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2011 ! ! ! Nintendo ! [Brand!Audit]! !
2011 !
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Nintendo !
[Brand!Audit]!
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[This!is!a!comprehensive!brand!audit!of!Nintendo,!one!of!the!most!recognizable!
brands!in!the!corporate!World!today.!It!contains!company’s!histo rical!background,!
the!brand!itself!and!the!associated!products.!The!audit!sums!up!with!the!analysis!
of!the!brand!and!then!some!suggestions!for!the!future. !
!
Daniyal!Raza,!Yegor!Bryukhanov,!Oskari!Elojärvi ,!Linda!Nummelin,!Hao!Chen !
Aalto!Univers ity !
1/19/2011 !
1 ! Nintendo ( ! ! B RAND& A UDIT & Nintendo& & C ONTENTS
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Nintendo (
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RAND& A UDIT &
Nintendo& &
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ONTENTS &

Introduction

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Brand!History!and!Ownership

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Brand!Inventory

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Industr y!Description

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Brand!Portfolio

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Integrated!Marketing!Communications!(IMC)

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Brand!Exploratory

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Sources!of!Brand!Equity

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Threats!to!Equity

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Recommendations !and!Conclusions

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Bibliography

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Appendix

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2 ! Nintendo ( ! & Introduction:&
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Introduction:&

Nintendo!is!one!of! the!biggest! brands! today.!The! success! story! of! the! company! is! a! long! one! yet! where! many! lessons! can! be! learnt.! Interbrand! listed!Nintendo!as!one!of!the!“Best!Global!Brands”! in! 2010,! in! a! list! where! top! 100! brands! were!

assembled. 1 ! The! planning,! execution! and! implementation! of! Nintendo’s! business! strategy! is! fascinating.! It! is! astounding! to! see! how! Nintendo! was! able! to! build! such! a! unique,! strong! and! powerful! brand. ! The! company! has! an! impressive! line! of! well b known! brands! and! clearly! Nintendo! is! the! brand! story! of! the! decade! from!Japan.!So!let’s!get!to!know!how! Nintendo!accomplished !this!feat.!!

Nintendo!accomplished !this!feat.!! Figure&1:&Nintendo&Brand&Logo &

Figure&1:&Nintendo&Brand&Logo &

Brand& History &and&Ownership : &

Nintendo’s! history! spans!more! than! a! 120! years,! which! is! very! impressive.! It! all! began! when! Nintendo!was!formed!in!1889!by!Fusajiro!Yamauchi! as!a!card! manufacturer;!it!used!to! produce ! handmade!hanafuda!playing! cards.!The!name!Nintendo ,!literally!translated,!means!“leave!luck! to!heaven” .! !The!cards!became!really!popular!and!Nintendo’s!business!grew!steadily.!In!1951,! the! name! of! the! company! was! changed! to! Nintendo! Playing! Card! Co.,! Ltd,!and! the! following! year!they!built!their!headquarters!in!Kyoto,!Japan.!Meanwhile,!the!Nintendo!also!entered!many! different! markets;! the! aim! was! to! find! other! segments! also! than! just! manufacturing! playing! cards,!such!as!cab!co mpany!and!love!hotels.! 2 !Later!on,!Nintendo!left!these!fields!and!decided ! to! adopt! a! more! strategic! plan! and! focus! on! video! games! and! entertainment.! In! 1953,! they! became!the!first!company!to!succeed!in!mass!production!of!plastic!playing!cards!in!Japan!and! later! in! 1959;! they! entered! into! partnership! with! Walt! Disney! and! started! manufacturing! children’s! playing! cards.! This! was! a! successful! strategy! because! these! children's ! cards,! which! featured!Disney’s!characters!on!them,!sold!over!600,000!packs!that!same!year.! 3 !

The!company!was!listed!on!the!stock!exchange!in!1962!and!the!name!was!changed!to!Nintendo!

Co.,!Ltd.!This!was!done!to!reflect!the!new!scope!of!the!activities!of!Nintendo!as!the!old!name! was! restricting!its!image! to!just!a!playing!card!company.!The!bu siness! still! sold!playing!cards,! but!they!had!started!selling!games!and!toys!also.! During!the!early!part!of!1970’s,!the!growth!of! the! business! continued! smoothly,! and! the! business! came! up! with! major! innovations! after!

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1 ! http://www.interbrand.com/en/best b global b brands/best b global b brands b 2008/best b global b brands b 2010.aspx !

2 ! http://www.n b sider.com/contentview.php?contentid=34

3 ! http://www.n b sider.com/contentview.php?contentid=34

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another.! 1977! Nintendo!developed!their! first!home!video!game!machi nes,!TV!Game!15!and!TV! Game!6.! By!1982,!they!had!established!Nintendo!of!America!Inc. !in!Seattle,!Washington.!Then,! the! following!year!Nintendo! was!listed!on! the! first! section!of!Tokyo!Stock!exchange!and! they! released! the! home! vi deo! game! console:! Family! Computer! System! which! had! a! CPU! (Central! Processing!Unit).!This!was!sold!as!the!Nintendo!Entertain ment!System!(NES)!in!the!US,! where!it! was! introduced ! 1985 ! with! Super! Mario! Bros.! The! expansion! continued! when! NES! was! soon! introduced !into!Europe!as!well!in!1986.!The!company! continued! its!run!during! the!end!of! the! 80’s! and!the!beginning!of!90’s!spawned!new!milestones!for!Nintendo. !

Nintendo!introduced!the!famous!Gameboy,!which!is!a!handb held!game!system,!entered!the!16b bit! game! consol e! market! with! Super! Famicom! in! Japan,! established!Nintendo!Europe!GmbH!in!Frankfurt,!and! then! went! on! to! release! the! Super! Nintendo! Entertainment! System! (SNES),! all! in! a! span! of! 4! years! from! 1989.! The! following!year!Nintendo!opened!subsidiaries!in!France,! UK,! and! Netherlands! etc.! and! then! released! Super! Gameboy.! Nintendo! 64! was! launched! in! 1996! and! the! famous! Pokémon ! TV! started! in! 1997 4 .! The! turn! of! the! new! millennium!proved!to!be!good!for!the!business.! The!rest!is! history:!Nintendo!went!on!to!launch!several!innovative!and! distinctive! products,! Gameboy! Color! and! Advance,! Nintendo!GameCube,!Nintendo!DS!and!lastly!Nintendo!Wii.! These! innovations! of! Nintendo! started! a! new! era! in! the! company.!It!is!very!impressive! for!a! company! that! started! as!a!mere!playing!card!manufacturer!to!become! one!of!the! world’s!leading!video!games!and!entertainment!business.!!

world’s!leading!video!games!and!entertainment!business.!! Figure&2:&

Figure&2:& Brand&Japan’s&annual&survey&of& result&for&Nintendo’s&rankings&&

Now,! we! will! look! at! some! of! the! factors! that! took!

