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coin based water controlling system |2011-2012

A Project report on COIN BASED WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM Submitted In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of B.TECH in Electrical & Electronics Engineering 1. 2. 3. N.SAI SRINIVAS YASASWI S.SRAVAN KUMAR G.SANTHOSH 08911A0285 08911A0296 09915A0208

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Prof. S.M. ZAFARULLAH (H.O.D, EEE)

Department Of Electrical & Electronics Engineering VIDYA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Affiliated to JNTU) AZIZNAGAR, C.B.POST, MOINABAD, HYDERABAD 500075

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Vidya Jyothi Institute of Technology Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad

DEPARTMENT OF ELETRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGENEERING

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Mini Project Work entitled COIN BASED WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM is a benefited work of N.SAI SRINIVAS YASASWI ,S.SRAVAN KUMAR, and G.SANTHOSH Bearing roll.nos

08911A0285 , 08911A0296 and 09915A0208 submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY to VIDYA in ELECTRICAL INSTITUTE AND OF

ELECTRONICS

ENGINEERING

JYOTHI

TECHNOLOGY affiliated to JNTU university, Hyderabad. The result embodied in this project has not been submitted to any other university or institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

Guide T.K SRINIVAS Associate professor, EEE Dept VJIT-HYD

Head of the Department Prof. S.M. ZAFARULLAH Professor and HOD ,EEE Dept VJIT-HYD

EXTERNAL EXAMINER
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are very much thankful to our Guide Sri T.K SRINIVAS Sir, Lecturer in Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department for his excellent guidance and deep encouragement in every step in to this project COIN BASED WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM successfully. We convey our special thankful to Sri Zafarullah sir, Head of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department for all those valuable hours they has spent with us in every possible aspect to make our project a success. We are thankful to Sri D.Srinivas, Sri Jyoshna and Sri Geshma , Lecturer in Electrical & electronics Engineering Department who inspired us by his enthusiastic advises from time to time and also responding for successful completion of our project. We are very happy to our sincere thanks to our Principal Sri venu gopal sir , for his valuable co-operation in the successful completion of his project. Finally I am grateful to all the staff members and lab demonstrators of EEE Dept. and those who are directly and indirectly helpful in completion of this project.

By:

STUDENTS OF THIS PROJECT COIN BASED WATER CONTROLLING SYSTEM VIDYA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. During the Academic Year 2011-2012.

ABSRACT
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coin based water controlling system |2011-2012

Here 12V 5A transformer step down the 230V to 12V this voltage feeded to a rectifier. Rectifier convert 12V ac to 12v dc source This pulse rated feed to filter Her filter convert pulsating dc to pure dc This output feed to regulator This regulator convert 12V dc to 5v dc This output connected to coin sensor circuit and 555 timer unit Timer output is driver to two relays water filling relay and discharge relay This two relays control the solenoid tap .This is low cost project can be used to controlling water or liquid by using coins. It is positioned to continue leading the industry with innovative, low cost, high performance for a growing number of applications.

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INDEX ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT i ii

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LIST OF FIGURES 1) INTRODUCTION 1.1 SOLENOID TAP 1.2 555 TIMER 1.3 DECADE COUNTER 2) COMPONENTS 3) POWER SUPPLY UNIT 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.3 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 3.4 RECTIFIER UNIT 3.5 FILTER UNIT 3.6 VOLTAGE REGULATOR 3.7 NOISE FILTER 3.8 SPECIFICATIONS 3.9 SCHEMATICS 4) RELAY 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 WORKING OF RELAY 5) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 5.1 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 5.2.2 ADVANTAGES 6) CONCLUSION 7) REFERENCE

iii 1-12 1 4 11 13 14-19 14 15 16 17 18 19 19 19 20-21 20 21 22-26 23 26 27 28

LIST OF FIGURES FIG NO DESCRIPTION PAGE NO


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1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.3.2 2.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.4 3.6 3.9 4.1 4.2 5.1 5.2 5.2.1

Solenoid tap Structure of solenoid tap Pin diagram of 555IC Functional block diagram of astable multivibrator Circuit diagram of astable multivibrator Output wave forms of astable multivibrator Pin diagram of decade counter Block diagram Block diagram of power supply system Transformers Step down transformer Bridge rectifier circuit Voltage regulator Schematics of regulator power supply Relay Circuit symbol for a relay Circuit diagram Circuit diagram of timer section Circuit diagram of amplifier section

1 2 5 6 10 10 11 12 13 14 14 16 18 19 20 21 22 24 25

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CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 SOLENOID TAP

1.1.1 Definition: A Solenoid is an electromechanical device which allows for an electrical device to control the flow of a gas or liquid. The electrical device causes a current to flow through a coil located on the solenoid valve. This current flow in turn results in a magnetic field which causes the displacement of a metal actuator.

