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Regula general a pluralului este singular +s:

singular a car an apple a bed a truck

plural two cars two apples two beds two trucks

singular a bird a girl a horse a window

plural two birds two girls two horses two windows

Dac singularul substantivului se termin n ch, sh, s, ss, z, x, atunci pluralul se formeaz astfel singular +es:

singular a sandwich a church a brush a dish a wish a bus

plural two sandwiches two churches two brushes two dishes two wishes tow buses

singular a glass a class a fox a box a quiz a buzz

plural two glasses two classes two foxes two boxes two quizzes two buzzes

Unele dintre substantivele care se termin n ch nu se pronun la fel ca cele de mai sus; pronunia acestor substantive se termin n sunetul c i din acest motiv, dei ele se termin n ch, pluralul lor ia doar terminaia -s:

singular Czech epoch loch matriarch

plural Czechs epochs lochs matriarchs

singular patriarch stomach oligarch tech

plural patriarchs stomachs oligarchs techs

Dac singularul substantivului se termin n y i naintea lui y e o consoan, atunci pluralul acestui substantiv se va forma astfel singular (-y) +ies:

singular a city an artery a body a story

plural two cities two arteries two bodies two stories

singular a lady a biopsy a country a candy

plural two ladies two biopsies two countries two candies

Dac singularul substantivului se termin n y i naintea lui y e o vocal, atunci pluralul se formeaz astfel singular +s:

singular a boy a donkey a toy

plural two boys two donkeys two toys

singular a day a guy a key

plural two days two guys two keys

Dac singularul substantivului se termin n o, atunci pluralul se formeaz din singular +es sau singular +s (n funcie de cum a intrat substantivul n folosire):

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+s singular a disco a piano a photo an avocado a hairdo a kilo a soprano

plural two discos two pianos two photos two avocados two hairdos two kilos two sopranos

+es singular a tomato a potato a hero an echo a mosquito a torpedo a volcano

plural two tomatoes two potatoes two heroes two echoes two mosquitoes two torpedoes two volcanoes

Unele substantive care au vocal nainte de terminaia o, i formeaz pluralul prin adugarea terminaiei +s:

singular a bamboo a kangaroo a radio a ratio a shampoo

plural two bamboos two kangaroos two radios two ratios two shampoos

singular a stereo a studio a tattoo a zoo

plural two stereos two studios two tattoos two zoos

Unele substantive care se termin n o au dou forme de plural:

singular a buffalo a tornado a cargo a motto a tornado a zero

plural two buffalos two buffaloes two tornados two tornadoes two cargos two cargoes two mottos two mottoes two tornados two tornadoes two zeros two zeroes

Substantivele care se termin n f sau fe, i formeaz pluralul transformnd terminaia f sau fe n v, la care se adaug terminaia +es (cu excepia celor din coloana din partea stng). Dac singularul substantivului se termin n ff, atunci pluralul acestuia se va forma ntotdeauna prin adugarea terminaiei +s:

+s singular a roof a handkerchief a proof a reef a belief a cliff a sheriff a cuff a gulf a wharf plural two roofs two handkerchiefs two proofs two reefs two beliefs two cliffs two sheriffs two cuffs two gulfs two wharfs singular a thief a shelf a calf an elf a half a leaf a wolf a life a knife a wife

+ves plural two thieves two shelves two calves two elves two halves two leaves two wolves two lives two knives two wives

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Unele substantive care se termin n f au dou forme de plural:

singular a scarf a hoof a dwarf a loaf two scarfs two hoofs two dwarfs two loafs

plural two scarves two hooves two dwarves two loaves

Unele substantive au propria lor form de plural i se mpart n urmtoarele categorii: Unele dintre aceste substantive i schimb total forma la plural sau doar vocala din ultima silab:

singular a man a foot a goose a child an ox

plural two men two feet two geese two children two oxen

singular a woman a mouse a tooth a die

plural two women two mice two teeth two dice

Unele substantive n englez au aceeai form i pentru singular i pentru plural:

singular a deer a sheep a fish a species

plural two deer two sheep two fish two species

singular a moose a trout a series a means

plural two moose two trout two series two means

ex. means a means of transport many means of transport series a television series two television series species a species of bird 200 species of bird Unele substantive la singular sunt des folosite cu un verb la plural. Acest lucru se ntmpl datorit faptului ca substantivele ca cele de mai jos denumesc grupuri de persoane i deci atunci cnd le folosim ne gndim la mai multe persoane (ei/ele): government team staff family committee firm audience company ex. The government (they) want to increase taxes. (se folosete si cu verb la singular) The government (they) wants to increase taxes. The staff at the school (= they) are not happy with their new working conditions. Substantivul police este de asemenea urmat de un verb la plural: ex. The police are here. The police have arrested a thief. Substantivul people este n mod normal pluralul pentru substantivul singular person, ceea ce nseamn c person nu se prea folosete la plural cu forma persons, dei nu este greit forma general folosit este: ex. person people (rar persons). He is a nice person. They are nice people.

