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. Evaluation Models. Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation. Second Edition.

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I. PROGRAM EVALUATION: AN
INTRODUCTION
Thi, openin8 ""tion .,.. ,.,,,'""''''" Mod, l, intrOO""" P"'!!""" " . iu,,,ion in th ree
O"""iew chapt"". The chapter "",i<w< the hi<tt<y of f'ID!!J'llll ,, ..... ion. It
b<8illS b), ,umm.rizing 19" n, ury eff"," to judpe and pa)' ,,,1I00I """""""I by
th.ir "ude-nt' ""h"wr",n", to .,:credit "hool".oo :>I", to .umine mtain polky
i ....... 'lKh .. ttl< , ...... ""'P"llinp in<l"""""'. The ch.pter ,ui>seGo<ntl), tn.,., ttl<
de,'ok.pm<ot of ttl< projlfllm "',Iuatioo f .. kI hom its _ . i. Nucation to its
curre n' ,",,",. I'ro;<Irnm """u",ioo i, obo.,n to be. maturinp di, dplin< .. ith. rkh
I""ature and on< that .. ,n, .. " . ." . COOUI1 "nit), de,-.Iop"",nt.
hoot,ing. mili'",), operation,. ... for""""nt, gID",",""'"L ond ,," "c>tiOlt . plu,
man)' otber f" lds . Rathor th.n beinp de",rihfd main ly an A""''''' :lJl on' erpnso.
,he chapter porIflI)" I",,!!mm "".luation ... n "'paooing prof"""", that now has
" 'altation ooci<1ie> in...,.. than 20 COIl n""' . The oerood chapter .. ,iew. mr><lol .
met.p/>or . and deftnirion,. which"", diff,,,,nt "'''Y''''' o, .. ".tioo.
F,nally. the f""nda,iOllai mr><lol, chap'''' iu.ntifi <i .00 "om,,,,,, 22 ' ppro"eI",. to
projlmm ,,.1" "'100. <"lmiMl inF in "."umer< reporl type r:lJl",og of til< "",<I
promi' inS mr><lol . The chapter identifi .. ""0 p .. udoe,aJ .. tion """""",Il<. to "'aJ_
uation .. . 00 <ategOO"" 'Il< 2() l'1' iti"", .. 'Pp'ooche, '" Qu<>tion';
Methods_Ori"ntNi. Impt'O"e"" ntlAcr""otallili ty_Ori<ntNl, and Soci.1
Directed, n.. .. ill' ler cat'gori "'" <mf>lo)'<d in the remainder of the t.ook to parti _
tion the P"""""" ,,'alu:tlion mr><lok
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L PROGRA'" EVALUATlON:A
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
(;>:{)'W. : P . . ' '"'''AUS . .... " "'''''' . , _ STUFO"LEIIE,'"
., ..... ,lOn ;, o/" n m"'''''enl y ... """'" pheoo"'''lIOn.
people dale i .. "pinn ins from Itl< late 1\lOCI,; ... ilh Il>e infu,ioo by til<
federal po,'emme nl of ''''lle sum> of""""y into. wid< ""'ge of hum,n "''''ice
f"""f"'Ill'. ioclooi np <doc>tioo. Ho ... e' ..... f""Ollflim "' . """"'" h .. "" intere.ung
hiSlo<)' thai prl"''''' by at le.tiI 150 re .... ttl< [>los"'" of e,'"""""", du,inS
Il>e .,. of I'r<OOent """"",,', G",,,, Society",," ,I>< er,,,,,!!,,oce of " .. Iu,,"'" .. .
m.t.ring prof",,,,,,, ';oc< Il>e .;,,;... A defini lh.., hi"",}" of JlfO!'flIIII <\',1 ... "" t...
)'<1 to Ire writ",n .00 in til< sp.><e .,-"!abIe to u, "'" con 00 little '''''''' th.an offe,
IIlOde>t ootl,ne. broad brush W'<>Is ol tl>< 1.00","1'" that c"" .. it .... tha,
ft i> imf"""' nt ,hat pI!IIe in"'f<SIl in tl>< oo,,,,,,pt"," i,.OOn of '''lullt'''' ..-e .... "'"
of "'" r", IJ', _, """ oopin,. Soch ...... ..,""'. of Il>e hi"",}" of f""F'lIm
","""'t"" shoold Ie.1d to. ben "ndor .. of""", .nd why 1/", r",' J t...
de"eloped .. it dJ<l .
Wtl<r< to For oo ..-eni<nc< slWl """,ilre .. "en [><fOOO; ,n Il>e life
of f""Oll'''' \ ",.Iu",IOII . The fi r .. i, ttl< 1"'.;00 prior to 1901 wh"h ... e coi l t'"
At'" of k,f<-. til< from 11m Ufoil 19]Q call "" AI'" of fJi<""'1
and T"ri"R. "" tlrird. from 19)) to 19-11. m.i)' .. caIJ<J til< T}'I."", Ag<: t'"
fo,mh. from 1\46 '" ._ 19'i7. n ul til< .ig< of llllfOCt1fC.: ,'" fiftb. 1'00\ I'I\:!
to 1972. " t'" Ag" .j the <i,m. from 1913 '" "" At<' of
Prof",""'ii",ri",,: and final ly the ""<om from 1983 to 100) til< .il'" of f.rpaNi'"
IJI>I! i'''g''''_
.... ;11',. U.""""'" 1 . .... _ ... "V.WA""" .... "" a .. c"".o """
-_ ........ -....
. Evaluation Models. Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation. Second Edition.
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We Ihi, pel'ioO in our .... tory "."""""" ill 1m bee ... ", t""'-"
u.. yeOl in mch F.n>h in,'<fl(<<I qU:>n(il>(i .. , mOll to score "",nlll' _
bolt< (Hoskin< 1968!- R<!"lICing ."...1""'", ...... "' ...... of"oo"n( pell'omunce wi'h
n",l for. "oor,,,d' ;rru;W<f l"',ml1(e. (he of exami""", and u.. """"g_
.00 of ""' ... Thil n. the fi,,, de,elo".,..", in (he fie" of
"" we loov.' i, too:Ly (Moo.. u, & 1992). In f.., t Fari,h
. (<<hooIogy thO( an import.n( _ ,n ,he hi"",)' of
P"'!!"'''' ",'aI ... ,ion '0 Pf"",nl
The 19!h cen( u,y "'a.; 1lI< .... l"' u,,,i.1 R<\'",u(;oo wilh 011 of,,, . tten_
dafl t economic .00 '",hnolog",al ohonj>. The "el)' , tru<I"", of .o""'Y "-" " ......
fOf""' . M. jor social <hong<" oc<.rre<l . There .. '" d ... (ic <h"'pe in ph)..,.1 .00
n",fltlI health and OOI.iooic in >OCiaI life .00 ",,--i.>I cctIS<"""" . .00 in u.. , truclores
of ,ooal "lieocies . There "'lIS ,he 1aI,,,,z_falre philoiophy of Bomh.m . ... the
hum. ni( Oli.n philo>ophy of (te ph ib nt htop;'" (Thoml""". 19'10). There were
""",i n",," but ofien Jra",n 00' ,".mpt' 10 reform Ioc"'iOll. I .... oocial
.... . gene ... '" both Gre., B, i .. ,".oo u.. Uni(<<I State, .
In G,u, Britain the COOl,n"ios "'(empu to reform Iue."oo. !he
poor hospital .. otp/I'oage'. and (>Ublie te.lth, h.luauoo. of !he", ""iaI
age"";" and function, W<fe inform.1 :wl ''''I'f'''Sionl<l1< in n",ure_ orte n
t_ u.. fOlm of <oo\m""""" "" up to "peel'
of u.. ""'. ul><i<r For eum!'le. the R0)101 C",""",<>ion of lroquil)'
into Prim"')' Ed"".,ion in Ireland uoo" , (he F .... I of fIy,,'i>. .fl<r """"' inp ",,;ti_
mon)' and ,,'ilil. Iae",nted "'-..- (te P"'!!"'" of the <hlidrefl in the
",,(ionaI _ of 1"'1 .... _ The """'is CotnmI".;oo 'e<ommende.i (he odoptlOfl 01
koown .. ""yn" n' by ",ul,,_ al ready used in EnSI"". wtlereby
",ache,. ",I""", woo" be depeoo"nt in pan 00 the ""ul .. 01 ...... 1 "'111'''''(100'
in ",.mng. ,pellillg_ ..... ari (hmetk (K<l I'ghan & M..Jau,. 1m: .\1>d , &
K, II.gtwo. 11l'I2J. Anothe, e>.amp!< d thi, approoctr (0 ev:rlwltioo w .. the 100
Roj' al Coomu .. ioo 00 Smal l Po, :u>d 1'<\'''' 11o."".Is. wh",h reoommeOOed .fl<r
.tu<ly ,hat infectious-di><= IIoo;pit.ob 008l>t "' be open .... f"", to .. citizens
(pinle<. 1971).
Roj ..t JI' ...-.iiono lite still ....J truay in Gr.", Britain to "'._ ""'''' 01
<ooc"n_ Roogh oou"',.".". in the Un"eJ S""" to these COIlU"'ion, ""' preo.i _
.!ential oom"".""" (for """'!'I<. President', Coomliuion on School FiMoc, ),
Whi", 1100'" par><l! (q __ the W)"", Hoose P.D<I 00 :<Ion Pui>ll< F.JLIC.uon) . anJ
ooogre"o;)(Ia] heari ng'. ThrougOOut thei, ru .. Of)' "')':iIl pre,",,"ill
.... eoogre.>iorul tearing' haw ",,,'1 ... 'n<"'" of ",.hI"',ng hum""
...."ice< projI""'" ofvarioo, , ..... through the e",mi"..ioo oI,,id<nce .. th<r path_
<raJ loy the Cmuni.,.,., Of pres<nt<d to in """llOIIy loy roocemed
I-lo<.-",-..-. thI, approoch to "'aluati",, of" " only ,mblemat;" or ,)'mOOlI<. N. '-
Cnsp {l982J ""I"u"", the !"'-"'<lo "",me of <UdI e""J ... "OII' in , 01 fICtion.
