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Connectors For Fixed Partial Denture

It is a part of fixed partial denture that joins its individual units together.

1-Rigid :
-The rigid connector is a solid one - It may be casted, welded or soldered.

limited movement between pontic and retainer, stress breaker on the weak abutment

1.Rigid connectors
A- The cast connector
the entire bridge cast as one piece, i.e. a single piece casting. N.B. -disadvantage of single piece casting. -cannot verify individual retainers. -as length of a single piece bridge increases, its inaccuracy also increased

B-The welded connector

depends on melting and fusion of the adjacent surfaces to be


N.B -laser welding Advantages disadvantages

C- The Solder connector

-any bridge larger than three units should be casted in two pieces and then soldered.

Requirements of the dental solder :

1- tarnish and corrosion resistance. 2- Lower fusing temperature than alloy to be soldered. 3- Free flowing through narrow gaps. 4-The same color as the alloy to be soldered.

Requirements of an ideal solder joint

The soldering uses:

1-Adding proximal contact. 2-Repairing casting voids. 3-Joining of fixed partial denture units (Bridge assemblage).

Steps of assembly


2. Investing.

3. Soldering.

Factors affecting success of soldering procedure

1- the gap distance between the assembled units. 2- solder alloy selection 3- soldering flux and anti flux 4- soldering investment 5- mode of heat application

1-The gap distance between the assembled units.

-Compensation for solidification shrinkage. -Capillary attraction for the solder alloy.

The factors which may be expected to affect the width of solder gap are - setting expansion of the soldering investment.
- Thermal expansion of investment during pre-heating. - Expansion of pontic and retainers during heating and expansion of these parts when exposed to soldering temperature. -Type of the alloy used (The space for gold alloy 0.10.2mm, for non-precious 0.7mm).

2-Solder alloy selection Gold solders are classified by fineness and by carat. Fineness. carat. Solders are also classified into pre-ceramic (used before application of porcelain) and post ceramic solders (used after application of porcelain).

3- Soldering flux and anti flux Soldering Flux Borax glass (Na2B4O7 ). All fluxes should be kept from contacting porcelain- veneered surfaces. Soldering anti flux - placed on a casting before the flux application. -Graphite (from a pencil) ,iron oxide (rouge) in a suitable solvent.

4-soldering investment
Soldering investments are similar in composition to casting investments. Casting investments, both gypsum and phosphate bonded, mixed with water only, have been used for soldering. Soldering investments should ideally contain fused quartz (the lowest thermally expanding form of silica) as their refractory component.

5-Mode of heat application Torch soldering soldering flam Oven soldering.

Infra red soldering.

Soldering technique 1- building up of deficient proximal contacts or contours or to repair casting voids in single unit restoration. 2- Investing soldering technique. It used for assembling components of FPD

1-adding proximal contacts.

2- Investing soldering technique soldering index. Different materials could be used for such purpose e.g. plaster, autopolymerizing resin and zinc oxide eugenol impression material.

C:\Documents and Settings\Home\My Documents\Downloads\Video\investing soldering.flv

II. Non-rigid connectors.

1-Fixed partial denture with pier abutment 2-When a common path of insertion can't be obtained(Mesial drift of teeth).
3-Complex FPD, where it is easier to replace and repair it, if divided into shorter components, especially in questionable prognosis.

1-short clinical crown. 2-the teeth that are narrow bucco-lingual. 3-large pulp horn (young patient). 4-Unequally distributed occluding force on all parts of the fixed-supported bridge.

Requirements of non rigid connector.

I-It should be as small as possible and strong enough to resist all the forces of mastication without fracture. 2-It should not impair esthetics. 3-easily cleaned. 4-It should have a high wear resistance . 5-It should apply a minimum amount of stress and
strain on the abutment teeth.

Types of non rigid Connector:

According to the shape, the connectors may be: a. Dove tail(key and key-way). b. Split pontic (connector inside the pontic). c. Cross pin and wing. d. Sub occlusal, occlusal in posterior teeth and lingual rest in anterior teeth.



(Key, Key

- Components way). - Location.

- Types:
1-Prefabricated (precision). 2-Laboratory made (semi precision).

1-prefabricated(precision attachment).


made (Semi Attachment):


b.Split Pontic:

c- Cross pin and Wing:(Two pieces pontic system)

d.Sub-occlusal Rest
Advantage:-normal embrasures -No interference with occlusion Disadvantages: retainers must be placed simultaneously.

Occlusal rest:

Lingual rest:

Advantages of non rigid Connectors.

1- Stress breaking of the applied occlusal force. 2- Overcoming problems of alignment of two or more abutment teeth have not common path of insertion.

Disadvantages of non rigid connector:

1-excessive reduction of tooth structure 2- The excessive cost. 3-The clinical and laboratory procedures need qualified dentist and technician.

Thank you