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Subiecte examen traducator Ministerul Culturii Romana Engleza: Art. 10.

Contractul individual de munc este contractul n temeiul cruia o persoan fizic, denumit salariat, se oblig s presteze munca pentru i sub autoritatea unui angajator, persoan fizic sau juridic, n schimbul unei remuneraii denumite salariu. Art. 11. Clauzele contractului individual de munc nu pot conine prevederi contrare sau drepturi sub nivelul minim stabilit prin acte normative ori prin contracte colective de munc. Art. 12. (1) Contractul individual de munc se ncheie pe durat nedeterminat. (2) Prin excepie, contractul individual de munc se poate ncheia i pe durat determinat, n condiiile expres prevzute de lege. Art. 13. (1) Persoana fizic dobndete capacitate de munc la mplinirea vrstei de 16 ani. (2) Persoana fizic poate ncheia un contract de munc n calitate de salariat i la mplinirea vrstei de 15 ani, cu acordul prinilor sau al reprezentanilor legali, pentru activiti potrivite cu dezvoltarea fizic, aptitudinile i cunotinele sale, dac astfel nu i sunt periclitate sntatea, dezvoltarea i pregtirea profesional. (3) ncadrarea n munc a persoanelor sub vrsta de 15 ani este interzis. (4) ncadrarea n munc a persoanelor puse sub interdicie judectoreasc este interzis. (5) ncadrarea n munc n locuri de munc grele, vtmtoare sau periculoase se poate face dup mplinirea vrstei de 18 ani; aceste locuri de munc se stabilesc prin hotrre a Guvernului. Reinerea Condiiile reinerii Art. 143. - Msura reinerii poate fi luat de organul de cercetare penal fa de nvinuit, dac sunt probe sau indicii temeinice c a svrit o fapta prevzut de legea penal. Msura reinerii se ia n cazurile prevzute n art. 148, oricare ar fi limitele pedepsei cu nchisoare prevzute de lege pentru fapta svrit. Sunt indicii temeinice atunci cnd din datele existente n cauza rezult presupunerea c persoana fa de care se efectueaz urmrirea penal a svrit fapta. Durata reinerii Art. 144. - Msura reinerii poate dura cel mult 24 de ore. n ordonana prin care s-a dispus reinerea trebuie s se menioneze ziua i ora la care reinerea a nceput, iar n ordonana de punere n libertate, ziua i ora la care reinerea a ncetat. Cnd organul de cercetare penala consider c este necesar a se lua msura arestrii preventive, nainteaz procurorului, nuntrul termenului prevzut n alin. 1, un referat motivat. Engleza Romana: Williamson v. Lee Optical of Oklahoma, INC 348 U.S. 483 (1955) Justice DOUGLAS delivered the opinion of the Court. This suit was instituted in the District Court to have an Oklahoma law, declared unconstitutional and to enjoin state officials from enforcing it, for the reason that it allegedly violated various provisions of the Federal Constitution. The District Court held unconstitutional portions of three sections of the Act. First, it held invalid under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment the portions of 2 which make it unlawful for any person not a licensed optometrist or ophthalmologist to fit lenses to a face or to duplicate or replace into frames lenses or other optical appliances, except upon written prescriptive authority of an Oklahoma licensed ophthalmologist or optometrist.

An ophthalmologist is a duly licensed physician who specializes in the care of the eyes. An optometrist examines eyes for refractive error, recognizes (but does not treat) diseases of the eye, and fills prescriptions for eyeglasses. The optician is an artisan qualified to grind lenses, fill prescriptions, and fit frames. The effect of 2 is to forbid the optician from fitting or duplicating lenses without a prescription from an ophthalmologist or optometrist. In practical effect, it means that no optician can fit old glasses into new frames or supply a lens, whether it be a new lens or one to duplicate a lost or broken lens, without a prescription. The District Court conceded that it was in the competence of the police power of a State to regulate the examination of the eyes. But it rebelled at the notion that a State could require a prescription from an optometrist or ophthalmologist 'to take old lenses and place them in new frames and then fit the completed spectacles to the face of the eyeglass wearer. It held that such a requirement was not 'reasonably and rationally related to the health and welfare of the people.' The court found that through mechanical devices and ordinary skills the optician could take a broken lens or a fragment thereof, measure its power, and reduce it to prescriptive terms. The Oklahoma law may exact a needless, wasteful requirement in many cases. But it is for the legislature, not the courts, to balance the advantages and disadvantages of the new requirement. It appears that in many cases the optician can easily supply the new frames or new lenses without reference to the old written prescription. It also appears that many written prescriptions contain no directive data in regard to fitting spectacles to the face. But in some cases the directions contained in the prescription are essential, if the glasses are to be fitted so as to correct the particular defects of vision or alleviate the eye condition. The legislature might have concluded that the frequency of occasions when a prescription is necessary was sufficient to justify this regulation of the fitting of eyeglasses. Likewise, when it is necessary to duplicate a lens, a written prescription may or may not be necessary. But the legislature might have concluded that one was needed often enough to require one in every case.