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Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies Universiti Teknologi MARA

DIPLOMA IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (AM110) PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (PAD 190) QUESTION 2: a) Define neutral and representative types of bureaucracy. b) With relevant examples, give characteristics and limitations of Webers Model of bureaucracy. AM110 2C MADE BY: NURUL `IZZAH BINTI RAMLI SITI NADHIRAH BINTI MOHAMMAD HATTA NURUL SHAHIDAH BT JASNI AZWIN BINTI KHALID 2011819976 2011227688 2011620792 2011257738

PREPARED FOR: CIK JENIWATY BT MOHD JODY


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1.0 INTRODUCTION The word bureaucracy usually gives a negative meaning in our life. When we spoke of bureaucracy, automatically we would imagine things like red-tape, filled form with too much information and too details, small problems become complicated because of the rule to be abided and others. Even though we normally equalized bureaucracy with inefficiency, but the truth is it represents efficiency, that means, the merits are more than demerits. Bureaucracy also can be regard as an effective way created in order to run a big organization. The bigger and complicated a formal organization, the greater requirement needed to control and synchronize every members activities. The necessities can be fulfilled by bureaucracy, which is an authority structure operated under a rule and procedures. Max Weber defines organization as a social mechanism that maximizes efficiency and effectiveness in administration. That means, their managed their organization based on personal interest. Bureaucracy is regarded as political in the sense of an institution or social stratum which exercises autonomous political power. The theories of the state which are considered all focus on the political power of the bureaucracy to different degrees, the most extreme statement being that the bureaucracy has emerged as a new type of ruling class. In this context bureaucracy is viewed as a political phenomenon in that it is seen inimical to certain basic political values. Based on this concept, the employees more loyal to the individual compare to our mission. There are two type of bureaucracy such as representative bureaucracy and neutral bureaucracy. The bureaucracy must be based on rules and regulation, comprehensive to guide the company. The bureaucracy shows us how the delegation of power run the organization, based on the bureaucracy concept, the lower manager must followed the top manager same with the main idea of delegation of power.

2.0 DEFINITION OF BUREAUCRACY In public administration, bureaucracy is an organization of non-elected official who will implement the rules, law, and function of their organization. In other words, it is a specific form of social organization involve in administrative efforts. It is also the only tools available to any modern government to administer. Bureaucracy also can be regard as an effective way created in order to move a big organization. Max Weber, the German social scientist who was the first to make a systematic study of bureaucracy, describes it as a social mechanism that maximizes the efficiencies and effectiveness in administration. It is describe as a social mechanism because of its nature that needs the public administrators to work with the citizens or public based on the government policies. For maximizes the efficiencies and effectiveness

3.0 NEUTRAL BUREAUCRACY Neutral in this context means do not support either group in dispute. Neutral bureaucracy is a bureaucracy that neutral in term of politics. They only perform their task in order to implement policy without involving in politics. The public officers are choose based on their qualification and skills unlike the representative bureacracy. After they are choose, they will be place in a department that suits with their qualification.

In United States, there are laws likes Civil Service Act 1983 and Hatch Act 1939 and 140 generated to maintain neutral bureaucrcy so that political activities among public officer are controlled and supervise. In our country, there are rules that prevent our government officers from participate actively in politics or become member in any political parties. For example, there is a rule in Public Instruction that forbids them from participating in politics. They have to resign if they want to join politic.

