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Timpurile Verbelor in Engleza -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pentru verbul in engleza timpurile difera fundamental fata de cele ale limbii romane.

- De aceea nu trebuie cautate in permanenta echivalente exacte intre cele doua limbi. Asa cum ne asteptam exista 3 timpuri de desfasurare a unei actiuni: prezent(present), trecut(past) si viitor(future). Verbul la aceste timpuri il voi numi deocamdata simplu. Mai jos se observa ca la randul lor aceste timpuri ale verbului in engleza (tenses) pot fi: propriu-zise sau propriu-zis perfecte. Dar si timpurile propriu-zise si propriu-zis perfecte pot fi propriu-zise sau continui. Explicatii generale pentru timpurile verbului in engleza anume: simplu, simplu continuu, simplu perfect, simplu perfect continuu Simplu - verbul reprezinta o actiune prezenta, trecuta sau viitoare nelimitata in timp. Continuu - verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor care in momentul acela se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune. Simplu Perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor Continuu Perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor si continuind sau nu in acel moment In limba engleza nu exista conjugari ca in limbile latine (romana, franceza etc) Verbul in engleza este fie regulat fie neregulat. Pentru ilustrarea timpurilor in engleza vom folosi un verb regulat Ca si in romana, verbul in engleza are 2 diateze: activa si pasiva

Verbul in engleza la diateza activa Actiunea e facuta de subiect De exemplu luam verbul to work (a munci). In engleza verbul to work e regulat: work worked - worked Iar verbul to fall(a cadea) e neregulat: fall - fell - fallen Desi doar Alice in tara minunilor poate cadea cu verbul la un timp continuu (pentru ca dureaza in timp), chiar si acest verb are timpuri continui pentru ca apare in diferite expresii: I am falling in love = Ma indragostesc My life is falling apart = Mi se duce viata de rapa Diferente intre timpurile verbelor regulate si neregulate nu exista. Ceea ce se poate observa la verbul neregulat este modul cum se folosesc cele trei cuvinte care definesc verbul adica: fall, fell si fallen. Pentru orice alt verb neregulat cele trei parti se inlocuiesc fiecare in parte cu cele trei parti ale verbului considerat.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------To work = A munci (verb regulat) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Present Tense Present Continuous Present Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous Past Tense Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous I had been working You had been working He had been working She had been working We had been working You had been working They had been working Future Tense I will work You will work He will work She will work We will work You will work They will work Future Continuous I will be working You will be working He will be working She will be working We will be working You will be working They will be working Future Perfect I will have worked You will have worked He will have worked She will have worked We will have worked You will have worked They will have worked Future Perfect Continuous I will have been working You will have been working He will have been working She will have been working We will have been working You will have been working They will have been working -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Conjugarea pentru verbul neregulat to fall - a cadea e la lectia 'verbe neregulate'. Oricum timpurile verbelor si cand se folosesc este aceeasi si la verbe regulate si la cele neregulate. Numai modul in care se conjuga difera--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.1. I work - Present Tense - Timpul Present Verbul exprima o actiune prezenta nelimitata in timp.

I work You work He works She works We work You work They work Positive Vb infinitive (+ s III sg) + sub + vb inf. Cand se foloseste: - O actiune prezenta in derulare (mereu, cateodata sau niciodata) What do you do? I work at a bank. - Cu ce te ocupi? Lucrez la o banca She never works so late. - Ea niciodata nu lucreaza atat de tarziu - Un adevar absolute/general, chiar daca se desfasoara si in clipa asta (vezi prezentul continuu, timpul urmator) The earth spins around the sun. - Pamantul se invarteste in jurul soarelui. - Se poate folosi pe post de viitor The store closes at 9:00pm. - Magazinul se inchide la 9:00pm. - Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu present tense din limba engleza - exprima ganduri, stari permanente, sentimente, comportamente, stari ale lucrurilor: I think so, I like it, I promise, I agree, I refuse, I forgive, I love, I hate, I prefer The flat is clean. Claire is a very sociable person. Exceptii: 1. Viitorul limbii romana se traduce cu Prezent Tense in limba engleza dupa: after, before, when, as soon as, while etc daca exprima o actiune viitoare Someday when I am big and strong. - Candva, cand voi fi mare si puternic 2. Verbe care nu isi pastreaza sensul Have=own appears=seems Come=live in Fit=in the right size See=understand Expresii: Often Seldom Usually Every day/week/month/time Always = every time Dupa verbe ca: be mean contain like belong remember exist understand love deserve belive own resemble depend on consist of seem prefer Negative do/does + not + vb inf Interogative Do/does

