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Accidentul nuclear de la TOKAIMURA JAPONIA (30. 09.

. 1999) Accidentul s-a produs ca urmare a unei greeli de turnare a 16 kg uraniu U235 ( fa de cantitate normal de 2,4 kg) ntr-un recipient de sedimente de acid nitric. n urma acestei operaii s-a produs iradierea imediat grav a 3 operatori. Ulterior, s-a constat iradierea a nc 36 de angajai ai centrului i locuitori din apropierea acestuia imediat dup accident, pe amplasament s-au detectat debite de doz de 0, 84 mSv/h fat de 0,2 mSv/h fondul natural. A fost detectat, de asemenea, un flux de neutroni de 4 mSv/h care a indicat existena unei reacii nucleare. Aceast reacie a fost oprita n ziua de 01. 10. 1999 n jurul prnzului, prin utilizarea boratului de sodiu. Msurile luate de Guvern, dup 10 ore de la producerea accidentului, au cuprins: evacuarea locuitorilor pe o raz de 350 m faa de locul accidentului; recomandarea pentru populaia dispus pe o raz de 10 km de a izola locuinele i de a sta n interiorul acestora; restricii de consum pentru legume i fructe n vecintatea accidentului; nchiderea temporar a colilor pe o raz de 10 km. Conform ncadrrii realizate de Agenia pentru tiin i Tehnologie din Japonia, accidentul a fost de nivel 4 pe scara INES, fiind apreciat ca cel mai grav din istoria energeticii nucleare din Japonia. Tokaimura, Japonia- 30 septembrie 1999 Gravitatea accidentului: 4 Cel mai mare dezastru nuclear al Japoniei a avut loc lng Tokio. Un lot de uraniu mbogit a fost pregtit pentru un reactor care nu mai fusese folosit de trei ani. Muncitorii nu au fost instruii cum se lucreaz cu uraniul mbogit i au pus n rezervor o cantitate mai mare de combustibil dect trebuia. n plus, containerul nu era proiectat pentru acel tip de uraniu, susine Discovery.com. Reacia critic a fost oprit dup ce rezervorul a fost golit, ns doi din cei trei muncitori au murit din cauza radiaiilor. Mai puin de 100 muncitori i oameni care locuiau n preajma uzinei au fost internai n spital din cauza radiaiilor i aproximativ 160 persoane au fost evacuate din locuinele lor.

Tokaimura nuclear accident


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Coordinates: 362847.00N 1403313.24E / 36.47972N 140.5536778E

Location of the accident The Tokaimura nuclear accident (JCO Tkai-mura JCO-rinkai-jiko?, "Tkai Village JCO Criticality Accident"), which occurred on 30 September 1999,[1][2][3] resulted in two deaths.[4] At that time, it was Japan's worst civilian nuclear radiation accident. The criticality accident occurred in a uranium reprocessing facility operated by JCO (formerly Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co.), a subsidiary of Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. in the village of Tkai, Naka District, Ibaraki.[5] The accident occurred as three workers were preparing a small batch of fuel for the Jy experimental fast breeder reactor, using uranium enriched to 18.8% with the fissionable radionuclide (radioisotope) known as U-235 (with the remainder being the non-fissile U-238). It was JCO's first batch of fuel for that reactor in three years, and no proper qualification and training requirements appear to have been established to prepare those workers for the job. At around 10:35 a.m., a precipitation tank reached critical mass when its fill level, containing about 16 kg of uranium, reached about 40 litres.[5]

Contents
[hide]

1 Details of the accident 2 Evacuation 3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

[edit] Details of the accident


Criticality was reached upon the technicians adding a seventh bucket of uranium solution to the tank.[6] The nuclear fission chain reaction became self-sustaining and began to emit intense gamma and neutron radiation. The technicians, one of whom had his body draped over the tank, observed a blue flash of ionized air[7] and gamma-radiation alarms sounded.[8][9] The two technicians closest to the tank immediately experienced pain, nausea, difficulty breathing,

