of something-a reproa cuiva ceva To rush at something-a se repezi la ceva To see to-a se ngriji de,a se ocupa de To send for-a trimite dup To separate from-a separa de To smell of-a mirosi a

To stand for a reprezenta,a lua aprarea To stare at-a se uita fix la,a privi fix la To start for-a porni ctre(spre) To substract from-a scdea din To succeed in in-a reui s To supply with-a aproviziona cu To take into account-a lua n seam To take into consideration-a lua n consideraie To taste of-a avea gust de To tell from-a deosebi de To think about(of)-a se gndi la To transform(change) into-a transforma(schimba)n To threaten with-a amenina cu To translate frominto-a traduce din n To wait for somebody-a atepta pe cineva To worry about a-i face griji n privina

20. ZILELE SAPTAMANII , LUNILE SI ANOTIMPURILE 1. Zilele saptamanii (Days of the week) Zilele saptamanii (Days of the week) in limba engleza se scriu ntotdeauna cu liter mare (sunt substantive proprii n limba englez). Enumerarea zilelor sptmnii, calendarele, etc. ncep cu duminic (Sunday). Sunday - duminica Monday - luni Tuesday - marti Wednesday - miercuri Thursday - joi Friday - vineri Saturday - sambata

- Exemple cu propozitii: Every Sunday she goes to church. - In fiecare duminica ea merge la biserica. We have English classes on Tuesday and on Thursday. - Avem ore de englez martea si joia. On Friday I visit my parents. - Vinerea imi vizitez parintii. 2. Lunile anului (Months of the year) Ca si zilele saptamanii, lunile anului (Months of the year) in limba engleza se scriu ntotdeauna cu liter mare (sunt substantive proprii n limba englez). January - ianuarie February - februarie March - martie April - aprilie May - mai June - iunie July - iulie August - august September - septembrie October - octombrie November - noiembrie December - decembrie - Exemple cu propozitii: May is a wonderful month. - Mai este o luna minunata. His birthday is in October. - Ziua lui de nastere este in octombrie. On July I go to the mountain. - In iulie merg la munte. 3. Anotimpuri (Seasons) Anotimpurile (The seasons) in limba engleza sunt urmatoarele: spring - primavara summer - vara autumn - toamna winter - iarna - Exemple cu propozitii: The spring months are March, April and May - Lunile de primvar sunt martie, aprilie si mai. I like all seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. - Imi plac toate anotimpurile: primavara, vara, toamna si iarna.

21. EXPRIMAREA DATEI SI OREI 1. Exprimarea datei In limba engleza data se exprima folosind numeralul ordinal. Cand exprimam data completa cu ziua, prepozitia este ON ; daca exprimam data doar cu luna sau anul prepozitia este IN. La exprimarea datei se foloseste numeralul ordinal, acesta poate fi asezat inaintea sau dupa numele lunii. Daca numeralul ordinal precede denumirea lunii, acesta este urmat de "of". Ex.: I was born on the 7th of July 1996. - M-am nascut pe 7 Iulie 1976. Daca numeralul ordinal este asezat dupa denumirea lunii, "of" este omis. Ex.: I was born on April (the) 7th. - M-am nascut pe 7 Iulie. n engleza americana ordinea obisnuita este luna, ziua, anul.

Ex.: 05.02.1981 - May the 2nd 1981. In engleza britanica ordinea este ziua, luna, anul. Ex.: 15.05.1981 - 15th of May 1981. - Anii se citesc cu ajutorul miilor sau a sutelor (stil oficial), ori a zecilor (in limba vorbita). De exemplu, 1996 se poate citi: 1. one thousand nine hundread and ninety-six (o mie noua sute nouaazeci si sase) sau 2. nineteen hundread and ninety-six (nouasprezece sute nouazeci si sase) ori 3. nineteen ninety-six (nouasprezece nouazeci si sase) Anul 2000 se citeste "two thousand". Atentie Cifra zero se poate citi : zero, oh, nil, nothing sau love. zero - n matematic si indicarea temperaturii oh - la numerele de telefon nil si nothing - pentru exprimarea scorului la fotbal love - n tenis Exemple: It is four degrees below zero. = Sunt minus patru grade. Dial 6070... = Formeaz six-oh-seven-oh... Leeds United won 4-0 (four nil sau four to nothing). = Leeds a cstigat cu 4:0. Nastase leads by 30:0 (thirty-love). = Nastase conduce cu 30:0. 2. Exprimarea orei (timpului cronologic) In exprimarea timpului cronologic se foloseste forma "o'clock", iar propozitia incepe de obicei cu pronumele "It". It is ten o'clock. = E ora zece. It is five o 'clock sharp. = Este cinci fix. - O'clock se foloseste numai cu ora fixa. - Jumtatea de or se exprim prin "half", iar sfertul de or prin "(a) quarter". - Pentru a indica fractiunile de ore pna la "si jumatate" se mentioneaza numarul minutelor urmat de prepozitia "past" si de ora respectiva. Ex.: It is ten (minutes) past nine. = Este (ora) 9 si 10 (minute). - Fractiunile ntre jumatate si ora urmatoare se redau n limba engleza spunnnd numarul minutelor, prepozitia "to" si apoi ora. Ex.: It is twenty (minutes) to six. = Este sase fara 20 (de minute). - n engleza americana se folosesc si prepozitiile "after" si "before" n loc de "past" si "to". 8:10 - It is ten (minutes) after 8. 8:40 - It is twenty (minutes) before 9. - In engleza americana, pentru jumatate de ora se foloseste expresia cu "thirty" dupa ora. Ex.: 8:30 - It's eight thirty. Se practic exprimarea orei si n felul urmtor: Ex.: 2:15 two fifteen (doi si un sfert) Alte exemple: It is ten (minutes) past eight. = Este opt si zece. It is a quarter past nine. = Este nou si un sfert. It is half past nine. = Este nou si jumtate. It is twenty (minutes) to ten. = Este zece fr douzeci. It is quarter to ten. = Este zece fr un sfert.