1.2. I am working - Present Continuous - Prezent Continuu Atunci cand verbul descrie o actiunea care se desfasoara acum I am working You are working He is working She is working We are working You are working They are working Positive am/is/are + vb ing + vb ing Cand se foloseste: - Atunci cand verbul descrie o actiunea care se desfasoara acum (in clipa dialogului) atunci se foloseste prezentul continuu. I am working in the garden - Lucrez in gradina Folosind verbul in engleza la prezentul continuu indica faptul ca te referi la clipa asta. I work in the garden - inseamna ca asta e ocupatia ta. De exemplu ca esti gradinar. - Verbul arata o actiune in derulare in prezent care se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune. Este legat de actiuni concrete. - Verbul reprezinta o actiune ce se petrece in clipa asta (simultana cu momentul in care vorbesc) I am working on my new book. - Lucrez la noua mea carte. - Verbul descrie o actiune generala dar simultana cu o alta actiune By the time the alarm goes off I am already working. - Cand suna ceasul eu deja lucrez (am inceput lucrul) Exceptii: 1. Verbe care descriu comportamente temporare Youre being an idiot this morning. 2. Verbe care descriu stari pentru perioade scurte de timp Im liking school munch better now. 3. Verbe care isi pastreaza sensul Having lunch=eating Coming=travelling Is seeing=meeting Fiiting=the lock to the window Expresii: Now At the moment At this moment Always=too often Short period of time (for x weeks/days) This day/evening/morning/week/month/year By the time Currently Negative am/is/are + not + vb ing Interogative am/is/are + sub

1.3. I have worked - Present Perfect - Prezent Perfect Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent I have worked You have worked He has worked She has worked We have worked You have worked They have worked Positive Have/has + vb II + sub + vb II - Daca actiunea a inceput inaintea momentului prezent si e inca in desfasurare sau daca efectul ei se vede in prezent I have worked all my adult life. - Am muncit toata viata mea adulta (si inca mai lucrez). - Sau daca e insotit de un adverb (mereu, cateodata, niciodata etc) adica: I have never worked so late before. - Niciodata nu am mai lucrat atat de tarziu (pana acum). - actiuni intamplate la un moment nedefinit I have seen the carnival several times - actiuni care descriu atat trecutul cat si prezentul They have locked the door. No one can get in. - descrierea unor experiente pe care nu le-ai trait niciodata pana atunci I have been to France - actiuni multiple in locuri/timpuri diferite The army has attacked the city 5 times. Exceptii: 1. Fata de 1.1. exista urmatoarea diferenta: I never work so late. inseamna: Nu lucrez atat de tarziu (ca si in romana) adica refuzi ideea pentru ca nu lucrezi niciodata atat de tarziu, pe cand I never have worked so late before inseamna ca desi nu ai mai lucrat atat de tarziu, acum lucrezi (atat de tarziu). Expresii: In the last week/year So far Up to now Ever Never One Many times Several times Before So far Already Yet For x minutes Since Tuesday Recently Negative have/has + not + vb II Interogative have/has