One ofhi, char<>ctm di"",,,, "')-.J <""un .. """, mi, w.y: "Appo;n( i (, f 1 (hat
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, . __ , . __ ,A "'-"" ,
y",,"'e >OCOO1plisheJ :>OJ .bout n. in , ... bop< ,toot by t ... time
it, report<d. the problem haw di_arM or been 0 .. " .. .., by""""""
'I', 1-18).
In Gr ... , Bri.,in durins ,hi. p<noo reform projIf>Ill' pu ' in .,.,.,.. it
n, noo unu",,1 to d<nwoJ y. ,., y ", .. Iu","'" ' hroo!h y"'m of .0nu.1 repon'
.. bmntal by "" in,p<el"""" Fa- ."'mpl<. m <d u<.""" (tie", school iR>poc_
'01> ,ha, "iYteJ .""" ><.- ""nWllly .00 ,ubmi((1 report, on ' tlei, condition
and 011 pupil at(>l nm."," (Kell.p:tun & MadaLl'l. 1\182: & KeIl.atIan. 1992).
Simil:>rty ,he Poor Law rorruni<Siooer> had paid inspe<tOl' .... to 0'-'''''''
<oo'pli>r> (tie Poor La,.. Ameoo",.n( Act of 1834 IPi"'''. 1971). The ,y"em
of m.intaimns .... lml in,pect"'''''' '0 ' .. mine .nd ,,-.I"",e ttle of ,he
_, .. 1St< toJ.ay in Gre" Bn"io .nd 1",I.nd. In (tie Un ital S"' ... .. ,.,ml
imp<elOl> .... mpIo)"ed by some "at< .nd federal fu< .UIllpIe. the
Oc"'patiooal S,f<l)' and Health A<imini,tra(iotl (OSHA) 'mploy. ifl>pectot>
'0 mooi,or heol,h tIaz.>rds in ttle ..-crtpla<e. lo,,,"..,i0l'l)'. (tie 'l'''''m of .... lml
in<plOI> ... """"'I for .... lWlIion Iw =<,,'1 >CO ... ".o,i on in (tie " .lu"',Ofl
li .. ",u ",.
",tier Ilo"'lopmen" in Gr ., O,i .. in duri n thi, period "'" of """ .
F ..... during the mi.Jdle of the nitl<t""nth ""n'ul)' a number of.OeiatOoo> dOOi _
<,tal to soctal 'nquiry <am. , n' o .. i"""",. "\be>< ooc;"ies rond ued .nd publi_
dHd findin, on numbe, of oocU proble"" ' hat .... "'ry influen,i. 1 ,n
" imul .. in di",u",ioo (for , .. mf>l<. o...o",O<t ' , 1842 R.port OIl the 5oni1>l)' Coo_
dition of (tie L,l>o<ing PopIJ"'oo of Gre .. Britain IPint. 1'171]). Serond. oft.n
in """""" to the", 1"""" "'peru. 00"""",""'" NabIi<I"eJ to ""-"'!!' (tI< pro-
.om,,.i,,,,,, ... up rom",i,,,,,,, of <nqU'I)'. Thes< ofH<lal.
in,."i,,;':,m of "ariou, soc,lI I"""I'W"'. '''''h .. prm'ir.oiol
(Pinu r. 1'171). Both the ''''JH)'Io' "'" important , n ( .... the)' "",,,nu" ,he
of"" empirical .pproach '0 ,tI< .. al .... ion
In , ... Unitl S""", pem.p< ,he ...""" formal "'al UalIOO in Ig l5 .. ... n , ...
Arm)' ororu"", Depanme n' J",,,, up. ')'iI<m ofreul .. ioru for 1M "unirOfmi,y
of "",nufactu", of III anru Ofdnaoce'" (Smith. 1'.IS7. p. To ocoompIi>h thts "
""om< d .... 1M of people .. .. import.n, .. ,be
of fllolIerial .. The !<lias),"""")' of ttl< oI;illOO <r.Jtsm>Jl had to ),,,iJ to unifof1luty.
0. .... '""""" dec3des the Ordruoce Deport"",m .!e,-.Ioped the ><I mini,,,,,i,, . rom_
mun,cation.,n'pe<tion. ac<oon(ins. OO",.ocrati<, ' OO mectlan.,.1 thn>qu<> 10>_
red <oofOfmny and """i<ed "' the of '''''''"'''''''''_ ""'" and the
"'ent ual m.nufacture of. 00;1 of mass-prodoced product> in the 20th con(ury
(Smith. e.,.ly eff"", b), the Ordruoce Departm, n' Fred_
.rkt T.yle<'. Se"'ntif", Man.emen, dlSCUsseJ below.
The ft"" form.1 ,"empl '0 ,,,Iu"'. ttl< p<rfonn,,,,,, of ><.-, (ool place in
80<100 '" HI41.Thi> e,'"," i, ,mportan( in , ... hi>lOrj' of ."alUalioo """.U'" it
Img tradi,lOO of pupil"'" oroteS ... I"i""if'lll """'" of dau 00 ,,'aIwI,
,he .ffectiwness of. hooI or ,""",,:t,onal projIf>Ill. Then. at ,he tlfFin of Samuol
Gridley "'ritte n =)' .. "",in:llion, in(roJoced ,nto t ... 80<100
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'''lH'''''' 000:>1, by 11"""", Mann.oo ,be Bo.vJ ofEJoc.'loo. O;t"",ibly ,be .... y
,nrn. nl<l<lelal .ft" """" tJSl ,n Europe '" 1M tim"_ ..... to "-"fIla
,be "iva or or'" .". "' .... ion>. The la".". mode of , .. mi .... oo bocom<
odrni niSlfa!i,,ly ,,,',ru ... "h ,,,,,,,,as! numbe" of pupil' .00 .. '" ... n ..
unf .. r 1.. ...... "",IJ "'" be .undar<liJai for all. pupil,. The OIl"",,",,!, poi'" in
term, 01' pmjItlIIll " -a1u,,ion w .. ttle hiJOon poliO)' a,n<h behioo ,be m,,,.., to
"',i",n ...,i"",,,,,,,,, fWll<1)'. " "' .. til< of data for int"_><hooI """_
pari""" Ih>. , oouid be u.oo in deei>ion> I<I,"i n8 ,be an"",,1 'PfIOilUtn<flt 01'
tleodma"",_ >nJ Mann a",mpt,J to <>OIbI1>II J,ff,,,, .. i, 1 ocI>ooi ,If"", .oo
u.oo ,be;< daI. to , I,mi""", beadma",,, "I'I"""'i ' bem 00 the >boi itjoo of
rorpornl J>Un'shm< n! _ nils is on ,nteres" np ..-Iy ' ....... 01' pol ioci",'joo of , '011_
"""" Jaoa_
Be-tw..., 1887.00 189I<.Jo>eph Rio, oonduc ,e.l i. 8""""'ly rerogniz<d '"'
,be fLrst form. 1 ""oc,,ioful pmjIram ,,-.Iu,,"" in Amerka. lie oarrie.l 00' <001_
JI'If"'i'''' .rudy on 1M ,'01"" of mil .. 'I"llins 1IISt1oc000 """'" a nu mber of!Chool
dl>lrict,. Ri. Uk< MalUl ,00 110w. bef"", him. use.! ' ''' """'" as hi, criteri, me:>-
....... ,n hi, "'>lu"",, of in"ructioo_ 11, fou nJ no .. flCant I .. ming pim
be,,,',,,,n ,y",n" '{>"'" up to :!OO m,o",,,, . w"". <peIli,,!, "nJ those
.. litt i< .. ton mim. PO' ... "'. _ Ric<', ,",,,It< led ""..,,,,,,,, '0 re-
,nmine ,00 ,wnllully ,,,,,i>< tbeir ..,..-oa<h to 1M """hin , 01' spelling. Mor,
imf>O<l ... from tbe por n' 0I','i.,.' oI'thi, hr>rory oI'pto:I''''''' .... h ... ien;, hi,
men' th" "" u<,,tor> 10 beeom" peri"'''rtali''' anJ 'I"""'i""'''' thi n,." .00
Ius us< 01' romporaoi," ,<s,,,.,<h to "udy ," , de n! ""hie,'..,..", (Rice.
1897). Rio, "'''' . h.ro,08'" of,lIe "perim"ntal .bign approoch 10 ",aIuation firs'
";"-anced by Lindqui" and "tended ",1<1 ctwnpioneJ by Campbell (Camp_
bell &: Stanley. 196} C.....,t:<-II. 1<JbIj) anJ """'" in tbe 19ffis .00 Inls anJ by
MO>lelIor anJ hi< oone.p ...... !lie mi<j 1'IIl),; ("" Chapter S).
Before I< .. thi, ,.<t)' bri,f ' ",""", n! of tbe 'i!< of "form. """be, dewlop-
""' .. oboo ld be ""'ntiooe.i. The fooM""on of ttle ac<redi"tion or prof,,,Oonai
joop,,,,,,ot appro;><h 10 ",-.Iu"ien <lUI b< di,'ly to the .<tabIi,t\me1ll of'lIe
Nooh Cen' ",1 A"""ia""" of CoIl<g anJ S-erondary School, in ,lie lat, 101>.
The """"'"tat"'" Ji.j oot. _",-..-. [OlIn Y"'" .tature unrit tile 19));
sa additOonai "'Fiorul ","""wien, were e>tabl i<h<d ac,,,.. tile U.S.
Si"", tilen ttle """""hting "",,',me", ha> ",panded tre"",_I)' .00 S"inai 8"'''
"""'I"'h .00 creJibjli t)' .. a majo< ""''''''' of ""aluali"!' ,lie adequ",y d ea.c..","",
i"" it uti"",,_ (S<. Flodon_ 1983 for "",,,,,,ot of ttle ..,<reJita,,,,,, ._h to
"'oJ uar"".)
