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# Postulates:

Postulate 1: Ruler postulate- The points on a line can be paired with real numbers in such a
way that any two points can have the coordinates 0 and 1. Once a coordinate system has
been chosen in this way, the distance between any two points equals the absolute value of the
difference of the coordinates.
Postulate 2: Segment Addition postulate- States that segment of lines can be added.
Postulate 3: Protractor postulate- On AB in a given plane chose any point O between A and B.
Consider OA and OB all the rays that can be drawn from O on one side of AB. These rays can
be paired with real numbers from 0 to 180 in such a way that (1) OA is paired with 0, and OB
with 180 (2) If OP is paired with x and OQ with y, then POQ = |x-y|.
Postulate 5: A line contains at least two points; a plane three noncollinear points; and space
four points noncoplanar.
Postulate 6: Through any two points there is exactly one line.
Postulate 7: Through any three points there is exactly one plane, and through any three
noncollinear points there is exactly one plane.
Postulate 8: If two points are in a plane, then the line that contains those two points is also in
that plane.
Postulate 9: If two planes intersect, their intersection is a line.
Postulate 10: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the corresponding angles are
congruent.
Postulate 11: If two lines are cut by a transversal, and the corresponding angles are congruent,
the lines are parallel.
Postulate 12: SSS; if three sides of one triangle are congruent to three sides of another
triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
Postulate 13: SAS; if two sides and the included angle of one triangle are congruent to the
other triangles, then the triangles are congruent.
Postulate 14: ASA; If two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to the
other triangles, then the two triangles are congruent.

Theorems:
POINTS, LINES, PLANES, AND ANGLES
Theorem 1-1: If two lines intersect, then they intersect in exactly one point.
Theorem 1-2: Through a line and a point not in the line, there is exactly one plane.
Theorem 1-3: If two lines intersect, then exactly one plane contains the lines.
DEDUCTIVE REASONING
Theorem 2-1: (Midpoint Theorem)- If M is the midpoint of AB, then AM = ½ AB and MB = ½ AB.
Theorem 2-2: (Angle Bisector Theorem)- If BX is the bisector of angle ABC, then ABX = ½ ABC
and XBC = ½ ABC.
Theorem 2-3: Vertical angles are congruent.
Theorem 2-4: If two lines are perpendicular, then they form congruent adjacent angles.
Theorem 2-5: If two lines form congruent adjacent angles, then the lines are perpendicular.
Theorem 2-6: If the exterior sides of two adjacent acute angles are perpendicular, then the
angles are complementary.
Theorem 2-7: If two angles are supplements of congruent angles (or of the same angle), then
the two angles are congruent.
Theorem 2-8: If two angles are complements of congruent angles (or of the same angle), then
the two angles are congruent.
PARALLEL LINES AND PLANES
Theorem 3-1: If two parallel planes are cut by a third plane, then the lines of intersection are
parallel.
Theorem 3-2: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then AIA are congruent.
Theorem 3-3: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then SSI angles are supplementary.
Theorem 3-4: If a transversal is perpendicular to one of two parallel lines, then it is
perpendicular to the other line as well.
Theorem 3-5: Two lines are cut by a transversal and the AIA are congruent, then the lines are
parallel.
Theorem 3-6: If two lines are cut by a transversal and SSI angles are supplementary then the
lines are parallel.
Theorem 3-7: In a plane two lines perpendicular to the same line are parallel.
Theorem 3-8: Through a point outside a line, there is exactly one parallel to the given line.
Theorem 3-9: Through a point outside a line, there is exactly one perpendicular to the given
line.
Theorem 3-10: Two lines parallel to a third line are parallel to each other.
Theorem 3-11: The sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180 degrees.
C 1: If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another triangle, then
the third angles are congruent.
C 2: Each angle of an equiangular triangle has a measure of 60 degrees.
C 3: In a triangle, there can be at most one right angle or obtuse angle.
C 4: The acute angles of a right triangle are complementary.
Theorem 3-12: The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the measures
of the two remote interior angles.
Theorem 3-13: The sum of the measures of the angles of a convex polygon with n sides is (n-
2)180.
Theorem 3-14: The sum of the measures of the exterior angles of any convex polygon, one
angle at each vertex, is 360 degrees.
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Theorem 4-1: If two sides of a triangle are congruent, then the angles opposite those sides are
congruent.
C 1: An equilateral triangle is also equiangular.
C 2: An equilateral triangle has three 60 degree angles.
C 3: The bisector of the vertex angle of an isosceles triangle is perpendicular to the
base at its midpoint.
Theorem 4-2: Converse of theorem 4-1.
Theorem 4-3: AAS; if two angles and a non-included side of one triangle are congruent to the
corresponding parts of another right triangle, then they are congruent.
Theorem 4-4: HL; if the hypotenuse and a leg on a right triangle, are congruent to that of
another, then the two triangles are congruent.
Theorem 4-5: If a point lies on the perpendicular bisector of a segment, then the point is
equidistant from both ends of the segment.
Theorem 4-6: Converse of theorem 4-5.
Theorem 4-7: If a point is equidistant from the endpoints of a segment, then the point is
equidistant from the sides of the angle.
Theorem 4-8: If a point is equidistant from the sides of an angle, then the point lies on the
bisector of the angle.

Theorem 5-1: Opposite sides of a parallelogram are congruent
Theorem 5-2: Opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent.
Theorem 5-3: Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.
Theorem 5-4: If both pairs of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are congruent, then it is a
parallelogram.
Theorem 5-5: If one pair of opposite sides is both congruent and parallel, then the quadrilateral
is a parallelogram.
Theorem 5-6: If both pairs of opposite angles of a quadrilateral are congruent, then it is a
parallelogram.
Theorem 5-7: If the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, then the quadrilateral is a
parallelogram.
Theorem 5-8: If two lines are parallel, then all points on one line are equidistant from the other
line.
Theorem 5-9: If three parallel lines are cut off into congruent segments on one transversal,
then they cut off congruent segments in every transversal.
Theorem 5-10: A line that contains the midpoint of one side of a triangle and is parallel to
another side passes thought the midpoint of the third side.
Theorem 5-11: The segment that joins the midpoints of two sides of a triangle (1) is parallel to
the third side (2) is half as long as the third side.
Theorem 5-12: The diagonals of a rectangle are congruent.
Theorem 5-13: The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular.
Theorem 5-14: Each diagonal of a rhombus bisects two angles of the rhombus.
Theorem 5-15: The midpoint of the hypotenuse of aright triangle is equidistant from the three
vertices.
Theorem 5-16: If an angle of a parallelogram is a right angle, the parallelogram is a rectangle.
Theorem 5-17: If two consecutive sides of a parallelogram are congruent, then the
parallelogram is a rhombus.
Theorem 5-18: Base angles of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent.
Theorem 5-19: The median of a trapezoid (1) Is parallel to the bases (2) has a length equal to
the average of the base lengths.
INEQUALITIES IN TRIANGLES
Theorem 6-1: The measure of the exterior of a triangle is greater than the measure of either
remote interior angle.
Theorem 6-2: If one side of a triangle is longer than a second side, then the angle opposite the
first side is larger than the angle opposite the second side.
Theorem 6-3: If one angles of a triangle is larger than a second angle, then the side opposite
the first angle is longer than the side opposite the second angle.
C 1: The perpendicular segment from a point to a line is the shortest segment to the
line.
C 2: The perpendicular segment from a point to a plane is the shortest segment to the
plane
Theorem 6-4: Triangle Inequality: The sum of the lengths of two sides of a triangle is always
greater than the length of the third.