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Theschemeofthecraniometricalpoints

1gnathion; 2spinamentalis; 3punctumincisivuminferius; 4punctumincisivumsuperius; 5punctumnasospinale; 6rhinion; 7dakrion; 8nasion; 9glabella; 10ophrion;

11 pterion; 12suturacoronalis; 13bregma; 14stephanion; 15obelion; 16lambda; 17opistocranion; 18inion; 19asterion; 20punctumauriculare; 21gonion; 22punctumossiszygomatici.

Presistanceofpillarsofthevisceralcranium

1.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Sustentaculum(columna,lineasustentaculi)anterius(caninumseunasofrontale); 1a.lineainfraorbitalis; 1b.lineasupraorbitalis; Sustentaculummedium(zygomaticumseualveolozygomaticum); 2a.lineaanterior; 2b.lineaposterior; Sustentaculumposterius(pterygopalatinumseupterygoideum); Linearesistentiaepalati(palatiossei); Lineatrajectaalveolaris; Lineatrajectaascendens.

Structuresofresistanceofthebaseoftheskull.Thelinesofmostfrequentfractures
1. 2. Arcus orbitalis (arcus transversus I) (frontalis) [lineasustentaculi(resistentiaefrontalis)]; Jugum sphenoidale et alae minores ossis sphenoidalis (arcus transversus II, orbitosphenoidalisseucolumnaanterior); Margo inferior partium petrosarum temporalium (arcustransversusIII,petromastoideus)posterior; Basisosseamediosagittalis; Sinustransversus(arcustransversusIV); Linearesistentiaeoccipitalis.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Fasciaoftheneck

1m.trapezius; 2mm.scalenietmm.prevertebrales; 3fasciculusneurovascularis; 4m.omohyoideus; 5m.sternocleidomastoideus; 6m.thyreohyoideus; afasciacollisuperficialis(I); blaminasuperficialisfasciaecollipropriae(II); claminaprofundafasciaecollipropriae(III);

7 m.sternohyoideus; 8platysma; 9larynx; 10glandulathyroidea; 11oesophagus; 12septumintermusculare. d fasciaendocervicalis(laminaparietalisetvisceralis) (IV); efasciaprevertebralis(V).

Trianglesoftheneck

1fossaretromandibularis; 2m.trapezius; 3m.sternocleidomastoideus; 4tendom.omohyoidei; 5fossasupraclavicularisminor; 6fossajugularis; 7m.omohyoideus; 8oshyoideum; 9,10m.digastricus(venteranterioretventer posterior);

11 trigonumomotrapezoideum; 12trigonumomoclaviculare; 13trigonumomotracheale; 14trigonumcaroticum; 15trigonumsubmandibulare; 16trigonumsubmentale; 17trigonuma.lingualis(); 18m.mylohyoideus; 19n.hypoglossus(XII).

Pointsofpalpationofsomearteriesandnervesofthehead

1 a.supraorbitalis; 2a.temporalissuperficialis; 3aoccipitalis; 4n.occipitalis(Arnald).

Conductingpathwaysoftheolfactoryanalyzer

10 9 12

13

6 7 11 8

1neuronumI(cellulaebipolaresneurosensoriales); 2filaeolfactoriae; 3neuronumII(cellulaemitralesbulbiolfactorii); 4tractusolfactorius; 5neuronumIII(trigonumolfactorium,substantiaperforataanterior,septumpellucidum); 6gyrusparahyppocampalis; 7uncus,corpusamygdaloideumetareasubcallosa; 8nasusexternus; 9corpuscallosum; 10gyruscinguli; 11gyrusdentatus; 12fornix; 13thalamus.

Conductingpathwaysoftheopticanalyzer

13

12

15 5

8chiasmaoptica; 9tractusopticus; 10nuclein.oculomotorii; 11tractustectospinalis; 12tractustectobulbaris; 13decussatiodorsalistegmenti(Meynert); 14ganglionciliare; 15medullaspinalis; 16colliculiinferiores.

1epitheliocyti(neurosensorii)coniferietbacilliferi; 2neuronumI(neuronbipolare); 3neuronumII(neuronganglionaremultipolare); 4neuronumIII: 4apulvinarthalami; 4bcorpusgeniculatumlaterale; 4ccolliculisuperiores; 5radiatiooptica(Gratiolet); 6regiosulcicalcarini; 7nervusopticus;

Innervationofthemusclesoftheeyeball

1nucl.n.oculomotorii(III); 2an.accessorius(EdingerWestfal); 2bnucleusimpar(Perl)(III); 3nervusoculomotorius: 3aramussuperior; 3bramusinferior; 4nucl.n.trochlearis(IV); 5nucl.n.abducentis(VI); 6fissuraorbitalissuperior; 7ganglionciliare; 8m.rectussuperior;

9m.rectuslateralis; 10m.rectusinferior; 11m.rectusmedialis; 12m.levatorpalpebraesuperioris; 13m.obliquussuperior; 14m.obliquusinferior; 15m.ciliaris; 16m.sphincterpupillae; 17truncuscerebri; 18neurocytuspyramidalismagnus(Betz).

Conductingpathwaysofthetrigeminalnerve(V)

1neuronumI(neurocytuspyramidalismagnus, Betz)(gyrusprecentralis); 2gyruspostcentralis; 3neuronumIII(thalamusopticus): 4nucl.n.trigemini(V); 5nucleisensorialesn.trigemini(V); 5anucl.mesencephalicusn.trigemini(V); 5bnucl.pontinus(V); 5cnucl.spinalisnervitrigemini(V); 6gangliontrigeminale(Gasser); 7n.ophthalmicus; 8n.maxillaris; 9n.mandibularis; 10radixmotorian.trigemini; 11radixsensorian.trigemeni; 12tractuscorticonuclearis.