Nintendo!right!to!the!top!and!made!it!what!it!is!today.!

Brand& Inventory : & This! part! includes! a! comprehensive! anal ysis! of! brands! related! factors! internal!to!Nintendo. !

Industry&Description :! !

Nintendo!primarily!operates!in!the!i ndustry!of!video!gaming.!Video!gaming! industry!consists!of! producing! and! selling! game! consoles,! games! for! them,! various! attributes! for! them! as! well! as!

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4 ! http://www.nintendo.co.jp/ir/pd f/2010/annual1003e.pdf !

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games! for! PCs .! The! competition! in! the! industry! is! steadily! heavy! and! there! are! three! main! players!on!the!market:!!

Sony!(Playstation!3) !

Nintendo!Co.Ltd.!(Nintendo!Wii)! !

Microsoft!(Xbox!360)! !

Production !and!development!of!consoles!and!games!is!affiliated!with!technological!innovations,!

so!companies!have!to!invest!very!much!in!Research!and!Development,!and!the!product!life!

cycles!are!relatively!short!and!vary!from!2b 3!years.!Consoles!that!support!high!quality!graphics!

and!superior!games!usually!dominate!the!market.!The!industry!is!characterized!by!high!

switching!costs,!because!manufacturers!design!games!to!be!played!only!on!their!consoles,!

which,!given!an!average!price!of!500$!for!a!console,!makes!it!difficult!for!the!customer!to!switch!

from!a!particular!brand!of!console.!That!is!why!every!console!guarantees!sales!of!the!games.!In!

our!view!the!key!factors!for!success!in!this!industry!are:!!

Ability!to!establish!strong!brand!name!

Ability!to!quickly!adopt!new!technology!

Ability!to!take!advantage!on !economies !of!scale!

Anticipate!competitors’!moves!!

Therefore,!we!conclude!that!it!is!essential!for!players!on!the!market!to!attract!new!customers!

and!retain!them!or!search!for!new!untargeted!market!segments!in!which!their!competitors!are!

not!yet!involved.!!!

Brand&Po rtfolio: & At!the!moment,!Nintendo!has!two!major!products 5 :!Wii!and!Nintendo!DS.!

Nintendo!also!develops!and!releases!new!games!for!their!consoles!from!time!to!time.!Let’s!

have!a!look!at!Nintendo’s!product!line,!one!by!one:&

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5 ! http://www.nintendo.com/ !

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Wii && &

Launched!in!2006,!Wii!is!on e!of!Nintendo’s!prime!products.!The! product! was! a! huge! success! and! gained! unprecedented! popularity. !The! success!of!Wii!not!only!depended!upon! a !great! product,! but!Wii !had!several!distinguishing!features!which!made! it! better! than! many! of! its! competitors.! Th e! wireless! controller! can!be!used!as!handheld!pointing!device!and! thus!it!can!detect! movements! in! three! dimensions. ! T he! name,!Wii,! conveyed! the! product’s! image! but! it! went! on! to! be! symbolic:! Wii& was& for& everyone,& not& only& for& professional& gamers ,! and! it! created! an ! association! with! Unity,! exclusively! targeti ng! a! broader! market! especially!families.! !

targeti ng! a! broader! market! especially!families .! ! Figure&3:&Nintendo&Wii&& &

Figure&3:&Nintendo&Wii&& &

The&main& competitors& of&Wii&are&Microsoft& Xbox& 360&and&Sony& PlayStation& 3.! Both ! of! them! were! already! established!in!the!market!and!Nintendo! couldn't!compete!agai nst!them!because!it! didn't!have!good!enough!products .! When!Nintendo!was!launching!Wii,! it!realized!that!Sony!and! Microsoft!have!equipment!that!has!better!technology— higher!performance,!higher!resolution! and!higher!quality!that!appeals!to!heavy!users!such!as!younger!segments ,! especially!teens,!and professional!and!traditional !gamers .! !

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Figure&4:&Console&Sales&for&first&six&month&totals. &
Figure&4:&Console&Sales&for&first&six&month&totals.
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So,!Nintendo!spotted! the!marketing!opportunity.! Thus! firstly,! i nstead! of! going! head b to b head! with! Xbox! and! PS3,! Nintendo! moved! away! from! competing! on! high b tech! innovation .! It! d ecided! to! focus & on& quality& with& lower& technology& console,! which! could! price d ! significantly! lower! than! thei r! main! competitors '! consoles,! plus! it! would ! not! have! more! complex! programs! to! write! for 6 .! Secondly,! and! brilliantly,! Nintendo& targeted& a& different,& broader& market. ! This! increased! the! scope! of ! the! sales! of! the! product!

because!Nintendo !moved !their!target!from!young,!gameb loving!males!to!a!larger!segment.!They!wanted!to!create!a!console!aimed!also!at!the! older!and!! younger! audience! and! provide! a! complete! f amily! entertainment! which! could! also! serve! as! a! social! tool.! The! idea! was! to! enhance! social! experience! with! friends! and! family! instead! of!

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0branding.pdf !

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isolating! the!gamer.! F or! this! purpose! Nintendo! created! social !games ! which!would! be!easy! to! play.! !

It!might!also!be!interesting! to!add! here! that!Nintendo!also! targeted!Wii! generally! to! females,!

especially! to! mothers.! As! the! traditional! game! market! is ! generally! assumed! to! consist! of ! “hardcore! male! gamers”,! this! created! a! point! of! difference! for! their! product.! As! mentioned!

a bove,! games &that&are&easy&to&play ,&low&price,&complete&family& experience &and&all&these&other& positive&attributes&created&points&of&differences.! Points& of&parity&with&competitors&were&that& Wii&was&a&console&that&was&popular,&reliable,& and&enjoyable&and&of&a & good &quality . !