O\J' inp ttle e.v1y pm 01' ,he ,,,' en' ,,,'" ",ntul)' tbe """,na! wort by Frodri<k T.),1or
lauocheJ the ientif", ""'""''''''"' """,,me ... "" .arty fo,m of per>OOnel ""a!ua_
'ioo. Ta),Iori<rn ronr in"", to afft 01""", al l "'1"""" of A"""", ... li fe to dol, oh)'_
(For. olouilal tr"'",,,ot ofTaylor' s iml""'t 00 oocioty "'" Dora),. 1988 ,,<l B."ta_
1991) T")kJr', ide", b=lme, f""" in >Oimini."",j,-e the<ry in e.locaoioo.1
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and mdustri.1 ci,d .Bidd., '" El.,n.>. 1964: C.II:lh.1n. llimi n.
n., of !hi. 00 SJ',l<mir.tlion. and . ....",
imJ>O<Ulltiy. elfic;',.,y, Tn'lying mi, ' mp/low 00 .ffic;'""l""'= ,he tide< of t'"
lou".,n(h and f,I",n(h yearbook, of til< N",Oon.j Societ)" lor ( ... Study of EJu_
c",ion (r.:SSE). "''''_ "''!'''<1h,ly . ..,._./0< .., ..... ""'" r ........ "'"
Ill< _., _ r"" /0< ... M",,_ <f '" Jffirin><"< Of -<cItoo/, .... k!ooI
S)"'''''_
Sun")" don< in, num"", of l ... " school ')'''''''' ,hi, I"'rioo locu..-d on
schooJ and/or (<l,e"', .ffici,,.,)" ", i"l' "orioo. eli"ri. (fOf '>ample, "p' oo i( ur<>.
pupil dropoot ra'o. promotion rnre,. etc_I . By 1915. thi rt), to for ' ), brpe >ehool
,)'''''m> had COOl pletod or w,"",ing 00 """"" .... n.i,o 'u,,'.)'. 00 oJl pha>e, of
",ocationol Iii. (KondaJl. 1911: Smi th '" )ood. j 914)_ A num"", of (iles<
.mplo\' oo "'" ",wi)" do,,1oped "obj<cth .. ,,, .. in ..-itJ,,"tk. sp<lI ing. harwlw'ri(ing_
.00 Enflish """pooitton to de tormi"" ,he quali' y of(ea<hinF_ (For. drtaile<i """_
""nt of ,,,,, history ofmatbematk. arwI .nthmk """ during <hi, ti"" "" Madau, .
Cbrle '" OL .. ,y. in 1""".) n."., ,,," were often de",loped in larfo distric" oy
bur"u or depart"",n( "" up 'P"'if",oIly to impr'M til< ,If",;'""y 01 ( ... di.trict_
For .umpIe. ,be Depart""'''' ofEduc.tionalln,,,,iga<ion,nd M ... "remo"' in tbe
BasIon public oJ. do "''''''01'00 nu mo., of """ that to.la)' w-oold be .leserihal
.. obj<ct i," ",1,"',.,00 (Ilallou_ 1916, E" entual ly te>t> lil. """" in 8o<t0ll to><
on 1 ,h,,,,,,,,, .. (he 01 studen" bee""",
stltIdard by " 'hietl (". che" rould whether ,,,,,i, c ...... " 'ere .be .-, Of ""low
t'" g."".-.I stondard lor ,be city (BoJ lou. 19161, In a<lJitioo to (n. .. Iocall),
dev.1oped """ tIl<re " 'm , number of ,e>t> de",,1oped by """""hers li k,
Coortis.A) ...... Thorndike. and others .... hich w,re g,aral to "e<)' pri'"
oet of in"ruc(OonaI obje<tiv",. The<.e ..... by lamou, ",,,,,,,,,be,, of til< day had
no<mati, ', da .. ' hat , .. bW one to COIIlf"l'" "",II """'Oe' iTyack '"
H:>ruoJI. 198.2 ,
MO\fly of these . :lJ1 y t .. , n<icth-<:<n(ury "",",,)', w,re doci; .xampIe> of mock _
r::i.l i"l' . -ofton initial,," of' 1oc,I people ... ho in\'iti ootsid< (0 ,,_
defect, and propos< ",mod .. , iTp"l & H"""". I'IS!. p. 1611. Anothe, prob"m
.,sociaoIOO with ,iles< =Iy ... '.-e),>-1 probj<m not .nkoo,..-n '0 <\">.I""tor> ' roday_
u< Ill., (he -"obj<cti"," re,ults "lui""" oln usal as propog.oo.. "'to t... ii<J
dil", ol da .. tides ofpublic cri(icism" (f)'ack '" H",,,,,_ I'IS!. p. lIS).
H" ... ,, .... re"",,,,",,,, " ,be ti,"" uk! that ouch ""'""l" roui<J and ohoold
,,"OiJ mllClrn>in2 and public ",1aIiom U>e. Maoy of them "-ere indeed {"O"'true_
Ii, ... done in cooperntioo with 1oc. 1 ad,i...., . oo to produc. public , uf'PO"
lor uflfeC"I' nizl but neal<d (Tp'" & Haruot. 198.2).
Willl ,be th of ,lllrI<iatdizl ach .. ,,"""t test> .1 .. , World W", I. ",tIooJj dis-
tricts usal Il10,,, .. st, (0 ...... .Dout progtlllll effectl\"""" ... For .ump",-
(1971) in :Ill unfI'J blishal I"'P" de",ribed ,he histOf) of stltIdardizl ""ioF
in Philadelphia lrom 1916 to 1938. Ik 100M (hat OOIIUIl<IriaIly ","lIiL1bie ""hie",_
,""ot ""ts. .Iong w' illl test> buih by "' .. ..-en t...re,., oll"'g' scOOol di>Irict,. W<"te
....0 to .,..1..,.. the cUlTiculum and ""lII1 'y".m p'riorm:tflC<. in addition to being
. Evaluation Models. Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation. Second Edition.
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,. -->:,-"" .----
""'" to mate dec;';""" ,boo, indi ... ThrooEOoo' ilS hi"ory. the fleW 0( .,'lIl_
""'''''' .... "",n dc ... ly linled to ,II< f",kI of""ing. T." dato ho,', of"" bn ,II<
pri ndf! dau ""'''"'' In ,,'aJ LIlI'iom, Uti. use of ,,,IS h.a< "",n mixed ..
.... shJJl "'" .,......,tly.
I, i. import""t to poi'" 00' ,Iu, " udi" of , fflCi,ncy and for ,II<
mo<1 p.rt in'ti.,ed by . 00 confi ned to. Ioc:.I scllool di>lrict . In contras' to (II<
"",00naJ cllfficulum o.\,lopment projects of til< .. " :md <arly '1160<. cu,_
riculum bef""" ,II< in the hands of , I<""her or
oommi' l 0("",,11< ... It .. , u,,1. therefore. (hat "'aJu,,iOll' of(h.t pe,iod ><=
oddreooed '0 locaJi zed qu<>tions. This foclI . or 'mpn. ... "" local ",..Iu","'" que<_
t""'. c,,""noed into (he 19000 <bpil< ,II< foct ,Iu, the .00;'"", for (he ""'oa.-
t""" """ "",, ... i<lo or wiOll_"'i<lo, (hi. resu lteO in many "",I", edocatiOOllI
",,Iu","'" ""i nE clIITi"'] ou' "urinE the 11160<. I, ,.... only in the 19"IlIi that oou_
c.ton :md ,,.aI.,,on "",,!,rU zed >lid to <loal ... i<ll <Il i. problem 0( EC,,",flIliz-
ability. Aoo. it IIntil ,he 900 .. ,lll ,he .. h,"( of ."nd.,,1< haoed ,eform
,ha, the loc u .nifled from local ' 0 ... 1< ""'" "",,,01 ,,,,er "'"'II)' of ,II<
curric uill m.
the lat, 19!Oo and 19300. uni\'",it ), in"" u, ... peciaJiz inF in field .1Ud;'.
nre formal """ rondoc'ed ,",,e)'. lor di.Irk". The moSI famou. of U,,""
in"itUI<' ,he """ headal by S'flIY" "' Teache" CollEt>< (J)"lI'" &
H",,"". These im,it .. ", cOIlkl be con"o.red the prec"""" of t'" ullher>ity
",ntm dalic"ed to "'allI""'" tha, gr...- up in the 19000 >nO 1<rnlI.
RaJph W. Tyr' "'" had enormoo, ;nfi""nc, OIl ed"""ion in EC"-"faI and ".]uco_
' ..... 1 "" allI",,,,, and ' <s'i nE ill porricul,.. H, is of(<1I ",fm ed '0.. qlli .. prop<rly ... "
foel. .. the f .. her of educa,ional e,'alu,,""'. T)'1er ""E'" by roOC<plLI>liz brood
and i"""".,iw ";"" of Ooth "u,,;cll ium and 'alu","". In chapt., Thj, ""'W
..... cllrricul um .. . "" O(broadly pl.nned school "'peri,,,,,,,,.Je.sjpned """ ,mple-
"",n,ed (0 help " . den" ""hi,,.,, """if tal ""Iu,'""" outcome . Tl"" coi""" ,lie
I<nn ed"".,'o".1 " '01""',,,," ..... 111 as>es5inE the ex"nt th" v,lued objec_
,i"", Iu<l ""'" ach",,'ed .. part of >II ;o""""iorul program. (Thi, o.\ . Iopme" i,
"'" foo "'''ion of today", ootrom< ",aJ ,;OII <lo",,;t>ed in Ch>pl .. 41. (he
,:lily",," mid 1930s. he applial hi, """"pI"""i,",,"," 0( ",aI .... ioo (0
in"rue(" .. ., Oh., S..." Un"""' ty i0'!'f("" their coors,,, and (he "''', that they
used in (hei, NIl"",.