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Substantivul people este un substantiv colectiv i se traduce prin oameni. Dei d deja ideea de plural, poate fi folosit i cu terminaia s, caz n care substantivul se refer la popoare: ex. people (oameni) peoples (popoare) Substantivele care denumesc lucruri formate din dou pri, se folosesc numai cu forma de plural (aa cum este cazul substantivului din romn ochelari care nu se folosete niciodat la singular). Aceste substantive sunt ntotdeauna urmate de un verb la plural:

trousers pants shorts

(sun)glasses pyjamas scissors

scales compasses jeans

slacks tongs

Datorit faptului c aceste cuvinte sunt deja la plural, verbul care le urmeaz va fi ntotdeauna la plural: ex. My trousers are too long. My pyjamas are are blue. Aceste cuvinte se pot folosi alturi de expresii ca a pair of (o pereche de): ex. Those are nice jeans. / Thats a nice pair of jeans. I need some new glasses. / I need a new pair of glasses. Unele substantive nu primesc niciodat forma de plural:

money information news

progress luggage furniture


ex. What time is the news on television?

homework advice knowledge

Pentru substantivele menionate mai sus ideea de plural este dat de folosirea urmtoarelor sintagme:

a piece of/ two pieces of a bit of

pentru substantivele care denumesc lucruri abstracte

n acest caz, verbul folosit n fraz va fi ntotdeauna folosit la singular: ex. The money is on the table. I need a piece of valuable information. Unele substantive se termin deja n s. Aceste substantive dau astfel impresia de plural i de aceea la plural ele nu i schimb forma:

mathematics gymnastics politics athletics

physics electronics economics billiards

diabetes darts mumps measles

ex. Mathematics is one of the most important sciences. Gymnastics is my favourite sport. Ca fiecare limb, i limba englez exist cuvinte mprumutate din alte limbi. Este i cazul unor cuvinte care provin din limba latin. n cazul acestora, multe dintre cele care se termin n -us i formeaz pluralul prin adugarea terminaiei -es:

singular a bonus a campus a circus

plural two bonuses two campuses two circuses

singular a virus a chorus

plural two viruses two choruses

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Unele substantive care provin din limba latin i se termin n -us au dou forme i anume un plural latin i unul regulat:

singular

a cactus a fungus a nucleus a syllabus

plural two cactus two cacti two fungus two fungi two nucleuses two nuclei two syllabuses two syllabi

Dac substantivul este de origine greac i se termin n -is, pluralul se va transforma n -es:

singular an analysis an axis a diagnosis

plural two analyses two axes two diagnoses

singular a basis a crisis a thesis

plural two bases two crises two theses

Unele substantive mprumutate din limbile latin i greac i pstreaz terminaiile din limbile de provenien:

singular datum phenomenon medium

plural data phenomena media

Pluralul substantivelor compuse se formeaz de regul prin punerea la plural a celui mai important cuvnt. Acestea se mpart i ele n cteva categorii: Pentru substantivele compuse care sunt formate din construcii ca substantiv + prepoziie / adverb + substantiv, doar substantivul de baza va fi pus la plural:

singular brother-in-law sister in-law maid of honor commander-in-chief man-of-war


Alte substantive compuse pun la plural ultimul cuvnt:

plural brothers-in-law sisters-in-law maids of honor commanders-in-chief men-of-war

singular apple tree break-in singular In 1930 Count 10 apples.

plural apple trees break-ins

singular boy-friend travel agent plural

plural boy-friends travel agents

Pluralul numerelor, iniialelor i al prescurtrilor se formeaz prin simpla adugare a lui s sau simplu s:

In the 1930s / 1930s Count by 10s / 10s Know your ABCs / ABCs MPs (Members of Parliament) VIPs (very important persons)

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Adjectivele nu iau niciodat form de plural: ex. one happy boy / two happy boys.