4.0 REPRESENTATIVE BUREAUCRACY In the type of bureaucracy, there are two types of bureaucracy which is the representative bureaucracy and the neutral bureaucracy. Both bureaucracies have their own distinguish specific features in serving the society. In the representative bureaucracy, the public administrator acts as a representative of the citizen and not and not as a neutral public officers. Representative bureaucracy is based on believe that the ratio of every minority groups in every occupation in government agency need to be equal as the percentage of the group population in the state. For example, if the percentage of population in Malaysia is 70% Malays, 15% Chinese, 10% Indians and 5% for other races, the member of every public administration must be chosen according to the percentage of the group population that have been stated. It is based on the social justice concept which the public administrators are to represent the composition of race, ethnic and gender in the country so that the public policies can be conducted. This is also based on principle that bureaucracy exists to provide public services and also to offer vacancy and economic development to the citizens. In representative bureaucracy, the public position is viewed as a right that should be divided among every group of people in the community. In 1948, Dwight Waldos discipline-changing argument that there was no dichotomy between politics and administration implied that civil servants are political creatures. As one modern-day author, Jresat (2002) wrote: If bureaucracy were always neutral in its values, always obeyed elected superiors, and always limited its activities to the enforcement of public laws and rules, then most controversies surrounding bureaucracy would melt away (p.37).

This separation from the earlier public administration believes made it possible for public administration scholars to consider that the socio-political appearance of civil servants also mattered. In other words, bureaucracies, their civil services and the civil servants themselves are not apolitical machines. Civil servants perform inseparable political tasks and discretion is used in the performance of the tasks. The idea behind representative bureaucracy research in America was two-fold. If we encourage representative bureaucracy, the policies that bureaucrat help design and then later implement will better reflect the citizenry they serve. And second, that it we wish to better understand the discretionary outputs of civil servants, we should study the socio-political and socioeconomic characteristics of those who filled the civil servant shoes. The search for representation of various form of interests within public organizations are driven largely by the belief that bureaucracy will serve democratic principles better if it reflects the demographic characteristics of citizens (Rourke 1978). Representation of diverse groups, in other words, helps to ensure pluralism in the implementation of public policies and programs (Denhardt and deLeon 1995).

5.0 CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY The bureaucracy is a formal structure of a group of people to achieve common goals. The bureaucracy is a division of work based on their own function. In that case, the number of specialist will increase because they use the delegation of power to increase their quality to serve the public. The characteristics which will make an organization more or less bureaucratic are firstly that a bureaucracy consists a number of offices with fixed official jurisdiction. Such a feature of organizations may take on considerable importance for governments concerned with improving efficiency, so that they demand greater bureaucracy. The characteristic makes the delegation of work run more effectively. Webers characteristic of a bureaucracy is so pure that for organization or associations would ever come close and to complete realization of all of them. Nonetheless, they stand as the list of the things which everyone agrees provides the highest degree of efficiency from among the choices for type of organizational structure (Denhardt 1998).

5.1Rules and Regulations The function of rules and regulation are comprehensive to guide the company. They make a decision based on the rules and regulation to avoid misuse power. The power of the laws can make a work effectively and efficient. For example, the top manager makes a law where subordinates who coming late will get a punishment, they must follow all the instructions stated. Other example is the punch card system. It has been more than a decade the punch card system is used in not only government agencies but also all other companies and organizations. As a result, the public bureaucrats so as the employees become more punctual than before. Furthermore, the organization is controlled through formal written rules. Usually all activities are controlled effectively by using abstract rules and regulations consistently. By using this method, it is easier for the higher levels to manage their subordinates consistently effective and efficient. The advantage of this trait is also to ensure uniformity, clear standards and provides a valuable sense continuously in the government agencies. For example, as police officers, they have to wear the smart attire which is their blue uniform when performing their duties. This is because this policy has been stated in the police department regulations.

5.2 Impersonality of Relationships

One of the most important characteristics of bureaucracy is the work or tasks performed are complied with the rules and regulations provided which are also applied to some cases without involving any personal issues and emotions. The bureaucrats are expected to behave formally and unemotionally. The power of officers depends on the Bureaucracy Law to ensure justice in bureaucracy. The justice implied such as formal equality treatment has been a major yardstick which bureaucratic behaviour in bureaucrats is judged. According to Max Weber, operations of the organizations are characterized by impersonal rules that explicitly state the duties, responsibilities, standardized procedures and conduct of officers. Officers are highly specialized. Appointments for the officers are made and finally chosen based on their specialized qualifications rather than ascribed criteria. All of these ideal characteristics have one goal which is to promote the efficiency in attaining the organization's goals. Based on this statement, any personal interest occurred among the bureaucrats are avoided and so as the biasness.