,he <loP(O, of the G"" o.p..ssion. ochcols . ., "",I., other public inui
,uOOn . h:>d from. "". of """'IT'" and. i"" lIS imprif1antl),. Irom
, lac, 01 optimism. .. ROOS<",I( trial hi> N,w n.aJ pro!frnm. to Ie,,"
,he """"""'Y ou' of the ab) ..... '" '00 J<>hn n."'Y ,nd ",he .. tried to " ..... edu_
c"ion. The rene .. '" in edocotjon com< to .. ' '''''''n ., the EdLIC>liOll
Mow""n' . and i, " fl .cteO tile pIlHOiIIjIIly of pr'Emati"" and emp":!-ed tool. from
be!Ia,'jOO"ic I"yrhology.
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,. __ >:, ..... . "-"" 0.......
Ty"'r bee""", di=tly in , .. Progre .. &location M",."me", when
he ..... <oiled upon '0 dir<'C' ,"" "s<""h <ompoo<n' of !he """,_famou. Eigh'
Y.ar S' ''"y (Smi th & Tyler. '9-11.). The ..- S,,,")" {l9J2-'940). fu nded
by the C",negie ... , .. fi ..... oo Ib ,I.," """y of, .. diff",n,i.1
.ffec,i ,..,,,, .. of >'..-iow; ' )'pe. of .<toooli ng un, iI .I' el World War II , The """)'
can .. aboti, "'''n lJOi"I"'" ,..,,'" a<kOO in 're earl)' '9}}; about the , f(",,,,,), of
the lradi,ion.1 high ",0001 .. peliellCe ",I .. ' 0 ,1>0 JI'O!!", .. i>e """"""1}' ",0001
.. perie llC', As. ""uit of , .. ", q"''''''''. 00I",". began 10 ", fu", progr<>-
"'." ",hooI 1''''"''''' admi, .. "", Oeeaus< ' he)' ..,W crJjt< in ""n.i n .pedfi c ,ub-
j "'t<. To ",,,10 're deb.a", ..... porimen, w .. in 1931 in whkh .,....".
JOO roIleges "!!""" 10 'heil lladitioo,1 <O'IlIlICe '"'lui,.".,nt< fOI ....
from .bou, 30 =orodary oohool5. T"" high ",0001 . 00 porlor_
m,"re of lrom """" oeooOOary ... 1......." would be ' 0 !he
",0001 and rotle" p<rlormanc. of "uden" flom gloup of , ,,,"i,ion.1 ...,ondMy

The Eigh'_Y.", S' ''"y i", rOO uc'" eOoc .. "" Amelk, to . lie", .00
Oroa.ler ,'iew of<doc" iona! ",.,ha,ioo th .. th .. " 'hieh had been in '"Ot"" duri"g ,he
"!!" of . ff ici<IICY .00 ""inl'. Tyler cooceptu. lin-<l " .. oIu"ion .. . comP"""'" of
inlOoo.d 00'0"""'. wi' h ac, u.1 ""100m.,, . His >,."., of.,.,I"",ioo ""''' by ad,"O-
<at"" ... "">'ing , c\ear-<u " '''' pt<llou< "PP"""' .... Sioce hleri"" .,..k,_
"ioo in,'M-," internal co"",..-i,,,,,, of oo' comes with object" .... i, "",d not pro>'ido
for and di,rupti>" romp..-i""" beI,,'["On e.p<rime ntol and ronlloJ
w'"'" l"'luired in the rornpont' i>'e .. pori mental .W'"""h 'hat Rie. had used. SillCe ,he
'PJKO""h 0011, for ,he fl"","",,,,,,n' ofbeha>ioro) ly def,,,,,, ooj1i, ''', it <once,, ''''''
011 leam """"" ..... , in" . oo of "'1'".",,' ioo.1 and ;"1"'''. ' bereb)' ... oidi"l!
,"" , ubjl"' i' ), of,he prof"'>ionaJ joogmeo, or ace"," i, .. ioo .pph; and. ..
me.>sUr<-< ",fIect Mlroed objectiv",- there .... 00 _ to be """"i!)' conc.rned
the relCabilil ), 01 diff.", nces be,w",," the 0<0. of iooi-' ioo.1 , rude"t<. Furtbeo-. , he
m,,,.jill'" 'n""oIl), <"'" mIlCh "ider of 001<""", ,..riable, th.n ,hos<
b), standardi"", fl<lm) _"'f.renc<d ......
Clearly b)- ,"" middle 01 ,,,,, ,940< T)'1er bOO. 'hroogh hi. won and Jai<j
the fOlloo .. ion for hi. eoorn>oU. on"""lICe 011 !he ",,,,,.,ional >ce"" in and
011 and ,v.l ... ioo i. pl!r!kular during the n,,,' )'ean.
, H (]. 0.' , __ ,..,
We Iu" labeJc.l,he perioo .. ,"" -"', "f '",,,,.-,"u . lthough we migh'
ju" as ",.11 ha>'" called i, Ill< Ag' of I, "'><. ,ime 01 J'O'-eny .,.:1 de'f"'ir
in the inner oil;" and in ruml """" . Ou' .Imo.;, 00 one. expt ,"" ,'ie,im, "",rned
' 0 oooi. I, wa period of extreme I:':W "",iudi anJ ' 0 hkh OlD"
whi", people seen"'" OOIi>'ious. 11-.,,,, """ oxorbiun, """"mptioo and widespread
,...", of IUI1I1 "'''''''''''' wi, h bn.le ,w"",n' ronrn .boo, the o.pl<tion oIthe",
"" ' "Jf<. " . It "' ... p<riod of>"" o.,.lopm<n' of iOOu"I)"oo mililli<)' capobili'ie,
" 'ith lillie )IfO"i,ioo for ",f.guard. "l'a1"" ,he 1IWl)' ""1',">'0 side . fI.m,
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More '0 "'" poj"' of thi. ",,';"". 'hm "H "'P""''''' of M""" iorllli 01f" i"8"
I"'rsonnel. ,nd I""ili"e, . bu,Mi"S' ....... "",M. :<I.,.. "nd, of eO""a"ooal
insli,",ioo, . weh .. "l"'noneoL.1 ooI"'!!", .nd ",,,,,nun,,y <1I>efJI"" . Small
_ d""k .. oonsoIidated cohen '0 be able '0 pto"klo "'" ",>de '''''f'' of
eO"".,ion" ."r,"" 'hot " .... Nmmoo in ,he larger s<hooI ')'<Oem<. incluJ, np
meoool and pil)',kal heallil ''''''i">. puidaroc<. lood "","'m m",ic i.,<ruc""".
",!",!>deJ 'poll' bu>j""", anJ 'eduoh, eO"".,;"" . nO Nmm"" i'y
<due.,iM. Coil<;!< ,nroIme"', i..ore=! dmmalkally ..... enrolmerot, in "'""her_
eO""",ion buJlooneJ. Throughou' A"""ic." , o<let}' . , he late \ 94(1; .nO
19S(l; a ,ime to ,he "'"." , he behind. builJ ..... <>parJ
capo"' i' lrs. ""quire ..... enpi ...... nd "njoy > "rood Iii "
n". s<er.e ,n soc;",)' ..... 00"""',"" w ,eIle<teJ in e.:I"""",,"1 ",-:.Jua-
'ion. Whi", there ..-It> I'f""I of OOoc .. ioo the .. was 00 ['ltIicular in"'",,'
011 ,he po.n of society , n ><>I "ing oocw . 00 eOoc>tion prOOIerno IIIId hoId,ns edu_
<"''''' "",,,,,otable. Tber< "''"' lillie <all for OOocat"" '0 "'IDOfI>'r.lte ,he . m<leoc),
and ell""""e"",, of "")' of , he """')' ""'elopme""" ,ffort,_ EJoc.,or. diJ talk and
,boo, "'"'uatlOO . ..... lhey oM coHee< oon;ide .. ble .,OOIIn" of"",,, {,.;uall)'
' 0 I"" ily ,he -.J for "paD''''' or lor broad. ""w progrnnil_ 1-lcAI-.,,-.... thet< i,
lilt'" " 'klo"",, , .. , Ihe>e cLto were useJ 'o luJge ..ro:l i",1'''''''' U", ",,:>l i')' of
or !ha, Ihe dar, oooid h"..-, been "sed for soch. """"""-
We "",'" l:>be"" til< p<rioO 1<).06 '0 1'7 The AFO ot 11IIIOC<0C<. not bee,,,,,,
in .-."""100 did not bu, i>e<.u", ,he wor, had no <octal
fI'J'J'O'<- The gre .. deal of 'echnical "'''''1o(>Il>ent in ,,:>l ... ion w .. lUst 'h>t _ It w-..
not p':>re.J ' 0 i"'n' if)' inp beoeflCw;",' needs .00 "';''''''Iy .,minl ng .ode')".
""f'OOS< '0 ,he ..,.,.j, .
[luring 'h" period , he", w" Nlloo.llIbie """'Iopmefl' of """" of til< ',IIi_
<:>l of ,,:>l ... ion, lIli, WlI> <oo>,,"'n' Ihe lhen_pre.-.len' "'1""';00 of
all 10ft> of =""""'1' ..... Ooief ,mong Ihe", ",velopm,,"', ,he PfO""1Il in ">rI_
dardiLeJ Many r.e", naloonally >t.1II<LnlizeJ ,,,'" I'"bi, >heJ duri nF ,hi,
pe<iod . Schooi. I'"rcli.a>ed the>< .,," b), , he ,hou .oo. and aIso....,..,ribed he",' il)'
to """,hi"" scori np .00 anaI)";' .ef" "'''' 'h>t ,he ne", '0<""""'1')' made ,,:>llable.
The "'''lOp mo,',,,,,,n' i"eO aoother 000.t in 1'7 Ihe " .. ;bI"h"",n' of
,he Educa'",,"1 T<>ting s.,r>-ice .