1.4. I have been working - Present Perfect Continuous - Prezent Perfect Continuu O actiune care s-a desfasurat pana acum, si va continua probabil si in viitor. I have been working You have been working He has been working She has been working We have been working You have been working They have been working Positive been + vb ing - Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa in trecut, continuata in prezent, si care poate continua si in viitor I have been working on the railroad All live long day I've been working on the railroad Just to while my time away. Am muncit la calea ferata Cat e ziua de lunga Am muncit la calea ferata Ca sa mai treaca timpul E un binecunoscut cantec englezesc. Am muncit la calea ferata toata ziua si o voi face probabil si in viitor. Negative Interogative Have/has + sub +

Have/has + Been + vb inghave/has + been + not + vb ing

1.5. I worked - Past Tense - Timpul Trecut Past Tense reprezinta actiunea care s-a desfasurat in trecut si s-a terminat. I worked You worked He worked She worked We worked You worked They worked Positive Vb II Negative Vb II + not Interogative did + sub + vb inf

- verbul reprezinta actiune trecuta ce nu a fost intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune, nu se continua in prezent folositi Past Tense. I worked till my hands hurt Am muncit pana ma dureau palmele. Asta e usor de inteles, Am muncit dar acum m-am oprit. - se foloseste foarte mult in povestiri (de exemplu vezi poeziile de la Literatura)

Exceptii: 1. Exista situatii in care Past Tense din limba engleza nu se traduce prin Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana. Ca exemplu vedeti binecunoscutul cantec pentru copii de mai jos. All around the cobbler's bench The monkey chased the weasel The monkey thought it was all in fun Pop! goes the weasel In jurul mesei cizmarului Maimuta fugarea nevastuica Maimuta credea ca se joaca Bum! face nevastuica Dupa cum vedeti verbul to chase cu past tense chased (e verb regulat la fel ca to work) se traduce prin fugarea (Imperfect) sau fugari (considerat timpul folosit in povestiri in romaneste) iar thought(Past Tense de la to think) se traduce tot prin Imperfect. 2. Daca aveti indoieli ce timp trecut al verbului sa folositi in propozitii alegeti acest timp Past Tense. Va fi mai putin deranjanta greseala.

1.6. I was working - Past Continuous - Trecut Continuu Past Continuous se refera la un eveniment in derulare la un moment in trecut care se petrece simultan cu un alt eveniment. I was working You were working He was working She was working We were working You were working They were working Positive Was/were + vb ing ing - Verbul exprima o actiune in trecut care a fost intrerupta de altceva (ca si "munceam" pe romaneste) I was working when the meteorite fell/the phone rang/you showed up. - Munceam cand meteoritul a cazut/a sunat telefonul/ai aparut tu. I was walking in the park one day In the merry, merry month of May I was taken by surprise By a pair of pearly eyes In the merry, merry month of May Ma plimbam in parc intr-o zi In vesela, vesela luna Mai Am fost luat prin surprindere De niste ochi perlati In vesela, vesela luna Mai - Verbul exprima o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat sau anterioara unei alte actiuni tot in trecut - atunci se foloseste Past Perfect I had worked as a goldminer for a long time when I finally struck it rich. - Lucram de mult timp ca miner de aur cand in sfarsit am dat de bogatii. Negative was/were + not + vb ing Interogative was/were + sub + vb

1.7. I had worked - Past Perfect - Trecut Perfect Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment trecut sau anterioara unei actiuni trecute. I had worked You had worked He had worked She had worked We had worked You had worked They had worked Positive Was/were + vb ing ing Negative was/were + not + vb ing Interogative was/were + sub + vb

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Perfect din engleza Verbul este o actiune ce s-a terminat in trecut fata de momentul/actiunea tot trecuta la care se raporteaza Emily said she had worked in her garden that morning. in gradina (si mai vechi) in dimineata aceea Emily a spus (trecut) ca lucrase