Lastly,! Nintendo!developed!a!new!trend,!and !applied!it!specifically!to!Wii.!Nintendo !launched!a! new&category&of&games&called& "casual&games" .!These!games!required!less!skill!and!experience! of! video! games ,! and! were! aimed! to! appeal! to! a! wide! range! of! family! members.! Nintendo’s! creative!design!group!created!amazing!games! to!enforce! this!strategy.!The!new!casual!games! category!went! from! 1%! of! the!market! to!more! than! 20%! by! 2005,!as! published!in!a! study! of! popular!gaming!magazine!Enterbrain!Inc.! T hat’s!why,! Wii! sales! shot! up! quickly!and!exceeded! the!sales!of!other!consoles!until!that!point.! See! Figure!4. ! !

See! Figure!4 . ! ! Figure&5

Figure&5 :&Target&Market&of&Nintendo&DS.

Nintendo& DS ! !

Nintendo!DS!is!a! hand b held!gaming!console,!an! essential! part! of! Nintendo’s! brand! inventory! and!is!considered!to!be!successor!of! Game!Boy.! Game! Boy!was!the! first !console!to!ever!create!a! market! for! hand b held! gaming! devices! in! 1989.! When! Game! Boy’s! product! life! cycle! was! coming! to! an! end,! Nintendo! released! DS! in! January!2004.! Console&targets&gamers&in&the&

age&group& from& five&to&seventeen&years&old,! by! offering!high!degree!of!involvement;!touch!screen!stereo!support!and!ability!of!multiplayer.! According!to!Simmons (need!a!reference) ,!among!households!with!children,!those!with!children! age! of! 12−17! account! for! 38%! of! users! of! Nintendo! DS,! and! those! with! children! 6−11! for! another! 33%.! Conversely,! households! of! 1! or! 2! persons! (generally! meaning! those! without! children)! strongly! resist! ownership.! The& primary& competition& rises & from& the& introduction& of& PSP& console ! (Portable! Sony! PlayStation)! ! by! S ony! in! 2005.!However,! PSP! was ! targeting! older! audiences!and!heavily!relayed!on!advanced!technology,!therefore,!the!price!for!PSP!was!higher! than!for!Nintendo!DS. !

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Nintendo!was!able!to!beat!its! competitor! with !lower!prices . ! In !the!targeted!age!group!parents! are!buying!consoles!and!games!for!their!children,! and!they!tend!to!be!more! aware! of!the!price! rather! than! technology.! ! Therefore,! Nintendo& DS& is& a& current& market& leader& in& its& category.! Nintendo!added! several!extensions! to!its! product! range,! for!example!Ni ntendo!DS!lite,!which! was! thinner! version! of! DS ! and! Nintendo! DSi! that! added! two! digital! cameras! and! enabled! Internet! connection! with! Nintendo! online! store.! These! features! were! designed! to! enhance! personalization!and!encourage!every!family!member!to!buy!a!console,!at!the!same!time!leaving! the! primary! target! market! at! its! initial! level.! In! addition,! Nintendo! is! planning! to! launch! the! newest!version,!Nintendo!3DS!in!February!2011,!which!will!support!3D!format! without!a!need!

to!use!special!3D!glasses!and!will!make!web!surfing!more!convenient.!!

Nintendo&Games &

Nintendo! has! a! history! of! producing! high b quality! and! unique! games! for! consoles.! The! worldb famous! ones! include! super! Mario! series,! sonic ! series! and! Donkey! Kong,! etc. ! Now! Nintendo! focus es !on!product !games!for! Wii!and!Nintendo!DS. !

In! comparison! with! its! competitors,! like! most! computer! games! and! PS3! or! XBOX! games,! Nintendo’s& games& have& their& unique& features:& they& tend& to& be& more& fun& and& cartoon\ like .! They! attract! people! by! the! pure! fun! from! game! experience! rath er! than ! by! best! graphic! performance! along! with ! stimulating! realistic! features. !Moreover,!the!game!experience!is!totally! different! compared! to! traditional! games.! The! games! in! Wii! are! more! physical,! requiring! body! movements,! and! the! games! in!Nintendo! DS! use! a!

touch!style!and! enable!more!people!to!play!at!the!same! time.! The! target! markets !of!Nintendo’s! games! vary! from! kids! aged! 5! to! the! fun b loving! gamers! including ! teenagers! and! adults,! who! would!like!to!play!for!entertainment. !

and! adults,! who! would!like!to!play!for!entertainment. ! Figure&6:&Sup er&Mario&Bros&for&DS

Figure&6:&Sup er&Mario&Bros&for&DS &

Another!different!feature!is!that! the&games&are&specially& designed&only&for&its&own&consoles .!!It! means! that! Nintendo! co uld! perfectly! combine! the! game! characteristics! with! the! console’s! feature.! Sony!and !Microsoft,! their!games!are! produced! by! the! third! party.!Usually,! the!game! producers! w ill! launch! their! games! on! PC,! Xbox! and! PS3! at ! the! same! time! and! t herefore,! customers! have! wider! choice .! On ! the! contrary,! Sony! and! Microsoft! will! compete! with! each! other!because!their!games!are!supplied!by!the!same!producers.!

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The& biggest& threat& is& that& othe r& games& have& better& graphic& performance& and& are& more& exciting .!This!encourages!only!professional!gamers,!teens!and!hardcore!heavy!user!to!play.!On! the!other!hand,!Nintendo’s!games!are!designed!such!that!they!appeals!to!a!wider!audience,!and! one!of!the!aims!is!to!attract!the!non b gamers!to!start!playing!games!and!have!fun. !

Nintendo’s&marketing&strategy &

Nintendo’s!branding!strategy! relies!heavily!on! traditional!channels.!They!have!mostly!used!TV! commercials,! promotion! events! and! nowadays! also! web! advertisements.! A! big! part! of! Nintendo’s!strategy!is!to!create!great!brand! awareness! through! word b of b mouth! marketing.! Because! the! parent! company! owns! many! games! and! the! characters,! it! has! made! those! characters! the! ambassadors! for! the! whole! brand.! Therefore!Nintendo!commercials!often!use! Super! Mario,! Donkey! Kong! or! Pokémon! when! advertising! the! game! consoles.! Nintendo! has! been! a! big! part! of! people! who! have! been! born! in! 80s! and! 90s,! and!

these! people! have! grown! up! with! NES! and! SNES .! Now! Nintendo! is! able! to! create! nostalgi c!and!warm!feelings!for!them!and!at!the!same!time!attract!new!generations!to!the!joy! of!playing!with!Nintendo. ! !

of!playing!with!Nintendo. ! ! Figure&7:&Nintendo&Marketing Nintendo! has!