B)' ,he 19S(l;, ,he ......... diLeJ ", .. onS bu>ine had expanded II<'''''ndou,')' . .oo
,he prol,,,,,,,"1 """",mod ,,'i'h "'''ing initiat<d ..ne. of..,.,.
de,;gt>ed to "'I'ul ... ,he "'''_rel:oteJ ",""'i,b ot ,helt "",,,,hers. In 1954 . rom-
mi'''''' of ,"" Am";".n Poyeholog"'" A>SOC'aI'" F'ejW<d Tfur!",,1 R"')Iff"'eI"iati"",
for P,)-d",/olk,,/ T,,,, dM Didgnrulk r",Jutiq.", (APA. 1954). I" I'/'iS. <OOUI1i,,,,,,, of
,he Americ.n EJ""ation.' R"..,,,,,,h A<soc'"'''' and ,he :<I,u"" .. Coo""il 011 .\1.:>-
'""'""'''''' Uoed ,. fill<at"" TI"ti",,1 /?,,,_IIdaIi""t joN A.c/U,,"_",
(AERA .00 NCMUF" 19'iSl The", reI""" pro,ided ,he ""'" lor ,he 1966
eOi,,,,,, of the J<>Jn' AERAIAPAINCME S,OlIda,dtfor EJvcalioool aJ>d P" ciwJlo" rol
r"" at>d .\I""..J, IAP"- 1966) ..... the 1974 "" i <ion "ntitled. SWoJ;Jrd.>fm Ed",a-
NOM!"M Pfl'choluticai r"" {APA. 1974)_ The I."", repm """'l' niLl ,he neeJ lor
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"'para!< ,un.lard< dealing program .. aluatioo. A "";'""" of'M SWidard. in
,oot.oi",," dUpler 011 'Oe U'" of""" in program .vaI .. ,..,.,. os did. fUfl ller
",,1>loo in 20:(1.
The flIpid "pan>ioo of ",,;np w .. not tOe 001)' ,echni<al de,..,lop<r-.<n, ",IOIed
'0 fI<OIlram ev.lu",ioo this I"',iod. Lindqui" 11953) ",eoded.oo de li"""ed
, he .... iSlbl JKinciple. of eXI"',i""'"tal Y ,an I"'e,. lfWly e'.I .. "'.oo f'du .
,aton fouoo 'Oa' , he probIenn of '0 """" . imultaneou>ly al l of 'h, ' ''Iui",d
assumpIiom of e>:porimen .... <hipn (fOf e"""'l*. NItSlan, ",,.' ,,,,,n' . uocootarni _
nal<d " , "men' . randomly "';pred ,ubjects, "able "00), >afTlJHe> . 00 un itary
"i'eria) in ,Oe. ,,,I>00I ""'ing .. ""e in.",moo ntable .
Durinp ,,,. ,any '9t'Oi tOe", w"" :d>o <OII.Ode",b\e , echnic., do,..,1op-
men' ",lated '0 'Oe T)leri .. ,ic .. , of Si""" ,he T)'1er
'r>P'ooch in on ,,'alualioo "'I"irN ,na, ob;.coi,.... be "ated explicitly. II",,, w .. .
...,.". '0 Oelp <docator. :>rid "'M' ",ofmionais '0 do . "'ne, job tOei,
obj1h..,., Techniques '0 help program ".ff. mal, their obj1i,e. "pi",;,. aloog
willl IllOflO<llic, of JIO'5ib1e educ",ioo" obj1i,., (Bloom ... 1 .. 19S6>. Kr.thwobl.
l\J6.h ...... do.-.1ope<J '0 fill Illi. "",d. The Tyler flI , iorutle W'o< abo u...J ,,""'i.-.ly
this I"'riod 10 Ullin "acton in ",,' de,do!'", .. "
Du ri ng 'hi> period ",'oIwo""" ",ere ... before. primaril), ",ithin ,he of
local "l'eociel. r-.deral and ""-I< . pe..,i .. h>d not yet b""", de.epl)' ;n"ohl"d in
'Oe .... Iu",ioo of fI<OIlill'u. Fund< foc .. -aluatioo ,IIa, were done ",me f,om local
coffers. fOlloo"ion . "oJun' ",}, .. soc,at""" ouch .. ,he commun i'y ,he". Of prof",_
>ioo.>1 "'pani,"'ioo, . Thi, I.rk of depe nd<nc< 00 ' '''pal''''- lnoo<y fOf .. "u.' ioo
would end .-ith the ot ,he ""XI I"',iod in tOe history of e ... lua,ioo.
A"" , ... "'" "'-').,,',,--. ,.50-,.."
The lI@< of i"""""",o in .. 'lII .... ioo "'..., ' 0 :lit abruJ>l eoo ... i,h ,he call in , he 1.1<
1'&It; , nd eart)' 1'.Wo fo< """',,,ion. ot Iarge_","'" ,urri<ulum do,e1<tpm< .. pr0-
jects funded b), federal mooi". Thi. morll"d tOe eoo of "" er> in ,,al .... ioo and
, he of profoooo 'Oa' would ...... 1Iluatioo .. pan<! ., "" indu, _
Ir)' :utd in'o , ",of",ioo. focused 011 n_ """"'y". """, nd dependen'
00 tax",)'" 1lI0II;'' fo< support.
A """I, of , lie R",,,an I,unch of Sputnik in 1957. 'he fede, aI pm'em""",
,n"",ed ,he Natioo.1 Def .. ", Educ .. iOll ;,0, of AmonE othe, thi,
oct pro""\eO for <d",,",oool fI<OIlf3IIl' in mathem .. "". ",;ence . 00 fOfe;pn
1 ... :uwI .. ponded :utd puid:tnc< ,"",'m :>rid , .. progflllm
in _ districts. A numbe, of """. national curriculum de"eiopme-no prop.
"I"'dally in the ""' .. of >c;"oce aM mathemao"" . wet< hentually fund.
m .... ","!abI< '0 "'aI .... e the", <""",ulum effort .
All foo, of tOe _"""Oe. ' 0 ",, .... ion di,.....,.,.j 50 f., ,,<flO ,ep",,,,n'" in ,lie
" .. I .... ions done "uri ng thi, period. , he Tyler app<oadt used '0 help defln<
object,, .. fo< the .. ". <"IT"'ul. and '0 """" ,,,. '0 wh",h ,lie obj1i"'"
we", la", ... Iized, Se<ond. ""w ... ionaIly otandardized "" .. "..., cre"" ' 0 "'tte,
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reflect ttl< obj1i"e; .". oont<,. 01 the ,"",' <IlIriru1a. Third. u.. """esoion>I_
Jurl8men' approach usal 10 "' .. ond '0 ch. p<riodically on u..
.ffom of rontractors. F ..... I)'. man)' .. 01 .... .,.,; " 'aluale<l ,urrieulum do"'Ioj>m<"
off"", 1llroo8h the "'" 01 r", 1<J .. ... _
1be be" . 00 the briEh .. >I 01 the ed.., .. ioo.1 "'a1u,,,ioo rommu ni'y
i",'oh-e<l io .ffon, '0 ,,aIu ... the", oew currie"l" ,hey ...... a<ieq",,,.I), fillllnrro.
""" they c"",ful l), appIie.l II-.. ttlal Iud been de,.1opal duri n the past
rlNoade Of roore. 1'"",,11-..1 ..... by the .arl), 19OO! it became 'ppa" nt 10 ><1m< 1<-:odor>
in eOuc.,ional "',"uatioo , ... their wort ond their ","11< ... "'" .. itOer porticulany
helpful 10 curriculum de,<Iopen 00f . '" u.. queslion< beinS by
,hos< nn' eO '0 loo"" 'Oou"he programs .ffoc'i, ..... :
Thi, ""gali, .. .......... nt "',.. "l1oc'od """ in londmar'< .... ie1<- b), CronOocn
('%3: d. Chapter 14\ 10 onill!' " the ,,-.I_ ,/fom 01 the """'nI past. he
sharply cri,iei=! ,he guiding """"plu.Ii",' ion, of e,.IU>lioo for u..ir I""l 01
"'ar> ond lllili'y . .oo .. hi>l "" 1,,,,_ '0 '"rn ... from lheir F"'och.n' for po>t
hoc .,.,"""""" 00sed 00 oompari<oo' of ,he nornl _"f".oci "'" sror<s 01 "per_
imen .. 1 arul cOlltrof fOOp<. 1", .. ><1. Crooborh co.m",li " ....... "" 10 l<'COOC'plu_
al i", e,alu";011----<1 in terms of. Il00-,,, rae< betw .. " rornpe'ing profr.I'''' but OIl
pox< of . 00 "'f>OO1in8 information tha, rookl help fIlide ourrieulum
de, .. toprr..,.. Croobacn .ia< 'Oe fi rst f'<I""I to arp ,ha, aruoi)"i' .00 of
"" it.m soor woo l<J he liloly 10 """., mor< uI"1 '0 """Oe" 'han the .. pon_
of .m.p" IotaI wOe" f,'" ",bli<h<-d. C""",,",h' , ooun1 ond """"_
mend .. ioo, "".n' " n_icod. """pi by. <mall eird. of ",'.I"",ioo >peeioli ....
Nooeu.. ..... ,he .nide "'milllli. ""' .... nin h),poIhe .... bou, 'tl< cooc,!"""I_
i,.,ion ond oonduc' of ,,.I ... ioo. ilia, ... "'" to he ,,<11 .nd found ,-.Ii<! wililin.
f.w )'e.v<.
In '%'i. by II-.. ,' iOOn of Se""or Huben lh"Olphroy. 'Oe chari.malic
1<-aOenhip of Pre>ident loitn Konned). and tOe Y"" poIiticol 0011 of i'r<oo.",
L),ndon 101m"",. the W .. on PO',"')' "'" I.unched. The .. prog""m poured billion<
of doH ... in' o ref""", ,imed .. ,,!uali' in .nd oppoI1"niti for,. 1 ci,_
i",", ""roM broad array of i><.IIIl . social . nd od"" .. iOl1.11 ""' ice,. The "'l"'ndin8
<OOIIOIll)' ... bIeri,i>< fedo", 1 o,.m"",n' '0 fino""" t ..... . .oo the", ...
na,i"",,1 ' "ppon lor de,'eIopi"l' ...... , lohn"", , .. rmed ,i><
G .... Society.