5.3 Division of Labour

The concept of separation of power is used. Specialization in technical field is part of power division or systematic duty. The tasks will be divided into many departments by its own function. The tasks are divided to make the job run effectively and efficiently. Bureaucracy is the system that practise clear division of labour in the administration. There is a specialisation in every work done. Each person has his or her own duties and functions to perform within specific limits. It produces effectiveness in the large scale of organization. Moreover, every department has their own expertise. So, all the subordinates in an organization no need to have the knowledge and skills of all the departments involved. For example, the workers who works in the finance department no need to know work sphere in the marketing department because the marketing department has appointed the best candidates to run the department.

Diagram 1.0 (Division of Labour)

5.4 Hierarchical Structure


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Every organization is originally formed to achieve their objectives. However, objectives cannot be attained without the coordinated efforts of a hierarchical structure. Vertically, each level controls the level below. This shows that the lower level get instructions and directions from the upper level which also means, each official is under the supervision of a higher official. This formal hierarchical structure is the basis of central planning and centralized decision making. The positive aspect of these criteria is it clarifies who is in command. Assume that it is a tree structure, CEO is the top of the tree, then there are XI10 regional managers under a regional manager, and then there are 7 area managers and under each area of managers there are 10 individuals. This concept shows a number of persons working together on a different task and controlled by a manager for each department. Below shows s a hierarchical concept by using a paragraph:-

Diagram 2.0 (Hierarchical Structure)

5.5 Authority Structure


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The authority to give the commands is required in bureaucracy. The duties are distributed in a stable way and are strictly delimited by rules concerning the coercive means which may be placed at the disposal of officials. Through the authority structure, the managers will be able to carry out managerial approach or responsibilities towards their subordinates easily, effectively and efficiently. Another distinguishing mark is that the typical bureaucratic official is in authority. Authority is exercised within the limits of the offices jurisdiction. Bureaucracy is thus characterized by what Weber called legal authority. The legitimacy of that authority rests on a belief in the legality of the impersonal rules which confer on the occupants of bureaucratic offices the right to issue commands within the scope of their offices jurisdiction. One organization must have one leader to conduct their subordinates to run the tasks given and this manager is also responsible to guide, monitor, and motivate their subordinates. The authority also can be used in solving a problem and as an agent to make sure their employees achieved a higher performance. For example, Hakeem as the head of accounting department also as a leader has the responsibility to lead, monitor and motivate his employees in order to ensure the work within the department runs smoothly. He also must make sure that his employees performances are at the standard level that is set by him.

5.6 Lifelong Career Commitment

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The main guarantee if we hold position in public administration is our career will last longer rather than in private agencies. The tenure of the civil servants in the public organizations is more stable than in private organizations. Normally, the public servants will be remained in the position they hold until the day they retired. Furthermore, they also may remain in the position as long as they want to contribute their services as public administrators to the organizations. They can decide what is best for them. For example, if an officer decided to quit their job in the private sector early before his or her retirement, nobody will object his or her decision. In a bureaucratic management system, employments in public sector are viewed as a lifelong career commitment. Traditionally, Asia organizations such as NEC, Samsung, and Toyota have hired key workers with an expectation by the parties that a permanent employment contract was being made. In general, lifelong career commitment means the job security is guaranteed as long as the employee is technically qualified and performs satisfactorily. Entrance requirement such as a level of education and experiences also based on qualification rather than connection. The organization used job security, tenure, step by step salary increase and pensions to ensure that employees satisfactorily perform the assigned duties. Recognition is granted when an employee demonstrates the competencies required to handle the demands of the next higher position. Managers in bureaucratic organization, such as the civil service, often rely on the result of written and physical test, amount of formal education and previous work experiences in hiring the employees and recognizing them decision making.