22. FALSE FRIENDS Sunt numite false friends acele traduceri greite de cuvinte i expresii din dou limbi diferite, care se datoreaz asemnrii fonetice. Acestea pot reprezenta o dificultate pentru cei ce nva o limb strin, n special una legat de limba matern, pentru c elevii tind s identifice greit cuvintele, din cauza interferenei lingvistice. Pentru c false friends sunt o problem des ntlnit pentru cei ce nva o limb strin, profesorii scriu adeseori liste de false friends pentru a veni n ajutorul elevilor. n limba englez Actual Actually adept advertisement apology arm ballot ban box bucket camera car character chef commercial curve cutie crime deposit editor engaged eventually excited fabric far feud fund gymnasium infatuation lack library magazine mare nervous novel Traducere greit n limba romn actual actual adept avertisement apologie arm balot ban box buchet camer (de apartament) car caracter chef comercial curve cutie crim depozit editor angajat eventual excitat fabric far feud fund gimnaziu infatuare lac librrie magazine mare nervos nuvel Traducere corect n limba romn real, adevrat de fapt expert reclam, anun publicitar scuz bra vot interdicie cutie gleat camer (de fotografiat) main personaj buctar ef reclam curb drguic infraciune avans redactor logodit n cele din urm agitat, emoionat stof, estur departe glceav fond sal de gimnastic pasiune, dragoste nebun, zpcire lips bibliotec revist iap emoionat roman

ordinary plane pregnant prize preservative process prospect scholar sensible sever slut stamina sympathetic

ordinar plan pregnant prize prezervativ proces prospect colar sensibil sever slut stamin simpatic

obinuit, uzual avion gravid premiu conservant procedur perspectiv crturar rezonabil, raional a despri, a despica curv rezisten, vitalitate milos

23. UNITATI DE MASURA (MEASURES) 1 inch (in.) = 2,54 cm = 1/36 yard = 1/12 foot 12 inches = 1 foot = 30,48 cm = 0,3048 m 3 feet (ft.) = 1 yard = 91 cm = 0,91 m = 1 yd 1 mile = 1,760 yards = 1609,35 m 1 mile = 80 chains 1 link = 7.92 inches = 20,1168 cm 1 chain = 100 links = 20,1168 m 1 furlong= 10 chains = 200,11 m 1 rod = 5,029 m 1 league = 3 miles 1 fanthom= 6 feet = 1,82 m 1 cable = 608 feet = 185,31 m 1 sea mile = 6,080 feet = 1851,85 m 24. SEMNELE MATEMATICE a. Semnele matematice + plus = and = plus Empty set = miltime vida - minus = minus Pi pai = 3.14 multiplied = inmultit Angle = unghi : dedided by = impartit la = minute = minut = second = secunda = equal to = agal cu Log = logarithm = logarithm

< less than = mai mic decat > more than = mai mare decat Triangle = triunghi Less than or equal to = mai mic sau egal cu Infinity = inifinit More than or qual to = mai mare sau egal cu Square root = radacina patrata || = parallel to = parallel cu Perpendicular to = perpendicular pe % = percentage sign = la suta (procent) 5% = five per cent = cinci la suta 5.5% = five point five per cent = cinci virgule cinci la suta b. operatiuni aritmetice 2+2=4 two plus/and two makes/equals/is/are four = doi plus doi fac patru 10-2=8 ten minus two makes/equals eight 55=25 five times five makes/is twenty-five 43=12 four threes are twelve = three fours are twelve 25:5=5 five into twenty makes/equals five = twenty-five divided by five is five