Figure&7:&Nintendo&Marketing

Nintendo! has! achieved! a! role! of! being! suspicious! and! not! revealing! too! much! about! what! is! happening!inside! the!company.!Nintendo’s!ability! to!keep!secrets!can!be!almost!compared! to! that!of!Apple’s,! for!example!introduction!of!Nintendo!3DS!managed!to!surprise! fans,!analytics! and!journalists! totally!in! the!spring!2010.!It!has!benefited! from! this!distant!image!by!creating! lots! of! buzz! and! rumors! abou t! future,! and! it! helps! the! brand! to! create! and! maintain! brand! resonance.! Sometimes!Nintendo!has!faced!difficulties,!too,!for!example!in!preb Christmas!season! 2006! when! they! had! to! replace! Wii! ads! with! Nintendo! DS! ads! due! to! low! stock! of! the! Wii! consoles.! Ni ntendo!hasn’t!jumped!into!the!social!media!yet,!which!is!very!surprising.!There!are! neither! official! Nintendo! nor! Wii! pages! on! Facebook,! and! even! though! Nintendo! America! tweets! regularly,! there! are! only! around! 48,000! followers.! Wii! has! an! unofficial! page! o n! Facebook! with! more! than! 1. ! 1! million! fans,! but! the! page! has! no! content.! Also! Super! Mario! (443,000!fans)!and!Mariokart!(1,004,000!fans)!have!popular!unofficial!pages!on!Facebook. !

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Integrated&Marketing&Communication&(IMC)&analysis &

We!decided! to!use! the!In tegrated!Marketing!Communication! (IMC)!program! to!analyze! some! marketing! tools! which! Nintendo! uses! for! its! consoles! and! games.! IMC! program! has! been! developed!to!build!brand!equity!with!“mixing!and!matching”!different!communication!options.! Examples! that! we! chose! for! the! analysis! are! TV! advertising,! event! marketing! and! word b of b mouth! marketing.! After! analyzing! Nintendo’s! current!methods,!we!provide!our!own!proposal!on! how! to! build! even! more! brand! equity! by! adding! some!elements. !

even! more! brand! equity! by! adding! some!elements. ! Nintendo!has!used!TV!advertisements!to!introduce!

Nintendo!has!used!TV!advertisements!to!introduce! new!consoles,!games!and!to!create!awareness.!Its! TV! advertisements! are! often! creative! and! they! concentrate! on! showing! people! enjoying! their! time! instead! of! showing! the! actual! gameplay.! Nintendo!uses!the! famous!characters!often!in!the! advertisements! to! enhance! brand! awareness.! TV!

advertisements! cover! the! target! market! well,! especially! for! Nintendo! Wii,! because! the! consumers! will! need! a! television! in! order! to! play! Wii! and! they! are! likely! to! either! own! or! purchase!it.!However,!TV!advertising!is!extremely!expensive!and!it!has!low!versatility,!meaning! that!it!can!be!effective!only!for!very!specific!target!groups.!

Figure&8

Advertising!in!different!events!provides!an!opportunity! for!consumers! to!see!actual!gameplay! or! try! it! themselves.! It! allows ! educatin g! consumers! how! to! use! the! consoles! and! it! also! introduces! them!to!games!which!they!have!not!tried!yet,!and!organizes!creative!competitions.! For! example! Nintendo! Wii! Fit! has! been! promoted! together! with! Adidas! running! shoes,! and! Nintendo! has! organized! onlin e! competition! where! the! consumers! had! to! animate! their! own! Super!Mario!movie!using!the!original!music!and!imagery!of!Nintendo.!Promotional!events!and! competitions!can!be!really!effective!in!covering!the!target!markets!and!attracting!them,!and!it! complements!very!well!with!other!marketing!channels.!However,!it!is!very!expensive!and! the! events!should!be!chosen!carefully!so!they!are!in!harmony!with!the!Nintendo!brand.!!

Word!of!mouth! – marketing!is! really!not!an!independent! tool!but!more!a! result!of!marketing.! Nintendo! has! been! able! to! raise! great! awareness! and! create! positive! experiences,! and! therefore! many! consumers! have! become! “ambassadors”! of! the! brand.! As! long! as! the!

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consumers!are!telling!positive!things!about!the!brand,!it!is!very!effective!and!believable,! but!on! the!other!hand!it!is!impossible!to!control.!!

In! general,! Nintendo! covers! its! target! markets! well.! For! example,! when! it! launched! Wii,! it! advertised!successfully!the!console!for!family!mothers.!This!was!very!smart,!as!Wii!became!the! first! console! for! the! whole! family,! connecting! different! generations! and! bringing! family! together.! The! advertisements! are! consistent! with! the! brand! and! games,! consoles! and! characters!all! participate! in! building! brand!equity! for!each! other.!However,! there! is!a! danger! that!Ni ntendo!leans!on!their!old!characters!and!forgets!to!educate!possible!new!consumers.!A! problem! for! Nintendo! is! also! the! lack! of! big! communities.! Nintendo! has! an! official! Nintendo! Club,! but! it! mostly! provides! only! technical! support! and! information! on! the! products.! What! Nintendo! is!missing! is! clearly!an! official! online! society! of!Nintendo! lovers,! sharing!and! caring! about!the!brand,!participating!and!living!the!brand.!What!Nintendo!should!add!to!its!marketing! mix!is!discussed!in!the!final!part!of!the!brand!audit!report. !

Brand&Exploratory:& This!explores!the!sources!of!equity!of!the!product!from!the!consumer’s! point!of!view. &

Sources&of &Brand&Equity &

In! our! opinion! the! main! sources! that! determine! current!strength!of!Nintendo’s!brand!equity!are:&

Nintendo!Generation !

Its!iconic!game!characters! (Mario!Brothers,! Zelda,!Megaman,!Donkey!Kong,!etc.) !

Nintendo!Wii !

Now,! we! are! going! to! discuss! each! one! of! the! attributes! in! more! detail! including! certain! associations!and!perceptions! that!consumers!have! developed!towards!each!of!the!categories.!!

developed!towards!each!of!the!categories.!! Figure&9:&Brand&Ingredients Nintendo&

Figure&9:&Brand&Ingredients

Nintendo& Generation:& The! launch! of! Nintendo!

