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EPSE 431 December 2, 2010 Sarah Howard

CONFIDENTIAL ______________________________________________________________________ EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT, REMEDIAL PLAN AND FOLLOW-UP Name: Birth date: Age: Assessment date: Grade: Parent(s): Address: Telephone: E-mail: School: TESTS ADMINISTERED Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement (WJ-III) Informal measure linked to BC Math Curriculum Local Community School Jacob 03/23/2002 8-7 October 18th, 2010 3.4 Carol Smith 123, 12th Street Vancouver, BC 6044-124-1234

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION Reason for Referral: Referred by a friend, Ms. Smith has come to see this specialist to learn more about Jacobs unique learning profile. She is concerned that her obviously bright child is not doing well in school and feels he may have an attention issue. He is noted to be highly inattentive in school and to struggle especially with math. Family History: Jacob lives at home with both parents and has no siblings. There have been no significant changes in his life recently, and there is no history of learning difficulties in his family. Health History: Born 5 weeks early, weighing 4lbs 15oz, Jacob was a healthy child and has no serious health problems in his life. He is not taking medication, and although he has not had any recent vision or hearing tests, does not report any problems with his eyesight or hearing. Developmental Milestones, Personality and Behaviour: Ms. Smith reports that Jacob reached his early motor skills and language development milestones a little late, but not significantly. His early personality development was normal. Jacob is presently described by his mother as very social and very empathetic to others. She adds that he is uninhibited and can sometimes seem a bit immature. School History: Jacob is currently enrolled in Grade 3 at his local public school, where he has been since Kindergarten. His most difficult subjects at school are reading, writing and especially math. He receives tutoring, including participation in the Reading Recovery Program at school in Grade 1 and 2, and reading/writing help starting this term (3 times a week for 40 minutes) in the Learning Assistance Centre. Jacob does not have very much homework, other than reading every night, which he does in bed for 20-30 minutes with his mother. His mother notes that she reads to him, rather than him reading independently. When doing homework, Jacob will not focus. His mother has to sit with his and make him focus on each question or task.

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Report Cards: In his Kindergarten year, Jacob was described as an active and energetic learner who had some difficulty adjusting to routines and expectations of the classroom and required teacher assistance to stay focused and on task during classroom activities. He demonstrated a positive attitude towards learning and school, and showed pride in his accomplishments. In the first term, he minimally met expectations in Language Arts, PE and Mathematics, and met expectations in Science, Art and Music. In the second term, Jacob was not meeting expectations in Language Arts and Mathematics, minimally met expectations in PE, and met expectations in Personal Planning. In the final term, he was still not meeting expectations in Language Arts, minimally met expectations in Math, and met expectations in Science and Social Studies. He was encouraged to complete his daily work without reminders and to listen to instructions thoroughly. A Grade 1 report card was not available at the time of this report. In his Grade 2 year, Jacob had a successful first term, where he improved his attitude towards learning and began to feel more successful in reading and writing. At the end of this term, he was able to get down to work most of the time and was able to complete what was expected of him in a reasonable time frame. Although he was not meeting expectations in Language Arts, and approaching expectations in Math, Jacob met expectations in Science and Social studies. In term 2, Jacob had some unsettled times, found it difficulty to concentrate, and found transitions (like returning to school after holidays) a challenge. Jacob worked on a Group Education Plan this year. He met twice a week with 6 other students and a resource teacher to work on improving his phonological awareness. He also completed 20 weeks in the Reading Recovery Program, where his progress was hampered by his lack of focus on the tasks he was asked to do and at times his avoidance of the work of learning. Teachers noted that Jacob was distractible and off-task during math instruction, that he did not appear to understand basic concepts beyond addition and required constant repetition of information. This year, Jacob continues be part of a Group Education Plan to improve his reading and writing skills. Jacob is receiving two 40-minute periods of language support each week. His teacher also supports his work habits through reminders of class expectations and reinforcement of on-task behaviour. Interests: Jacob enjoys swimming, and playing on the computer. He also loves being read to every night.