Accoml"'nyi nF doi, ,ffort to help ,he camo rooc<m in some '1"",_
"" th .. the """"')' in,',,,od in the>e p<Ogr-.m, mi8h' he " .. "ed if 'l'fKopnal.
lICroUnlabili'y ""I"ire"",nts ""'''' _ imf"""'l . In fe<pOllS< to ,ni. c""".m. S.n.tor
Roben Konn<d), and ...,., of hi. rol1<-"!!",,, in ,he COIlE"'" ."",nde<l ,110 EI<-
""''''''1' and Serondory Edoc.tion M' of ,%-t (ESEA) to inchldo >peeifie ""a/ua-
ti on ''''l ui","", n'' _ A,. =ul<. Tido ] of th .. Art. w .. aimed .. pro,idin8
"""""""'01)' aIucalioo '" <lisa.h'llfltlpl ohi Ohn. 'P"' if>Clll1y req<Jired .",h ocOOoI
di<trlct fund. undo, its '.rm, to ,,-alu ... .pptopri'" .tan_
d;m]izi .... d .. :>----lhe ..... , to whien it> Tide ] proj<c" nod ..,hie,oed ' heir obi-
"'= 'lli< tpJ i",menl with it< >peeiflC ",f""""", '" .. " dot> .00 ..
. Evaluation Models. Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation. Second Edition.
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...... "."" 01 beI',"II "".".,... arwJ objecti,. ",flect1'd the ... "'4_
the""" in p<O:IIrnn " 'o.l"".", at that ti"",. More import""tI)'. the requireme nt
<due .. o to .ttift their ooorn for <dOCal""'" e.-.luation frOO\ the ",,1m of theory
.00 SIlJlPO'ition into the "aim 01 and implem<flt:ltioo.
Whe n ,,Il001 di'Ir"''' bepan to ""pond to the "'''u,,ioo rjlli"ment of TItle I.
they quie"ly found that the _Is .nd <mp"YN by thetr " '''u<>-
tor> '0 the tN, M.ibble st",dardiz<d t<ili had
re.n to mil" role, "ude n" of ,,""'l'e abili' y: they "'ere 01 Ii, ..... '" in
"",,<Is and """'in!' 'n)' ",hi<>"""",t [I>irn of di . .. ,h"""ped ohikk-en
"'Oose <d uo,,""" """Iopmeot far .. hind tll .. of their mi<il1ou ..... J'f"".
Furth.,. the .. tes" w"" fo und to be " I"i"ely i"",,,,ith'e to diffe"oc<,
scloJIs >J\ d1or . mainly bee,u", 01 their p')'Chometric properties and
oootont ""''''''F- Instead 01 """""rin OUICOOl<)S directl), "Iaooo to the ",hooI or
to I"nicol" the .. "'''' "'e,,, at be .. indire<t """' ''''''' of le ..
much the sam< trai" '" llIlilit), "''', (Madau . Ai",.i,,", &
Kell.."lwl . 1981).
The,e """"he, witll , wwl>rdil1'd ""' : .uch an 'ppro..,h to
,,,. .. tion confl"' t<d ,,'it" the pr,,!," of the Tyl<rion Bee .. ", Ty'" rec_
ognized .nd diff,,,,,,,,e. in objti .. ", from locale to 1oc. 1e it bee"""
diffICult to ad,p! tlli. modol to .. tioo w-" ' "'nd:trdized_"sti np I" order
to be OO<lVlleITiall), ,...,Ie. the .. st,nd."dized_"stiop pr,,!!'''''' had to 01_ '0
""'" eAt"" '*'j1j,'" """.00 by port"'ul..- Joc.les in fm)! 01 '*'j1i,., ,..,.00
by the m.jo<ity of di,triru. Furthe,. the" .... dearth of informotion ,bout th'
".ru,:tnd >eole"",."'"t .".-1. ofdi, ... :han"'p<d children that MIld " ",he,. in
me,niop f.1 tffia,ioral objecti,'''' fo< thi, population of I .. "",,.,
The bilu" of ,nempt' to isolate the ,ff""', oIlitle I projects tllrou8h the u'"
of "perimen .. Vrontrol .biFD' n, due to :to in,bili t)' to meet
the OSSIImptioo> required 01 .och .Ie.ipns (GUN. 1966), Funhe,. proj<ct_. ite "i, i",_
tion b), hile by <JIOO""<-"'" 001
><X"e.,..ble ... primary ","""tion .trategy b<c3u", thi pproaoh ..... ...", ..
the objecth'i!), .00 rit"" uipulatl in the BEA legklatiorr, When the fi ndin8 of
-no ",ul,," .. "" reported ... ,,,.< ,-",,,ef.lly the "."'. the", ""'" 00 d.n 00 the
to the "treat""'"t" had in foo' bee" imple""'nt<d: the ,,.Iu_ had 01''''_
1ool1'd th, messy bo," that ""'>tiM"" the '1reatmenl" Funhe .. "" """_
.. 'oro tre>!"",ot in qllOO" ad\'iseJly , ior< the >ct." n" ure of the tre""","t "n_
""red ' 0 subject> .. ,.. un "oo .. " . The t"d,"",. 1 <lescri .. ion ...... nothin8
more than '''l'"'' d,,,,rl,,i,,,, of the project . For e"""p1e. the term Title I it",lf
.. ,.. of teo u>l to describe '" ,morphoo, tr<01me nt, I" ony "."",- tfle
emf>h>,i, OIl "" ""'''' dim.,," .tle"tion from roo,lde .... ion of tfle treat"",nt '"
of tre""","t implemental;oo.
A "".It of the disquie! "ith ","uatioo ,ffon,.oo the COO>.i. _
te nt fi ndiop' . the pror",sioolIl """""'ry fmte,nit)' PIU Del .. Kapl" ..,. up
Nat i""aI Study Committee 00 El-aluation (Stufflehe.m '" al l'1JI ). After .....
"'), inp ,he >Cef"e. thi, committee oooclOO.o that educ .. iooal e\'llh,,,i,,,, .. ,.. -..
. Evaluation Models. Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation. Second Edition.
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with. pJeot iU""",- and died foc the de"el"""" nl of"",,' .n..:..ies and IIl<lho<i,
o(e,,.)ua('" '" .. foe ",,",' tlllinin8 prog!'lm> foe e',....,."... At:>boo: tID ""'"
' i .... many ""w NnC<ptualiza'ioo, of e' ..... ioru "8"" (0 """"1"'- Pro,,", {l969 &
1971). H.mmond 11967). Ei,ner (1'167). >nd Metf"",,1 & ,\hc"'-'I ( 1967) propoo<"<i
refofm .. ion 0( the T)'l nnl<1. GLu",. (1963)' Tyle,- (1967). >n<J Popham (1'171)
j>Ointed '0 criterioo_refere nca! " " io .. "" .I"mati,. to nom\ ref"",,,,,a! t",'in8'
C"", (1966) clIIled for the "'" of the .)'<I<m>->Oal)'sis _<lOCh (0 ",..1 .. ,"" pro-
Sen,'"" (I'I6h Stufflebeam. (1'.167 & 19"71. " 'itll o<he,,). >nd Su.le (1967)
in" od""a! n,w modol. of .,, Iu,,'" til>! ..dblly from prior _00<).." .
The;e """"'ptu.l;l"ioru =<ljlniled the need to ","."'e JooI; at iDput<,
.umine impl."",n"t;OII ,00 del;,'''ry 0( .. .. lIl<","re intended >n<J
unintended ootcomes 0( the J>ro!IflIm, They "so c>rnpl>ized ,he need '" m:Ure
jud8m<n" .boot ,he merit or worth of the object ,,aluate<l. (o.''''''iev,'' of
til" .. de"e"P"",nts <,n be foo"d ;n Chapt .. 3.)
The late 19iA >n<J early 19iQ; ';"'''"t ,..ith de"'riptioo . diS<"\l"'ioru. >n<J
debates 00..- ,,'a]o"ioo oboold be ron<"<h-.d, "'"","' ..... tIli. period ;n
tbe hiUOfy ofprogrnm .. "lII..,ioo ended "" . _11 note. A number ofimponant
.,..III.,ioo. ",,,,,,,eO . Fi"'. Cokmln', f."""" .tud)'. _111)' o{&J"-
co,"""" Or>r>ort"""> (19M.. 0111 ... ). ""''''a! oonsidenble 1IOtk.. Partie.l.,. "'ten_
tion weot (0 hi. famou< cOll<lu,iOll 'hot ''<<1I00I, litu" influellC' to bear on
clIild', >chie, .. "","' ,t\a, i, indepeooont of hi. .00 oocial
coot ..... (CoIenWi et " . 1966. p. 325). Title I ","""tions (I'iclrieHD. I'XIS, Gb,;, '"
01 .. 1970: US. Office O(Edu<>tlOli. 1970) "1'ueJ '" .ffi c""y 0(_ pro-
The W .. tinfhoolOhio Uniwmty H. ad Start ICic i"lI i et .. ..
1\It'II) tu rned up di<cooraging ",ults. tbe ",,"11< of the ,,al ... oo of 5<,""",
s''''I-.. .. n rritically ..... )'Hd-w.,., IB .. I & B"!,,,,,. 197<} Il"!'>!l
& B.R 197n These di>ileartenioS flJldjoS' IllisOO ><riou. qu"stiom abou' ",-.Ju>-
tion in ,00 ", .. in methodoloj!ies in particular. For mOll Y ,"ppoo", of
the .. P"'!'''=- tIli. "" ,he '"'go fo< our ""Xl period. which"",, call '" Af< of
Prof,s< ""oIilation.
abou' 1'1l3 the r",IJ of "' ...... "" to rry .... lile :>nO ,merge .. a
prof. "ion related to. but qui .. di"inct from. its for"be,,, of """"",h >nd "'."og.