Entertainment!System!(NES)!in!1986!turned!the!whole!industry!around.!Sales!of!over!61!million!

units! before! 1995,! helped! the! company! to! create! brand! awareness! and! strong! brand! associations! with! the! product.! Being! the! first! console! of! its! kind! Nintendo! Entertainment! System! was! able! to! attract! vast! number! of! customers! that! nowadays! are! referred! to! as! Nintendo! generation,! the! pioneer! gamers! that! had! a! chance! to! try! out! the! first! Nintendo!

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consoles.! According! to! Michael! Critz,! an! Emmy! winning! designer:! “The! Nintendo! Generation! constitutes! the!same!group!of!people!who!are!old!enough! to! remember! the!Soviet!Union!yet! young!enough!to!master!the!Internet:!roughly,!people!who!are! now!between!the!ages!of!25!an d!37.”! !

now!between!the!ages!of!25!an d!37.”! ! Figure&10:&Nintendo&Generation &

Figure&10:&Nintendo&Generation &

For!these!people!Nintendo!is!an!iconic!and!lifestyle!brand!that! resembles! their! nostalgic! feelings! about! their! childhood! and! fun! they! used! to! have! playing! their! first! NES! or! SNES! (Super! Nintendo! Entertainment! System).! These! positive! associations! of!already!established!group!of!loyal!customers!help !Nintendo! in! building! its! brand! equity! at! the! level! of! personal! affiliation! and! resonance.! Slogans,! being! chosen! for! the! promotion! of! NES:!“Have!you!had!your!fun!today?”!and!“Now!you!are!playing!

with! the! power”,! clearly! illustrate! the! core! values! communicated! by! the! brand.! The! primary! message! sent! by! the! brand! was! designed! to! leverage! concepts! of! fun,! entertainment! and! to! highlight! the! product! as! a! pioneer! and! powerful! one! in! contrast! to! those! of! its! competitors.! Also,! Nintendo! was! able! to! sustain! its! image! of! vintage! and! nostalgia! when! introducing! new! products,!even!though!the!company!might!not!have!wanted!it.!!

The!concept!of!Nintendo!Generation!was!described!in!the!literature!by!David!Sheff,!who!wrote! the! book! titled! “Game!Over:! How! Nintendo! Conquered! The!World”.! The! book ! described! the! history!of!the!company!as!well!as !the!tools!company!used!to!establish!strong!brand!resonance! among! customers.! Although! the! book! was! written! in! 1994,! when! Nintendo’s! brand! was! exceptionally! strong,! the! fact! that! the! book! was! written! shows! that! the! brand! was! able! to! create! resonance! and! was! highly! recogniz able! around! the! world.! ! So,! in! our! opinion,! the! concept! of! Nintendo! Generation! and! a! status! of! a! pioneer! brand! in! the! industry! contribute! strongly!to!the!brand!equity!of!the!company!in!the!positive!way.!Along!with!the!launch!of!NES,! the!company!created! several!game!characters! for! the!console!and!was!able! to!leverage! their! image!in!the!future.!!

Characters:& On! a! par! with! the! introduction! of! NES,! Nintendo! introduced! several! game! characters!that!along!with!the!brand!growth!escalated!into!indivisible!parts!of!Nintendo!brand! identity!and!are!major!contributors! to! the!brand’s!equity! today.!Zelda,!Super!Mario!Brothers,! Donkey!Kong!and!L ink!were!essentially!developed!for!the!NES!and!after!console’s!tremendous! success!became!associated!with!it.!It!was!the!NES!that!made!Super!Mario!Brothers,!Zelda,!and! Megaman!kitchen b table!names.!Needless!to!say!that! those!iconic!characters!are!a!huge!source! of! Nintendo’s! brand! equity,! due! to! their! visibility! and! Nintendo’s! strategy! of! continuous! leveraging!of!their!images.!“Super!Mario!Brothers”!is!known!worldwide!and!even!included!into!

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the!Guinness!Book!of!Records!as!the!most!sold!video!game!in!the!history.!Mario!is!considered! to!be!one!of!the!most!recognizable!artificial!characters!ever!created 7 . !

Nintendo!leverages!the!image!of!Mario!Brothers!in!almost!every!advertising!campaign,!even!in! case! of! Wii,! which! is! going! to! be! discussed! further;! Mario’s! image! appears! even! though! Nintendo! is! struggling! not! to!associate!Wii! with!its! own!image.! !Moreover,! customers! tend! to! associate! themselves! with! their! favorite! characters,! because! of! the! strong! commitment! to! the! heroes.! Undoubtedly,! there! is! a! resonance! towards ! Nintendo! game! personages,!which! can! be! compared! to!the!resonance!of!Disney!cartoon!heroes.! Combined! with! heritage! associations! of! “nostalgic! brand! identity,! Nintendo’s!

of! “nostalgic! brand! identity,! Nintendo’s! Figure&11 & characters! are! probably! the!

Figure&11 &

characters! are! probably! the! strongest!

indicators!of!company’s!strong!brand!equity.! !

Whi le!Nintendo's !main!brand!and!industry!competitors!do!not!have!such!famous!and!branded! characters! in! their! games,! they! have! established! other! points! of! difference! that! will! be! discussed!further.!Considering!the!fact!that!in!gaming!industry!sold!consoles!almost!guarantee! the!sale!of!games,!it!is!a!huge!competitive!advantage!of!Nintendo!in!having!customers!that!are! loyal! not! only! to! technological! innovations! but! also! to! the! game! characters! and! their! image.! Game!characters!support!customers’!associations!that!arise!from!the!Nintendo’s!image!of!fun,! entertainment! and! nostalgia.! However,! being! constantly! updated! and! enriched! characters’! image! reflects! fashionable! and! trendy! appearance! at! the! same! time.! Moreover,! Nintendo! actively!franchises!brand!identity!of!its!characters!to!other!companies!in!various!industries.!This! move!by!Nintendo!only!supports!the!widespread!knowledge!and!awareness!of!its!game!heroes,! contributing! to! the! brand! equity.! On! the! Internet! we! can! see! a! huge! number! of! forums! dedicated!to!the!discussion!of!Nintendo!brand!and!its!characters.!It!is!common!to!see!a!forum! or!an!article! titled:!“Which!of!Nintendo!characters!are!you?” !What!else!is! that!if!not!a!brand! resonance? ! Finally,!Mario!Brothers,!Donkey!Kong!and!Zelda!appear!in!renovated!image!in! the!

games!designed!for!new!revolutionary!console!that!was!launched!in!2006!in!order!to!fight!back!