and other symptoms. The technician closest to the tank lost consciousness in the decontamination room a few minutes later and began to vomit.[10] There was no explosion, but fission products (fission fragments of U-235 with atomic masses typically around 95 and 137, such as yttrium-94 and barium-140) were progressively released inside the building. Being a wet process with an intended liquid result, the water promoted the chain reaction by serving as a neutron moderator, whereby neutrons emitted from fissioned nuclei are slowed so they are more readily absorbed by neighboring nuclei, inducing them to fission in turn. The exact critical mass for the 18.8% uranium mixture in the Tokaimura tank is not known. In the Joyo reactor, the minimum critical mass for the solid 18.8% uranium fuel is about 46 kg (101 lbs), but the critical mass is greatly reduced when the fuel is in solution.[11] The criticality continued intermittently for about 20 hours. As the solution boiled vigorously, steam bubbles attenuated the liquid water's action as a neutron moderator (see Void coefficient ) and the solution lost criticality. However, the reaction resumed as the solution cooled and the voids disappeared. The following morning, workers permanently stopped the reaction by draining water from a cooling jacket surrounding the precipitation tank since that water was serving as a neutron reflector. A boric acid solution (boron being a good neutron absorber) was then added to the tank to ensure that the contents remained subcritical. These operations exposed 27 workers to radioactivity.[5] The direct cause of the criticality accident was workers putting uranyl nitrate solution containing about 16 kg of uranium, which exceeded the critical mass, into a precipitation tank. The tank was not designed to hold this type of solution and was not configured to prevent criticality.

[edit] Evacuation
Five hours after the start of the criticality, evacuation commenced of some 161 people from 39 households within a 350 meter radius from the conversion building. Residents were allowed home two days later after sandbags and other shielding ensured no hazard from residual gamma radiation. Twelve hours after the start of the incident residents within 10 km were asked to stay indoors as a precautionary measure, and this restriction was lifted the following afternoon.[5]

[edit] Aftermath
Dozens of emergency workers and nearby residents were hospitalized and hundreds of thousands of others were forced to remain indoors for 24 hours.[12] At least 667 workers, emergency responders, and nearby residents were exposed to excess radiation as a result of the accident.[8] A dose of 50 millisieverts (mSv) is the maximum allowable annual dose for Japanese nuclear workers.[5] For context, 8000 mSv (800 rem) is normally a fatal dose and more than 10,000 mSv is almost invariably fatal. Normal background radiation amounts to an annual exposure of about 3 mSv.[8] There were 56 plant workers whose exposures ranged up to 23 mSv and a further 21 workers received elevated doses when draining the precipitation tank. Seven workers immediately outside the plant received doses estimated at 615 mSv (combined neutron and gamma effects).[13] The three operators' doses were far above

permissible limits at 3,000, 10,000, and 17,000 mSv; the two receiving the higher doses later died.[8] The most severely exposed worker had his body draped over the tank when it went critical. He suffered serious burns to most of his body, experienced severe damage to his internal organs, and had a near-zero white blood cell count.[8] The cause of the accident was said to be "human error and serious breaches of safety principles", according to the International Atomic Energy Agency.[5]

Seveso Seveso, Italia , FabricaFabricade pesticide ICMESA din


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Seveso Seveso, Italia , Zona afectat a fost mprmprit pe


baza nivelului it de contaminare al solului. Zona A cea mai contaminat cu o suprafasuprafa de 110 ha a fost complet evacuat i i transformat ntrntr-un parc (azi padureapadureade de stejari SevesoSeveso). ). Zonele B R consumarea produselor agricole, ca i a celor i animale, a fostanimale, fost prohibitprohibit.

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leziunileziunipepepielepielede tip de arsuraarsura, au , aparutaparutla la copiicopii, la , catevacatevaore ore dupadupaaccident.accident.736 de persoane au fost evacuate dintrdintr--o zon de 95 ha. AproximativAproximativ37.000 37.000 persoanepersoanese se credecredeca au ca fostfostexpuseexpuse.. aproximativaproximativ4% 4% dintredintreanimaleleanimalelede de la fermelefermeledin din vecinvecintatetateau murit, iar au cele care nu n jur de 80.000 n au fost sacrificate pentru a preveni contaminarea prin lancontaminarea lanul troficul trofic.. instalainstalaiile iile i solul din jurul fabricii au i fost ndeprtate ndeprtate i depozitate i ntrntr--o zon de depozitare special amenajat i asigurati asigurat.