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TEST SESSION OBSERVATIONS Jacob presented as an immediately warm and friendly individual who struggled to maintain consistent attention throughout his assessment. He was very chatty and very often distracted (by objects around the room, by his thoughts/questions, etc.). Jacob remained very active, moving around, fidgeting, playing with items on the desk and displayed a high energy level. He very often wanted to know if he was correct and tended to verbalize his process. His tendency was towards resistance with all tasks he perceived as work and he occasionally voiced this opinion to his assessor. This happened especially during writing, math and fine motor activities. Jacob did not enjoy timed tests but noted that likes to get things done quickly because then theyre over quicker and you dont have to do them anymore. During his intake interview, Jacob noted that he likes patient teachers and ones who dont rush him. He prefers being read to, rather than having to read to himself and he does not like writing or math. This assessment should be approached with some caution as a valid and reliable measure of Jacobs achievement abilities at this time given his level of inattention and distractibility.

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CURRENT ASSESSMENT - WJ-III Achievement Series Tests 1-12 Compuscore results can be found in Appendix 1 on page #14 NOTE: While it is outside the purview of this assessor to determine attention functioning with standardized measures, Jacobs mother and his teachers have noted focus and attention issues since Kindergarten. His Reading Recovery program teacher commented that Jacobs progress in the progress was likely hampered by his lack of focus on the tasks he was asked to do and at times his avoidance of the work of learning. Before outlining Jacobs performance on the achievement measures administered to him, it is important to once again state that distractibility and lack of attention played a significant role during Jacobs test session. In light of this, these results and their interpretation should be approached with some caution. Oral Language Jacobs ability to follow language instruction during the WJ-III Oral Language series was inconsistent, although not significantly. When presented with a story he was asked to retell, Jacob performed in the lower end of the average range (Story Recall). However, when asked to follow a series of oral directions while pointing at the correct responses on a picture cue, Jacob fared somewhat better, scoring slightly above age level (Understanding Directions). This difference suggests that Jacob has an easier time when dealing with instructions if they are given alongside a picture cue. Given that attention and distractibility were significant issues during testing, the fact that Jacob had an easier time following oral language when provided with a picture cue may give an important clue to the kind of multi-sensory learning support that might suit him best. Reading In terms of reading, Jacobs abilities showed a particular pattern over three reading tasks: one of difficulty with increasing complexity. The skills measured were: decoding, or the ability to read one word accurately (Letter-Word Identification), fluency, or the ability to read quickly and accurately under a time limit (Reading Fluency) and comprehension, or the ability to guess which word goes with which picture or in a blank within a sentence (Reading Comprehension). Jacob scored in the lower end of the average range on both Letter-Word and Reading Fluency but had greater difficulty with Passage Comprehension, scoring in the low range. In the first two tasks, Jacob was required to decode individual words or read individual sentences under a time limit with yes/no questions attached. It should be noted that Jacob has been receiving reading remediation at his school and it may be the case that this has actually improved his decoding and fluency skills but he will need continued instruction at the level of comprehension moving forward. His near average range score on the Fluency measure also points to some underlying reading comprehension for short, directed sentences. It should also be noted that during the Comprehension subtest, Jacob sometimes required repetition of instructions. As well, he stopped abruptly when he had reached his limit of ability, or ceiling and began to say I dont know without trying to use strategies to solve the problem. It seems likely that weak attention control plays a role in Jacobs reading difficulty. The latter subtest (Comprehension) requires considerably more attention, persistence and reasoning than the former and these areas do seem to be problematic for Jacob at this time.