6.0 LIMITATIONS OF BUREAUCRACY

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Bureaucracy can be defined as a social organization which has specific features and structural levels for units in an organization. If bureaucracy have their own advantages, there are also disadvantage of bureaucracy. Max Weber describes certain types of bureaucracy in a positive manner, describing it as an efficient form of organization than many other ways of performing such organizational task. Weber: Political Writing, Max Weber (1994)

6.1 Employees Lost the Ability to Generate New Idea This happens because of bureaucracy follow on hierarchy. Where there are problems arise among lower officer and high position officer. In hierarchy, order is given by upper officer to the lower officer. The lower officer accepts the instruction without an opportunity to give their own opinion or ideas. Because they still dont have any authority to speak freely to the upper officer. The work is not challenging because, they are given the same task and they will feel bored as they are given the repeated work. It is routine and will only increase an officers skill at the same task which is done every day. Actually, it should be the bigger and complicated a formal organization, the greater requirement needed to control and synchronize every members activities. But, because of their employees dont have ability to generate a new idea, so the duties cannot be divided among them. Bureaucracy, James Wilson (1989)
For example, when worker A just started his work at Company ABC, the worker A given the task where he need to do proposal about financial on January. Then, he needs to continue the task by doing the proposal about the financial on the next month. After a year he working there, he is given the same task as last year by the manager. As he is given the same task, he doesnt have any ability to generate his new idea. If let say he has ability to generate a new idea, his idea only can generate in financial department. 3.4.2 Exploitation of Position and Power

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Bureaucracy will cause the exploitation of position exist. It is based on our respect and position among the other position officer. This condition is similar with the assumption generated by Bobbes that stated that human is addicted to power and this can create corruption and it is difficult to control it. There is also no sense of belonging; this is because of the lower officer can only receive orders. Furthermore, they are not given encouragement in duties and the opportunity to give their own ideas. Therefore, they are not dedicated in implementing their duties. That will also make the misunderstanding about position between officers an issue. If this problem happened, the employees could not cooperate each other.. Coup de Tat also or misuse of power also can happen when there are power and position exploitation so as biasness. Bias happens because of connections and relations between people. This usually happens to the people who have more authority in organization. The Max Weber Dictionary: Key Words and Central Concepts, Richard Swedberg (2005) For example, acceptance of students in universities based on their qualifications. Sometimes students find it hard to be accepted in universities although theyve scored good results. Concern parents always wanted the best for their children and therefore they would do anything for their children to be accepted in the quality universities. Inside people or cable refers to the people who works in universities and have the authority to approve students acceptance. Usually, the parents who are related to these people will ask for their help. This is called abuse of power because they make decision irrationally by accepting the students who are not actually qualified to enter the university. Also, it is unfair for the students who are more qualify to get into the university to be rejected.

6.3 Slow Decision Making Process

Decision making is inherently a risky process because decisions can prove wrong, unpopular or both. Slow decision making process happens because of the red tape occurred in
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bureaucracy. Red tape can be defined as the collection of forms and procedures that are tied with a red tape to earn bureaucratic approval. Since there are many forms to be filled up, information to be collected and special cases to be solved and approved by the superiors and all of these has to complete based on the rules and regulations stated, red tape happens. Red tape also means excessive regulation to formal rules that is considered bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making. Sometimes, the rules and the regulations provided are too ridiculous that process of completing a simple task would take ages. Although, rules are created as guidance for the workers to follow but they could also lead to unhealthy environment. Here, the subordinates will have to work under pressure because they do not have the right to make their own decision to fasten their work process. As a result, they are not dedicated in implementing their work. Max Weber and the Idea of Economic Sociology, Richard Swedberg (1989) For example, when a student wants to apply for a student loan such as PTPTN, the student needs to wait for a very long time for their loan to be approved because they have to follow the strict procedures of the process. This is because different officers have different functions. For instance, the first officer can only check the forms while the loan approval can only be approved by the second officer. Moreover, the students who apply the loan also need to print out the agreement before applying the loan. The agreement must be signed by the coordinator of their faculty.

