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CHAPTER 4
Nonreacting Liquid Systems
41 INTRODUCTION
We have outlined by a simple example the basic concepts of analysis and
hive Mlustrated the essence of the model development step by discussing
ae eine naviT uations. The remainder of tis book is devoted to
ilystrating applications of the principles of analysis in a variety of situations.
‘We begin by stressing the model development step with simple applications
of the law of conservation of mass. By gradually increasing the problem
complexity We illstrate in some detail how the Togieal processes Mustrated
on the various diagrams introduced in Chapter 3 are utilized. Although our
oremphasis is on the model development step in these initial chapters,
Viv the Boia fialySisycirdccssinimind hy indicating(ithd caphe
neering use of our Mode! devetopments
A SIMPLE MASS BALANCE
Let us begin by returning to the simplest problem, the filling and emptying
ofa cylindrical tank. The tank is shown in Figure 4.1. It fills at a constant
rate q, ft/min, empties through a pump at constant rate ft*/min, has cross
sil rh 4 ff and liquid level hft. The liquid density is p Ib, ft. (Before
reading further it is instructive to see if a relationship showing f as a function
of can be derived Tor this simple situation on intuitive grounds. Note
the elementary equation for A as a function of ¢obtained in this way ‘depen:
on the fact that q, and q are constants. Try to reconstruct the logic you used
\oderive the relationship and think about extending the procedure to more
complicated iproblems.)
The fundamental variable of interest is clearly mass, and the logical
tolume is tHe tank. With the density fixed the mass is completely cl
terized by the height of liquid in the tank. Thus we observe the following
ntrol
“vu GoGo
te
2490042. A Simple Mass Balance 79
cipld of conservation of mass, applied fo the contol volume of the
‘mass in tank ); (mass in tank
sine 3] -| tant
pahts + 0) PAR)
mats Which entered | _ mass which let between)
+ fen - tand 1b
ay | Segal: ape
pividing by pA
n+ 80) = WOO + fay — ght (64)
sit q, and ate constants inthis case, Equation 4.1 is valid for any value
Sori een if isnot small. Thus, if refers tothe time at which we begin
te tank and refers to any later time we obtain
Wi = Wg) + “lay alle — (42)
Equation 42 is an algebraic relationship that allows us to obtain the
Tn the tank at any time, h(t), provided we know the area of
"flow rates in and out, q, and q; the time interval ¢ — te;
and the height of liquid at restriction on Equation 4.2 is that 9
ind q must be over the inierval 1 — ty. We can illustrate the more
Gi GO i == SG long Senor
FIGURE 4.1 Tank sting RJR PLB Ryans Srnlhineth Mee!
[real
Over a very small time interval As we can treat as essentially constant.
Notice the parallel to developments in the calculus in Chapter 15. Thus
identities between the fundamental and J
acterizing variables
mass in tank at any time 1 = plh(r)
[PeJerun
and some short time later, ¢ + Ar = pg,t
Calm
bp
amount which leaves in = pq Ar
mf]
ft’.
and fy intervals
Similarly
mass which entered between ¢
fe
onl)
‘mass which left between rand ¢ +A" = pq Ar
[rel Elm
total mass entering = ["pg,(1)
B= | pane ae80 Nonreatng Lig Systems
‘Thus, application ofthe law of conservation of mass for this problem yi
pAb.) = ple) + foto ar — [pat ae
since p i constant,
ee = We ++ ["te,c9 ~ acon 3]
ah
‘The “name” of the dummy integration variable is unimportant, so to avoi
future confusion we eal it~ rather than ¢
Lys ;
Hag = Wa) + © [aod atte as
Equation 4.4, written for variable flow rates into and out of the tank, ca
be used to calculate A if g, and q are known functions of the independent
variable, time. As we saw in Chapter 2, however, we may have q availa]
only as a function of h and for this situation Equation 4.4 is not in a usefil
form. We can illustrate an important manipulation in model construction an
review some basic calculus by rewriting Equation 44 for the casein which
are interested in the times rand ¢-+ At
Ho RANE WAP ONDE
‘Applying the mean value theorem to the right-hand side we obtain
e+ Ad — HG)
poms
tga
4a 4)
t+ Ae Th
Mo+a9=K)_1 v
aS) ina
t sieht
between fand f+ Ar colapse tof. Ths
i dh
ar
sn arbitrary time, Equation 4.5 holds for all times,
ste refmltiply each side of Equation 4.5 by pA, the relationship with the
comervatve principle is more cleanly lustrated
FHF represents soine average value somewhere betiieen + anif He geomeicy-of the jank wes
is simply Equation 4.1, xcept that we have now been carfi
to note that the flow rates are average values over the stort interval A. They
In the limit at At — 0 the Jef'chand side is the derivative, dhjat, while on th
‘must simply become gy —g evaluated at r, since all point}
fa,- 4) si
42 A Simple Mass faance
46)
(ate ETSI -
Tom _ lon
‘he left-hand side is the rate of change of mass in the tank, while the Fight
net mass flow rat
ts summarize the manipulative steps that led to this equation
1. The Word statement ofthe la of conservation of mass was expressed in
symbols using the characterizing variables ofthe problem (Equations41
and 4.3), The concept of an integral relationship to represent the mass
entering and leaving the system was illustrated
2. The equation tepresenting the conservation lay was rearranged so that
the right-hand side contained the change in characterizing variables of
interest (him this case) divided by the change in the independent variable,
3. The meanyalue theorem was applied.
Se
OO COM
constant, this very simple physial situation serves t ilus:
fed sls im model developmentas shown by Figure Mt.
‘was needed, time was the only indepen
nstitutive relation was not required. By changing:
how how a simple constitutive relation,
lable to us from geometric consideration, is used.
Th wedge-shaped tank of overall height H, width B, and length Lis now
¢onsidered (Figure 4.2). The flow rates in and out are again
id
‘hes the following equation, equivalent to Equation 44s
ication of t a
iy is.
avn) = 90+ 0] tated — aC de
the volume of liquid inthe tank at time ff. Diving
applying the mean value theorem, and taking the limit as At

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