Nintendo’s!leading!positions!in!the!industry.!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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http://web.archive.org/web/20060317005503/http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/content_pages/record.asp

?recordid=52404 !

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Wii:& Pronounced!like!“We”,!supported!by!the!slogan:!“Wii!would!like!to!play”!and!symbolizing! community! spirit! and! group! entertainment,! and! involvement,! Nintendo! Wii! is! one! of! the! greatest!sources!of!equity!for!the!brand!of!Nintendo!nowadays.!!

The!product!was!able!to!combine!the!abovementioned!sources!of!Nintendo’s!brand!equity!in!it! in!a!very!successful!manner.!Now,!Ma rio!Brothers,!Zelda!and!Donkey!Kong!were!able!to!move! according!with!the!player’s!body!motion!due!to!the!technologically!innovative!attributes!called! “sensor!bar”.!By!targeting!very!wide!range!of!customers!in!completely!different!age!categories! “Wii”! added ! associations! of! sport,! motion! and! represented! new! activity! of! socially! and! physically! interactive! entertainment! for! any! age.! From! now! on,! Nintendo! was! no! more! an! outdated!and!obsolete!brand,!which!it!was!perceived!after!the!failure!of!GameCube,!now!it!was! brand b new,!familyb oriented!and!trendy!brand!that!combined!almost!incompatible!associations.! Nostalgic,! but! modern;! familyb oriented,! but! trendy;! cheap,! but! high! performing! – ! all! these! associations!were!new!to!Nintendo!and!the!industry!on!the!whole.!The!name!“Wii”!was!easily! pronounceable! in! all! languages,! contrary! to! Xbox! that! was! often! mispronounced! in,! for! example,! Japan.! Also,! the! white! color,! used! for! the! console! symbolized! peaceful! sense! and! family!environment,!unlike!Sony,!that!looked!like!high b tech!b east!for!hardcore!gamers!with!its! black!color.! !

Target! market! that! “Wii”! chose! was! absolutely! untraditional! for! the! industry;! therefore,! a! number! of! new! perceptions! and! associations! were! formed.! “Wii”! with! all! its! advertisements! and!promotional!campaign!en couraged!people! to!move!and!be!active,! treats! that!have!never! been! leveraged! before,! because! gaming! has! always! been! considered! rather! static! form! of! entertainment.! Strategic! launch! of! the! product,! during! the! holiday! session,! created! agiotage! about!the!bran d.! !

Nintendo’s! cooperation! with!major! retailers! and! specialty! electronic! stores! around! the! globe! made!the!product!visible!and!available!for!the!potential!customers.!Combined!with!affordable! price!and!visibility!of!the!brand!Wii’s!launch!turned!out!to!be!a! boom!in!the!market.!Numerous! promotional! campaigns! contributed! to! the! brand!equity! of! the! product! very!much.!Nintendo! Wii!was!able!to!combine!vintage!associations!of!the!brand!that!arouse!from!the!phenomenon! of! “Nintendo! Generation”! with! renovated,! but! easily! recognizable! characters! that! were! still! included! into! the! games! designed! for! Wii.! Wise! combination! of! all! possible! images! and! associations!enabled!Nintendo!to!boost!its!equity!and!relive!the!brand!for!the!customers.!!

Threats& to&Brand&Equity &

Greenpeace & Ratings:! The ! Greenpeace! ratings! received! by! Nintendo! have! in! the! past! hovered! around! zero! out! of! a! maximum! score! of!

! Greenpeace! ratings! received! by! Nintendo! have! in! the! past! hovered! around! zero! out! of! a!
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hundred.!This!is!a!serious!threat!to!the!brand!equity!of!Nintendo!as!contemporary!consumers! are!more!aware!how!environmentally!friendly!they!want!their!purchases!to!be.!The!loss!of!the! environmentally! conscious! gamers! could! cause! serious! damage! to! the! brand! equity! as! the! demographic!is!getting!larger!over! time.!Overall,!getting!a!zero! for!environmental! friendliness! from!a!prominent!environmen tal!protection!organization!is! a!bad!press!and,! hence ,!is !a!serious! threat!to!the!brand!image!of!Nin tendo!unless!Nintendo!begins!proactively!improving!the!eco b friendliness!of!their!products.!&

Failure&to&Utilize&Well&Established& Sub\ brands:!In !the!modern!gaming!market!gamers!are!being! exposed! to! lot! of! new! characters! that! take! their! minds! off! of! previously! existing! ones.! This! means!that!Nintendo!will!need!to!place!extra!efforts!on!keeping!the!gamers!interested!in!their! games!through!marketing!sub b brands,!such!as:!Super!Mario.!If!a!population!of!gamers!begins!to! forget!what!Nintendo!is!because! they!are!not!marketing! themselves!enough!by!using!all! their! sub b brands!and!the!umbrella!brand!itself,!then!the!value!of!the!brand!will!depreciate!and!result! in!lower!brand!equity.!&

Failure&to&Supply&Customers:& Nintendo’s!previous!failures!to!supply!their!customers!with!their! products! due! to! demand! spikes! has!left! consumers! bitter!as! they! have! had! to! purchase! their! Nintendo!products!online!for!two!to!three!times!of!the!retail!price.!This!results!in!bad!publicity! as! consumers!are! paying! sky! high! prices! for! their! products! due! to! the! demand.! Bad! publicity! always! results! in! a! decrease! in! brand! equity! and! hence! this! can! be! considered! a! threat! to! Nintendo.! This! has! previously! occurred! due! to! dependency! on! secondary! manufacturers! of! components!not!being!able!to!supply!Nintendo!on!time.!!&

Failure&to&Meet&Quality&Standards:& This!has!not! previously!occurred!to!Nintendo,!but!if!it!does! it! will! scare! the! consumers. ! Nintendo! has! never! had! a! promise! of! quality! standard! for! customers.! They! have! only! used! a! Nintendo! Seal! of! Quality! that! does! not! give! any! real! guarantee!of!product!quality,!but!rather!indicates!that!the!product!is!from!Nintendo!and!hence! quality!should!be!expected.!This!is!a!p roblem!as!customers!are!becoming!more!and!more!aware! of! quality! products! and! expect! a! guarantee! of! quality,! not! just! an! assumption.! If! Nintendo! happens! to! face!a!quality!problem!and! the!consumers!do!not! feel!as! they!are!appreciated!by! Nintendo!(due!to!them!not!guaranteeing!their!products),!then!Nintendo!will!face!a!loss!in!brand! equity!because!of!a!damaged!brand!image.!&

Deviation&from&Brand&Identity :& Nintendo!should!not!begin!to!deviate!from!what!it!has!always! done:!provide!games!and!consoles!to!the!consumers.!Nintendo!should!not!start!extending!the! brand! to! non b related! areas! as! they! have! previously! done.! An! example! of! this! is! when! Nintendo’s! sub b brand! Super!Mario! was! used! to! extend! the! brand! into! children’s! books.! This! brand!extension!proved!to!be!damaging! to!the!brand!equity!as!the!company’s!brand!identity!is!

