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CHAPTER 4 Nonreacting Liquid Systems 41 INTRODUCTION We have outlined by a simple example the basic concepts of analysis and hive Mlustrated the essence of the model development step by discussing ae eine naviT uations. The remainder of tis book is devoted to ilystrating applications of the principles of analysis in a variety of situations. ‘We begin by stressing the model development step with simple applications of the law of conservation of mass. By gradually increasing the problem complexity We illstrate in some detail how the Togieal processes Mustrated on the various diagrams introduced in Chapter 3 are utilized. Although our oremphasis is on the model development step in these initial chapters, Viv the Boia fialySisycirdccssinimind hy indicating(ithd caphe neering use of our Mode! devetopments A SIMPLE MASS BALANCE Let us begin by returning to the simplest problem, the filling and emptying ofa cylindrical tank. The tank is shown in Figure 4.1. It fills at a constant rate q, ft/min, empties through a pump at constant rate ft*/min, has cross sil rh 4 ff and liquid level hft. The liquid density is p Ib, ft. (Before reading further it is instructive to see if a relationship showing f as a function of can be derived Tor this simple situation on intuitive grounds. Note the elementary equation for A as a function of ¢obtained in this way ‘depen: on the fact that q, and q are constants. Try to reconstruct the logic you used \oderive the relationship and think about extending the procedure to more complicated iproblems.) The fundamental variable of interest is clearly mass, and the logical tolume is tHe tank. With the density fixed the mass is completely cl terized by the height of liquid in the tank. Thus we observe the following ntrol “vu GoGo te 24900 42. A Simple Mass Balance 79 cipld of conservation of mass, applied fo the contol volume of the ‘mass in tank ); (mass in tank sine 3] -| tant pahts + 0) PAR) mats Which entered | _ mass which let between) + fen - tand 1b ay | Segal: ape pividing by pA n+ 80) = WOO + fay — ght (64) sit q, and ate constants inthis case, Equation 4.1 is valid for any value Sori een if isnot small. Thus, if refers tothe time at which we begin te tank and refers to any later time we obtain Wi = Wg) + “lay alle — (42) Equation 42 is an algebraic relationship that allows us to obtain the Tn the tank at any time, h(t), provided we know the area of "flow rates in and out, q, and q; the time interval ¢ — te; and the height of liquid at restriction on Equation 4.2 is that 9 ind q must be over the inierval 1 — ty. We can illustrate the more Gi GO i == SG long Senor FIGURE 4.1 Tank sting RJR PLB Ryans Srnlhineth Mee! [real Over a very small time interval As we can treat as essentially constant. Notice the parallel to developments in the calculus in Chapter 15. Thus identities between the fundamental and J acterizing variables mass in tank at any time 1 = plh(r) [PeJerun and some short time later, ¢ + Ar = pg,t Calm bp amount which leaves in = pq Ar mf] ft’. and fy intervals Similarly mass which entered between ¢ fe onl) ‘mass which left between rand ¢ +A" = pq Ar [rel Elm total mass entering = ["pg,(1) B= | pane ae 80 Nonreatng Lig Systems ‘Thus, application ofthe law of conservation of mass for this problem yi pAb.) = ple) + foto ar — [pat ae since p i constant, ee = We ++ ["te,c9 ~ acon 3] ah ‘The “name” of the dummy integration variable is unimportant, so to avoi future confusion we eal it~ rather than ¢ Lys ; Hag = Wa) + © [aod atte as Equation 4.4, written for variable flow rates into and out of the tank, ca be used to calculate A if g, and q are known functions of the independent variable, time. As we saw in Chapter 2, however, we may have q availa] only as a function of h and for this situation Equation 4.4 is not in a usefil form. We can illustrate an important manipulation in model construction an review some basic calculus by rewriting Equation 44 for the casein which are interested in the times rand ¢-+ At Ho RANE WAP ONDE ‘Applying the mean value theorem to the right-hand side we obtain e+ Ad — HG) poms tga 4a 4) t+ Ae Th Mo+a9=K)_1 v aS) ina t sieht between fand f+ Ar colapse tof. Ths i dh ar sn arbitrary time, Equation 4.5 holds for all times, ste refmltiply each side of Equation 4.5 by pA, the relationship with the comervatve principle is more cleanly lustrated FHF represents soine average value somewhere betiieen + anif He geomeicy-of the jank wes is simply Equation 4.1, xcept that we have now been carfi to note that the flow rates are average values over the stort interval A. They In the limit at At — 0 the Jef'chand side is the derivative, dhjat, while on th ‘must simply become gy —g evaluated at r, since all point} fa,- 4) si 42 A Simple Mass faance 46) (ate ETSI - Tom _ lon ‘he left-hand side is the rate of change of mass in the tank, while the Fight net mass flow rat ts summarize the manipulative steps that led to this equation 1. The Word statement ofthe la of conservation of mass was expressed in symbols using the characterizing variables ofthe problem (Equations41 and 4.3), The concept of an integral relationship to represent the mass entering and leaving the system was illustrated 2. The equation tepresenting the conservation lay was rearranged so that the right-hand side contained the change in characterizing variables of interest (him this case) divided by the change in the independent variable, 3. The meanyalue theorem was applied. Se OO COM constant, this very simple physial situation serves t ilus: fed sls im model developmentas shown by Figure Mt. ‘was needed, time was the only indepen nstitutive relation was not required. By changing: how how a simple constitutive relation, lable to us from geometric consideration, is used. Th wedge-shaped tank of overall height H, width B, and length Lis now ¢onsidered (Figure 4.2). The flow rates in and out are again id ‘hes the following equation, equivalent to Equation 44s ication of t a iy is. avn) = 90+ 0] tated — aC de the volume of liquid inthe tank at time ff. Diving applying the mean value theorem, and taking the limit as At