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Writing A similar pattern emerges within Jacobs writing abilities over three writing tasks. These are: Spelling, or the ability to encode (spell) individual words, Fluency, or the ability to write short sentences under a time limit (Writing Fluency), and Writing, or the ability to write using language and expression meaningfully (Writing Samples). Jacobs pattern of difficulty with increasing complexity appears again in this series with a significantly lower score on the Writing Samples subtest where he was required to orchestrate a variety of cognitive skills together at the same time to produce accurate written expression. The requirement for this subtest at age 8 includes spelling ones own name as well as writing a simple sentence. It should be noted that this test requires oral instruction and Jacob asked for the instructions to be repeated a number of times due to distraction. Jacobs low score on the Writing Sample subtest indicates that this will an area of notable frustration for him in a class setting. While other students are capable of keeping up with writing expectations, Jacob will lag behind and this may add to his already difficult time with paying attention when asked to write. If possible, it would be warranted to help Jacob by scribing his thoughts until he is able to learn to type. Jacobs somewhat higher score in Spelling may be, like his higher scores in decoding and reading fluency, a result of remediation offered at his school that focuses on phonemic awareness. During the writing subtests, Jacob displayed an overly-tight pencil grasp as well as an over-reliance on his middle finger to direct his fine motor movements. Letter formation was tight and crowded or poorly planned on the line. During lengthy writing tasks (Fluency), his spelling declined and many conventional errors were noted (lack of punctuation, capitals etc.) Math One of the main reasons for Jacobs referral was to explore his math ability. Teachers note that Jacob is distractible and off-task during math instruction, that he does not appear to understand basic concepts beyond addition and requires constant repetition of information. Testing reveals that Jacob does indeed struggle in all three areas measured. These are: Math calculations (Calculation), basic math facts under a time limit (Math Fluency) and word problems (Applied Problems). These tests required Jacob to complete very basic math calculations and oral instructions were fairly simple. It should be noted that Jacobs ability recognize patterns, read a clock, work with money, count, add and subtract were all emergent or insecure and he will require intensive direct instruction in the area of math in order to bring him to grade level. When asked to solve word problems connected to picture cues (Applied Problems), Jacob fared somewhat better. This trend was also seen in his Understanding Directions subtest and strongly suggests that Jacob would benefit from a multi-sensory approach to learning math that includes the use of manipulative and visual supports. It should also be noted that Jacob stopped abruptly when he had reached his limit of ability, or ceiling on all three subtests and began to say I dont know without trying to use strategies to solve the problem. Skills/Fluency/Applications

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When considering Jacobs academic skills (single word spelling, decoding sight words, math calculation), it seems that he is currently performing in the low to average range when compared to his peers with even his higher scores at the lower end of the average range (reading decoding/fluency). His academic fluency (performing simple reading, writing, and math tasks under timed conditions) falls in the low to low average range indicating that Jacob likely struggles to keep up with the pace of instruction and output expected in his current class setting. Jacobs academic applications are in the low to low average range, and it should be noted that these scores in comparison to his skills and fluency are the lowest of the three types of tasks. However, there is a trend of Jacob performing better when he is provided with picture cue (Understanding Directions/Applied Problems) that may provide a clue to the type of instruction that is best for him. Summary Jacob was initially referred to explore concerns with distractibility, overall difficulty in school and specific challenges in math. He is currently performing in the low to average range academically when compared to his peers and it is likely that Jacob struggles to keep up with the pace of instruction and output expected in his current class setting. It is important to once again state that distractibility and lack of attention played a significant role during Jacobs test session. In light of this, these results and their interpretation should be approached with some caution. With significant academic accommodation, continued learning assistance support, and with work to engage him as a more persistent learner, Jacob may show many signs of improvement over the next two to three years. A full educational psychological assessment including executive functioning, fine motor and behavioural measures is strongly recommended at this time.

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Remedial Plan The Learning Specialist initially hoped to achieve the following goals in Mathematics after roughly 8, 45-minute sessions with Jacob: 1. Jacob will be able to count from 1 to 10 without assistance 2. Jacob will be able to place numbers correctly on a number line However, after meeting and working with Jacob for the first time on October 22nd, it became clear that these goals were premature as Jacob has yet to gain secure number sense. In other words, while Jacob is able to name the cursive number 2, he still struggles to understand its value as 2 and is not able to place it in reference to other numerical values on a number line. New goals include: 1. Jacob will be able to represent and describe numbers 1 to 10, concretely against a number line while relating a numeral, 1 to 10, to its respective quantity. Because Jacob is secure in his number naming, the number line will contain numbers 1-10 for his reference. 2. Jacob will be able to say the number sequence by 1s starting anywhere from 1 to 10 and from 10 to 1 (preferably without a picture cue) It is hoped that this combination of goals will build Jacobs number sense in terms of a 2s two-ness as well as help him to understand that numbers are sequenced, left to right on a number line and from 1 (smaller) to 10 (larger). Pre-Post Remediation Assessment While the WJ-III results in his initial report provide clear evidence of Jacobs difficulties in math and other areas, these results fail to give insight into his specific weaknesses in terms of number sense or the BC math curriculum. In order to more clearly understand Jacobs math functioning, the math Prescribed Learning Outcomes for the organizer Number at the end of Kindergarten were used to devise informal assessments to track Jacobs progress with his remediation. Represent and describe numbers 1 to 10, concretely and pictorially Say the number sequence by 1s starting anywhere from 1 to 10 and from 10 to 1 Relate a numeral, 1 to 10, to its respective quantity