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not! about! children’s! books! and! learning! processes.! If! Nintendo! does! the! same! mistake! as! mentioned! previously,! then! Nintendo’s! target! segment! will! begin! to! change! gradually! along! with!the!brand!identity.!This!results!in!the!loss!of!customers!and!a!change!in!brand!equity.!!

Recommendations&and&Conclusions: &

After! having! researched! the! brand! of! Nintendo! and! having! identified! main! sources! of! brand! equity!and! threats! to! the!brand,!we! recognized!several! recommendations! for! the!company!in! order!to!struggle!existing!challenges!and!anticipate!the!upcoming!ones.!

1.&Develop&the&market&for&elderly&customers.&

Nintendo!Wii!positions!itself!as!a!family!oriented!brand!that!brings!a!sense!of!community!into! the! gaming! process.! Newly! coined! Nintendo’s! target! market! not! only! values! physical! involvement! promoted! by! Wii,! but! also! wants! to! challenge! itself! with! brainwork.! Elderly! audience!may!enjoy! playing!Mario! Brothers!with! their! grandchildren! using!all! the! benefits! of! Wii’s!mo tion! sensor! bar,! but!at! the! same! time,!when!grandchildren!went! to! bed,! they!might! want! to! do! some! crossroad! puzzles! or! Sudoku,! or! play! some! strategic! games! that! involve! thinking. !

Therefore,! our! recommendation! number! one! is! to! develop! stronger! presence! amon g! older! group!of!customers!by!evaluating!their!needs!and!come!up!with!games!that!will!be!good!fit!for! them.!Nintendo!might! be! interesting! in! developing! games! that! would! be!aimed!at! relaxation! and! leisure.! Elderly! people! tend! to! spend! a! lot! of! time! at! home,! our! view! this! is! a! great! opportunity!for!Nintendo!to!leverage!their!elderly!audience!by!providing!games!for!them.!

2.&Be&aware&of&emerging&sources&of&competition&

Nintendo!should!clearly!identify!its!competition!on!all!the!levels.!Although!in!this!paper!we! have! examined! only! direct! competitors,! we! should! not! forget! that! Nintendo! operates! in! the! entertainment!industry,!where!the!competition!is!much!wider.!

Essentially! Nintendo! competes! with! anything! that! may! fill! their! customers’! spare! time.! This! could! be! books,! news,! cartoons,! magazines,! computer! games,! Facebook,! Twitter,! etc.! In! our! view,!Nintendo!should!keep!track!of!the!competition!on!every!level,!undoubtedly!paying!special! attention!to!their!brand!competitors.!The!company!should!find!a!way!to!communicate!i ts!brand! as! the! only! possible! entertainment! option,! in! order! to! differentiate! itself! from! all! levels! of! competition.!However,!at!the!same!time,!Nintendo!probably!will!have!to!add!some!extensions! to!its!brand!portfolio!in!order!to!support!the!image!of!overwhelming!lifestyle!brand. ! !

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We! view! Apple! Inc.! as! a! competitor! of! the! future.! Nowadays,! with! the! development! of! smartphone! industry,! its! main! players,! particularly! Iphone! offers! a! number! of! attractive! applications!to!its!customers!to!choose!from.!Although!Ip hone!does!not!offer!the!same!degree! of!involvement!as!Nintendo,!but!Iphone’s!application!may!be!a!great!threat!in!the!future,!due! to!constant! technological!innovations.!If! they!become!more!sophisticated,! then!Nintendo!and! the! console! industry! may! experience! severe! problems.!Moreover,! with! the! launch! of! Ipad,! a! new! threat! for! Nintendo! emerges.! Although! Ipad! does! not! support! Flash,! there! have! been! a! number!of!applications!developed!specifically!for!it.!Higher!resolution!and!the!size!of!the!screen! in!Ipad!enab le!players!to!be!involved!in!a!full!manner.!

In! our! view! Nintendo! should! find! ways! to! anticipate! possible! threats! from! competing! companies! on! all! the! levels! by! constant! screening! and! strategic! planning! of! the! market.! Benchmarking!of!its!competitors!is!especially!essential.!In!our!view!one!of!the!main!competitors! is! Apple! Inc.! and! Nintendo! should! be! aware! of! it,! because! it! may! revolutionize! the! whole! industry. !

3.&Anti\ piracy&issues. &

Piracy! problem! is! very! serious! in! developing! countries! such! as! China,! Vietnam! and! it! caused! huge!profit!losses!for!Nintendo !(citaton!needed,!seems!like!off!the!head). !

Even!through!the!piracy!is!not!only!for!Nintendo’s!games,!it!extends!to!PC!software!and!harms! some!of!its!competitors!like!PSP,!Nintendo!still!should!take!some!action !to!protect!its!brand .!For! example,! Nintendo! could! use! more! advanced! secret! codes! to! develop! its! software! so! that! it! can’t! be!easily! broken! into!and! illegally! copied.! Successful! brand! should! be! legally! protected;! therefore!Nintendo!should!treat!this!issue!very!carefully. !

Nintendo! could! also! build! in! some! chips! to! make! its! game! consoles! support! only! official! software’s!and!encourage!legal!downloading!of!its!games!from!the!Internet.!Besides,!Nintendo! could!operate!with!international!or!local!NGOS!to!put!pressure!on!government!for!piracy. !

