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“In the name

of ALLAH,
The Most
Beneficent
and
The Most
Merciful”
Subject:

“Ferrous
Metallurgy”
 Topic:

“Blast Furnace
Exhaust Gas
Cleaning”
Objectives:

“The removal of certain


elements (impurities)
present in the Blast furnace
exhaust gas and to prevent
plugging and damaging of
the checkers or burners and
keep dust away to be
exposed in combustion 4
Reason;

“If not removed these


impurities would cause
problems while burning
in boiler-house or
burning in blast furnace
stoves”.
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General description:

As, the blast furnace gas leaves the


top of the furnace, it contains dust
particles varying in size from about
6mm(about ¼ inch) to only a few
microns(1 micron equals 0.001mm
or about 0.00004 inch). The dust is
carried out of the top of the blast
furnace in the gas stream is
generally referred to as flue dust,
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Continued,….

(flue dust) it normally contains dust


particles along with fine particles of
coke, burden material and chemical
compounds that are formed in the
blast furnace reactions. Sometimes
there may be large lumps of coke,
when the burden slips in the blast
furnace operation.
7
????

Q. How to clean the Blast Furnace


Gas?
Ans. Using,
Blast Furnace Gas
Cleaning plant;
8
Gas Cleaning
Plant

Primary Secondary
Gas Cleaning Gas Cleaning

9
Blast Furnace

A Gas Cleaning Plant

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Next Member
Primary Gas Cleaning
Primary Gas Cleaning consists of
Dustcatchers, Cyclones or a
combination of both systems(choice of
equipment depends upon demand).
However, where is a need to remove
higher percentages of dust and reduce
the water treatment requirements, the
dustcatcher has been replaced by a
cyclone.
Previously blast furnace gas cleaning
systems consisted of a gravity 12
a dustcatcher 13
In this stage ,the blast furnace gas is
usually passed through a dustcatcher,
where almost all of the particles coarser
than 0.8mm (0.03 inch) are removed. The
dustcatcher is a large, cylindrical structure
and 20 to 30 meters(about 33 to 39 feet)
in diameter and 20 to 30 meters (about 66
to 98 feet) high. It is usually lined with
brick or gunite to insulate it and prevent
condensation of moisture in the gas so
that the dust will remain relatively dry and
will not ball up but will flow freely into the
conically shaped section at the bottom of
the dustcatcher. 14
The gas is conducted to the dustcatchers
by a single downcomer and enters
through the top by a vertical pipe that
carries the gas downward inside the
dustcatcher. These pipes flares outward
at its lower extremity like an inverted
funnel, so that as the gas passes
downward its velocity (and thus its dust
carrying potential) decreases, and most
of the dust coarses than 0.8mm(0.03
inch) drops out of the gas stream and is
deposited in the cone at the bottom of
the dustcatcher, because the bottom of
the dustcatcher is closed, and the gas
outlet is near the top, the direction of the
travel of the gas must reverse 180
degrees. This sudden reversal in the
direction of flow causes more of the dust 15
The dust that accumulates in the
dustcatcher is generally removed through
a pug mill attached to the bottom cone
below shut-off valve. Water is added to the
dust as it passes through the pug mill to
moisten it and prevent it from blowing into
the atmosphere as it is discharged. Each
Blast Furnace has set schedule of
emptying dustcatcher.
Care is taken to assure that massive
amounts of gas are not discharged with
the dust.
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Next Member
Secondary Gas Cleaning
After the gas has passed through the dry
dustcatcher, It generally goes to a wet-
cleaning system where the very fine
particles of dust are literally scrubbed out
of the gas with water. In modern Blast
Furnace plants high-energy high efficiency
scrubbers are used that clean the gas to a
dust content less than 12-15 grams per
cubic meter (0.005 grain per standard
cubic feet), in one operation.
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Conditioning Tower with Single
Cone Scrubber
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Conditioning Tower with Triple
Cone Scrubber
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Primary Cyclone with Conditioning
Tower
and Triple Cone Scrubber 21
Process

Now-a-days, Siemens VAI gas


scrubber has been developed with
the option of one or three annular
scrubbing units.
The scrubber completes the gas
cleaning process to a guaranteed
dust content of less than 5 mg/Nm3,
whilst controlling the furnace
pressure to within 1.5% of its set
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References:
 “The Making, Shaping and Treating of
steel” By
“Harold E. Mcganon” (Page # 561-
565)

 www.siemens-vai.com\blast furnace
technology
The End
Prepared & Presented by:

1. Asad Kaleemullah (MME-07-09)


2. Zahid Nazir (MME-07-16)
3. Muhammad Usman Asghar (MME-
07-17)