While the f",1J ha> ad,'anced ronsidefably'" profes,ioo. it i, in,"""_
ti,'o '" OOft<ider thi. dev"lopmen' in ,Oe context of the fi eld in , he p""ioo. period.
Befor" thi. period " .. I.ator> f"""d.n ide ntity The)' wet< "0< "'''' whether
they , hould try to be rese>rchef> ... stef<, admi,,,,,,,,,,,. "'ochers. p/lilosophe .... Of
iconocl. st . It n, u""lear '!""i .. qu.lifl<>lion . If ... y. ,hey oboold """" .
The", .. '" no prof."ionaI Off,niz"i"" dedic>!a! (0 ".I.,,,ion as r"IJ. 00f .. ,""
there ,!""ioIired journal. throogh which ",,,"",,,,,, rouId .. rhao!", ;nfOOJlllt""
,hou' tbeir ,,on. There .. '" ,,"'ntioll)' no liternture .boot !'fOIl''''' ",""'tion
ox"'pt IInpubli,hed!"P"f' ,ha, ei",.I",a! throufh ,n uooergroo nd netwon
. Evaluation Models. Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation. Second Edition.
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tit"""". The", " .... paucity ofpro-.e",K-e and in",,,k,, opport"niti .. in
<'-..1""' ;00. ""","!oted ,tarxIatth of practic< confinN to """"at""",1 ... :1
t"" . The f.,1d of "',I"""" ., ... amorphou .00
"' .... "ion, """" corriN oot by "ntraine<J other< by "",,,,,,h metOOOOl _
"!';", "'00 tri<d u",,",,,,,,I"II)" lO fi t t"ir n.,thods ' 0 I""!'rnm ,y,I .... "'"
IGub . haJ .. ,ion "00;", "we l"uEh, "' i'" coolmion . r,,"'y . .oo ""imos-
ity. EY .... "'ion ... fL<iJ hod liule ""'u", .00 no political clout
"Fain>< this bocWrop. t" I""!' .... .-...J. by Nuco,i"",,1 "",'uaton '0 prof" .. ion_
ali", their fi"k/ the '9700 """ qu i'" renur\;.ab/e ioo.ed. A number ofjoor_
k u"...,--.J ... ",," ...J Poi"" sn.J;" '" Ed ... """"i
J:.-aI ... ,,_ cJ:ml t;to.",rl,. Eml.,,,,,," "'"";. .. ,,"' DI""ri"", io' Pw"",,, E, ,",,,,,",...
Cw.!""""" awl and N ... ' iqlun;.oJ ""'" 0( the ..
journal, h.a,'" F"""oo lO be ",,,,II, ,,, "cilicleo lor reconlinF .nd disseminating inlor_
n"""" .bout the ,'ar\ou, f""," ofl""!'rorn ,,"''' .. tion, Nu"",,,,". 000" and mono--
graphs ""aling .. ith ",-a]"",ion Wffe I""blisbal. The May '2th Groop.
D;"",,", H ofAERA. ,tie halu",ion N .. " ...... :>r<l t"" h,luation Research Society
c,m" into " ing aud .ffOlJ.o """II<", opportunities for profes<iom.l "",hang<
JI"l>OR' ronc<med wi, h the "" aJua,;oo of ,<location aud other huma n "''''ic<

Many uni,,,,,,it;", ""g," to offer at Ie", on< <00...., in ,,-..I .. t"" """OOJojogy
'''' di<linct from ""''''I"ch method%:<lY);' I"" uniwYtie<----ICh .. tI., Uni"",;ty
oflmnoi>. Stanlonl Unhmit y. Bouoo UCLA. the Uni,""nit y ofMi .... ..,.,.
'"" We>I<m Un;,"t'fS'I)'-de,,,1oped I"""!'""'" in " ... luation.
..... """"'" tbe fi rs! '0 requi"' .... "-..",,,ioo COOl>< in. doctornl
I""!'flIm. The U.S. Offic" of Education 'pon""'" .... 000aJ I""!'raIll 0( in",r,-ic<
in ,,,,Iuation lor special eJ,",-. IBlInhrhoff <I aI .. aud ,,,,,..-..1
profes<ima) "'1'onizaIiorto off,red """'shop; , nd in"'lUtes on ,".no... " 'aIuaIion
topics. Go",mmo"tai >r<l "ni"mit)' nte ... "..,re "subliWd lor research and cIe",l_
op"",n' rei""'" lO " ... '""ion. The ".,., of Looi, ...... e<Ublis/oed policy .nd I""!'mrTl
lor ,,,.Iu,,,,,,, W"d . ''iSI).
I""",asj"Eiy. the f"k/ Jc"XetI lO """"""aI",,,ion ISeri.en. Stulfle"".m.
d . Clufll" 2'i for. tr,at"""t of "","",,.Iuatioo) as me:>ru of ."uri ng and chec'_
ing the q ""IiI)' 0( "'lIl"",ion . A join' c"",mittee appointed by ' 1 p<ofes.iooa/ "'l"'-
.i"'tion. i"oed rompre/>e"';'''' "" 01 st:ondards for ju<igio " ',Iu,,ion. of
b:",iono.l 1'fO:i". >r<l """rial. I'oin' Committee. .nd .....,.
lislled """iuni,m (j"nt Committee. '9!!' .) b), whkh lO re,'jew and ""'is< ,""
,unJard"nd ",,<I the f.,1d lO us< '''''m. The", w<re "" 'i,,," in 'WI, 1Cf.
OIapter 14 101" . n ",,,,,,;"w o(thes< <landardn In odditi"" . "" 'ffiII coher .... of
standard< "' ith ",Ie,,,,,,,, for educo!iono.l ",.Iuation ""'''' i<OUed th;, period
(cf. Ne'O". M ')-' ''IS').
DurinF this period. ",:aluatoo reaJiZf'd 'hat ,tie 'hnique. of ",:alu_
at"" mu" ",h""" ",sui" f'l,,iou<.ly >een as "",ipb< ... llO.moo, res,,,,rch, .. " . the
inlonnation ne<d, of the d """ of '''' 1 "'" "'" .>dtI-= the ",ntrni ... , ue i,sues, .",..
"' it h , i, u",ic.no>J reaJi",,, m,,,,' the requi"''''''"'' 01 probity, '"" .. ' i,f) need> lor
. Evaluation Models. Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation. Second Edition.
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,'.radty. WMe the field hod )'<t to dewlop fUlly lunet"",.1 rnetlIoOOIcgy that
"""' .. al l u..", 'equ,,,,n .. n,,, ,II<", ""'" t .... !",riod """" Jo.".I_
opme .... inclooinF l""'I-lree "':.Iwoo {Scriwn. 197-1b, E,-..., 1980): the crpp
Model (S,umebe.m. 1967, S,ufflebe.m '" .1., 1971. d , o."l"er 16), atl,'e"'at}'lod""
w" ... ms (Stat< & GjenI<, 1974, d , Chapt<f 10), od,oc.te t""", (Ro,n"",d. 197,);
met! l/Ut),si, {GI .... t976; KroL 1m): "''I'''''''''e ,,':.Iu."oo {SUte. 19J3b: d ,
CfiapI" IS): and ""ru"h"k ,,'aluauoo (Gub. & U"",ln. 1981, d , Clul"'" 19),
Under the Ie-...Jerohip of NH Smim (1981a: 1981bl, I..-g. numbe, of ",ite"
""""nod th" W",obility co ,,':.1"';00 of. wide ""'F< of ;nve .. ;p"'ory ,KM ......
dr .... n from " ... iety of fields. Ei,,,,,, and h;, "oo"n" .pplred the te<hoiq .. ,
u...J by criucs in ""aluali np nw"";"", irool ,II< "'" (d, O\apt 12). Webo!er (1975)
.oJ h" ... ' Iu"e "!"'f:}(lOO.1liud Stufflebe.m' , CIPP model within ,II<
<on,<>t of. s<hooI djstrict. St:.ke (1978, d. 0 .. 1' .... I S and I II hao """I"e.! , ...
".oy ""'tbOO> for use in .. :.I u",""'. Roth (1977: 1m). Su=z 11980). Scriven &
ROIh SlUffl"be"m (1977).nd OIhe.-. began to ",.l e Ooth rooc<pI".1 and
op<f"'00naI sense of !he <rucial y e1",i", lOCept ofneeili ..,.",me". P<noonel
of IlIe ToI<do ""1M,,, School>. in roUabor.l.tIon "'ith Bund. (1980) .nd R,ding'
(1980). de,' i...J <"taI"!' u,,, of ",-.I"',,'e criteria and .,,,,,iatl in",u"",m, to help
."."he ... and odmiru""""", ,,"lac .... If dar. collect.,. effort, to n ... ' thelf inlor_
",.,ion requ,reme nts. . de:.l of ... "", .. '"".lone '0 eocOOl"!!,,!he "se
01 OOjective-refefeoceJ te ... in e""I,,'ion .tOO ... (Ooas<. Bloom. Mod,",. &
1981 : d , Cha[:4 6).
'Thill " """,,,,.1 profe""",,,1 de,'epment in evalw,"oo mhe.! ""ul,,-
FIr>I. ... lule ther< ... as uOOoobt<d l)' more. anO certJ nly be"". commuoi,.,ion in
,he f",kl. ... . t>o an eoormou moon' of<h.lter (Cronba.ch. 1980), S<conJ,
whi" pros"''' made in ;"'P""' iog !he ,ra,oins and certifleat,on 01 ",',,1''''01'
to "",ure thai in"it .. 1OOS """"in ,"",,;c.,. from qualifreJ P"f'OO" .om" oboe,,'''''
worried mi, de,'epme nt coold ",,,it io a """0\\' >nd <lui> {Stake.