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The following results were gained as a Pre-measure on October 29th: Attempt 1) Represent/Describe Numbers on a Number Line using Pokemon Figures #1, 1 #2, 0 (3) #2, 0 (4) #2, 1 #2, 1 #3, 0 (2) #3, 0 (2) #3, 1 (3) #3, 1 (3) #4, 0 5 2) Throw a Ball back and Forth, saying numbers from 1-10 1-2-3 1-2 1-2-3 1-2-3-4 1-2 1 1-2-3 Too stressful 0/7 (reconsider) 3) Jump from coloured card to coloured card marked 1-10 in sequence 1-10 = 1 1-3 = 0 1-5 = 0 1-10 = 1 1-10 = 1 1-10 = 1 1-5 = 0 1-5 = 0 1-5 = 0 1-10 = 1 5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total/10

** #2, 0 (3) = asked to represent the number 2, was unsuccessful (0), represented the number 3 Note: Attention, impulsivity, distractibility and weak motor skills created problems with 2 and 3. Involving Jacob in the assessment process and encouraging a functional view of failure: Jacob was very helpful as his specialist gained this data. A sheet was created with big boxes where Jacob could put stickers for every time he did a try (his words). Stickers were chosen for tries that worked and tries that didnt work but both types of sticker were acceptable to Jacob so he was not particularly upset when his tries didnt work because he was still able to place a sticker on the sheet. Because Jacob struggles so much with paying attention, one of the things that gains praise during sessions is sticking to it and keeping going. Jacob moves very willingly from station to station and when a try doesnt work, we often talk about how Pokemon often have tries that dont work but they develop strategies to help them along. This seems to help Jacob frame any failures quite nicely.

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Sample Lesson Plan: Goal: Jacob will be able to represent and describe numbers 1 to 10, concretely (using Pokemon Figures) against a number line while relating a numeral, 1 to 10, to its respective quantity. Time 7 10 minutes Materials Pokemon figures (10) Recipe cards marked with 1-10 (one number on each card Jacobs Try Sheet (see attached) Activity Teacher will ask Jacob to find a number on the number line and build the number using the Pokemon figures Jacob will build the number (3 = 3 Pokemon figures) When Jacob has finished his building he will put a stamp on his try sheet to keep track of how many tries hes had and how many worked or didnt work

Example find the 3 and build a 3

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Follow-up Link Back to Goals: The initial goals set out for Jacob in these sessions included:

November 26th, 2010

1. Jacob will be able to represent and describe numbers 1 to 10, concretely against a number line while relating a numeral, 1 to 10, to its respective quantity. Because Jacob is secure in his number naming, the number line will contain numbers 1-10 for his reference. 2. Jacob will be able to say the number sequence by 1s starting anywhere from 1 to 10 and from 10 to 1 (preferably without a picture cue) The following results were gained as a post-measure on November 26th with Jacobs new learning specialist, Donna: Attempt 1) Represent/Describe Numbers on a Number Line using Pokemon Figures #1, 1 #2, 1 #2, 1 #2, 1 #2, 1 #3, 0 (4) #3, 0 (4) #3, 1 #3, 1 #4, 0 (3) 7 3) Jump from coloured card to coloured card marked 1-10 in sequence 1-10 = 1 1-3 = 1 1-5 = 1 1-10 = 1 1-10 = 1 1-10 = 1 1-5 = 1 1-5 = 1 1-5 = 1 1-10 = 1 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total/10

With relation to the first goal, Jacob shows a 20% increase in his ability to create numbers on a number line using Pokemon figures. This goal could still use some work before Jacob is completely secure although he has certainly shown excellent progress so far. In terms of the second goal, he has shown a 50% increase in his ability to jump chronologically in sequence from coloured card to coloured card (marked 1-10), identifying numerals. On this latter task, he now shows 100% accuracy (up from 50%). However, Jacob still requires a picture cue to achieve this and has not shown proven ability to start somewhere other than 1 in the sequence. This goal will also require additional work, even though progress has been shown. It is difficult to provide portfolio examples of Jacobs work to show his improvements in this report as much of his learning was not written down or documented photographically (his mother did not want pictures taken). Jacob was also loath to give up any of his stickered try sheets although a blank one has been included as an example.