4.&Building&brand&equity&with&marketing &

Nintendo!should!definitely!start!to!use!social!media.!The!fact!that!they!have!already!millions!of! fans! on! Facebook! without! doing! anything! shows! that! there! is! a! huge! potential.! As! other! companies! have! proved,! social!media! is! a! great! channel! in! attaching! customers! to! the! brand! tighter!than!ever!before,!and!that!is!exactly!what!Nintendo!wants!to!do.!Even!though!Nintendo! has! already! achieved! the! goal! of! bringing! families! together,! it! can! also ! bring! larger! groups! together.! The! company! might! be! worried! about! revealing! secrets! and! being! open,! but! we! believe!that!it!is!possible!to!join!the!social!networks!without!giving!out!confidential!information.!

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Marketing!in!social!media!is!of!course!costly,!b ut!comparing!to!TV!advertising!it!is!really!cheap! and!effective.!People!who!join!the!pages!are!doing!it!voluntarily!and!they!want!to!participate.!

Establishing!a!Facebook!page!is!essential!in!our!opinion.!There!should!be!regular!updates!and! interesting!content,!and!Nintendo!should!take!part!in!discussions!that!rise!in!the!page.!A!good! way!to!add!more!value!for!consumers!and!create!a!community!would!be!to!arrange!events!and! competitions!on!the!web!page!and!asking!consumer’s!opinions!about!the!Nintendo!games!and! consoles.! A! Facebook! page! would! be! a! way! of! showing! how! the! company! cares! about! the! customers,!and!it!would!strengthen!the!brand!resonance.!

Nintendo!could!join!also!YouTube!and!use!it!as!a!channel!to!show!the!expensive!TV!ads!it!has! created,!as!well!as! including!some!interviews!from!CEO!Satoru!Iwata.!As!there!is!already!“Iwata! asks”! – category! on! the! official! website! which! is! really! hard! to! find,! this! could! bring! more! viewers!and! followers.!At!the!moment!there!are!some!Nintendo!videos!on!YouTube,!but!they! are!not!organized!in!any!way!and!they!all!have!one!common!feature:!low!watch!rates.!

5.&In \ game&advertising. &

Already!established!strong!brand!equity!of!Nintendo!opens! tremendous!opportunities! for! the! company! on! the! in b game! advertising! market.! In b game! advertising! refers! to! the! form! of! advertising! which! gamers! are! experiencing! while! playing! certain! games! on! computers! or! consoles! Nintendo’s! games! are! bestsellers! and! its! characters! are! iconic.! To! our!mind,! Nintendo! should! leverage! predicted! growth! of! the! in b ga me! advertising! market!as!a! source!of! revenue! for! the! company.! !

market!as!a! source!of! revenue! for! the! company.! !

Figure&12:&In&game&advertising&market&in&the&US &

However,! an! ideal! balance! should! be! found! in! order! not! to! damage! the! brand! equity! with! too! much! advertising,! because,! otherwise!

customers! may! be! unsatisfied! with! Nintendo’s!excessive!concentration!on!advertising!in!its!game.!Although!Nintendo!has!already! implemented! this!concept!into! some!of!its!games! such!as!Pikmin!2!or!Madden!NFL;!we! think! there!is!still!a!room!for!development!in!this!industry!for!Nintendo.!

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Bibliography &

"Best!Global!Brands!Ranking!for!2010."! Interbrand.!N.p.,!2011.! <http://www.interbrand.com/en/ bestb global b brands/bestb global b brands b 2008/best b global b brands b !! 2010.aspx>.! Rpt.!in! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!Interbrand.!N.p.:!n.p.,!n.d.!N.!pag.! Interbrand.!Web.!18!Jan.!2011.! !

Nintendo .!N.p.,! n.d.!Web.!18!Jan.!2011.! <http://www.nintendo.com/>.! !

"The!Lucky!Birth."!N, sider .! N.p.,!2010.!Web.!18!Jan.!2011.! !

!

Nintendo.! Annual1Report120101!(2010).!PDF!file.! !

!!!! ! http://www.nintendo .co.jp/ir/pdf/2010/annual1003e.pdf ! !

!

"Nintendo:!Japan’s!Brand!Story!of!the!Decade."!viewpoint:!n.!pag.!PDF!file.!!!!!!!!!!!!! http://www.marketingpower.com/ResourceLibrary/Publications/MarketingNew s/2010/10_30_10/Aaker%20on%20branding.pdf !

Simmons!Market!Research!Bureau.!(2002).!Simmons!national!consumer!survey.!New!

York. !18.!Jan.2011. !

"Bestb Selling!Video!Game."!Guinness1World1Records.!N.p.,!2005.!Web.!18!Jan.!2011.! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

<http://web.archive.org/web/20060317005503/http://www.guinnessworldrecor

ds.com/content_pages/!!record.asp?recordid=52404>.! !

Who1Are1Nintendo’s1Competitors?.!CNBC.!13!Nov.!2009.! Sili conera .!Web.!Transcript.!18! Jan.!2011.! ! !!!!!<http://www.siliconera.com/2009/11/13/who b areb nintendos b competitors/>.! !

Hartley,!Matt.!"Why!Is!The!Nintendo!Wii!So!Successful?"!SMARTHOUSE .!N.p.,!12!Sept.!

2007.!Web.!18!!

!!!!!Jan.!2011.!<http://www.smarthouse.co m.au/Gaming/Industry/F4U3N4C3>.! !

"Building!Brand!Association!through!In b Game!Advertising."!Tata!Consultancy!Service! (2008):!n.!pag. !!PDF!file. !

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Resonance! • millions!of!Facebook!fans ! • webpages!created!by!fans ! • consumers!re commend!Nintendo! !
Resonance!
• millions!of!Facebook!fans !
• webpages!created!by!fans !
• consumers!re commend!Nintendo!
!
products!to!their!family!and!friends! !
 !“ambassadors” !
!!!!!!!! Judgments !
Feelings !
• High!quality,!reliable!
Often!perceived!
and!durable!consoles !
as!fun,!
• Nintendo!is!seen!as!
entertaining,!
expert!and!
exciting,!creative,!
trustworthy! in!their!
approved !
field !
Performance!
Imagery!
• Nintendo!has!been!able!to!fulfill!the!
consumers’!needs!and!go!beyond!the!
expectations !
• Strong!brand !
• Wii!has!proven!to!be!reliable,!durable!
and!service!(Nintendo!Club)!is!available!
as!well !
• Consumers!perceive!playing!
games!favorable!and!enjoyable !
Nintendo!provides!unique!
experience!of!fun!time!with!family!
and!friends !
Salience !
• Very!high!brand!recall!and!recognition !
• Breadth!of!awareness! – !competes!with!all! free b time!
services!and!products!and!does!well !