Conductingpathwaysofthefacialnerve(VII)

1neuronumI(neurocytuspyramidalismagnus, Betz)(gyrusprecentralis); 2girusparahipocampalisetuncus; 3thalamusopticus; 4nucl.n.facialis(motorius)(neuronumII)(VII); 5n.salivatoriussuperior(VII); 6n.tractussolitarii(VII); 7gangliongeniculi; 8ganglionpterygopalatinum; 9gangliasubmandibulariaetsublingualia; 10canalispterygoideus;

11canalisn.facialis(Fallopius); 12glandulaesublingualisetsubmandibularis; 13glandulalacrimalis; 14glandulaenasales; 15foramenstylomastoideum; 16plexuscaroticusinternus; 17plexusparotideus; 18m.stapedius; 19mm.faciei; 20chordatympani; 21tractuscorticonuclearis.

Efferent,motorpathwaysofthefacialnerve(VII)

1neuronumI(neurocytuspyramidalismagnus, Betz)(girusprecentralis); 2neuronumII(nucl.n.facialis,motorius)(VII); 2aparssuperior; 2bparsinferior;

3canalisn.facialis; 4mm.facieisuperiores; 5mm.facieiinferiores; 6tractuscorticonuclearis; 7m.stapedius.

Conductingpathwaysoftheauditoryanalyzer

1gyritemporalestransversi(Heschl)(gyrus temporalissuperior); 2neuronumIII(corpusgeniculatummediale); 3neuronumIII(colliculusinferiortecti mesencephali); 4neuronumII(nucleipartescochlearisn. vestibulocochlearis); 4anucleusdorsalis; 4bnucleusventralis; 5neuronumI[ganglionspirale(Corti)]; 6organumCorti(epitheliocytusneurosensorius); 7tractustectospinalis; 8striaemedullares; 9corpustrapezoideum; 10lemniscuslateralis; 11conexionesadnervosIII,IV,VI; 12cochlea(labyrinthusosseus); 13ponsVarolio; 14radiatioacustica.

Conductingpathwaysofthevestibularanalyzer

1lobustemporalis; 2neuronumIII(thalamusopticus); 3neuronumII(nucleivestibularesn.vestibulocochlearis): asuperior(); binferior(Roller); clateralis(Deiters); dmedialis(Schwalbe); 4ganglionvestibulare(Scarpa)(neuronumI); 5cristaeampullaresductuumsemicircularium; 6maculautriculietmaculasacculi; 7tractusvestibulospinalis(Levental); 8tractusvestibulocerebellarisettractuscerebellovestibularis; 9conexionesadnervoscranialesIX,XetIII,IV,VI.

Conductingpathwaysoftheglossopharyngealnerve(IX)

15

1neuronumI(motorium)(gyrusprecentralis,neurocytuspyramidalismagnus,Betz); 2uncusetgyruspostcentralis; 3neuronumIII(thalamusopticus); 4neuronumII(motorium)(nucleusambiguus); 5nucleussalivatoriusinferior(neuronumI); 6neuronumII(sensitivum)(nucleustractussolitarii); 7neuronumI(sensitivum)(ganglionsuperius); 8neuronumI(sensitivum)(ganglioninferius,nodosum); 9ganglionoticum(neuronumII); 10glandulaparotis; 11foramenjugulare; 12ramusmusculistylopharyngei; 131/3posteriorlinguae(papillaevalatae); 14tractuscorticonuclearis; 15nervustympanicus.

Conductingpathwaysofthevagusnerve(X)

1neuronumI(motorium)(gyrusprecentralis,neurocytuspyramidalismagnus,Betz); 2uncusetgyruspostcentralis; 3neuronumIII(sensitivum)(thalamusopticus); 4neuronumII(motorium)(nucleusambiguus); 5nucleusdorsalisnervivagi(neuronumI); 6neuronumII(sensitivum)(nucleustractussolitarii); 7neuronumI(sensitivum)(ganglionsuperius,jugulare); 8neuronumI(sensitivum)(ganglioninferius,nodosum); 9gangliaintravisceraliaetparavisceralia(neuronumII); 10mm.pharyngis,laryngis,palatimollisetc.; 11foramenjugulare; 12nervusauricularisposterior; 13radixlinguae.

Conductingpathwaysofthetasteanalyzer

1neuronumI(gangliongeniculi,VII); 2neuronumI(ganglioninferius,IX); 3neuronumI(ganglioninferius,X); 4neuronumII[nucleustractussolitarii(VII,IX,X)]; 5neuronumIII(thalamusopticus); 6gyrusparahippocampalisetuncus; 7canalisnervifacialis(Fallopius); 8foramenjugulare; 9lingua.

Conductingpathwaysoftheaccessorynerve(XI)

10

2a 2b

4 7 3

5
1neuronumI(gyrusprecentralis,neurocytuspyramidalismagnus,Betz); 2neuronumII[nucleimotoriin.accessorii: anucleusambiguus(IX,X,XI); bnucleusspinalis(XI); 3foramenoccipitalemagnum; 4foramenjugulare; 5mm.sternocleidomastoideusettrapezius; 6radicescranialesnerviaccessorii; 7radicesspinalesnerviaccessorii; 8ramusexternus; 9ramusinternus; 10tractuscorticonuclearis.

Conductingpathwaysofthehypoglossalnerve(XII)

1nucleusnervihypoglossi; 2medullaspinalis(segmentiC1,C2,C3); 3canalishypoglossus; 4radixsuperioransaecervicalis; 5radixinferioransaecervicalis; 6ansacervicalis; 7foramenmagnum; 8mm.infrahyoidei; 9ramilinguales(musculilinguae); 10oshyoideum; 11mandibula; 12truncuscerebri; 13cerebellum.