6.4 Rigid Rules and Uncreative Bureaucracy consists of rigidly applying the rules of procedure promugulated by higher authorities. Rigid rule-following acts as a shield protecting employees from being blamed for

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mistakes by their superiors, and even from having to obey any orders that conflict with the book. This attitude of rigidity, plus delays involved in obtaining official rulings for unusual situations, creates the condition that has become stereotyped as the bureaucratic mentality and red tape. Here, when the employees are too depended on the procedures, rules and regulations in completing their tasks, they will not be able to make own decision especially in critical situations. Then, they could not think out of the box to solve ones problem also do not know how to fit in different environments because of their obligation to follow the rules and regulations provided and also have to depends on their superiors to handle the critical situations occurred in the organization. Inside Bureaucracy, Anthony Downs (1964) For example, as a lady begs to the officer for her loan to be approved after go through many procedures that are rejected many times, the officers go to see the top manager for his approval. If he has the sense of discretion, he could just approve the ladys loan.

6.4 Non Responsive Since all the work implemented must be strictly complied with the rules and regulations provided, to make a relevant decision freely in any sort of special cases is out of their league of power. This is because they cannot be tolerating with the processor or situation

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because the rules set are rigid. This always happen during giving services to the citizens. That is why it is a non responsive action. Furthermore, good personality is required among the bureaucrats. As public servants, they must give out their best service to the citizens in order to satisfy their needs. The Evolution of Bureaucracy, Daniel A. Wren (2004) For instance, the office hour at any work place is from 8am- 5pm. Hazeeq, as a public servant in an organization about to close the office when the clock strikes exactly at 5pm. Suddenly, an old woman, rushes to the office just to pay her bills as she begs to let her bills settle. However, Hazeeq refuses to do so and still close the office and go home. This situation shows that Hazeeq does not have the sense of discretion towards the old woman which it is not supposed to happen.

7.0 Conclusion Bureaucracy can be defined in many scopes and by many scholars such as Albert Einstein, Franz Kafka, Thomas Sowell, Dennis Prager, Max Weber, and other than that. There are two type of bureaucracy; they are representative and neutral bureaucracy. Other than that, there are also some characteristic and theory of Max Webers Bureaucracy.

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Max Weber, who was a German sociologist, proposed different characteristics found in effective bureaucracies that would effectively conduct decision-making, control resources, protect workers and accomplish organizational goals. Weber asked how a leader can give a command and have actions to be carried out. He answered the question by classifying claims to the "legitimacy" in the exercise of authority. His observations on bureaucracy were heavily influenced by his experiences in the United States. While travelling there, Weber was struck by the role of bureaucracy in a democratic society. The problem, as he saw it, was that modern democracy required bureaucratic structures of all kinds in the administration of government and even in the conduct of professional party politics. Handing over the reins to a class of unelected "experts," however, threatened to undermine the very basis of democracy itself. In particular, Weber stressed two problems: the unaccountability of unelected civil servants and the bureaucratic tendency toward inflexibility in the application of rules. But the theory of Max Webers Bureaucracy got some criticism. Such as his theory make the decision making be slow, exploitation of position and power, rigid rules and uncreative and others. Bureaucracy consists many advantages and disadvantages too. But, imagine the consequence of that comprehensive bureaucratization and rationalization which already today we see approaching. Bureaucracy actually is a social organization which has specific features and structural levels for units in an organization.

8.0 REFERENCES

Websites

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www.bustingbureaucracy.com www.reference.com www.cliffsnotes.com www.maxweberstudies.org www.criticism.com

Books H.H Albers, Principles of Management: A Modern Approach, 4th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1974) Donnelly, J.H., J.L. Gibson, and J.M Ivancevich Fundamentals of Management: Functions, Behaviors, Models, rev.ed. (Dallas: Business Publications, 1975) Shrode, W.A., and D. Voich, Jr., Organizations and Management: Basic Concepts (Homewood, I11.: Richard D. Irwin, 1974) Koontz, H., Appraising Managers as Managers (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971) Koontz, H., and C. ODonnell, Management: A Book of Readings (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968)

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