Atentie:La fel ca in romaneste aceste timpuri nu sunt batute in cuie. Emily a spus ca a lucrat in gradina in dimineata aceea Emily a spus ca lucra in gradina in dimineata aceea Emily a spus ca lucrase in gradina in dimineata aceea Toate aceste forme sunt des folosite iar folosirea lor depinde (oarecum) de context. Traducerea acestor propozitii: Emily said she worked in the garden that morning Emily said she was working in the garden that morning, respectiv Emily said she had worked in the garden that morning, plus Emily said she had been working in the garden that morning se folosesc in limbajul curent depinzand si ele (oarecum) de context

1.8. I had been working - Past Perfect Continuous - Trecut Perfect Continuu Verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat trecut cand a fost oprit de o alta actiune a carui urmari continua si azi. Situatii in care imperfectul (munceam, lucram) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza Verbul exprima o actiune trecuta, ce se afla inca in desfasurare, in momentul cand s-a produs o alta actiune tot din trecut. They had been working on the new house before the fire destroyed it (Ei)lucrau la casa cea noua inainte sa fie distrusa de foc He had been working slowly before hearing of the new deadline. (El)muncea incet inainte sa afle de noul termen limita. Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza They had been working on the new house for many months before the fire destroyed it (Ei)lucrasera luni de zile la casa cea noua inainte sa fie distrusa de foc Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul/imperfectul din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.6. I was working Vezi cazurile timpului Past Continuous 1.7. I had worked

1.9. I will work - Future Tense (I am going to work) - Timpul Viitor Verbul reprezinta o actiune viitoare nelimitata in timp. Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana este echivalent cu Future Tense din engleza Daca verbul reprezinta o actiune in viitor si nu va fi intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune folositi Future Tense. I will work OK? Am sa muncesc, BINE? Someday when I am big and strong I will walk that road and sing a song I will sing of roads so green and wide That turn and bend from side to side I will sing of roads that turn and bend That go from town to rainbow's end Intr-o zi cand voi fi mare si puternic Voi merge pe acel drum si voi canta un cantec Voi canta despre drumuri verzi si late Care se indoaie si serpuiesc dintr-o parte in alta Voi canta despre drumuri serpuitoare Care merg din oras pana la capatul curcubeului Atentie: vezi (1.1 I work) pentru primul vers din poezia de mai sus Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Future Tense din engleza Cand verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor - atunci se foloseste Future Continuous 1.10. I will be working I will be working in Paris next year Voi lucra la Paris la anul

1.10. I will be working - Future Conntinuous - Viitor Continuu

Verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor She will be coming round the mountain when she comes Cand vine, (ea) va veni in jurul muntelui Sus

1.11. I will have worked - Future Perfect - Viitor Perfect I will have worked for 20 years next month. Luna viitoare eu o sa fi lucrat de 20 de ani. (alt timp clar) Echivalentul lui "voi fi lucrat"

1.12. I will have been working - Future Perfect Continuous - Viitor Perfect Continuu

Acest timp nu prea se foloseste, pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lunga de timp decat 1.11 Future Continuous Se traduce tot prin "voi fi lucrat", si ca toate formele de timpuri continue implica o actiune in derulare By 2010 he will have been working for 40 years In 2010 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani Sus

Verbul in engleza la diateza pasiva Actiunea e suportata de subiect

De exemplu verbul to wash - a spala (alt verb regulat: wash - washed - washed) 2.1 The laundry is washed weekly - Rufele sunt spalate saptamanal. Dar: I wash the laundry weekly - Eu spal rufele saptamanal 2.2 I am washing laundry now - The laundry is being washed now. 2.3 I have washed the laundry - The laundry has been washed. 2.4 I have been washing the laundry - The laundry has been washed. 2.5 I washed the laundry yesterday - The laundry was washed yesterday. 2.6 I was washing the laundry - The laundry was being washed 2.7 I had washed the laundry- The laundry had been washed 2.8 I had been washing the laundry - The laundry had been washed 2.9 I will wash the laundry- The laundry will be washed. 2.10 I will be washing the laundry - The laundry will be washed. 2.11 I will have washed the laundry - The laundry will have been washed 2.12 I will have been washing the laundry - The laundry will have been washed