Bhopal Bhopal, India ,


DeclanDeclanareaareaevenimentul ui:evenimentului:Luni 3 decembrie
1984, ora

00.3000.30Amplasamentul:Amplasam entul:O fabric de pesticide aparaparinnd innd UnionUnionCarbideCarbideSubstanSubsta na:a:41 t izocianatizocianatde metil eliberat de n atmosfern atmosferUrmriUrmri:: 35983598mormori;i; 100000100000intoxicaintoxicai;i; 200000200000evacuaevacuai.

Bhopal , India IzocianatulIzocianatulde metil (MIC)

depozitat de n rezervoare n subterane cu o capacitate de 15 m.cm.c. fiecare. . n ziua incidentului a existat o cren cretere a tere temperaturii ntrntr--unul dintre rezervoare pn n n jurul valorii de 38jurul 3800C (C apropiat de punctul de fierbere al izocianatuluiizocianatului). ). Presiunea crescut a depPresiunea depit valoarea de proiect it la care rezista rezervorul, cauznd o sprtur a unei valve de siguranunei siguran. . Aproximativ 41 de tone de izocianatizocianatdede metil au scpat printrscpat printr--o linie de ventilare nalt de nalt 33 m. DeDei instalai instalaia era prevzut cu un sistem de ia retenretenie a

vaporilor de MIC, ie scruberulscruberulcu hidroxid cu de sodiu desemnat pentru neutralizarea MIC nu era n funcn funciune la acea datiune dat. . Cnd n sfrn sfrit a fost pornit, acesta nu a putut it face faface fa volumului mult prea mare de izocianatizocianat. . Eliberarea de vapori a continuat timp de 90 de minute ntrntr-o atmosfer calmo calm, u, uscat scat i stabili stabil. Bhopal
3 Decembrie 1984 Bhopal, Mhadya Pradesh, India. In dimineata acestei zile, aici a avut loc cea ce este cunoscut drept Dezastrul Bhopal, cel mai mare accident industrial din istorie. Mari cantitati de apa au ajuns in mod accidental intrunul din rezervoarele fabricii de pesticide a companiei Union Carbide ( Dow Chemicals in prezent). Apa a interactionat cu cele 42 de tone de izocianat de metil, ducand la eliverarea in atmosfera a unei cantitati imense de gaze toxice. Dezastrul umanitar a fost facilitat si de o proprietate a gazului toxic,, care fiind mai greu decat aerul a invadat strazile orasului indian, afactand 500,000 de mii de oameni. Estimarile dezastrului sunt numeroase s, difera in functie de sursa. In primele ore ale diminetii, norul ucigas a ucis in jur de 4,000 de persoane, in perioada urmatoare numarul victimelor ajungand la 15,000. Greenpeace estimeaza numarul victimelor in urma dezastrului la inspaimantatoarea cifra de 20,000 persoane. La 25 de ani dupa dezastru, in fabrica dezafectata se afla, inca, sute de tone de substante chimice care polueaza, se afirma, apa freatica, afectand in mod tragic populatia locala

sursa imagini : The Big Picture

ndia: Mii de copii se nasc cu dizabilitati dupa accidentul industrial de la Bhopal


Mii de copii din centrul Indiei se nasc cu diverse dizabilitati, la 24 de ani de la dezastrul de la Bhopal, cel mai mare accident industrial din lume. La 3 decembrie 1984, eliberarea accidentala a 40 de tone de izocianat de la fabrica americana de pesticide Union Carbide a dus la moartea imediata a 8.000 de persoane, si a inca 12.000 de decese in anii urmatori, scrie Evenimentul Zilei. Datele medicale din Bhopal arata ca aproximativ 500.000 de persoane au fost expuse periculosului gaz. Chiar si acum, in fiecare zi o persoana moare din cauza efectelor dezastrului din 1984. Peste 120.000 continua sa sufere de pe urma efectelor, avand diverse boli: dificultati de respiratie, cancer, malformatii congenitale, orbire, complicatii ginecologice, diabet. Cu toate acestea nu se fac prea multe pentru locuitori acestui oras, fabrica fiind abandonata, cu tot cu periculoasele deseuri. Gigantul american de pesticide a fost dat din nou in judecata, iar acuzatorii spera sa ca justitia sa oblige Union Carbide sa curete zona si sa ofere despagubiri familiilor victimelor. mai mult