Fig: 1.1.1 Solenoid taps

Solenoid valves come in various configurations and sizes. Solenoid valves can be normally open, normally closed, or a two way valve. A normally

open solenoid valve allows a liquid or gas to flow through unless a current is applied to the solenoid valve. A normally closed valve works in the opposite manner. A two way solenoid valve has three ports; one port is common, one is normally open and the third is normally closed.

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1.1.2 Working of solenoid:

The main working theory of solenoid valve is that there is a fully closed cabinet inside the solenoid valve with holes in different position. Each hole is connected with different hose, the valve is centered with two electric magnets aside, when the power is on, the valve will be pulled to that side though the movement of the valve, the hole which is connected to the hose will be closed / open, the oil inlet is always open, the hydraulic oil flows to different hoses and push the cylinder piston by its pressure, the piston drives the piston stem and then the equipment into movement. By this means, the mechanical movement can be controlled by controlling the electricity of solenoid valve.

Fig:1.1.2 structure of the solenoid tap 1.1.3 Types of solenoid taps: Many variations are possible on the basic, one way, and one solenoid valve described above:

one or two solenoid valves; direct current or alternating current powered; different number of ways and positions;

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1.1.4 Applications of solenoid taps: Solenoid valves are used in fluid power pneumatic and hydraulic systems, to control cylinders, fluid power motors or larger industrial valves. Automatic irrigation sprinkler systems also use solenoid valves with an automatic controller. Domestic washing machines and dishwashers use solenoid valves to control water entry to the machine. In the paintball industry, solenoid valves are usually referred to simply as "solenoids." They are commonly used to control a larger valve used to control the propellant (usually compressed air or CO2). Solenoid valves are used in dental chairs to control air flow. Besides controlling the flow of air and fluids solenoids are used in pharmacology experiments, especially for patch-clamp, which can control the application of agonist or antagonist.

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1.2 555 TIMER 1.2.1 INTRODUCTION: The 555 timer is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. It is widely used because of its ease to use, low price and reliability. It is one of the most popular and versatile integrated circuits which can be used to build lots of different circuits. The 555 Timer is a monolithic timing circuit that can produce accurate and highly stable time delays or oscillations. The timer basically operates in one of the two modes monostable (one-shot) multivibrator or as an astable (free-running) multivibrator. In the monostable mode, it can produce accurate time delays from microseconds to hours. In the astable mode, it can produce rectangular waves with a variable duty cycle. Frequently, the 555 is used in astable mode to generate a continuous series of pulses, but you can also use the 555 to make a one-shot or monostable circuit.. Applications of 555 timer in monostable m ode include timers, missing pulse detection, bounce free switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse width modulation (PWM) etc.

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1.2.2 Pin diagram of 555IC

Fig:1.2.2 pin diagram of 555 IC PIN 1: Ground PIN 2: Trigger PIN 3: Output PIN 4: Reset PIN 5: Control voltage PIN 6: Threshold PIN 7: Discharge PIN 8: +VCC

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1.2.3 Functional Block Diagram of 555 Timer

Fig 1.2.3: Functional block diagram of IC555 as Astable Multivibrator The pin connections of the 555 timer are as follows: Pin 1: Ground: All voltages are measured with respect to this terminal Pin 2: Trigger: The external trigger pulse is applied to this pin. The output of the timer is low if the voltage at this pin is greater than 2/3Vcc. If a negative going pulse of amplitude larger than 1/3Vcc is applied to this pin, the output of comparator 2 becomes