1981 , Third. e"en Ih<fe """,,,.,,,<1 <ornmuoico,,,,,, ..... Ihose
positll'i""'-'quamit""'" approache, to "'aI""',,,,, >nd ptopooe"'" of
phenool><lO<>IopbVqualltalh'e 'f>[>fooche, . poL1ri,,alioo de,'eiop<J bet"..,.", the",
c.mp'. no. ,_. of mil "", ... iz.alioo "'" no< prim.,,,ily o><lhodolos"'aI. but '0"",,"
refle<' ideological and d,fferenc .. (d, o.apte, 2) , F ..... I)'. in 'pite
of "'''''''' ror apf"oprial" method . iocreased romm"o icalioo anO
,,,,.008 ,he lIle.hoOOIogi .. aod the de"elopn><'" 01 DeW
t:hm'l"",, !he ><, .. 1 I"""'IC" of"",I ... ioo <h>. npl my little in u.. m.JOf
ity oI_inS',
no. fin,1 '0 ou, abbrel'i .. e.! hi"",)' oIprogr.m ,,'aI ... ioo [he
publb,ioo 01 ,he fin' Ii,ioo of ,),,' boot .00 .00. with the ""blle. "on of
!he i<rond Ii,Ooo, A "" lupp<,neJ In ,he f",1d durinF these )'e.>, LIes",te
!he positi"" ti,1e ,""'" for Ihi. Ia>t !",'K>O it 00 OOOle,,'1\aI of a
. Evaluation Models. Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation. Second Edition.
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001< as .... '" were ru ' bock, ,n the Iuoolnp 01' .... 1"'"""" Junns the
Reag"" fear<. ,,'al""ion< durinS "Ii,.,...iOO w'"' pe .... '0 ... "'" rosI <u"'"g
>lid COS! be""n, i<SUe<.
A, ,he ocooomy p""" _,,, ..... "-.Iu"'",,, .. a r"ld .. aOO became
"""...,tlIOIy n_ in"'g,"'1_ Th< <XpwI>IOO i, "", n <>j>wly ,n the <le"eklpme nt
01' prof",,.,,.,. .... 1""00 soclt!", in ""'"' than "",00;... aoJ in "'" oominp
together_ rornm.nkatloo. , oJ N11atx.-,tioo of ,,llual.or> from ,alioo i"',p1i .... _
In Ioc,,,,,,, "'" reform mo"eme nt ho> """, profoo oJ ,Ifw on 1""I'",m ",,"_
.";00_ Propoo<d ",fonm.-w<h :os chm .. schooh. vouchen. >lid prh'ot;,,,,;oo 01'
,<tIClOl'-"" Pflh' I 00 !he belitf ,ha, , n, roJudns rompetll"" into ,he ,)'.tem
"'iO te.d to ;mprovemetlt. "'" <""""til' be ing ev ...... ed (Miron. 1999: Hom >lid
.\tiroo. 1999: Pel......,.,. 1998: Pe,,,,,,,,,. 19'i6).Tenr>< .... coml 00 ' , ' rue exl"'ri _
n"n' 011 reducing ct= "'" "oJ ,he f5U'" ha,'e ;n"""oced "","'y ,n number
of ,utes (d_ 0."1"" S). Accoon .... li'y and ootcom< e'".at"'" haw become
<ommonplace """"" the Un;,1 SUIt .. (d. Chap'''' 5 and 17). IJo..-",..".. the",
accooOOobjli')' '1"""'" r.eed ., be inde-peoo.ntly " ... ",,1 .. lrWly "'" unreaIisuc
; mpto"en""" """" 00 "oo.nt ,est I"'norm . oce . The ... r.dard< based reform
m,,,.men' has now ",,,,111 49 .Ule . Cu,rkulum framewcrt' .... dewlop<d. as ...
Ie<t. to m"., .... progre5S on reaching ,he otand>rds <O<IutnN in (he A
number 01'"""" ha,.., linked "oo.n( F"rlormaoce 00 these "ate le,,1 lest, to prod_
IIatioo and re"""",, doc""",- Ke"ock)' and Vermont haw IIod ,,I""" "._
(ions 01' ' herr >t", JI'"Ol''''''''. wh",h exl"',imeml with ,he ,ub>1ilutioo 01'
F"nOfn"""" me",""" for the lrlOd"k>naI m.ltiple--<hooce test<. (See fC4" example
Koreu et aI .. 1993: Koretz. 1997: KortH & a.n:... 1m, Bu, "'" .. I ......" ha,'e
embr'o<e<l on in<i<l"'n<i<m "'.1 .... '1<11\ of the" ' est ing JI'"Ol'''''''' fWtly for (011).,,, .. 1
"'_ "",I)' for poIitOcoi """"'" and "",Iy bec ...... they do "'" ... ant to he ... rod
. The Ford Fooooot;oo Iw luool the sun up oI'the N.tional Board 00 F.du_
0 .. ..... 1 T.>ting ,00 Public PoI"r Ioc .... at Boston Coile!", . The Iloo/d'. nWld>.te
"to ",.1 .... " tI>< "ciuricll a.leqw><y oI' h'Sh otale. ''''', r=d ,n etloc ....... 1 ",,"icy
aOO to mooitor and "'lIl .... e (he impart of ""'h ",.unp fI"'f"IIDS 00 "'_ 'Y"""".
"l>oob. "':.:1Ief:! and "00e",, .
The E,.I noo Re;ear<h Soclet)'. w., """"')' ofe,' ll "",,,,, f rool
(he .oci .. "'Ie"'",- the h,luauoo Net"or . oompri"" """"'y
of etloc.nooal " .1 .... ,,,,,, ' 0 form the """" "'''''"menic .... Americ ... haluat"" Asso_
ciot;"" (AEA)_ Th< "".It ha> been ... in tep,,"ion.oo 01'''' .......
t"" ide., .00 """'" the Thi, i> .. .. scribe.! ill srn,",,
(1994.a) ""icle 00 e' ..... ' 100 .. , ' r-"'Sdis<'p1 i",,_
In :><idi("". there tw been groat "fWI''''' of tI>< profe .. iorul ji<1O of ""alWI-
t"". In 1995. AEII foc.sed ilS COIl,""tron 00 ; nt <rna(ional roop<,at"" in "" ll oa_
tr"" .nd '""i," .. .....,on frool .. 0000 (he to .",nd. The """"ins ... ,
8"'''' suoc< ....... a growin8 ,",'oI'"eflretll 01' ,n"""'ronaIs in
AEA', anJ oilier AddillOru.lly_ IOOfe th ... 20 ,,-.I.atioo .. "",iat"",
ha,.., been established "''''''' the .. ".;d. a ""nromi""" incru>< in ,,'aluation
/OOrll>.I, ,m,n"" ng ffOOl o' her "", ntrie<_
. Evaluation Models. Viewpoints on Educational and Human Services Evaluation. Second Edition.
Hingham, MA, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000. p 29
http://site.ebrary.com/lib/sfu/Doc?id=10053344&ppg=29
Copyright 2000. Kluwer Academic Publishers. All rights Reserved.
May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law.
The Iw 0100 ..... ,,,,,,,,....:I IICti"i'y in (II< de,elopmen( and os< of prole"""'1
>laOOard, for ,,1II...uoo "r. Chapte, Buildins on no. Program Emi"""",,
SrallddrJ" the Join( COOl miuee 00 SIllfl<L.td< for F..! ocalOooai h :>] iW"'" t...
de"elop! ,Wi<l.>rd, for pe<>OIInel <l1IIualioo (Ioin( Commin",. 1'I8:!) an<J aI ",i,
" de'-.,lopinB "aOOard, for <I'aI,""""" of "u<l<n ... e'l"""'I)' ,n ,1awoom

E,..l uat"" nd (0 be ,"'''''' of conl<mporory .nd :ospect, of Ih<II
'","fginS prof .. ,,,,,,. i", )ooing ilS philosoph., .. and <"""'plu,) 00_
entallOn, . Wilhoo ( "'" . .,-olu",,,,, are .Joome.d (0 "P''' 1'''( nJsW,,"
and. ""l"llly .iebHi"""ng_ f.1I 10 ""'"'" and build 00 pao;I """"""".
W, h,se 1""""')''''' .,-""",ioo ... d)'nam.,. )'et immalure. f><ofsloo_
WMe (II< prof .. ,,,,,, IS still immal""'. tile", ,on be 00 doubt (h .. " Iw become
iocre .. .. i.Jent in""le rompo"""' of (he broo.I<;- Fo,em .. ".,,1 an<J prof""Oooai
.. ""Ii"''''''nt of ""oc1lioo. h<, ),h. and ... elf.",. :wi on In(ernational ,"ti(),_ 11>< p'o-
d ...... "", , oo\l nonl)' helld in Ih< (nat iormllizal pfOF"m "'-oloal""' ...... fad
and soon would di .. pp<>r pro"'" f ..... an<J (he ..... 'tronB indbuons ",i,
field COIl (;""" (0 """. in ,mf'O'laJlC<. oophistkal ion. aOO suture. The Pi"'" m'"
,he P"" I g )""" "'" blJ( (t\efe are many OO"ioo, ""fKl<oc .... :.nJ ... e
bark "ffK"'"( ",'id<ne< """" ( Ill< im""" of "':>] uaUons 00 ""ueouon and
....... ,1->. T!-oe ". nd (0 imp'''',e "",arch. u""inF_' oo fi nanci. ) '"JIIIOfI
for _,l1li\ ,,.Iuatioo. Leaden of (II< <1-"0, ("", profe .. "'" en,"", III,. eff"",
to """"" .. profe";"" are geared to (tie o<,yl ne<-<l,; of Ih<i, ,lien" . no<
""""I)' """gO! 10 ""'.., thei, priv.te or <otpoflIle Ultimatel), (II< ":>] ue of
progJlIIIl "'alualioo mu" be in "",,,. of;" ""ual and potential ""," ibu_
(""" (0 impro'ing .. aming. " oohlnB and adm;ni>l''''IOO. heal(h ""'" and and
in 1'<""'"01 (II< G.,h()' of lif. in 00' >oriel)' and ",her>. of", in II", P'''!'''''''
",.Iuatioo bu,;"" .. wouiJ do .. (0 ren .. mbe, and 0'" !hi, '-k p<indple 10 Sui""
and eUII"ne 00' __