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During the course of his sessions, however, Jacob came to his work more readily, was considerably less hesitant in his answers and showed increased frustration tolerance when he had a try that didnt work. During his last session, when asked how he felt about math on a scale of 1-5 (where 1 was I hate it and 5 was I love it) Jacob answered 3. This particular scale was not used at the start of his sessions with the specialist but during his final session he was also asked, when you first started working with Sarah, how did you feel about math? His answer to this question was, 1. This may indicate that Jacob not only shows improvement in informal numerical measures like the one above, but he may have greater self-efficacy in the math domain because he has achieved some small mastery over number order and value. Moving Forward: New Goals Once Jacob has secured his understanding of number order and value, he should begin working to develop flexibility around these concepts. Goals for this could include: 1. Jacob will be able to place numbers correctly on a number line in any order, starting with any number (representational pictures, then cursive numbers) 2. Jacob will be able to verbally name numbers in any order (forwards, backwards, skip counting), starting with any number (orally) After that, the concept of addition should be introduced slowly, followed by subtraction. It will very important to move slowly and ensure that each level is completely understood before moving on to the next and to be aware that the jump from manipulatives, to representational (pictures) to cursive numbers may come with its own difficulties. Progress Report: What Worked Jacob responds well to using items of high interest (Pokemon) for counting/creating numbers and he has an easier time with a 45 minute session if he is allowed short (3 minute) breaks and the opportunity to incorporate movement into his learning (as with jumping from card to card while counting). While he was initially difficult to motivate, the addition of his try sheet helped Jacob in two ways: 1) it allowed him a chance to do something he perceived as fun after every attempt and 2) it allowed him to track his progress so he could see how well he was doing. Starting him at a level of proximal learning, where he was capable of achieving mastery was also crucially important. At first, his specialist started Jacob in a place that assumed he understood number order and value, which was incorrect. It was important to back-up before moving forward. An emphasis was also placed not only on math during Jacobs sessions but also on trying, sticking to it and remaining focused as elements of success. Moving forward with Jacob, it will be helpful to keep the following in mind: Use manipulatives, stickers or rewards that are linked to motivators specific to Jacob (i.e. Pokemon) Allow for Jacob to track his own progress using his try sheet, a 5-point scale or other informal measure Continue to focus on success including trying, sticking to it and remaining

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focused Attempt to start new concepts at the level of proximal learning, or slightly before so that it is possible for Jacob to achieve mastery this will enhance his motivation to move forward Recommendations for Home: Continue with Donna to solidify the original goals before moving onto the next 2 Create opportunities for Jacob to count throughout the day (6 red cars, 8 Pokemon etc.) and model this by counting out loud when washing dishes or putting away groceries Ask questions that relate to more or less to prepare Jacob for addition/subtraction (i.e. Do you think if we let the water run in the bath, we will have more or less water?) Read aloud math books that make math fun (One Hundred Hungry Ants, The Hersheys Kisses Addition Book, Spaghetti and Meatballs for All) Recommendations for School: Jacob will benefit from a significantly adapted math program at this time as well as support through the learning assistance center for math Because Jacob is inattentive and struggles to maintain focus, especially during math, he should be allowed preferential seating towards the front of the classroom to allow for close contact with the teacher to help him stay on track Providing Jacob with the opportunity to track his progress, both in math and in terms of trying, staying on track and remaining focused may be of great benefit. Use of the Incredible 5-Point Scale monitoring system may work well for Jacob to help him keep track of his focus and feelings in a larger class setting. Ensuring that Jacob has access to manipulatives in math will help him bridge from physical forms of math understanding to cursive forms. If Jacob is requested to do math worksheets, allowing a significant amount of white space for answers will be helpful as will the use of a visual spy hole to limit his immediate view to only one question at a time. This can be made by cutting a square hole the size of the question/answer space in a blank piece of paper and placing this over the worksheet to reveal only one question at a time. Where possible, allow Jacob to work for a set amount of time (no more than 10 minutes) rather than asking him to complete a certain number of questions. Appendix 1

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