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low, which in turn makes the output of the timer high. The output remains high as long as the trigger terminal remains at low voltage. Pin 3: Output: There are two ways a load ca n be connected to the output terminal either between pin 3 and ground (pin 1) or between pin 3 and the supply voltage + Vcc (pin 8). When the output is low, the load current flows through the load connected between pin 3 and pin 8 into the output terminal and is called the sink current. However, the current through the grounded load is zero. Therefore, the load between pin 3 and + is called normally on load and that connected between pin 3 and ground is called normally off load. On the other hand, when the output is high, the current through the load connected between pin 3 and +Vcc (normally on load) is zero. However, the output terminal supplies current to the normally off load. This current is called the source current. The maximum value of sink or source current is 200 mA. Pin 4: Reset: The 555 timer can be reset or disabled by applying a negative pulse to this pin. When not in use, the reset terminal is connected to +Vcc to avoid the possibility of false triggering. Pin 5: Control Voltage: An external voltage may be applied to this terminal to change the threshold as well as the trigger voltage. The pulse width of the output waveform is hence dependent on it. When not in use, the control pin should be bypassed to ground with a 0.01F capacitor to prevent any noise problems. Pin 6: Threshold: This is the non-inverting input terminal of the comparator 1. When the voltage at this pin becomes greater than or equal to the threshold voltage 2/3Vcc, the output of this comparator becomes high, which in turn, switches the output of the timer low.

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Pin 7: Discharge: This pin is connected internally to the collector of a transistor Q1. When the output of the timer is high, Q1 is off and acts as an open circuit to an external capacitor C connected across it . On the other hand, when the output of the timer is low, Q1 is saturated and acts as a short circuit, shorting C to ground. Pin 8: +Vcc: The supply voltage of +5 V to + 18 V is applied to this pin with respect to ground (pin 1). 1.2.4 Description of functional block diagram: The 555 timer consists of a voltage divide r arrangement, two comparators, an RS flipflop, an n-p-n transistor Q1 and a p-n-p transistor Q2 Since the voltage divider has equal resistors, the upper comparator has a trip point of UTP = V32 The comparator 2 has a trip point of LTP = CCV31. As seen in the Figure 2, the pin 6 (Threshold) is connected to the comparator 1. This voltage comes from the external components (not shown). When the threshold is greater than the UTP, the comparator 2 has a high output. Pin 2 (trigger) is connected to the comparator 2. This is the trigger voltage that is used for the monostable operation of the timer. When the trigger is inactive, the trigger voltage is high. When the trigger voltage falls to less than the LTP, comparator 2 produces a high output. Since the circuit is stable in either of two states, it is sometimes called a bistable multivibrator. A bistable multivibrator latches in either of two states. A high S input forces Q into the high state, and a high R input forces Q to return to the low state. The output Q remains in a given state until it is triggered into the opposite state. The S input is sometimes called the set input because it sets the Q output to high. The R input is called the reset input because it re sets the Q output to low

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1.2.5 ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR: We now take up the application of 555timer as an astable multivibrator. An astable multivibrator is a wave-generating circuit in which neither of the output levels is stable. The output keeps on switching between the two unstable states and is a periodic, rectangular waveform. The circuit is therefore known as an astable multivibrator. Also, no external trigger is required to change the state of the output, hence it is also called free-running multivibrator. The time for which the output remains in one particular state is determined by the two resistors and a capacitor externally connected to the 555 timer THEORY: Figure 1.2.5 shows 555 timer connected as an astable multivibrator. Pin 5 is bypassed to ground through a 0.01F capacitor. The power supply (+VCC) is connected to common of pin 4 and pin 8 an d pin 1 is grounded. If the output is high initially, capacitor C starts charging towards Vcc through RA and RB. As soon as the voltage across the capacitor becomes equal to2/3Vcc, the upper comparator triggers the flipflop, and the output becomes low. The capacitor now starts discharging through RB and transistor Q1. When the voltage across the capacitor becomes 1/3Vcc, the output of the lower comparator triggers the flip-flop, and the output become s high. The cycle then repeats. The output voltage and capacitor voltage waveforms are shown in Figure 1.2.6

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Fig:1.2.5 Circuit diagram of astable multivibrator

Fig: 1.2.6 Output wave forms of astable multivibrator

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1.3 DECADE COUNTER 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION: Modulus for a decade counter is 10 These counters are useful in display applications. Counter with a sequence of 0(0000) through 9(1001) is a BCD decade counter, because its ten state sequence is the BCD code. Q1=1, Q3=1 at the count 1010, so the OP of the NAND gate is LOW and RESETs all the FFs Q1 and Q3 are connected to the NAND gate

This counter has to reset to 0 when the output reads 11. .

