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GiRvAGRaC GU. DIES g@® Frame Construction DETAILS FOR BUILDERS AND DESIGNERS ROB THALLON COMPLETELY REVISED AND UPDATED The Taunton Press NT CONTE! Introduction ix 1 FOUNDATIONS 1 4 ROOFS 127 Footings 3 Framing 129 Foundation Walls 7 Sheathing 162 Pier & Grade-Beam Systems 13 Flashing 167 Basement Walls 14 Roofing 177 Retaining Walls 17 Gutters & Downspouts 193 Drainage & Waterproofing 18 Insulation & Ventilation 197 ‘Wall Caps. 19 Slabs 20 Utilities 25 5 SIDES 207 2) Framing 21 FLOORS 27 Treads & Risers 216 Balustrades 218 Beams 29 Handrails 221 Joist Systems 32 Exterior Stairs 222 Girder Systems 46 Exterior Steps 223 Subflooring 48 Porches & Decks 52 Insulation 61 Legend a 226 List of Abbreviations 227 Resources 228 3 WALLS 65 Glossary 230 Index 236 Framing 67 Lateral Bracing 7 Sheathing 78 Shear Walls 82 Moisture & Air Barriers 88 Windows 90 Doors 96 Flashing 103 Exterior Finishes 107 Insulation’ 120 INTRODUCTION Light wood-frame construction originated in this country over 150 years ago and quickly evolved into the predominant construction system for houses and other small-scale build- ings. Today, over 90% of all new buildings in North America are made using some version of this method. Remodeling projects follow the same track. There are many reasons why this system has been the choice of professional and amateur builders alike over the years. A principal rea- son is its flexibility. Because the modules are small, virtually any shape or style of building can be built easily with the studs, joists, and rafters that are the primary components of wood-frame construction. In addition, the pieces are easily handled, the material is readily available, and the skills and tools required for assembly are easily acquired. Given the popularity of the system, it was sur- prising to find that, as recently as nine years ago, before the first edition of this book was published, no detailed reference book existed. Now nearly 100,000 copies of Graphic Guide to Frame Construction have found their way into the libraries of architects, contractors, owner- builders, and students—filling the void that previously existed, Itis gratifying to know that, so many people interested in designing and constructing quality wood-frame buildings have found the book to be a useful reference. This second edition has been developed to keep pace with the changes in the building industry in the past nine years and to expand the information presented in the first edition. The most obvious changes in the building industry have to do with the materials used construct buildings. Sheathing, which used to be predominantly plywood, is now usually oriented strand board (OSB). Wood I-joists, which were relatively rare nine years ago, are now common. Vinyl windows, which were just being introduced, are now the standard. These and other, smaller changes are reflected in the drawings and descriptions of this new edition. In addition, I have expanded the book to indlude more information about resisting lat- eral forces such as earthquakes and hutti- canes, and about energy conservation tech- niques that exceed code minimums. ‘The inclusion of both of these areas reflects the intention of the original edition to assist people to design and build for durability and resource efficiency. The new sections on lat- eral forces include several pages on shear walls, diaphragms, and high-wind roofs. The new sections on energy conservation include advanced framing, upgtaded wall insulation, and upgraded ceiling insulation.