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TRANSFORMING VERBS AND ADJECTIVES INTO NOUNS

VERBS are ACTIONS

ADJECTIVES DESCRIBE NOUNS

SUFFIX is an ADDITION that makes a VERB or ADJECTIVE change from it’s actual function to another one.

Suffix added to a verb (V), noun (N) or adjective (A) !

Suffix added to a verb (V), noun (N) or adjective (A) ! VERBS noun Suffi Meaning

VERBS

noun

Suffi

Meaning

Examples

x

-tion

action/instance

alteration, demonstration expansion, inclusion, admission

-sion

of V-ing

-er

person who V-s something used for V-ing

advertiser, driver computer, silencer

-ment

action/instance

development, punishment, unemployment

of V-ing

-ant

person who V-s

assistant, consultant student

-ent

-age

action/result of

breakage, wastage, package

V

-al

action/result of

denial, proposal, refusal, dismissal

V

-ence

action/result of

preference, dependence, interference

-ance

V

attendance, acceptance, endurance

-ery/-

action/instance

bribery, robbery, misery refinery, bakery

ry

of V-ing place of V-ing

- Anahuac admits students for a fee.

The admission fee is 100 dls a month

- Coca Cola advertises their products in commercials

Coca Cola’s advertiser strategy is to promote their products in commercials

- People used to punish robbers by hanging them.

The punishment for robbing was the hanging

- We all study to be better people

Students work to be better people

- We packed lots of clothing for our trip

The package has lots of items for our trip

- The young man was dismissed for his indiscretion

Indiscretion requires dismissal.

- I like when people prefer us because of our products

People’s preference is very satisfying.

- My mom baked 3 cakes

My mom’s bakery made 3 cakes

ADJECTIVES

Suffi

Meaning

Examples

x

-ity

state or quality of being A

ability, similarity, responsibility, curiosity

-ness

state or quality of being A

darkness, preparedness, consciousness

-cy

state or quality of being A

urgency, efficiency, frequency

-ence

state or quality of being A

importance, independence, obedience

-ance

- Octavio’s students are very responsible!

It is the student’s responsibility to deliver homework on time

- The dark room scared me a lot

I hate darkness because it scares me too much

- People is very efficient when they speak another language

Speaking another language shows efficiency

- Mexico is an independent country

Mexico’s independence happened in the 1800s

Word formation

Formal written English uses nouns more than verbs. For example, judgement rather than judge, development rather than develop, admiration rather than admire.

- There appeared to be evidence of differential treatment of children.

- This is reflected in our admiration for people who have made something of their

lives, sometimes against great odds, and in our somewhat disappointed judgment of those who merely drift through life.

- All airfields in the country would be nationalised, and the government would

continue with the development of new aircraft as recommended by the Brabazon Committee.

Associated with nominalisation is the occurrence of prepositional phrases, introduced by of:

judgment of those

treatment of children

development of new aircraft

-tion is the most common suffix used in this way. For example: alteration, resignation.

However others are: -ity ability, similarity, complexity; -ness blindness, darkness, preparedness; -ment development, encouragement; -ship friendship; -age mileage; -ery robbery, bribery; -al arrival; -ance assistance, resemblance

http://www.uefap.com/vocab/build/building.htm