1.3.2 Pin diagram of decade counter 4017IC

Fig:1.3.2 Pin diagram of decade counter

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1.3.3 PIN DESCRIPTION

Feature of decade couter Automatic counter correction Tolerant of slow clock rise and fall time Fully static operation 5 V, 10 V, and 15 V parametric rating Standardized symmetrical output characteristics Operates across the automotive temperature range 40C to +125C1

3.4 APPLICATIONS OF COUNTERS

Frequency dividers Digital clock. Parallel to serial data conversion (MULTIPLEXING) Auto parking control. Industrial digital control system.

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CHAPTER 2 COMPENENTS

Fig: 2.1 Block diagram power supply system transformer rectifier filter regulator Coin sensor switch 555 based timer Relay driver Solenoid tap

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CHAPTER -3 POWER SUPPLY UNIT

3.1 INTRODUCTION: As we all know any invention of latest technology cannot be activated without the source of power. So in the fast moving world, we deliberately need a proper power source which will be apt for a particular requirement. All the electronic components starting from diode to Intel ICs only work with a dc supply ranging from -+5v to +12v. We are utilizing for the same , the cheapest and commonly available energy source of 230v-50hz and stepping down, rectifying, filtering and regulating the voltage.

3.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM: The Block diagram of the Regulated power supply is as shown below.

Fig:3.2 Block diagram of power supply system


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3.3 TRANSFORMER A transformer is a stationary electric machine which transfers eletrical energy (power)from one voltage level to another voltage level

Fig: 3.3 Transformer 3.3.1 Step down transformer When the ac is applied to the primary winding of the transformer it can be either stepped down or up depending on the value of dc needed. In our circuit the transformer of 230v/0-12v is used to perform the step down operation where a 230v ac appears 12v ac across the secondary winding one alternation of input causes the top of the transformer to be positive and bottom negative. The next alternation will temporarily cause the reverse. The current rating of transformer is used in our project is 2amps. Apart from stepping down ac voltages it gives isolation between the power source and power supply circuitries.

Fig:3.3.1 step down transformer

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3.4 RECTIFER UNIT: A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current(AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which is in only one direction, a process known as rectification. BRIDGE RECTIFIER: Another type of circuit that produces the same output waveform as the full wave rectifier circuit above, is that of the Full Wave Bridge Rectifier. This type of single phase rectifier uses four individual rectifying diodes connected in a closed loop "bridge" configuration to produce the desired output.

Fig:3.4 Bridge rectifier circuit The four diodes labelled D1 to D4 are arranged in "series pairs" with only two diodes conducting current during each half cycle. During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2 conduct in series while diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flows through the load as shown below.

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The Positive Half-cycle:

The Negative Half-cycle:

3.5 FILTER UNIT: Filter circuits which are usually capacitors acting as a surge arresters always follow the rectifier unit. This capacitor is also called as a decoupled capacitor or a by passing capacitor, is used not only to short the ripple with frequency of 120hz to ground but also to leave the frequency of the dc to appear at the output. Capacitor c1(1000f/25v) is used for the reduction of ripples from pulsating.

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3.6 VOLTAGE REGULATOR: A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.

Fig: 3.6 Voltage regulator 7805 series ICs do not require any additional components to provide a constant, regulated source of power, making them easy to use, as well as economical, and also efficient uses of circuit board real estate. By contrast, most other voltage regulators require several additional components to set the output voltage level, or to assist in the regulation process. Some other designs (such as a switching power supply) can require not only a large number of components but also substantial engineering expertise to implement correctly as well.

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3.7 NOISE FILTER: Noise filters are used to remove any noise (unwanted signals) present in the line, Electromagnetic interference signals, radio frequency interference signals etc., capacitor c3 (0.1f) is a low pass filter which by passes high frequency noises. Capacitor C2 (10f/25 v) is for maintaining stability of the voltage at load side. 3.8 SPECIFICATIONS: Resistor RL maintains line load regulations, At the secondary side of the transformer, applied voltage 12v Conducting drop across the diodes =2*0.6=1.2v Without capacitor: Vavg = (12-1.2)=10.8c pulsating dc Frequency = 100hz with capacitor V= Vavg*1.414(form factor) = 15.3v Freuency = 0hz With 7805 voltage regulator: Vo= +5v 3.9 SCHEMATICS:

Fig:3.9 schematics of power supply


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CHAPTER- 4 RELAYS

4.1 INTRODUCTION:

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits, the link is magnetic and mechanical.

