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(Lab Copy) Four-Probe Experiment

Object: (1) To measure resistivity of semiconductor at different temperatures by Four Probe Method. (2) To plot a graph of resistivity as a function of inverse temperature for a semiconductor. (3) To determine Band Gap of the semiconductor. Apparatus Used: The Four Probe Set-Up (Model DEP-03 # 70) consists of the following: (i) Four Probes Arrangement : It has four individually spring loaded probes. The probes are collinear and equally spaced. Whole arrangement is mounted on a suitable stand. Colour Codes: Voltage Probes Yellow & Green, Current Probes- Red & Black. (ii) Sample : Ge Single Crystal type (n-type) in the form of a chip of thickness=0.50mm. (iii) Oven : For variation of temperature from room temperature to about 200C (max.) Specifications Heater Resistance : 36 Maximum Temperature : 200C Operating Temperature : 175C (Note: Dont go above this temp.) (iv) Thermometer (0-200C) (v) Four Probe Set-Up : For measuring temperature.

: Consiting of the following in cabinet.

(a) Constant current Generator : To provide a constant current to outer probes. Variation in current is achieved by a potentiometer provided. Specifications Open Circuit Voltage : 18V Current range : 0-20mA Resolution : 10A Accuracy : 0.25 % of the reading 1 digit Load regulation : 0.03% for 0 to full load Line Regulation : 0.05% for 10% changes (b) Oven power supply : Suitable voltage (64 V) for the oven is obtained through a step down transformer with a provision for low & high rates of heating. A glowing LED indicates, when the oven power supply is ON

(C) Digital panel meter (for measuring voltages & current). Specification Voltage range : 0-200mV & 0-2V Current range : 0-20mA (min I=0.01mA, max I=20mA) Resolution : 100V at 200mV range. Display : 3 digit, 7 segment LED (12.5mm height) with auto polarity and decimal indications. Over load indication : Sign of 1 on left and blanking of other digits. (d) Mains ON/OFF Switch, Fuse and Jewel light. Formula Used: 0 = (V / I) x 2S = 0 / G7(W/S)

G7(W/S) = 2S/W (loge2) From the relation = 0 exp (Eg/2kT) we can write, Eg /2kB = loge / (1/T) Where, V= voltage; I= Current; S= Distance between probes 2mm in our case ; W= Thickness of the crystal 0.5mm in our case ; T=Temperature of sample; kB = Boltzman constant = 8.6 x10-5 eV/deg; Eg = Energy band gap; Procedure: (1) Connect the outer pair of probes Red & Black leads to the constant current power supply) and the inner pair Yellow & Green leads to the probe voltage terminals. (2) Switch on the ac mains of Four Probe Set-up and put the digital panel meter in the current measuring mode through the selector switch. In this position LED facing mA would glow. Adjust the current to a desired value (Say 5mA).

3 (3) Now put the digital panel meter in voltage measuring mode. In this position LED facing mV or V would glow depending on position of switch and the meter would read the voltage between the probes. (4) Connect the oven power supply. Rate of heating may be selected with the help of a switch Low or High as desired. Switch on the power to the Oven. The glowing LED indicates the power to the oven is ON.

Observations: Constant Current (I) = .. (mA) S. No. Temperature (K) Voltage (volts) (Ohm cm) T-1 x 103


Distance between probes (S) =.. mm (2mm in our case) Thickness of the crystal (W) =.. mm (0.5mm in our case)

Circuit Diagram: (Should be on left page by pencil)

Calculations: (Should be on left page by pen) 0 = (V / I) x 2S = 0 / G7(W/S)

G7(W/S) = 2S/W (loge2) Eg /2kB = loge / (1/T) = 2.303 log10 / (1/T) Results: Band Gap of the given semiconductor found to be =eV

Maximum Probable Error: (Should be on left page by pen) Eg /2kB = loge / (1/T) Taking log of both sides and differentiates Eg / Eg = ? Sources of error and precautions: (i) The probes must be gently placed otherwise Germanium crystal can break. (ii) Temperature must be taken carefully. (iii) An insulating sheet must be placed between the Germanium sample and base on which it is kept.