Fig: 4.1 Relay


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Fig 4.2 Circuit symbol for a relay

Working : When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that attracts the armature , and the consequent movement of the movable contacts either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Normally-open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a Form A contact or "make" contact. Normally-closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called a Form B contact or "break" contact.

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CHAPTER-5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Fig:5.1 circuit diagram

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Fig:5.1.2 Reference model of coin based water controlling system

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION: 1.When coin is placed on coin box coin triggers a switch the switch trigger a two transistor based timer 2.When switch is activated it provides positive supply to Q1 transistor base when Q1 gate base voltage it forward negative current through emitter to collector and collector output is fed to timing capacitor(1000uf/25v) when once a capacitor charged its stores the negative current in it. We said to the timing delay to R2 (100kohm). Here we said (0-1 min) different time period. This stored current fed to Q2 transistor. However capacitor negative voltage provides supplied to Q2 transistor base it activate the positive supply Q3 base. Q3 get positive supply it activates a NPN transistor. This transistor activates a relay connected tap. However relay activated it provides a
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positive supply to auto timer driver circuit. Here we used a 555timer as a Astable multivibrator mode. However the relay activated the 555timer generates a clock pulse through R1, R2 and C. 3. The 555timer pin3 generates a square wave this output is fed to CD4017 Decade counter. It indicates a timer output through LED and provides supply to solenoid relay driving transistor. However solenoid drive activates it provides ac supply to solenoid tap. TIMER SECTION: The high output signal from the sensor unit triggers the base of the pnp transistor Q1 which is implemented in reverse bias. This transistor triggers the positive base of the npn transistor Q2.Here the transistor is activated in forward bias. Hence the negative voltage appears through the collector of the Q2 transistor which is feeded to the capacitor C1,which is charged to store negative current in it. The charged capacitor provides the negative trigger the amplifier circuit as long as the capacitor current becomes zero.

Fig:5.2 Circuit diagram of timer section

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AMPLIFICATION SECTION: TRANSISTOR AS AN AMPLIFIER:

Fig:5.2.1 Circuit diagram of amplifier section In electronics, a common-emitter amplifier is one of three basic single-stage bipolar-junction-transistor (BJT) amplifier topologies, typically used as a voltage amplifier. In this circuit the base terminal of the transistor serves as the input, the collector is the output, and the emitter is common to both (for example, it may be tied to ground reference or a power supply rail), hence its name. The analogous field-effect transistor circuit is the common-source amplifier. Common-emitter amplifiers give the amplifier an inverted output and can have a very high gain that may vary widely from one transistor to the next. The gain is a strong function of both temperature and bias current, and so the actual gain is somewhat unpredictable. Stability is another problem associated with such high gain circuits due to any unintentional positive feedback that may be present. Other problems
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associated with the circuit are the low input dynamic range imposed by the smallsignal limit; there is high distortion if this limit is exceeded and the transistor ceases to behave like its small-signal model. One common way of alleviating these issues is with the use of negative feedback, which is usually implemented with emitter degeneration. Emitter degeneration refers to the addition of a small resistor (or any impedance) between the emitter and the common signal source (e.g., the ground reference or a power supply rail). This impedance RE reduces the overall transconductance Gm = gm of the circuit by a factor of gmRE + 1, which makes the voltage gain

So the voltage gain depends almost exclusively on the ratio of the resistors RC / RE rather than the transistor's intrinsic and unpredictable characteristics. The distortion and stability characteristics of the circuit are thus improved at the expense of a reduction in gain. 5.2.2: ADVANTAGES 1 .It can be used in public places like bus station and railway stations etc. 2. This technique can be used for coffee and tea makers. 3. It can be used insteps of water packets so that plastic which is a atmosphere hazard will be reduced. 4. This technique can be used in industries for controlling the water and liquid etc 5. It is also used for filling the water bottles and filling oil packets etc.

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CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSION

The project coin based water controlling system has been successfully designed and tested. This is low cost project can be used to controlling water or liquid by using coins. It is positioned to continue leading the industry with innovative, low cost, high performance for a growing number of applications. It can be used insteps of water packets so that plastic which is a atmosphere hazard will be reduced. This technique can be used in industries for controlling the water and liquid etc

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CHAPTER-7 REFERENCE

1. www.wikipedia.com

2. Electrical Power Systems by Wadhwa, C.L.

3. Electric machines by Nagrath Kotari

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